Sample records for huntington botanical gardens

  1. Education Function of Botanical Gardens


    Ruhugül Özge Ocak; Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan


    Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and o...

  2. EPA Helps Botanic Garden Blossom (United States)

    One of the keys to the continued transformation of abandoned mine lands into a world-class botanic garden near Pittsburgh is an innovative rainwater system financed by EPA’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  3. The changing role of botanic gardens and the experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is trying to establish botanic gardens with the first one in place being the recently inaugurated Gullele Botanic Garden in Addis Abeba. In order to develop this newly established garden as well as any other future botanic garden, Ethiopia needs to gather information from the experience of other botanic gardens that ...

  4. Botanic gardens, herbaria and research: The UK experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution of botanic gardens in the United Kingdom is outlined, with special regard to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The modern role of such gardens is discussed and particular attention is given to Kew‟s Breathing Planet Programme. Key words/phrases: Botanic gardens, Breathing Planet Programme, Kew, United ...

  5. Urban exterior graphical design in botanical garden


    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska


    Botanical Garden as an art picture and all the content is a strong source of inspiration for the creation of advertising graphics, which is an important segment for the garden, attracting tourists and description of contents. Graphic design is an activity in which a quantity of information gives a comfortable and aesthetic form. This often involves the use of typography, images, colors, and others. Graphic design incorporates in-depth knowledge of the composition and shape, color, color...

  6. The centenary of the School Botanical Garden from Blaj


    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN


    The development of the first school-botanical garden from Blaj is strongly connected with the development of botanical research at the University and Agronomy Insitute from Cluj-Napoca. The first curators of the garden A. Uilacan, A. Cheteanu, Al. Borza and I. Popu-Cimpeanu studied in Cluj. Prof. Al. Borza developed the medicinal and crop plant collections in collaboration with B. Pater, former head of our agrobotanical garden. Later the botanical garden of the University, became famous under...

  7. The Study of Bogor Botanical Garden Ecotourism Value Chain

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    Doni Yusri


    Full Text Available The objective of this study were : 1 to improve development of Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, 2 to recommend strategies of development for Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, and 3 to formulate programs that increase value added for Bogor Botanical Garden value chain, especially for involved SME’s. Data collected from survey, in depth interview, and literature was analyzed using descriptive analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis. The results of SWOT analysis indicated that the strength of The Bogor Botanical Garden value chain was the well known Bogor Botanical Garden, the weakness was lack of investment to improve the Bogor Botanical Garden, the opportunity was the support of government, and the threat was the growing of ecotourism competitor. Recommended strategies were : 1 relying on the strenghts of Bogor Botanical Garden as a focal point of the plus ecoedutourism programs, 2 improving quality of human resources at each value chain, 3 increasing investment for the development of value chain, and 4 marketing Bogor Botanical Garden as past of various integrated packages with other tourism objective in Indonesia.Keywords: Bogor Botanical Garden, Ecotourism Value Chain, SWOT Analysis

  8. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia


    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  9. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

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    Timothy J. Entwisle


    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  10. A Botanical Garden Data Base Implemented in SAS Software. (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward A.; Lewis, Bruce R.


    A database had been developed for the Phoenix Desert Botanical Garden's Living Plant Collection using Statistical Analysis System software. Implementation procedures, data dictionary maintenance, data entry, updating, and reporting are described. (JN)

  11. Designing of Genow Botanical Garden with Sustainable Architecture Approach

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    Masoumeh Hassan Doost Asl Barkoosaraei


    Full Text Available Now a day, botanical gardens are considered as the most important and influential public green spaces in most countries of the world. These complexes on one hand have scientific and research applications in the fields of botany, gardening, conservation and plant ecology, and on the other hand they play an important role in public education and tourism. So it can be said that botanical gardens have been converted from merely research environments to multi-functional green spaces. The purpose of this study is designing the Botanical Gardens in Genow ecotourism region, located in of north of Bandar Abbas as a research-tourism complex that has been welcomed by citizens and tourists and respond to the various of their users. Selecting Genow region was due to its vicinity to the Protected Area and Reserve Biosphere of Genow (in terms of life value of diverse plants of protected area. In the process of designing the relevance of botanical garden with Genow echo tourist area, in performance dimension have been considered by the use of Persian garden pattern, and in terms of relationship with nature, with the benefit of recreational spaces and enjoyment of sustainable architecture components (green roofs, living walls the biological filter in the interior parts, that due to having these features will be considered by non-researcher tourists in Genow ecotourism region.

  12. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy


    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  13. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden

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    Suluh Normasiwi


    Full Text Available As an institute for ex situ plant conservation of high mountains, Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG, has more than 1652 species and 8140 specimens of plant collections. An inventory of potential fruit crop in CBG which will support the conservation program had never been done before. The aim of this activity is to determine its potential collections as fruit crop. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze all the data achieved from registration unit and catalogue of (CBG. The results showed that 422 numbers of collections from 31 family, 56 genus and 114 species have high potential as a fruit crop. Moreover, Cibodas Botanical Garden has 74% collection of indigenous fruit (included 85 species and 61% collection of underutilize fruit (included 68 species from the total number of fruit plant collections. Most of potential plant collections are able to be developed as an edible fruit crop in Indonesia in order to enhance local food security through diversification of fruit crop.How to CiteNormasiwi, S., & Surya, M. I. (2016. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 206-213.

  14. A Garden of Stories: An English Lesson in a Botanical Garden (United States)

    Mazor, Rachel


    Five middle school teachers are among the few people wandering around the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, squinting at labels describing the plants that will bloom soon. The author and her colleagues are on a reconnaissance mission, trying to plan an interdisciplinary field trip for the seventh grade. They represent different departments--science, math,…

  15. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens. (United States)

    Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel


    Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.

  16. Botanic gardens should lead the way to create a “Garden Earth” in the Anthropocene

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    Charles H. Cannon


    Full Text Available The strength and expertise that botanic gardens bring to conservation are based on their detailed knowledge and understanding of the care, management, and biology of a diversity of plant species. This emphasis on the organism has led to many ex-situ and in-situ conservation programs aimed at protecting endangered species, restoring threatened populations, and establishing living plant and seed collections of endangered species. In China, the scale and pace of change in land and resource use, often leading to environmental degradation, has created a strong emphasis on improving environmental conditions. If done properly, being “green” can be a surprisingly complex issue, because it should encompass and exploit the whole of plant diversity and function. Unfortunately, ‘green’ often includes a small portion of this whole. Earth's rich plant diversity presents considerable opportunity but requires expertise and knowledge for stable and beneficial management. With the dawning of the Anthropocene, we should strive to live on a “Garden Earth”, where we design and manage our environments, both built and natural, to create a healthy, beneficial living landscape for people and other organisms. The staff of botanic gardens worldwide and the living collections they maintain embody the best examples of sustainable, beautiful, and beneficial environments that thrive on plant diversity. This expertise should be a fundamental resource for agencies in all sectors responsible for managing and designing “green” infrastructure. Botanic gardens should actively engage and contribute to these opportunities, from large public infrastructure projects to small private conservation efforts. Here, we discuss several ongoing conservation efforts, primarily in China, and attempt to identify areas where botanic gardens could make a significant and meaningful difference.

  17. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.


    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  18. Resolving whether botanic gardens are on the road to conservation or a pathway for plant invasions. (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E


    A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world's worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3). As a result, a botanic garden could, on average, cultivate four times as many invasive non-native species (20) as red-listed threatened species (5). Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future

  19. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

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    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  20. Learning in botanical gardens: Investigating educational methods during an instruction about plants and water


    Kubisch (geb. Wiegand), Franziska


    The contribution of botanical gardens to out-of-school education should be larger than it is currently in Germany. In the curricula of all school types botany plays only a minor role, although plants form the base for all animal life on earth. To increase the attractiveness of botanical gardens for teachers, offers and programs should be created and conducted in didactically sensible manners and allow students an emotional approach towards the topics through trial and experiments. Therefore i...

  1. Assembly Ants Tropical Dry Forest, Cali Botanical Garden

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    María Cristina Gallego Ropero


    Full Text Available The ant assemblages of a fragment of secondary tropical dry forest located in the Botanical Garden of Cali are presented. Two habitats were chosen: a fragment of forest and a pasture matrix. Samples were taken monthly for six months, using a linear transect of 100 m, with 10 stations spaced 10 m. At each station pitfall traps, epigeal bait and arboreal, sifting and removal of 1 m2 of litter and manual capture survey techniques were applied. Richness, abundance and diversity of ant habitats were determined. Correlation coefficients and regression between temperature, relative humidity and richness of ants were calculated. A total of 13 170 ants representing 55 species, 35 genera and six subfamilies were collected. The forest had the highest species richness with 90.9%. This wealth of diversity indicates the conservation value of the Valle del Cauca myrmecofauna. Although the forest is in the process of regeneration, strongly disturbed by constant fire and human intervention, the ant species richness shows that it remains an invaluable source of biological resources for the conservation of species.

  2. Expanding the role of botanical gardens in the future of food (United States)

    Collectively, the world’s more than 3,000 botanical gardens cultivate approximately one-third of known plant species in living collections, and contribute valuable information on plant identification, geographic distributions, morphology, reproduction, and traditional uses. Further, each year botan...

  3. Brief history of the development of the Subtropical Botanical Garden of the Kuban

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    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available A retrospective report of the Director of the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban, Karpun YN, at the opening of the First National Dendrological Conference, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Garden, held on March 14-16, 2017 in Sochi

  4. Water Quality Assessment of the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden Irrigation Pond


    Stretchko, Karin


    Stormwater reuse for irrigation purposes on public and private land is a way to overcome the increasing pressure on finite water resources. Unfortunately, stormwater runoff can contain common pollutants such as nutrients, bacteria and petroleum products. Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden is an 82-acre public garden in Richmond, Virginia that uses stormwater runoff to irrigate garden displays. The objective of this study was to determine levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli), nitrogen, phosphorous,...

  5. 210 year anniversary of the Botanical Garden of the University of Tartu

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    Politsinski Zanna


    Full Text Available June 28, 2013 Botanic Garden of the University of Tartu has celebrated its 210th anniversary. To mark the occasion four significant events were presented: the first electric car trip, opening of the sculpture in honor of the gardeners of Estonia, the opening of "Moss garden" and a concert at the summer stage in the rock, which was held on June 29.

  6. The implementation of research recommendations at the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden

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    Martie Mearns


    Full Text Available A comparative study Biodiversity is not a static phenomenon and many variables have an effect on accelerated biodiversity loss. While most of the variables affecting biodiversity loss are caused by humankind, many species are affected by more than one variable simultaneously. Six fundamental causes for biodiversity loss have been identifi ed, namely unsustainable population growth and associated increased pressure on natural resources; a reduced spectrum of agricultural, forestry and fishery products; failure of economic systems to attach appropriate economic value to the environment and resources; inequality in ownership, flow and management of the benefits and utilisation of resources; insufficient knowledge in the application and use of resources; and legislation and institutional systems that promote unsustainable abuse of the environment (Middleton 2003:250. The worldwide loss of biodiversity makes the management of protected areas more important than ever. Protected areas are under increasing pressure to become economically viable and independent of state grants. Tourism creates the mechanism and opportunities for protected areas to increase their economic viability while advancing the appreciation of nature. The management of these protected areas therefore includes the management of visitors. South Africa is the third most bio diverse country in the world. Amongst a variety of nature conservation endeavours nine national botanical gardens are managed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI. One of the nine national gardens is the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden situated in Roodekrans towards the west of Johannesburg. A study was launched to determine preferences of visitors to the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden by making use of semi-structured interviews. The purpose of the study was threefold. Firstly the study was launched to determine whether visitors to the garden had an increased awareness

  7. Work on mapping the Landscape Arboretum in the Skripchinsky Stavropol Botanical Garden

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    Kotenko Yuliya Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available This article describes the steps of mapping the landscape arboretum. Landscape Arboretum is the core of the botanical garden, which includes all variety of introduced tree species. Graphic documents showing the location of each individual are an important factor in the conservation of biological diversity. The Botanical Garden archive stored topographical plans scale 1: 500, in the form of handwritten copies. They are the basis for mapping the territory. The mapping involves several stages: production of the paper base, field and office work. Visual and digital deliverable plans, are important to inventory of wood collections in the future.

  8. Cienfuegos Botanical Garden and the Municipal Agricultural System, a territorial approach to local management extensionism

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    Tania Domínguez Soto


    Full Text Available The present work identifies the goods and services available in the Botanical Garden of Cienfuegos, from the plant genetic resources that tax the agricultural sector and that allow to establish synergies with the Agrarian System of the Municipality Cienfuegos with the purpose of producing food.

  9. Viewpoint Botanic Gardens and Place Identity: Informing a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... explored through the Garden Window Project. However, this project requires a new approach for actively and meaningfully engaging with people-plant relationships; one that relies on place associations, narratives and the manner in which plants and place identity provide meaningful learning opportunities for people.

  10. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

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    Lia Hapsari


    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.


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    Full Text Available In Iassy, „A. Fatu” Botanical garden’s Greenhouse complex (20 buildings with a total area of 3800 sq.m hosts a remarcable fund of exotic plants (2700 taxa, native especially in subtropical, tropical and ecuatorial areas, on every continent.This paper presents some of the plant collections grown in this space. It comes out that, by number, diversity and value (scientific/decorative of the taxa, many collections – azaleas and camelias, carnivorous plant, palm trees, bromelias, orchids, cicads, crotons, ficuses – have a unicum value in the country.

  12. "Garden walk – on the road to health", a new informative and health-improving route at the Petrozavodsk State University Botanical Garden


    Platonova Elena; Eglacheva Arina; Obuhova Elena; Falin Alexey


    The article describes the new informative and health-improving route, "A garden walk - on the road to health", of the Petrozavodsk State University Botanical Garden. The route has been developed for the older generation; however, in the future, citizens and guests of the city of different age groups will be able to take this route. The path goes through the most beautiful and interesting exhibitions, collections and natural areas of the garden; information about health-improving qualities of ...

  13. Evaluating urban eco-tourism resources and environment: a case study in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Yin, Jie


    In this paper, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China has been selected as the study area. The overall status and the development conditions of resources and environment have been analyzed for the park. The eco-tourism resources and environment of Chenshan Botanical Garden were further evaluated synthetically by using expert analysis and questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation system including 16 indices has been initially established from three aspects of tourism resource element value, resource development condition and eco-environment condition. The characteristics of eco-tourism resources and the score of each indicator for Chenshan Botanical Garden have subsequently been generated. The results show that the comprehensive evaluation score of eco-tourism resources and environment for Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden is 72.06, which belongs to third level of excellent tourism resources and environment. Finally, five suggestions are proposed for future development of its eco-tourism resources and environment.

  14. Biological and cultural diversity in the context of botanic garden conservation strategies

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    Christopher P. Dunn


    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change, habitat loss, and other environmental changes on the world's biota and peoples continue to increase, especially on islands and in high elevation areas. Just as floristic diversity is affected by environmental change, so too are cultural and linguistic diversity. Of the approximately 7000 extant languages in the world, fully 50% are considered to be at risk of extinction, which is considerably higher than most estimates of extinction risks to plants and animals. To maintain the integrity of plant life, it is not enough for botanic gardens to consider solely the effects of environmental change on plants within the context of major conservation strategies such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rather, botanic gardens should actively engage in understanding and communicating the broader impacts of environmental change to biological and cultural diversity.

  15. Flower-Insect Visitor Interaction: Study Case on Rhododendron inundatum Sleumer in Bali Botanic Garden

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    Farid Kuswantoro


    Full Text Available The Rhododendron-insect relationship was quite well studied in the northern hemisphere. However, information on the flower-insect relationship of the Indonesian Rhododendron was limited. This study aims to find the interaction between Rhododendron inundatum Sleumer collected in Bali Botanic Garden and its flower-visiting insect. The study was conducted by observing insect visitation to the flower of R. inundatum for 1 hour a day and repeated for nine days. Data analysis was conducted by calculating the Visitation Rate (VR of each visitor taxa to determine its frequency. Study result showed that R. inundatum in Bali Botanic Garden was visited mainly by Chrysopa sp., as well as members of the Vespidae, Curculionidae, Muscidae, Drosophilidae, and Tephritidae. The result of this study was dissimilar with the previous study of white-flowered Rhododendron, which was mainly visited by moths.

  16. Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Tkachenko Kirill


    Full Text Available Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. (Pinaceae is an extremely rare flora species of the Central Asia (Kirghizia; it has been cultivated at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS since 1949, where it was first introduced into general cultivation. Since 2000, upon reaching the age of 43 years, the seed reproduction of the plants is being marked. An X-ray test proved seeds, collected in 2014, to be filled and full. In spring 2015, first time in the 67 years of cultivating this specie in St. Petersburg area, first young crops were received. Abies semenovii – a cold hard and decorative tree – has to be introduced into the gardening of St. Petersburg and shall be promoted into the Karelia and further to the northern regions of the European part of the Russian Federation.

  17. Morphometric features of Heuchera L. species in the introduction conditions of Donetsk Botanical Garden

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    Anastasia G. Selikhova


    Full Text Available On the territory of the Donetsk Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine the studies of morphometric characteristics of five of introduced species of the genus Heuchera L. were carried out. The results showed that H. americana is characterized by the greatest height, length and width of the leaf blade. The high variability of the parameters of height and diameter of the bush of H. villosa has signed.

  18. Morphometric features of Heuchera L. species in the introduction conditions of Donetsk Botanical Garden


    Anastasia G. Selikhova


    On the territory of the Donetsk Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine the studies of morphometric characteristics of five of introduced species of the genus Heuchera L. were carried out. The results showed that H. americana is characterized by the greatest height, length and width of the leaf blade. The high variability of the parameters of height and diameter of the bush of H. villosa has signed.


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    Full Text Available Construction phases of the Moldova Vegetation Exposition from the Botanical Garden of Chişinău are presented. Twelve forest micro-expositions, one steppe vegetation exposition, one grassland micro-exposition and an area of rare plants have been created during last 35 year on an area of 14 ha. The Moldova Vegetation Exposition includes 400 species of vascular plants.

  20. Valuation approaches to ecosystem goods and services for the National Botanical Garden, Bangladesh

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    Tahzeeda Jasia


    Full Text Available The main attractions of national parks include their scenic beauty, security, wildlife and trees. For preserving and maintaining national parks, an appropriate pricing policy can be used. The current study focuses on using the travel cost method (TCM and contingent valuation method (CVM as a non-market valuation technique to value the National Botanical Garden in Bangladesh, a developing country where little or no previous works of this kind has been conducted before. The main objective of the paper was to suggest an appropriate entrance fee for the park by assessing the willingness to pay (WTP from the TCM and CVM; by determining a revenue maximizing entrance fee from the CVM; and by considering socio-demographics, the characteristics of visits and the motivation of the visitors to preserve the National Botanical Garden. The study sampled 100 visitors. These visitors participated in a survey which consisted of closed questions followed by a semi structured in-depth interview. For data processing, SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Based on the travel cost demand function using the TCM, the study found that the amount respondents were willing to pay for entrance was 0.955 US dollars and yearly consumer surplus was 593634.5 USD. From the CVM, it was estimated that the WTP was 0.225 USD for the entrance and revenue maximizing entrance fee was 0.376 USD. Finally, the entrance fee suggested for National Botanical Garden was around 0.225 USD.

  1. Species traits and plant performance: functional trade-offs in a large set of species in a botanical garden

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Z.; Klimešová, Jitka; Hrouda, L.


    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2012), s. 1522-1533 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA206/09/1471 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetative multiplication * generative reproduction * botanical garden Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.431, year: 2012

  2. The 'Botanical Gardens of the Dispossessed' revisited: richness and significance of Old World crops grown by Suriname Maroons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van Tinde; Velden, van der Amber; Reijers, Minke


    Old World crops entered the Americas as provision on slave ships and were planted by enslaved Africans in their home gardens, known as the ‘Botanical Gardens of the Dispossessed’. Escaped slaves who settled in Maroon communities in Suriname’s forested interior practiced shifting cultivation for

  3. New forms of maples (ACER L., Aceraceae cultivated at Peter the Great Botanic Garden (ST. Petersburg, Russia

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    Firsov Gennadii


    Full Text Available The article contains description of two new maple forms - Acer miyabei Maxim. f. suberosum Byalt et Firsov forma nova (Aceraceae and Acer saccharinum L. f. variifolium Byalt et Firsov forma nova – cultivated at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in St. Petersburg, Russia. The article contains a brief history of the introduction of A. miyabei Maxim. and A. saccharinum L., information about the origin of the planting material in the park of the botanical garden of RAS, basic differences between the new forms and similar taxa (incl. Latin diagnoses, as well as data about standard samples and their storage. The article has color photos of the alive plants located in the botanical garden of RAS. Both maple forms are very decorative and appear to be very useful for a large-scale implementation in the urban landscape planting.

  4. Strengthening the scientific contribution of botanic gardens to the second phase of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. (United States)

    Blackmore, Stephen; Gibby, Mary; Rae, David


    The need for action on the global environment is now well understood and governments, agencies, non-governmental organizations and botanic gardens have all been working in their various ways to promote environmental sustainability and reduce species and habitat loss for at least 10–20 years. The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) has been widely adopted, particularly by the botanic garden community, and has resulted in many successes despite failing to achieve its ultimate goal of halting the loss of plant biodiversity. The objectives and targets for Phase 2 of the GSPC, running from 2010 to 2020, mirror those of Phase 1 and had been largely agreed prior to their formal adoption at the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya in October 2010. However, to be successful, the scientific contribution of botanic gardens needs to be strengthened, as does government policy and commitment. Botanic garden research to underpin conservation action, including the role of botanic garden horticulture, training and international capacity building, has a major part to play and needs to be better understood and better coordinated. We provide examples based on the experience of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in the UK and overseas. Government policy, at national and international levels, needs to reflect the fundamental importance of plant diversity in maintaining the biosphere and supporting humanity. The commitment of significant new resources is an essential prerequisite for success, but this needs to be well coordinated, inclusive of all stakeholders and carefully targeted. A further challenge is the need to integrate better the plant diversity-related activities of what are currently diverse and disconnected sectors, including agriculture, forestry, protected area management and botanic gardens.

  5. The Larch Genus (Larix Mill., Pinaceae at Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Firsov G.A.


    Full Text Available There are 148 trees of larches (Larix Mill. cultivating at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (Saint-Petersburg, Russia which belong to 16 species (22 taxa. They are long-lived trees, up to 200 years old, of large sizes. The larches represent the base of tree-stand of Arboretum and form the alleys at the oldest historical regular part of Botanic Garden. The largest trees reach 31,6 m high (L. dahurica and 113 cm in trunk diameter (L. decidua and L. dahurica. The pride of collection being rare Far Eastern species – L. olgensis and related to it L. lubarskii and L. maritima. There are species promising both for repeated and primary introduction, the best prospects being in the flora of China and of adjacent countries of Eastern Asia. The continuous monitoring on winter hardiness as well as on steadiness to pests and diseases is necessary, which is especially true in conditions of the global warming of the climate. The investigation of reproductive abilities, quality of seeds and of seed generation is of importance. This is necessary to involve the best species and forms into city planting and forest economy.

  6. Results of old roses introduction at M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden, NAS of Ukraine

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    О. Л. Рубцова


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate results of old garden roses varieties introduction based on the analysis of their decorative pro­perties and economic characters. Methods. Field study, comparative analysis, generalization. Results. The collection of roses at M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden (the city of Kyiv was analyzed. A comparison was drawn between their gene pool and the world collection of roses. After collection screening, 22 old varieties were found at M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden and described. Their decorative pro­perties, economic characters and winter hardiness were eva­luated, the final result ranged from 81 to 100 points. Evalua­tion of winter hardiness that was based on the records of shoot damage degree in the field during the winter showed that in Kyiv conditions 13 cultivars were exceptionally resistant to frost, the other 9 appeared to be frost-sensitive. Conclusions. As follows from the analysis of decorative va­lues, economic characters and winter hardiness, 12 varieties of old roses such as ‘Cardinal de Richelieu’, ‘Commandant Beaurepaire’, ‘La Reine’, ‘Louise de Odier’, ‘Madame Plantier’, ‘Maiden’s Blush’, ‘Marie Baumann’, ‘Mousseuse Rouge’, ‘Persian Yellow’, ‘Poppius’, ‘Reine des Violettes’, ‘Versicolor’ were found to be perfectly suitable for landscaping.

  7. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Round Garden"

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    Kirilkina Tatiana


    Full Text Available The exhibition "Round Garden" founded in 2005 by curator of fruit department Tatyana Kirilkina, Ph.D. Landings made in the regular style with radiation (rotary symmetry. This allowed a small area to place more than 70 taxa of traditional and new for Karelia fruit and berry crops. In the center of the exhibition - decorative Malus prunifolia 'Hyvingiensis' with an umbrella form crown. Among the new crop of Karelia - raspberry ( Rubus xanthocarpus Bur et Franch., Tibetan raspberries ( Rubus rosifolius Sm., blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus L., variety selection of Finnish Arctic raspberry ( Rubus arcticus L. and currants, columnar apple trees, apple trees in semi-dwarf rootstocks, ornamental varieties of fruit and others.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants from the Mountain Botanical Garden in Zakopane

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    Szymon Zubek


    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of 77 plant species collected from the Mountain Botanical Garden of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Zakopane (southern Poland was surveyed. These plants include rare, endemic and threatened species in the Tatra Mts. (the Western Carpathians and are maintained in the botanical garden in order to develop effective methods of protection and cultivation. Plants belonging to Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Juncaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae and Woodsiaceae families were nonmycorrhizal. 41 species formed AM symbiosis. Spores of nine AMF spccies (Glomeromycota, including Archaeospora trappei, Glomus aggregatum, G. claroideum, G. constrictum, G. deserticola, G. geosponrum, G. microcarpum, G. mosseae and G.rubiforme were isolated for the first time from this region of Poland. In addition, the occurrence of the fine endophyte, G. tenue was detected in roots of 18 species from the study area, although formation of arbuscules by this fungus was observed rarely. AM fungi were sporadically accompanied by dark septate endophytes (DSE. 70% of nonmycorrhizal plant sepcies were devoid of DSE.

  9. A short life cycle of introduced Carex vulpina L. in the Donetsk Botanical Garden

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    Pavlova Marina Alexandrovna


    Full Text Available Basing on the study of a short life cycle in introduced ornamental Carex vulpina L. in the Donetsk Botanical Garden, we have revealed and described five main stages of ontogeny (plantlet, juvenile, immature, virginal, young generative and determined their time limits. It was found out that pregenerative period in this species lasts only for one growing season. This fact may be preconditioned by optimal for sapling development conditions (edaphic ones and agricultural methods. This study allowed us to formulate the following specific traits of a short life cycle in C. vulpina: a prolonged seed germination period, a long lasting relationship between a plant and its seed, an accelerated pregenerative period of ontogeny. Based on these data we suggest seed reproduction of this introduced species to be the best way to get a number of high grade planting material yet in the second year after sowing, which has implications for landscaping in our region.

  10. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha of the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków*

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    Starowicz Marzena


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of faunistic investigations of aphids (Aphidomorpha in the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, in the Kraków – Wieluń Upland. During two seasons of research (2011, 2012 two aphid species from the family Adelgidae and 50 species from the family Aphididae, associated with 66 host plants were recorded. The following species – Eriosoma anncharlotteae Danielsson, 1979, Capitophorus elaeagni (Del Guercio, 1894, Rhopalosiphoninus (Neorhopalosiphoninus staphyleae staphyleae (Koch, 1854, Eulachnus brevipilosus Börner, 1940 and E. cembrae Börner, 1950 – are new for the Kraków – Wieluń Upland. Seven of the species recorded are regarded as alien to Poland.

  11. Conifers in decorative arboretum of Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

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    Eglacheva Arina


    Full Text Available The transformation that taking place during of spontaneous cultivars introduction have not taken into consideration for last 10 years. The plants introduction in the Botanic Garden PSU have a planned character in a northwest middle taiga. Decorative arboretum was laid in 2000 (Potapova, Prokhorov, 2010. By 2014, the conifers collection includes 159 specimens of 98 cultivars belonging to 28 species, 10 genera and 3 families (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Taxaceae. Taxa are presented as species with narrow native habitat (Microbiota decussata, Thujopsis dolabrata, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Picea omorika, and with a wide (Juniperus communis. Plants were planted gradually. Annual plant monitoring include measuring of height, width of the crown, trunk diameter, needles color, seed-bearing, damage. Based on the study was identified plants groups in growth rate, seed-bearing. The number of generative samples are increased from 17 to 53% during 2007-2014. Seed-bearing is not a constant parameter and depends on a complex of abiotic factors.

  12. Biofilm forming microorganisms on various substrata from greenhouse of Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”

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    Unković Nikola D.


    Full Text Available Diversity of subaerial biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi was investigated on 10 different substrata from greenhouse of Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”. Out of 37 documented taxa, 16 cyanobacterial and 10 algal taxa were identified. Remaining 11 taxa belong to the Kingdom of Fungi. The highest diversity of biofilm forming microorganisms, a total of 24 taxa, was detected on the corroded metal surface, while significantly lower number of taxa was recorded on other examined substrata. Cyanobacterium Porphyrosiphon sp., diatom Achnanthes sp. and green algae Chlorella sp. and Chlorococcum minutum were the most frequently encountered photosynthetic components of biofilms. In all analyzed samples, Trichoderma sp., followed by Cladosporium sp. and Rhizopus stolonifer, were the most frequently identified fungi. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI176020, Grant no. OI176018, and Grant no. OI173032


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    Luís Fernando da Silva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTKnowledge of soil characteristics in areas where activities related to the environment are developed, such as Porto Alegre Botanical Garden (JB-PoA, is a fundamental condition for the sustainable use of this natural resource. The objective of this study was to characterize, classify and evaluate some issues about soil formation in Porto Alegre Botanical Garden, as well as relate their distribution on the landscape according to environmental characteristics. For the morphological description and collecting samples four profiles were selected (P1 to P4, located in the summit-shoulder transition, backslope, footslope and toeslope, respectively. Granulometric distribution of the P1 and P3 profiles indicated sharp textural gradient, with presence of textural and "plânico" B horizons, respectively, according to Brazilian System of Soil Classification. There is predominance of low values of pH, and low base saturation, with exception of P4, indicating probable deposition of solution material at this area. The Fed/Fes relationship was greater in the profile located in the summit-shoulder transition (P1, indicating higher weathering. The Feo/Fed relationship increased in P3 and P4 profiles, indicating greater participation of iron oxides of low crystallinity in reducing environment. The occurrence of some pedogenic processes may be inferred, like lessivage in P1 (Ultic Hapludalf, due to clay skins and higher values of fine clay:total clay relationship in subsurface; ferrolysis and gleization, by low pH value and high Feo/Fed relationship in E and EB horizons of P3 (Oxyaquic Hapludalf, being the last also present in P4 (Humaqueptic Endoaquent, indicating gleization occurrence.

  14. Visitors' perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at the Royal Botanic Garden Melbourne (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel


    Outdoor thermal comfort studies have mainly examined the perception of local residents, and there has been little work on how those conditions are perceived differently by tourists, especially tourists of diverse origins. This issue is important because it will improve the application of thermal indices in predicting the thermal perception of tourists. This study aims to compare the differences in thermal perception and preferences between local and overseas visitors to the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) in Melbourne during summer. An 8-day survey was conducted in February 2014 at four sites in the garden ( n = 2198), including 2 days with maximum temperature exceeding 40 °C. The survey results were compared with data from four weather stations adjacent to the survey locations. One survey location, `Fern Gully', has a misting system and visitors perceived the Fern Gully to be cooler than other survey locations. As the apparent temperature exceeded 32.4 °C, visitors perceived the environment as being `warm' or `hot'. At `hot' conditions, 36.8 % of European visitors voted for no change to the thermal conditions, which is considerably higher than the response from Australian visitors (12.2 %) and Chinese visitors (7.5 %). Study results suggest that overseas tourists have different comfort perception and preferences compared to local Australians in hot weather based at least in part on expectations. Understanding the differences in visitors' thermal perception is important to improve the garden design. It can also lead to better tour planning and marketing to potential visitors from different countries.

  15. Using a botanical garden to assess factors influencing the colonization of exotic woody plants by phyllophagous insects. (United States)

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Kenis, M


    The adoption of exotic plants by indigenous herbivores in the region of introduction can be influenced by numerous factors. A botanical garden in Western Siberia was used to test various hypotheses on the adaptation of indigenous phyllophagous insects to exotic plants invasions, focusing on two feeding guilds, external leaf chewers and leaf miners. A total of 150 indigenous and exotic woody plant species were surveyed for insect damage, abundance and species richness. First, exotic woody plants were much less damaged by chewers and leaf miners than native plants, and the leaf miners' species richness was much lower on exotic than native plants. Second, exotic woody plants having a congeneric species in the region of introduction were more damaged by chewers and hosted a more abundant and species-rich community of leaf miners than plants without native congeneric species. Third, damage by chewers significantly increased with the frequency of planting of exotic host plants outside the botanical garden, and leaf miners' abundance and species richness significantly increased with residence time in the garden. Finally, no significant relationship was found between insect damage or abundance and the origin of the exotic plants. Besides the ecological implications of the results, this study also illustrates the potential of botanical gardens to test ecological hypotheses on biological invasions and insect-plant interactions on a large set of plant species.

  16. Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae at Peter the Great Botanical Garden in Saint Petersburg

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    Firsov Gennadiy Afanasyevich


    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. was the first exotic species of this genus to be cultivated at Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS in Saint Petersburg – it was mentioned at M.M. Terekhovsky’s Catalogue in 1796. Firstly it was cultivated indoors. It was tested by E.L. Regel as early as in 1871 but unsuccessfully. It has been cultivated trustworthy outdoors since 1914. It was seriously frost damaging during the 20th century in cold winters with temperature below -25 oC, such as in 1955/56, 1968/69, 1978/79, аnd 1984/85. The winter of 1986/87 with absolute minimum temperature -34,7oC was very unfavourable, and many trees died after it. At present, the winter hardiness has increased with the warming of the climate. There are no frost damages at all or they are small and insignificant. The largest trees now reach 19 m high and 31 cm of trunk diameter in the age of 67 years old. The majority of trees produce fruits. Twenty trees of modern collection represent the five generations. The visible increasing of adaptation abilities is observed starting with the fifth generation. The trees of the fifth generation are good looking single-trunked trees without frost damages. Since 2014 they have been producing fruits, and subsequently this is possible to obtain plants of the sixth generation. Apparently the specimens of the fifth and the next generations are of special value to test at areas outside of the city to promote the distribution of the walnut in cultivation.

  17. A Different Way to Stay in Touch with 'Urban Nature': The Perceived Restorative Qualities of Botanical Gardens. (United States)

    Carrus, Giuseppe; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Panno, Angelo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Colangelo, Giuseppe; Pirchio, Sabine; Ferrini, Francesco; Salbitano, Fabio; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Portoghesi, Luigi; Semenzato, Paolo; Sanesi, Giovanni


    Botanical gardens represent interesting arenas for research in environmental psychology and environment-behavior relations. They can be considered a very particular type of restorative environment and also have a relevant social function for the promotion of a more sustainable lifestyle in current societies. In this paper, we present a study assessing the relationship between the perceived restorativeness, the psychological and physical benefits experienced, and the subjective well-being reported by visitors of botanical gardens in four different cities in Italy ( N = 127). As expected, a bootstrapping mediation model supported the idea that perceived restorativeness of botanical gardens significantly predicts visitors' subjective well-being, both directly and indirectly through perceived physical and psychological benefits of the visit. A moderation model also revealed that the relationship between restorativeness and well-being varies across respondents with different socio-demographic characteristics, being stronger for singles as compared to couples with and without children, respectively. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. A Different Way to Stay in Touch with ‘Urban Nature’: The Perceived Restorative Qualities of Botanical Gardens

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    Giuseppe Carrus


    Full Text Available Botanical gardens represent interesting arenas for research in environmental psychology and environment-behavior relations. They can be considered a very particular type of restorative environment and also have a relevant social function for the promotion of a more sustainable lifestyle in current societies. In this paper, we present a study assessing the relationship between the perceived restorativeness, the psychological and physical benefits experienced, and the subjective well-being reported by visitors of botanical gardens in four different cities in Italy (N = 127. As expected, a bootstrapping mediation model supported the idea that perceived restorativeness of botanical gardens significantly predicts visitors’ subjective well-being, both directly and indirectly through perceived physical and psychological benefits of the visit. A moderation model also revealed that the relationship between restorativeness and well-being varies across respondents with different socio-demographic characteristics, being stronger for singles as compared to couples with and without children, respectively. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. A Different Way to Stay in Touch with ‘Urban Nature’: The Perceived Restorative Qualities of Botanical Gardens (United States)

    Carrus, Giuseppe; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Panno, Angelo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Colangelo, Giuseppe; Pirchio, Sabine; Ferrini, Francesco; Salbitano, Fabio; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Portoghesi, Luigi; Semenzato, Paolo; Sanesi, Giovanni


    Botanical gardens represent interesting arenas for research in environmental psychology and environment-behavior relations. They can be considered a very particular type of restorative environment and also have a relevant social function for the promotion of a more sustainable lifestyle in current societies. In this paper, we present a study assessing the relationship between the perceived restorativeness, the psychological and physical benefits experienced, and the subjective well-being reported by visitors of botanical gardens in four different cities in Italy (N = 127). As expected, a bootstrapping mediation model supported the idea that perceived restorativeness of botanical gardens significantly predicts visitors’ subjective well-being, both directly and indirectly through perceived physical and psychological benefits of the visit. A moderation model also revealed that the relationship between restorativeness and well-being varies across respondents with different socio-demographic characteristics, being stronger for singles as compared to couples with and without children, respectively. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:28620335

  20. Phenology of native fruit trees in National Botanical Garden of Iran

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    P. Panahi


    Full Text Available Phenology, as one of the most important subjects of ecology, is the study of periodic plant life cycle events and how these are influenced by variations in climate and ecological conditions. In this research, phonological observations of 5 species (Prunus dulcis, Prunus avium, Prunus armeniaca, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica were studied in Iranian orchard of National Botanical Garden of Iran during the years 2004-2008. Ten trees were selected for each species and leaf, flower and fruit phenology were recorded from second decade of February to end decade of November. Occurrence time of phenomena was converted to its interval from first day of the year. Statistical analysis of occurrence time of phenomena showed that there are significant differences between the studied species. Soonest and latest occurrence time of phenomena and their sustainability were observed in P. duclis and P. avium, respectively. Based on study of correlation between climate factors (temperature and precipitation and occurrence time of phenomena, significant correlations were found in some species.

  1. User Satisfaction Assessment To Edu-Eco Tourism Services Of Cibodas Botanical Garden (United States)

    Hidayat, I. W.; Winarni


    Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG) is a government institution which has principal duties and functions as area of conservation ex situ of wet highland plants, research, education and tourism, it very closely related to aspect of the services to user. Good services will support the sustainability and existence of CBG as a world class edu-eco tourism destination. The purpose of this study was to measure the quality of services which delivered and improvement which necessary at the future. Assessments were made based on 14 criteria of services aspect for user which need research-education services and regular tourism services activities. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to users of these services. Questionnaires distribution was conducted in early August 2015 and August 2016, the respondents were 124 and 207. The results were showed the user satisfaction at good level, there were 77.685 in 2015 and 72.08 in 2016. Although still at a good level, there were a decline in satisfaction levels based on the value. In the future, the managerial needs to continuously to improve it, in order to get a good or very good valuation.

  2. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

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    Dewi Ayu Lestari


    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  3. Herbarium collection of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (RB), Brazil. (United States)

    Lanna, João M; da Silva, Luís Alexandre E; Morim, Marli P; Leitman, Paula M; Queiroz, Natália O; Filardi, Fabiana L R; Dalcin, Eduardo C; Oliveira, Felipe A; Forzza, Rafaela C


    This paper provides a quantitative and general description of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden herbarium (RB) dataset. Created over a century ago, the RB currently comprises ca. 750,000 mounted specimens, with a strong representation of Brazilian flora, mainly from the Atlantic and Amazon forests. Nearly 100% of these specimens have been entered into the database and imaged and, at present, about 17% have been geo-referenced. This data paper is focused exclusively on RB's exsiccatae collection of land plants and algae, which is currently increasing by about twenty to thirty thousand specimens per year thanks to fieldwork, exchange and donations. Since 2005, many national and international projects have been implemented, improving the quality and accessibility of the collection. The most important facilitating factor in this process was the creation of the institutional system for plants collection and management, named JABOT. Since the RB is continuously growing, the dataset is updated weekly on SiBBr and GBIF portals. The most represented environments are the Atlantic and Amazon forests, a biodiversity hotspot and the world's largest rain forest, respectively. The dataset described in this article contains the data and metadata of plants and algae specimens in the RB collection and the link to access the respective images. Currently, the RB data is publicly available online at several biodiversity portals, such as our institutional database JABOT, the Reflora Virtual Herbarium, the SiBBr and the GBIF portal. However, a description of the RB dataset as a whole is not available in the literature.

  4. History of the Botanic Garden of the Stefan Batory University in Vilna (Vilnius (1919–1939 (in Polish

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    Alicja Zemanek


    Full Text Available The university in Vilna (Lithuanian: Vilnius, now Vilniaus universitetas, founded in 1579 by Stefan Batory (Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, was a centre of Polish botany in 1780-1832 and 1919-1939. The Botanic Garden established by Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert (1741–1814 in 1781 (or, actually, from 1782 survived the loss of independence by Poland (1795, and a later closure of the University (1832, and it continued to function until 1842, when it was shut down by Russian authorities. After Poland had regained independence and the University was reopened as the Stefan Batory University (SBU, its Botanic Garden was established on a new location (1919, active since 1920. It survived as a Polish institution until 1939. After the Second World War, as a result of changed borders, it found itself in the Soviet Union, and from 1990 – in the Republic of Lithuania. A multidisciplinary research project has been recently launched with the aim to create a publication on the history of science at the Stefan Batory University. The botanical part of the project includes, among others, drafting the history of the Botanic Garden. Obtaining electronic copies of archival documents, e.g. annual reports written by the directors, enabled a more thorough analysis of the Garden’s history. Piotr Wiśniewski (1884–1971, a plant physiologist, nominated as Professor in the Department of General Botany on 1 June 1920, was the organiser and the first director of the Garden. He resigned from his post in October 1923, due to financial problems of the Garden. From October 1923 to April 1924, the management was run by the acting director, Edward Bekier (1883–1945, Professor in the Department of Physical Chemistry, Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. For 13 subsequent years, i.e. from 1 May 1924 to 30 April 1937, the directorship of the Garden was held by Józef Trzebiński (1867–1941, a mycologist and one of the pioneers of


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    Edi Santosa


    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  6. Herbarium collection of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (RB), Brazil (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Alexandre E; Morim, Marli P.; Leitman, Paula M.; Queiroz, Natália O.; Filardi, Fabiana L. R.; Dalcin, Eduardo C.; Oliveira, Felipe A.


    Abstract Background This paper provides a quantitative and general description of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden herbarium (RB) dataset. Created over a century ago, the RB currently comprises ca. 750,000 mounted specimens, with a strong representation of Brazilian flora, mainly from the Atlantic and Amazon forests. Nearly 100% of these specimens have been entered into the database and imaged and, at present, about 17% have been geo-referenced. This data paper is focused exclusively on RB's exsiccatae collection of land plants and algae, which is currently increasing by about twenty to thirty thousand specimens per year thanks to fieldwork, exchange and donations. Since 2005, many national and international projects have been implemented, improving the quality and accessibility of the collection. The most important facilitating factor in this process was the creation of the institutional system for plants collection and management, named JABOT. Since the RB is continuously growing, the dataset is updated weekly on SiBBr and GBIF portals. New information The most represented environments are the Atlantic and Amazon forests, a biodiversity hotspot and the world's largest rain forest, respectively. The dataset described in this article contains the data and metadata of plants and algae specimens in the RB collection and the link to access the respective images. Currently, the RB data is publicly available online at several biodiversity portals, such as our institutional database JABOT, the Reflora Virtual Herbarium, the SiBBr and the GBIF portal. However, a description of the RB dataset as a whole is not available in the literature. PMID:29674937

  7. "Beautiful garden made of garbage" – Beijing Garden Expo Park as an example of a modern approach to creating public botanical gardens

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    Tkachenko Kirill


    A new park in Beijing is a unique project implemented at a former city waste area. The project was started in 2010. In 2013, the park was opened for its first visitors. Today, it has 69 gardens representing different Chinese provinces and major cities, as well as other countries whose designers wanted to demonstrate their class. The created gardens of 1-2 to 10-12 hectares represent both traditional styles of Chinese gardens and the latest trends in the field of garden art. The Museum of Chinese Gardens and Landscape Architecture (MCGALA is a part of the park’s vast territory of 513 hectares. The park also has the necessary infrastructure for its visitors with disabilities. Today, it has become a home for many educational institutions training specialists in the field of landscape design, as well as for the employees of the country’s parks, agronomists and gardeners.

  8. Contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil of a botanic garden localized next to a former manufacturing gas plant in Palermo (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchio, Santino


    The Botanical Garden lies within the city of Palermo, a few meters away from one of the largest unused Manufacturing Gas Plant in Sicily. The total concentrations of PAHs (23 compounds) in the soil of Botanical Garden ranged from 947 to 18,072 μg/kg. The wide range of PAH concentrations (RSD = 84%) found in the soil samples indicates heterogeneous levels of contamination in the area and this can be explained by considering the different tree distributions which prevents the homogeneous deposition of pollutants on the soil. Soils collected in the Botanical Garden generally showed the highest PAH concentrations, being almost 2-3 times higher than the concentration samples obtained in the urban reference sites and about 20 times higher than those in the rural stations. The total PAH concentrations, in the Botanical Garden soil, resulted higher than the maximum concentrations allowed by the Italian legislation for the green areas. Perylene, was found in all the stations. From a careful study of the isomeric ratios, we can hypothesize that the soils of the Botanical Garden are mainly affected by localized MGP particulate deposition, suggesting that the partitioning between organic matter and PAHs is not the dominant process in the soils with higher organic matter content.

  9. [Remy Willemet (1735-1807), naturalist, professor of natural history and chairman of the botanical garden of Nancy]. (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre


    Rémy Willemet is above all a local botanist whose first work was selected by the academy of Nancy in 1766. His notoriety began when another work with Jean-François Coste was chosen by the academy of Lyon ten years later. He published then in many papers and was elected in numerous academies and scientific societies. During the Revolution, he was a professor of the Ecole centrale de la Meurthe and of the Société de santé, and he became the chairman of the botanical garden. Willemet wrote some botanical books. Today, what is the memory of his researchs and papers? Fairly few things because he never undertook botanical travels in order to discover and compare pharmaceutical plants. However, Willemetia was the name used to denominate some species and honour his family. His name was also engraved on the wall of some university buidings and it was chosen some years ago to entitle a botanical paper in Lorraine.

  10. Soil nematode community under the non-native trees in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

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    Sushchuk Anna


    Full Text Available The particularities of soil nematode communities of the rhizosphere of non-native trees were studied in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University (Republic of Karelia. Taxonomic diversity, abundance, community structure and ecological indices derived from nematode fauna analysis were used as the evaluation parameters. Nematode fauna included 51 genera, 6 of them were plant parasitic. The dominant eco-trophic group in the nematode community structure of coniferous trees was bacterial feeders; fungal feeders in most cases were observed in the second numbers. The contribution of bacterial feeders was decreased and plant parasites were increased in eco-trophic structure of nematode communities of deciduous trees in compared with coniferous trees. Analysis of ecological indices showed that the state of soil nematode communities reflects complex, structured (stable soil food web in the biocenoses with deciduous trees, and degraded (basal food web – under coniferous trees.


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    A. S. Nikitina


    Full Text Available Nowadays studying plant objects in the framework of environmental monitoring to improve the quality of herbal remedies is a very important area of research.The aim of the work is to determine the elemental composition and assessment of environmental cleanliness of rosemary shoots (Rosmarinus offi cinalis L., introduced in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk medical-pharmaceutical Institute (PMPI, Pyatigorsk (Russia.Materials and methods. An experimental study was performed at the Central research laboratories spectral analysis (“Kavkazgeolsyemka” on diffraction spectrograph DFS-8-1 by evaporation from a crater of the carbon electrode. Photometric measurement of spectrograms was performed using the Atlas of spectral lines and spectra of standards with an accuracy of not more than 2% in terms of ash.Results and discussion. For the fi rst time there were 25 elements identifi ed in rosemary shoots introduced in the North Caucasus. The prevailing macro elements were K, Ca, Mg, Na, P and the trace elements were Al, Si and Fe. The toxic elements As, Cd, Hg, Bi, Sb were not detected in the rosemary shoots. Rosemary does not accumulate heavy metals or they are present in trace amounts.Conclusion. The absence of heavy metals or their low content in rosemary shoots can be explained prosperous environmental conditions of Pyatigorsk Botanical garden. The use of rosemary shoots as a source of natural compounds of primary and secondary synthesis and minerals, are involved in the regulation of life processes. This underlines the therapeutic importance of the raw materials and the possibility of creating drugs of combined action on the basis of rosemary for the treatment and prevention of pathologies associated with disorders of mineral metabolism.

  12. Mean annual increment of Dysoxylum parasiticum (Osbeck Kosterm. in “Eka Karya” Botanical Garden, Bali

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    Full Text Available Dysoxylum parasiticum (Osbeck Kosterm. including into the tribe of Meliace. The society in Bali calls this plant with majegau. It gives a special characteristic for Balinese and has advantages in their religion. In Bali, it is more known as divine tree (kayu dewa, which able to be used for purified building. The objective of this research was to measure the mean annual increment of height, diameter and volume of D. parasiticum. Recognizing the characteristic of this plant is an important step to get information about the growth of majegau. Estimation of age harvest and also the conservation effort as one of effort to take care of its continuity. The results showed that highest height increment in XIVA garden bed, and the highest diameter increment in XVIIIA garden bed. The height increment is more optimal in the area with high light intensity (XIV A bed garden and the diameter increment is more optimal in low light intensity area (XVIIIA bed garden. The increment of height is more influentially to create volume increment. The model showed that height and volume increment have higher R2 adjusted value than diameter and volume (0.645 and 0.132, respectively.

  13. Flowering Plants Preferred by Bumblebees (Bombus Latr. in the Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants in Wrocław

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    Sikora Aneta


    Full Text Available Due to fewer bumblebees in rural areas these days, it is necessary to look for alternative habitats for the active protection of these very important pollinators. The research was carried out in The Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, in Wrocław, Poland. In the garden, approximately 2000 plant species were cultivated, of which 185 were visited by bumblebees. Amongst them, 57 plant species were deemed very attractive and were determined to be indicators for 7 bumblebee species. Indicator species for bumblebees ranged between 6 for Bombus pratorum to up to 20 for B. pascuorum. Monarda didyma was an indicator plant to 6 recorded bumblebee species. Other indicator plant species for at least 4 bumblebees species were: Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron catawbiense, Phacelia tanacetifolia, and Agastache rugosa. Three bumblebee species were found to forage the most on 11 of the flowering plant species. The biggest group of plants were those which were mostly visited by 1-2 bumblebee species. Amongst all recorded indicator plants, 32% were native species.

  14. Records of thrips on bamboo, take and sasa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in the Kyoto Botanical Garden, with a special reference to ovoviviparity in Phlaeothripinae (Insecta: Thysanoptera)


    NAKAO, Shiro; MASUMOTO, Masami


    Thrips on the bamboo, take, and sasa plants in the Kyoto Botanical Garden at Shimogamo in Kyoto City were collected in May and July of 2016. A total of 9 species was collected, five species were reported here for the first time from Kyoto Prefecture, and four of them seem to have close association with various bamboo, take, and sasa plants. Several species of thrips recorded here are predators of small arthropods. We mentioned that some predaceous or omnivorous tuburiferan thrips in Phlaeothr...

  15. Species Composition and Structure of the Communities of Plant-Parasitic and Free-Living Soil Nematodes in the Greenhouses of Botanical Gardens of Ukraine

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    Gubin A.I.


    Full Text Available Species Composition and Structure of the Communities of Plant-Parasitic and Free-Living Soil Nematodes in the Greenhouses of Botanical Gardens of Ukraine. Gubin, A. I., Sigareva, D. D. — In greenhouses of botanical gardens of Ukraine 81 species of nematodes were found. The richest by the number of species was Tylenchida order that was presented by 25 species (31 % of species composition. The dominant group of nematodes was plant-parasitic (most frequent was Rotylenchus robustus (de Man, 1876 Filipjev, 1936 and Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid et White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949. The group of saprobiotic nematodes, which was presented by 52 species (64 %, appeared to be the richest by the number of species. It is shown, that formation of nematode communities in greenhouses of botanical gardens was caused by the interaction of many related factors, crucial of which is the composition of plant collections. The structure of communities is quite constant and almost independent of the quantity of nematodes species. Plant-parasitic species dominate by the number and frequency of detection, and represent a kind of a core of nematode communities.

  16. Phenological behaviour of desert plants in response to temperature change: a case study from turpan eremophytes botanical garden, northwest china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.; Linke, Y.; Borong, P.


    The phenology of three genera of desert plants (viz., Calligonum L., Haloxylon L., and Tamarix L.) was investigated in response to temperature changes in Turpan. Eremophytes Botanical Garden The temperature was raised gradually from 1977 to 2006, while the phenophases of Calligonum L., Haloxylon L., and Tamarix L. genera were slowly and insignificantly changed in the study area. Their phenophase were similar and did not change significantly over the duration of the study except the beginning of flowering of the average of the three genera from 1977 to 1990 and 1991 to 2006, respectively. The summed temperature of the first four months was the major factor that affected the spring and flowering phenophases of the respective genera. The bud of Calligonum species was expanded during 1977 to 1990 and 1991 to 2006, the flower-buds in Tamarix species appeared during 1977 to 2006, the fruit setting of Haloxylon species started 1990 to 2006 and leaf discoloration of Tamarix species appeared during 1977 to 1990. (author)

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere of the Botanical Garden of the City of Rio de Janeiro: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Souza, Elaine Cesar C A; da Silva, Luane Lima; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, VOCs in the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro were determined using the TO-15 Method. The park occupies 1,370,000 m 2 in the southern area of the city and is next to the Tijuca Forest, which is considered the largest secondary urban forest in the world. The total VOC concentrations ranged from 43.52 to 168.75 µg m -3 , depending on the sampling site and dates. In terms of concentration isoprene represented 4 %-14 % of the total VOC masses. The results suggested that the differences in biomass, distance from the street and activities within the park affected the concentrations of VOCs. The ratios of isoprene/aromatic compounds were higher than those determined in other areas of the city, confirming that the atmosphere of this green area has the contribution of other sources. Kinetic and mechanistic reactivities were also evaluated.

  18. Frugivorous butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in Irmao Teodoro Luis Botanical Garden, Capao do Leao, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Janaína Madruga Silva


    Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul, there’s a lack of systematic information on frugivorous butterflies. This paper aimed survey the guild at Irmao Teodoro Luis Botanical Garden, an environment characterized by ecological tension between the semideciduous seasonal forest and the pioneer formations. The collections were made in three areas, each one containing five modified Van Someren-Rydon traps, baited with fermented banana. The traps remained on the field for six consecutive days per month, from September 2010 to August 2011. Within 10.800 hours of sampling effort, 453 individuals were recorded, distributed into 16 species, 15 genera, and 3 Nymphalidae subfamilies. Satyrinae was the richest and most abundant one, and two species from this group are very frequent and dominant. Richness rates indicated between 78% and 93% of the reported fauna, the species accumulation curve matches these values, and the diversity was 2.02 (H’. Prepona pylene Hewitson, [1854] and Archaeoprepona demophoon (Hübner, [1814] constitute new records for the Southern Coast of the state.

  19. Ecological Design of Fernery based on Bioregion Classification System in Ecopark Cibinong Science Center Botanic Gardens, Indonesia (United States)

    Nafar, S.; Gunawan, A.


    Indonesia as mega biodiversity country has a wide variety of ferns. However, the natural habitats of ferns are currently degrading, particularly in lowlands due to the increasing level of urban-sprawl and industrial zones development. Therefore, Ecology Park (Ecopark) Cibinong Science Center-Botanic Gardens as an ex-situ conservation area is expected to be the best location to conserve the lowland ferns. The purpose of this study is to design a fernery through an ecological landscape design process. The main concept is The Journey of Fern, this concept aiming on providing users experiences in fernery by associating conservational, educational, and recreational aspects. Ecological landscape design as general is applied by the principal of reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R). Bioregion classification system is applied by grouping the plants based on the characteristics of light, water, soil, air, and temperature. The design concept is inspired by the morphology of fern and its growth patterns which is transformed into organic and geometric forms. The result of this study is a design of fernery which consist of welcome area, recreation area, service area, and conservation education area as the main area that providing 66 species of ferns.

  20. The dynamics of the species into collections of the North American and the Himalayan hills in Alpinarium of Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Tkachenko Kirill


    Full Text Available Botanical gardens' collections of living plants are valuable not only because of their exhibitions, but also because of the data accumulated during introductions of new plants. Inventory allows to collect valuable material about introduction of different types of plants (species and taxa. Analysis of the available information allows to select and recommend advanced species (genus complex for the needs of urbane floristics; the perennial herbaceous plants of mountain areas come in the first place. A new list of advanced ornamental and household plants is introduced in the article. The recommended plants can be used for urban gardening and various groundscape works, and for creation of seed orchards in the neighboring regions. The study of introduction results helps not only to determine the advanced species (and taxa, but to understand which spices will not be able to survive a long time in the new conditions (mainly because of the climate, for example in the North-West of Russia. Over the past 60 years, around 385 plants of 61 families has been introduced at the North American and Himalayan rock gardens of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden. In the 60s of the 20th century, the exposition of these rock gardens had nearly 130 species from 51 families, 20 years later – 254 plants of 55 families. In the beginning of the 21st century, there were 249 taxa of the 52 families. Since 2010, the Alpinarium had to undergo a major reconstruction following the restoration and addition of the collection. As of 2015, the exposition of the North American and Himalayan rock gardens has 200 species of 54 families.

  1. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais


    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  2. The modern state of elms (Ulmus L., Ulmaceae in arboretum of Peter the Great Botanic Garden under conditions of epiphytoty of the Dutch elm disease

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    Firsov Gennadii


    Full Text Available The dying of elms (Ulmus L. at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in Saint-Petersburg has been observed since the beginning of the 1990’s, soon after the considerable St.-Petersburg climate warming in 1989. During the period from 1981 (the year of the last total inventory of the Botanic Garden to 2015 three hundred and eighty five trees died, were cut down and removed. They belonged to 12 Ulmus biological and cultivars species: U. laevis – 317 (11 trees are still alive, but all of them are infected, stem dried out from 25 to 70%, U. glabra – 40 (died completely in 2013; U. glabra ‘Camperdownii’ – 6 (died completely in 2014; U. minor – 6 (died completely in 2011; U. аmericana – 4 (died in 2007; U. × hollandica ‘Wredei’ – 3 (died in 2013; U. macrocarpa – 2 (died in 2006; U. pumila ‘Argenteo-variegata’ – 2 (died in 2007; U. japonica – 2 (1 tree is still alive; U. laciniata – 1 (died in 2015; U. parvifolia – 1 (3 trees are still alive; U. pumila – 1 (5 trees are still alive. The most severe dying began after abnormally warm winter 2006/07, the largest amount died in 2013. The most resistant to Dutch elm disease taxa were U. parvifolia and U. pumila. Further research is needed for other two taxa (U. × arbuscula and U. japonica. Selection of elms for resistance to Dutch elm disease seems to be possible. Frost damaging of many exotic tree species in St.-Petersburg has been considerably diminished because of climate warming during the previuos decades. However, introduction of some species is became limited by new negative factors, especially biotic ones (new plant diseases and pests. The future arboreal species assortment for parks and gardens of St.-Petersburg and surrounding settlements should be considerably revised in respect to this climate change.

  3. A workflow to preserve genome-quality tissue samples from plants in botanical gardens and arboreta1 (United States)

    Gostel, Morgan R.; Kelloff, Carol; Wallick, Kyle; Funk, Vicki A.


    Premise of the study: Internationally, gardens hold diverse living collections that can be preserved for genomic research. Workflows have been developed for genomic tissue sampling in other taxa (e.g., vertebrates), but are inadequate for plants. We outline a workflow for tissue sampling intended for two audiences: botanists interested in genomics research and garden staff who plan to voucher living collections. Methods and Results: Standard herbarium methods are used to collect vouchers, label information and images are entered into a publicly accessible database, and leaf tissue is preserved in silica and liquid nitrogen. A five-step approach for genomic tissue sampling is presented for sampling from living collections according to current best practices. Conclusions: Collecting genome-quality samples from gardens is an economical and rapid way to make available for scientific research tissue from the diversity of plants on Earth. The Global Genome Initiative will facilitate and lead this endeavor through international partnerships. PMID:27672517

  4. Effects of sublethal doses of selected botanical molluscicides on oxygen consumption of the brown garden snail, Eobania vermiculata


    Samir Mohamed H. Beltagi, Mohammed Salah. Ab. Ab. Al-Shinnawy, Nabawy


    Laboratory bioassays were carried out for evaluating the efficacy of certain plant materials including Nicotine, Thymol, Menthol, Caffeine and Camphor as molluscicides against the brown garden snail, Eobania vermiculata using the topical application method. The obtained results proved that Nicotine and Thymol were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD50 204.02 and 551.20g/snail for the two materials, respectively. The effects of sublethal doses (LD25 and LD50) of the...

  5. Species richness of the genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in a subtropical urban lake in the Porto Alegre Botanical Garden, RS, Brazil

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    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic composition and richness of the genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in a subtropical urban lake (30º03'05"S; 51º10'34"W within the Botanical Garden, in the city of Porto Alegre, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to contribute to the floristic knowledge of Euglenophyta in artificial urban lakes. From July 2007 to June 2008, we collected samples monthly from two sampling stations, using a 25-µm mesh plankton net. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde. We evaluated the following environmental variables related to the water in the lake: ammonia content, silica content, organic matter content, dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, pH, depth, transparency, electrical conductivity and rainfall. To study the species composition in relation to environmental factors, we used cluster analysis, principal components analysis, canonical correspondence analysis and indicator species analysis. At the specific and infraspecific level, 22 taxa were identified, Trachelomonas elliptica (Playf. Defl. and T. gracillima Bal. & Dast. representing new records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The cluster analysis indicated seasonal variation, species richness being highest in the spring of 2007. Seven indicator species were characterized as acid-tolerant.

  6. The Analysis of Pandanus Relationship of Purwodadi Botanical Garden Collections Based on Morphological Character and Molecular Marker (trnL and trnL-F

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    Risca Adiyani Rachma


    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics of plant vegetative organ has the potential to be the defining factor of pandanus family collection at Purwodadi Botanical Garden (PBG. However, the information is not enough to confirm the identity of pandanus at the type-level. This problem happened at the collection of PBG. It is an urgent issue considering PBG as one of the most important ex-situ plant conservation institute that also has function as a study source for plant taxonomy science in Indonesia. Therefore, the use of molecular technology analysis using molecular marker (primer is incredibly important to identify the member of pandanus family by identifying its family relationship pattern. This information was expected to give a clarity about the identity of Pandanus family at PBG which will support further research and activity for pandanus conservation. The plant sample includes 16 specimens of pandanus with one member of the family from Freycinetia as the outgroup. Morphological analysis of the 50 characteristics of vegetative organs (leaf, stem, and root was conducted. Molecular analysis of DNA using primer of trnL and trnL-F. The data sequence as a result of the analysis was then tested using homology test with BLAST. All of the DNA sequence was paralleled using Clustal W analysis, the tree construction relationship was analysed using Maximum Parsimony (MP method with MEGA 6.0 program. The results of morphological studies showed the character vegetative that is the position of the spines on the leaves, the shape of apex leaf and the condition of the root surface above the soil. Molecularly, appears 1 new genera that has not been previously identified by PBG researcher is Benstonea.


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    Alexandru TELEUTA


    Full Text Available The results of the evaluation of the growth and development rates, the seed productivity, the green mass yield, the biochemical composition and the content of amino acids, phosphorous and calcium, the nutritive and energy value of the forage, as well as the biomethane productivity of local ecotypes of the leguminous species maintained in monoculture, in the collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (BG ASM: Astragalus ponticus, Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago falcata, Onobrychis arenaria and Trifolium repens are presented in this article. Control variants – the traditional forage crops: Medicago sativa and Onobrychis viciifolia. The local ecotypes of the studied leguminous species were characterized by different growth and development rates. Coronilla varia and Lotus corniculatus, in the 2nd-3rd years, could be harvested, for the first time, 5 days earlier than Medicago sativa, but Medicago falcata and Onobrychis viciifolia – 18 days later. The green mass yield varied from 0.83 kg/m2 to 4.08 kg/m2. The studied ecotypes reached amounts of 0.60-0.89 nutritive units/kg and metabolizable energy 8.05-9.90 MJ/kg of dry matter, the content of digestible protein, of 106.28-225.09 g/nutritive unit, met the zootechnical standards; seed production: 19.12-83.00 g/m2; the biomethane yield ranged from 692 to 3197 m3/ha. Higher yield of natural forage, dry matter and biomethane was produced by Onobrychis arenaria and Coronilla varia.

  8. BGCI’s Rrole in co-ordinating a botanic garden-centred global system for the conservation of all tree diversity (United States)

    Paul Smith


    It is estimated that there are at least 60,000 tree species globally and that more than 20 percent of them are threatened with extinction. This threatened tree diversity will have a critical impact for solving some of this century’s major challenges in the areas of energy, water scarcity, human health, food security, climate change and habitat degradation. Botanic...

  9. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKMB) — 25,569 accessions are computerized on Dbase 3/Foxpro; about 12,000 more are expected to be added in 1995. An International Meeting sponsored by the Wye College, University of London, the Linnean Society of London, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,

  10. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Herbarium Bogoriense. A fourth floor has been added to the building. Bogor Botanic Gardens. Two heavy storms occurred, one in October, which uprooted 161 trees, among which some of the famous kalong trees, and another one in November, 1984, which blew down or so damaged about 130 trees that they had

  11. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

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    Márcio Goulart Mocellin


    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  12. Avaliação da poluição sonora no parque Jardim Botânico de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil Evaluation of noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo da poluição sonora no parque Jardim Botânico de Curitiba. Efetuaram-se medições do nível sonoro equivalente Leq em dB(A, em 21 pontos espalhados dentro da área do parque, além de entrevistas com os freqüentadores do local. Constatou-se que 47,6% dos pontos de medição apresentaram níveis sonoros acima de Leq = 65dB(A, considerado pela medicina preventiva como o nível máximo a que um cidadão pode se expor sem riscos à saúde, e 90,5% dos pontos avaliados não satisfizeram à Lei Municipal nº 8.583, que fixa o limite de 55dB(A como nível máximo de emissões sonoras em áreas verdes. O resultado do questionário aplicado na forma de entrevistas aos freqüentadores do parque mostrou que 78% dos entrevistados costumam visitar o parque pelo menos duas vezes na semana e que 96% buscam a realização de uma atividade física. Durante a prática de suas atividades no parque, 24% dos entrevistados apontam a poluição sonora e 22% a segurança no local como fatores de perturbação.This study focuses on noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (Leq were measured at 21 points throughout the park, and interviews were conducted with park visitors. Some 47.6% of the measurement sites presented Leq levels over 65dB(A, considered by preventive medicine as the maximum tolerable exposure level without risk of health impairment,, and 90.5% of the sites failed to comply with Municipal Ordinance 8,583, setting 55dB(A as the maximum noise emission level for green areas. The results of interviews with visitors showed that 78% visit the park at least twice a week and that 96% come for physical activity. During their activities in the Botanical Garden, 24% of interviewees identified noise pollution as a source of annoyance, as compared to 22% who complained of insufficient park security.

  13. Edinburgh doctors and their physic gardens. (United States)

    Doyle, D


    Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

  14. Our botanical heritage


    Stafleu, Frans A.


    On 31 May 1938 our predecessor professor Pulle delivered an address on the ”stocktaking of the heritage of our forefathers” on the occasion of the opening of the enlarged and reorganized Laboratory of special Botany and Plant Geography” of the University of Utrecht. The ”renewal” had been radical: a totally new herbarium building had been built in the southern-most part of the old Botanical Garden at the Lange Nieuwstraat in Utrecht. Pulle’s address still merits reading. The printed version, ...

  15. Therapeutic Gardening


    Turner, Phyllis; Fox, Laurie; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)


    Gardening can be therapeutic for anyone and has been used as therapy for those with physical, emotional and social disabilities, for children, and for those who are elderly. Through careful adaptations to the garden, the gardener and the plants, almost anyone can benefit from the activity of gardening

  16. Huntington's Disease (United States)

    ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting it. A blood test can tell you if have the HD gene and will develop the disease. Genetic counseling can help you weigh the risks and ...

  17. Garden Documents (United States)

    As a gardener, you have the potential to contribute to nutrient pollution, but you also have the power to help prevent it. There are several easy things you can do to reduce nutrient pollution from your yards and gardens.

  18. Gardens of paradise. (United States)

    Müller-Wille, S


    Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a practical tool, still applicable for purposes of identification and information retrieval, the latter is usually deemed to have been one of the main obstacles to scientific progress in biology. That both achievements were not independent of each other, but interlocked theoretically and grounded in a specific scientific practice still thriving today--the collection of plant specimens in botanical gardens--is usually overlooked. The following article tries to uncover these connections and to demonstrate the significance that Linnaeus' achievements had for modern biology.

  19. Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia


    In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...... choosing to continue treatment over the 18-month follow-up period). The treatment regimen was well tolerated. No significant differences on neuropsychological parameters before and after treatment were detected; but the patient who continued treatment did not deteriorate at 18 months' reevaluation, whereas...... the three patients who had stopped treatment after 3 to 4 months had minor progression in all cognitive domains on re-evaluation 12 months after the end of treatment....

  20. Psychopathology in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Erik van


    Dit proefschrift begint met een overzichtsartikel van oorspronkelijke onderzoek naar psychopathologie bij mutatiedragers voor de ziekte van Huntington. Aansluitend worden de resultaten van een cohortstudie naar de aanwezigheid en ernst van psychopathologie bij mensen met de ziekte van Huntington in

  1. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly


    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  2. Floating / Travelling Gardens of (Postcolonial Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio


    Full Text Available This essay on travelling gardens of (postcolonial time opens with two iconic images of floating gardens in contemporary postcolonial literature: Will Phantom’s bio-garbage rafter, which saves him in the midst of a cyclone in Carpentaria (2008, by the Aboriginal author Alexis Wright, and Pi’s carnivore island-organism in Life of Pi (2001, which cannot save him from his shipwreck, by Canadian writer Yan Martel. These floating, hybrid gardens of the Anthropocene precede the real travelling gardens of both Michael Ondaatje’s The Cat’s Table (2011 and Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy (2008-2015, two authors who both indirectly and directly tell the story of botanical gardens in Asia, and of plant and seed smuggling and transplantation (“displacement” also hinting at their historical and economic colonial implications. For, after all, botanical gardens imply a very specific version of care, Cura (Robert Pogue Harrison 2009, while embodying a precise, imperial scientific and economic project (Brockway 2002; Johnson 2011.

  3. The Garden


    de Souza, Claudia; Andrade, Paula Simas de


    Following the motto “community and government, a partnership for success”, Sheila Souza dos Santos, 34, a secretary, transformed a community garden project into a true space for the exercise of citizenship. The revival of a community-based project for the production of garden vegetables in Itapoã – a city located in the outskirts of Brasília, Brazil’s national capital – resulted not only in access to healthier food by the local community, school and families engaged in the project, but also i...

  4. Kitchen gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley


    Numeracy is the practical application of mathematics in context. In schools, contexts such as kitchen gardens can provide a real world and exciting environment for engaging students in mathematical thinking and discussion associated with situations of proportion. This article presents examples fr...

  5. Hydroponic Gardening (United States)

    Julinor, Helmut


    In addition to being an actual source of foodstuffs in inhospitable climates and a potential source of a large portion of the world's food supply, hydroponic gardening is a useful technique in the classroom for illustrating the role of plant life in the world's food chain. (MB)

  6. Huntington\\'s disease: Genetic heterogeneity in black African patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huntington\\'s disease: Genetic heterogeneity in black African patients. D S Magazi, A Krause, V Bonev, M Moagi, Z Iqbal, M Dludla, C H van der Meyden. Abstract. Objective. Huntington's disease (HD) has been reported to occur rarely in black patients. A new genetic variant– Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) – occurring ...

  7. Missouri botanical garden’s support of ex-situ conservation with living collections (United States)

    David Gunn; Meg Engelhardt; Derek. Lyle


    The Missouri Botanical Garden’s living collections are critical for supporting its multi-disciplinary strategy of integrated plant conservation. The Garden is increasing ex-situ collections of plants in need of conservation to build species diversity into its displays for visitor education. Current areas of focus include native Missouri species and International Union...

  8. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Health Professional Other Resources Botanical Dietary Supplements Background Information Have a question? Ask ... on botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part ...

  9. Allergy-Friendly Gardening (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... rhinitis (hay fever), getting hands dirty in the garden has consequences. Sneezing, itchy eyes, congestion and other ...

  10. Gardening from a Wheelchair (United States)

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... resources Tips from community members to start your garden Being able to plant your favorite flowers, pick ...

  11. Measuring your Garden Footprint


    Davies, Gareth; Schmutz, Ulrich


    The work reports on a Garden Organic (working name of Henry Doubleday Research Association, Coventry UK) members experiment in 2007. Garden Organic members were surveyed with a detailed paper questionnaire to calculate an average gardening footprint of committed (self-selected) organic gardeners in the UK. This was used to develop a garden footprinting methodology and to create a benchmark of committed organic gardening in the UK. This was then compared to commerical orangic growing and to ot...

  12. Learning about Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Huntington's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  13. Fitossociologia e similaridade florística entre trechos de Cerrado sentido restrito em interflúvio e em vale no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF Phytossociology and floristic similarity between plateau and valley `Cerrado` woody vegetation in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza da Fonseca


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística, densidade e área basal do componente lenhoso do cerrado sentido restrito em duas situações num gradiente topográfico, designadas interflúvio (I e vale (V, no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF. Foram alocadas em cada área 10 parcelas permanentes de 20x50m para amostragem de todos os indivíduos com diâmetro basal DB(30cm> 5cm. A classificação por UPGMA (Índices de Sørensen e Morisita foi usada para a avaliação da similaridade entre parcelas. A análise da fitossociologia mostrou que as espécies mais importantes no interflúvio foram: Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.Hil Baill., Miconia ferruginata DC. e Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., enquanto que no vale foram: Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc. Schott & Endl., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil. Baill. e Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem D.C. Frodin. Os índices de similaridade variaram entre 0,26 a 0,81 (Sørensen e 0,06 a 0,92 (Morisita. A classificação por UPGMA indicou dois grupos principais, que coincidiram com as posições no relevo: interflúvio e vale. Os resultados salientaram a topografia como forte determinante na distribuição de algumas das populações e comunidades lenhosas, por meio de sua influência na variação da profundidade do lençol freático, que afetou a composição florística, a densidade (I/V=1.219/956 ind.ha-1 e a área basal (I/V=8,56/5,64m².ha-1 nos Cerrados sentido restrito de interflúvio (I e vale (V estudados.This study aims to check differences in the floristic composition and structure of the woody vegetation of the cerrado (sensu stricto in two distinct topographic positions, Interfluve (I and Valley Slope (V area in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil. In each area ten 20x50m permanent plots were located to survey individuals, basal diameter BD(30cm > 5cm. UPGMA classification (Sørensen and Morisita similarity indices was used to assess similarity among plots

  14. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  15. The important of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research (United States)

    Michael Dosmann; Andrew Groover


    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support...

  16. [The Henry E. Huntington Library. (United States)

    Abraham, Terry

    The biographical sketch of Henry E. Huntington includes a description of the establishment of the Huntington Library and the purpose and scope of its collection. Although this is a free and public library, its use is restricted to qualified scholars having legitimate research needs. Photographic techniques were developed at the Huntington Library…

  17. Genetics of Huntington disease. (United States)

    Nance, Martha A


    In this chapter, we review the evolution of our understanding of the genetic aspects of HD, and the applications of our understanding in the management of Huntington's disease patients and families over the last 150 years. Important aspects of the clinical genetics and epidemiology of Huntington's disease are discussed, such as the definition of "normal" and "abnormal" numbers of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) repeats in the critical spot within the huntingtin gene, meiotic instability of CAG repeat numbers, common Huntington's disease genetic haplotypes, compound heterozygosity for an abnormal gene, and somatic mosaicism for CAG repeat expansions. We touch only briefly on the creation of multiple animal models for Huntington's disease that have profoundly impacted our understanding of the disease and permitted the development of potential disease-modifying treatments, and end with what is, at the time of writing, the dawn of a new era: the advent of gene-based therapies (gene silencing, gene editing) for Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib


    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...... detailed description of literature and better information about collections and collectors. These improvements were initially made available as publications on paper, whereas now the information has become available on the Internet, at least in part. The changed procedures for handling botanical...

  19. Estrogenicity of Medicinal Botanicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eagon, Patricia


    Medicinal botanicals PLANT EXTRACTS have been used for centuries to relieve various gynecological symptoms, and are of increasing interest to those seeking alternative health care and self-treatment...

  20. Catalogue of wood plants of the Mountain Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalibekov Marat


    The following genera are the most widespread, according to their type and species variety: Malus (167 taxa, Pyrus (78, Armeniaca (65, Sorbus (59, Lonicera (53, Cerasus (46, Rosa (43, Juniperus (43, Rubus (41, Acer (37, Ribes (33. The collection includes 22 species of woody plants included in the Red Books of Russia and Dagestan.

  1. Adapting the botanical garden into a sustainable, multicultural resource (United States)

    Susan Lacerte


    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  2. Museum of Kaunas Botanical Garden: development, exhibits, educational value


    Petrauskaitė, Vitalija; Stankevičienė, Antanina


    Straipsnyje pateikiama 1922–2012 m. Kauno botanikos sodo muziejaus kūrimo, mokomosios, edukacinės reikšmės analizė. Atlikus retrospektyvinę analizę nustatyta, kad pirmieji muziejaus eksponatai – tai Botanikos sodo įkūrėjo prof. Konstantino Regelio vaisių sėklų kolekcija, kurią vėliau (1930 m.) papildė iš Švedijos atvežta Saxifraga oppositifolia, Abies nordmanniana, iš Norvegijos – Cladonia alpestris, prof. T. Ivanausko iš Brazilijos atvežta Araucaria araucana, Anona sp. Muziejaus eksponatus p...

  3. Composição da flora arbórea e arborescente no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition of the tree flora in the Botanical Garden of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Treviso Cenci


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de uma área de 178.000 m², situada nas coordenadas 29º10'38"S e 51º27'16"W, na localidade de Linha Palmeiro, Distrito de São Pedro, no Município de Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brasil, onde se encontra o Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, o qual se situa numa zona de transição de três formações vegetais distintas: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Decidual e resquícios de Mata Atlântica. O local é uma área de conservação in situ no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves. O método de amostragem utilizado foi o de parcelas distribuídas ao acaso. Avaliaram-se 10 parcelas medindo 50 x 50 m cada. Dentro de cada parcela, foram amostrados indivíduos com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP superior ou igual a 30 cm. Foram amostrados 1.947 indivíduos vivos dentro de 35 famílias botânicas, além de 109 indivíduos mortos ainda em pé. As famílias mais expressivas em número de indivíduos e em espécies foram Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae e Lauraceae. As espécies com maiores valores de importância foram Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand, Ligustrum licidum W. T. Aiton e Sebastiania serrata (Klotzsch Müll. Arg. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 3,18 nats/indivíduos, enquanto a equabilidade de Pielou (J', 0,71, valores esses considerados altos se comparados a de outros levantamentos. O número de espécies identificadas evidenciou nível alto de diversidade florística, que se caracterizou pela associação de diferentes contingentes florestais, com predomínio daquelas de ampla distribuição na área.The objective of this study was to survey the flora in an area of 178,000 square meters at 29&º10'38''S and 51&º27'16''W, in Linha Palmeiro, in São Pedro, a district of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil where the Botanical Garden of Bento

  4. School gardens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg


    Studies show that school gardening helps children enhance their understanding of science and promotes their interaction with the environment gaining historical, cultural and ecological understandings (Dyg 2014; Chenhall 2010; Green 2013; Johnson 2012; Sloan 2013; McCarty 2010; Hess & Trexler 2011......). School gardens are sprouting in rural and urban areas across Denmark. This case study research sheds new light on various school garden models under the Gardens for Bellies program in Denmark, including school-, community-based and central school gardens. This study aims to document the organization...... of school gardens, which is not studied in international research. It also analyses immediate effects according to pupils and other stakeholders. The research is based on five explorative case studies, involving observations and interviews. The findings show that school gardens open up opportunities...

  5. The Huntington's Disease Dysphagia Scale. (United States)

    Heemskerk, Anne-Wil; Verbist, Berit M; Marinus, Johan; Heijnen, Bas; Sjögren, Elisabeth V; Roos, Raymund A C


    Little is known about the swallowing disturbances of patients with Huntington's disease; therefore, we developed the Huntington's Disease Dysphagia Scale. The scale was developed in four stages: (1) item generation, (2) comprehension testing, (3) evaluation of reliability, (4) item reduction and validity testing. The questionnaire was presented twice to 50 Huntington's disease patients and their caregivers. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate whether the severity of swallowing difficulties increased with advancing disease. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the construct validity with the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire. The final version contained 11 items with five response options and exhibited a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.728. The severity of swallowing difficulties was significantly higher in more advanced Huntington's disease. The correlation with the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire was 0.734. We developed a valid and reliable 11-item scale to measure the severity of dysphagia in Huntington's disease. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Miscellaneous botanical Notes X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.


    Through the kind assistance of Prof. Dr D. K. Zerov large photographs were obtained of type specimens of two dozen Verbenaceae which have been described by Turczaninow and are preserved in his Herbarium of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. at Kiew. These have

  7. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.


    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  8. Botanical Scavenger Hunt (United States)

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy


    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  9. Clinical neurogenetics: huntington disease. (United States)

    Bordelon, Yvette M


    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of abnormal movements (typically chorea), cognitive impairment, and psychiatric problems. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4 and causes progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extrastriatal structures. Genetic testing has been available since 1993 to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for presymptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. This review covers HD signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology; current genetic testing issues; and current and future treatment strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  11. The Garden of Art (United States)

    Kenyon, Karen


    This article describes a garden that grows more than vegetables. The grounds of McKinley Elementary School in San Diego, California, was a neglected area for years, until recently when an organic garden was planted to revive and brighten the dreary area behind the school's bungalow classrooms. Each grade now has its own wood-bordered plot where a…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKSOY


    Full Text Available Within this study, the art of gardening in Ottoman Turks has been examined in four periods: 1. The period starting with the establishment of the Ottoman Empire till the conquest of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople by the Turks (1300-1453 2. The period starting with the conquest of Istanbul till the Tulip Era (1706 3. The Tulip Era (1703-1730 4. The period starting with the Tulip Era (1730 till the establishment of the Republic (1923 In the first period, Ottoman Turks remained under the influence of Seljuk art and were partly in contact with the Byzantine works. When miniatures showing the palace life are examined, often the importance given to the atrium garden could be seen. A significant development in the art of gardening was experienced during the period starting with the conquest of Istanbul till the Tulip Era. The Tulip Era has been a very productive period in terms of fine art in Ottoman history. Major improvements and innovations in poetry, literature, music, civil architecture and especially in the art of gardening has emerged. Till the Tulip Era, the unique natural landscape of Istanbul was equipped with the top works of art of Ottoman Turks. The art of gardening in Ottoman Turks has entered a new period with the end of the Tulip Era in 1730. This period, has been the period in which foreign influence started to affect Ottoman gardens. The most important works of the second period; the Topkapı Palace Garden and the Yıldız Palace garden, which was mostly established in a natural layout and has been the latest example of Ottoman palace gardening, were examined within this study. The structuring of the Ottoman gardens has changed and developed during the historical process depending on various effects such as life styles of the period and the artistic-cultural structure of the period.

  13. Huntington's disease presenting as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie


    We present the clinical, electrophysiological and molecular genetic findings of a 58-year-old male with genetically confirmed Huntington\\'s disease (HD) and concurrent clinically definite ALS by El Escorial criteria. The patient presented with asymmetric upper limb amyotrophy and weakness, and subsequently developed chorea and cognitive change. Genetic testing confirmed the presence of expanded trinucleotide repeats in huntingtin, consistent with a diagnosis of Huntington\\'s disease. This case confirms the rare coexistence of Huntington\\'s disease and motor neuron degeneration.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Huntington disease (United States)

    ... 381328-2.00015-8. Review. Citation on PubMed Kent A. Huntington's disease. Nurs Stand. 2004 Apr 21- ... Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  15. Natural history of Huntington disease. (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Darwin, Kristin; Nichols, Paige; Brocht, Alicia F D; Biglan, Kevin M; Shoulson, Ira


    Understanding the natural history of Huntington disease will inform patients and clinicians on the disease course and researchers on the design of clinical trials. To determine the longitudinal change in clinical features among individuals with Huntington disease compared with controls. Prospective, longitudinal cohort study at 44 research sites in Australia (n = 2), Canada (n =4), and the United States (n = 38). Three hundred thirty-four individuals with clinically manifest Huntington disease who had at least 3 years of annually accrued longitudinal data and 142 controls consisting of caregivers and spouses who had no genetic risk of Huntington disease. Change in movement, cognition, behavior, and function as measured by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and vital signs. Total motor score worsened by 3.0 points (95% CI, 2.5-3.4) per year and chorea worsened by 0.3 point per year (95% CI, 0.1-0.5). Cognition declined by 0.7 point (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per year on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Behavior, as measured by the product of frequency and severity score on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, worsened by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.0-1.2). Total functional capacity declined by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.5-0.7). Compared with controls, baseline body mass index was lower in those with Huntington disease (25.8 vs 28.8; P Huntington disease all declined in a monotonic manner. These data quantify the natural history of the disease and may inform the design of trials aimed at reducing its burden. Identifier: NCT00313495.

  16. A renaissance for botanical insecticides? (United States)

    Isman, Murray B


    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Cardiac Dysautonomia in Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Abildtrup, Mads; Shattock, Michael


    Huntington's disease is a fatal, hereditary, neurodegenerative disorder best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. Although a disease of the central nervous system, mortality surveys indicate that heart disease is a leading cause of death. The nature of such cardiac abnormalities remains unknown. Clinical findings indicate a high prevalence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction - dysautonomia - which may be a result of pathology of the central autonomic network. Dysautonomia can have profound effects on cardiac health, and pronounced autonomic dysfunction can be associated with neurogenic arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Significant advances in the knowledge of neural mechanisms in cardiac disease have recently been made which further aid our understanding of cardiac mortality in Huntington's disease. Even so, despite the evidence of aberrant autonomic activity the potential cardiac consequences of autonomic dysfunction have been somewhat ignored. In fact, underlying cardiac abnormalities such as arrhythmias have been part of the exclusion criteria in clinical autonomic Huntington's disease research. A comprehensive analysis of cardiac function in Huntington's disease patients is warranted. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to clarify how the autonomic nervous system is controlled and regulated in higher, central areas of the brain - and how these regions may be altered in neurological pathology, such as Huntington's disease. Ultimately, research will hopefully result in an improvement of management with the aim of preventing early death in Huntington's disease from cardiac causes.

  18. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames


    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  19. Garden of cosmic speculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jencks, Charles


    This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.

  20. Space botanic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Se.L.


    The basic results of investigations in the field of space botanics are considered, starting with the effect of cosmic radiation on quiet spores and seeds and ending with the modern stage of complex study of lower plants, growing and developing within various periods of time under conditions of a real space flight in special chambers and growing systems. The possibility of using different investigation methods such as luminooptic, electronomicroscopic, biochemical, biophysical, physiological and others to estimate the effect of factors of an orbital flight on plants, are discussed [ru


    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ZIA-UL-HAQ, M.; ALI KHAN, B.; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; AHMED, S.; QAYUM, M.; Ahmad, S.


    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2012), s. 707-711 ISSN 0001-6837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : platelet aggregation * Garden pea * Desi chickpea Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2012

  2. Huntington's disease: a perplexing neurological disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huntington's disease has served as a model for the study of other more common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Symptomatic treatment of Huntington's disease involves use of Dopamine antagonists, presynaptic dopamine depleters, Antidepressants, Tranquillizers ...

  3. Lawn and Garden (United States)

    The most effective strategy for controlling pests in your lawn and garden may be to combine methods in an approach known as Integrated Pest Management. See videos and find tips for implementing IPM at your residence.

  4. The Slate Garden

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexandre Pelletier and Anaïs Schaeffer


    On the patio of the Main Building, a new garden has been unveiled. Inspired by physicists themselves, the garden uses a clever combination of flower arrangements and slate slabs to create the shape of the CMS particle tracker.   Scribbling, crossing out, and writing over it again. In an age of digital "tablets", scientists have remained faithful to the traditional blackboard... the inspiration for the Slate Garden. Completed just a few days ago on the Main Building patio (Building 500), the garden was designed by landscape architect Laurent Essig – who also created the InGRID installation outside Building 33 – and is the perfect combination of organic and mineral materials. Composed of 100 pieces of slate laid across three concentric circles, the work recalls the elegant lines of the CMS particle tracker. The project was completed thanks to the collaboration of a number of CERN technical services, in particular the Green Spaces Service, the Transport Serv...

  5. Cultivating the Glocal Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs Hisschemoller


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question under which conditions small-scale urban agriculture (UA initiatives can accelerate a sustainability transition of the global food system. It develops the notion of a glocal garden, a large number of likeminded local initiatives with a global impact and forms of worldwide collaboration. Taking a transition perspective, the glocal garden, producing vegetables and fruits, is a niche that has to overcome barriers to compete with the dominant food regime. Since a sustainability transition restructures (policy sectors, institutional domains including knowledge systems, the paper explores which innovations are needed for the glocal garden to succeed. It discusses the glocal garden as an environmental, a social, an economic and a global project. As an environmental project, the glocal garden will link sustainable production of food with renewable energy production. As a social project, it will be organized into a consumers’ cooperative. As an economic project, it will strive for profit, increasing the yield in a sustainable manner. As a global project, it will enhance collaboration between local cooperatives in the North and the South, as well as with rural agriculture. Under these conditions, the glocal garden can develop into a power, able to resist a possible future food regime that splits societies, in terms of quality standards and food products, into haves and have-nots.

  6. Epidemiology of Huntington disease. (United States)

    Kay, Chris; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R


    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurologic disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat mutation in patients with characteristic motor signs and specific brain pathology. A repeat of 36 CAG or more can lead to the disease, with increased penetrance and decreased age of onset at longer CAG repeats. The epidemiology of HD thus depends on ascertainment of individuals with the expanded CAG mutation, and on examination of clinical signs to accurately assess disease onset. A larger number of individuals have an expanded CAG repeat than actively manifest the disease due to adult onset in the majority of cases. Because of incomplete penetrance at the lower end of the pathogenic CAG repeat range, the frequency of the expanded CAG repeat in the general population may be higher than previously thought. Genetic differences and changing demographics may account for geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of HD between populations and over time. There are gross differences in the prevalence of HD by ancestry, with a much higher rate of the disease in populations of European descent. Molecular studies have elucidated genetic causes for these population-specific differences, possibly resulting from differences in the HD new mutation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Huntington's disease and Huntington's disease-like syndromes: an overview. (United States)

    Gövert, Felix; Schneider, Susanne A


    The differential diagnosis of chorea syndromes may be complex and includes various genetic disorders such as Huntington's disease and mimicking disorders called Huntington's disease-like (HDL) phenotypes. To familiarize clinicians with these (in some cases very rare) conditions we will summarize the main characteristics. HDL disorders are rare and account for about 1% of cases presenting with a Huntington's disease phenotype. They share overlapping clinical features, so making the diagnosis purely on clinical grounds may be challenging, however presence of certain characteristics may be a clue (e.g. prominent orofacial involvement in neuroferritinopathy etc.), Information of ethnic descent will also guide genetic work-up [HDL2 in Black Africans; dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) in Japanese etc.], Huntington's disease, the classical HDL disorders (except HDL3) and DRPLA are repeat disorders with anticipation effect and age-dependent phenotype in some, but genetic underpinnings may be more complicated in the other chorea syndromes. With advances in genetics more and more rare diseases are disentangled, allowing molecular diagnoses in a growing number of choreic patients. Hopefully, with better understanding of their pathophysiology we are moving towards mechanistic therapies.

  8. Consumer Statistics: Who Gardens? Why? (United States)

    Smith, Ivan


    According to a recent study, gardening is America's most popular outdoor leisure-time activity. Examines this trend and identifies growth areas in the gardening market and consumer spending habits. (LZ)

  9. Music therapy in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen-Rufi, van C.H.M.


    The thesis reports about the effects of music therapy with patients in the late stage of Huntington's disease. A literature review, a focus group study, a randomized controlled trial, an evaluation for complex interventions and a case report study are integrated in the thesis. The beneficial

  10. What is HD - Huntington's Disease? (United States)

    ... END TO HD? WHERE TO FIND HELP PUBLICATIONS Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve ... personal and there is no "right" answer. The Huntington's Disease Society of ... who are considering genetic testing do so at a genetic testing center ...

  11. Stages of Huntington's Disease (HD) (United States)

    ... END TO HD? WHERE TO FIND HELP PUBLICATIONS Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve ... personal and there is no "right" answer. The Huntington's Disease Society of ... who are considering genetic testing do so at a genetic testing center ...

  12. Bradykinesia in early Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Pernaute, R; Kunig, G; Alba, AD; de Yebenes, JG; Vontobel, P; Leenders, KL


    Background: Hunting-ton's disease (HD) is generally considered a hyperkinetic disorder, although hypokinetic features are part of the motor syndrome. Moreover, the striatum is considered to play a key role in initiating and executing motor programs and achieving optimal scheduling in response

  13. Is Huntington's disease a tauopathy? (United States)

    Gratuze, Maud; Cisbani, Giulia; Cicchetti, Francesca; Planel, Emmanuel


    Tauopathies are a subclass of neurodegenerative diseases typified by the deposition of abnormal microtubule-associated tau protein within the cerebral tissue. Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and some fronto-temporal dementias are examples of the extended family of tauopathies. In the last decades, intermittent reports of cerebral tau pathology in individuals afflicted with Huntington's disease-an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that manifests by severe motor, cognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood-have also begun to surface. These observations remained anecdotal until recently when a series of publications brought forward compelling evidence that this monogenic disorder may, too, be a tauopathy. Collectively, these studies reported that: (i) patients with Huntington's disease present aggregated tau inclusions within various structures of the brain; (ii) tau haplotype influences the cognitive function of Huntington's disease patients; and (iii) that the genetic product of the disease, the mutant huntingtin protein, could alter tau splicing, phosphorylation, oligomerization and subcellular localization. Here, we review the past and current evidence in favour of the postulate that Huntington's disease is a new member of the family of tauopathies. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. [The hypothalamus in Huntington's disease]. (United States)

    Bellosta-Diago, E; Viloria-Alebesque, A; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Lopez Del Val, L J


    Disorders affecting sleep and the circadian rhythm, autonomic clinical signs and symptoms, and neuroendocrine alterations are frequent characteristics in Huntington's disease, some of which present in early stages of the disease. It is reasonable to think that some of these features could result from a hypothalamic dysfunction affecting the centre regulating sleep, metabolism and the autonomic nervous system. The study presents the evidence available to date that suggests the involvement of a hypothalamic disorder in Huntington's disease. Histopathological, hormonal and neuroimaging research relates this area of the brain to Huntington's disease. The experimental findings and those obtained with animal models or in studies conducted with patients are summarised. Likewise, the clinical repercussions (sleep and circadian rhythm disorders, psychiatric and cognitive pathologies, and the clinical signs and symptoms linked to autonomic dysfunction) secondary to possible involvement of the hypothalamus in this disease are also described. The hypothalamus acts as a centre that integrates the neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, and plays a significant role in cognitive and behavioural signs and symptoms. Disorders of this type have been highlighted in Huntington's disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role and scope of this region of the brain in this disease.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Huntington disease-like syndrome (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Huntington disease-like syndrome Huntington disease-like syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close ... collapse boxes. Description As its name suggests, a Huntington disease -like (HDL) syndrome is a condition that ...

  16. Elements of Success in Chicago Botanic Garden’s Science Career Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Johnson


    Full Text Available The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers. 

  17. Pythagoras' Garden, Revisited (United States)

    Bernhart, Frank R.; Price, H. Lee


    Mack and Czernezkyj (2010) have given an interesting account of primitive Pythagorean triples (PPTs) from a geometrical perspective. In this article, the authors wish to enlarge on the role of the equicircles (incircle and three excircles), and show there is yet another family tree in Pythagoras' garden. Where Mack and Czernezkyj (2010) begin with…

  18. Gardening with Greenhouses (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty


    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  19. School Gardens and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiemensma, Britt Due


    they are not only regarded as a source of health and fresh food for the students and their families, but also as an alternative arena for learning to cope with issues like sustainability, innovation and democracy. The success of school gardening was always based on dedicated teachers who saw the added value...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana S. B. Calazans


    Full Text Available Philodendron melinonii is an Amazonian species common in botanical gardens and urban landscaping, however its taxonomy, natural distribution and conservation are barely addressed in the literature. This work presents the nomenclatural history of the species with lectotype designation, a typographical correction and comments on its biogeographic distribution and conservation. Keywords: typification; biogeographic provinces; collection effort; Araceae; Amazonia.

  1. [Healing garden: Primary concept]. (United States)

    Pringuey-Criou, F


    Since ancient times the relationship between mankind and plants occupies medicine and philosophy. From the first tablets of herbal medicine to Asclepius gardens, those of cloisters and bimaristans to cosmological gardens in Asia, from the largest public park to asylum institutions of the nineteenth century, the garden is proposed as a place of care, a promoter of restoration of the human being. If the advent of technology and drugs have for a time relegated it to the level of empirical care, results in neuroscience ultimately provide it on a scientific basis. The early evolutionary theories, the Savanah theory from Orians, the biophilia hypothesis from Wilson, are relayed by the famous Ulrich' study showing the positive influence of a view of nature through the window on the recovery of in patients. Mechanisms leading stress regulation, level of attention and organisation, focus and fascination, are recognized at the origin of restoration processes. Human capacities to respond to the recuperating function of a natural environment connect to grounded behaviour for adaptation to natural selection process and survival. The mechanisms of our immune system are essential to maintain our vitality. Phyto-resonance, felt or unconsciously perceived in appearance, according to Shepard is an emotion that structures well beyond the archaic behaviour. Recovery, in terms of phenomenological experience of the presence, is a philosophical demonstration of the environmental i.e. multisensory, spatial and temporal approach. Its emotional and affective experience connects to the vitality and creativity. The phyto-resonance hypothesis according to the Konrad Neuberger's point of view induces strategies catering to all levels of the organisation of the human being. It confirms the multidisciplinary nature of hortitherapy and places the mechanism of relationships between man and plant at the centre of discipline. It is also a source of inspiration and inexhaustible work for caregivers

  2. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach. (United States)

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie


    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. A Garden of Possibilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee


    Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory.   Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...

  4. Genetic testing for Huntington disease. (United States)

    Quaid, Kimberly A


    In 1983, Huntington disease (HD) became the first disease to be mapped to a previously unknown location on chromosome 4. This discovery meant that we could now identify whether some individuals at risk for HD would develop HD in the future using a method called linkage testing. Testing was first offered through research protocols designed to assess whether testing could be done safely in this population. Testing guidelines were soon developed by the Huntington's Disease Society of America and the International Huntington Association in collaboration with the World Federation of Neurology. The gene for HD was found in 1993, allowing for direct gene testing for the mutant HTT allele. This chapter will discuss the development of guidelines and recent revisions to the guidelines, prenatal testing, and testing in three complicated situations: (1) the testing of minors; (2) anonymous testing; and (3) testing individuals at 25% risk. Studies examining the outcomes of predictive testing will also be discussed. Outcome studies have shown that testing can be done safely in the context of testing protocols that include neurologic examinations, pretest counseling, psychiatric/psychologic assessment, results in person, and available follow-up support. It appears that anxiety and depression prior to testing are better predictors of psychologic status after testing than the test result itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropsychiatric Burden in Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Paoli, Ricardo Augusto; Botturi, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Silani, Vincenzo; Prunas, Cecilia; Lucchiari, Claudio; Zugno, Elisa; Caletti, Elisabetta


    Huntington's disease is a disorder that results in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. The symptoms often take different forms and the presence of disturbances of the psychic sphere reduces patients' autonomy and quality of life, also impacting patients' social life. It is estimated that a prevalence between 33% and 76% of the main psychiatric syndromes may arise in different phases of the disease, often in atypical form, even 20 years before the onset of chorea and dementia. We present a narrative review of the literature describing the main psychopathological patterns that may be found in Huntington's disease, searching for a related article in the main database sources (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Medscape). Psychiatric conditions were classified into two main categories: affective and nonaffective disorders/symptoms; and anxiety and neuropsychiatric features such as apathy and irritability. Though the literature is extensive, it is not always convergent, probably due to the high heterogeneity of methods used. We summarize main papers for pathology and sample size, in order to present a synoptic vision of the argument. Since the association between Huntington's disease and psychiatric symptoms was demonstrated, we argue that the prevalent and more invalidating psychiatric components should be recognized as early as possible during the disease course in order to best address psychopharmacological therapy, improve quality of life, and also reduce burden on caregivers.

  6. Credentialing of practitioners of botanical medicine. (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric; Abascal, Kathy; Greenfield, Russell Howard; Romm, Aviva; Sudberg, Sidney


    This article discusses how practitioners, regardless of other professional licenses they may hold, could be credentialed in botanical medicine. The article reviews the field of clinical botanical medicine and the history and modern status of botanical medicine, as well as organizations currently involved in botanical medicine credentialing. Many different types of professionals prescribe botanical medicines, and the potential for collaboration among them is great. The current trend treats botanical medicine as a narrow subdivision of allopathic medicine and does not acknowledge the breadth, depth, and diversity of botanical medicine and ultimately will not provide maximum benefits for patients. An alternative approach that instead credentials practitioners skilled in the use of a wide variety of botanical medicines in a responsible, scientific fashion is presented.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Huntington's disease: Genetic heterogeneity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2008 ... George Huntington's description of Huntington's disease. (HD) in 1872 (at the age of 22 years) remains the basic pillar of diagnosis: 'A hereditary chorea, tendency to insanity and suicide and its manifesting itself as a grave disease in adulthood'.1 HD is a progressive autosomal dominant disorder ...

  8. Huntington's disease : Psychological aspects of predictive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timman, Reinier


    Predictive testing for Huntington's disease appears to have long lasting psychological effects. The predictive test for Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary disease of the nervous system, was introduced in the Netherlands in the late eighties. As adverse consequences of the test were

  9. Respiration during sleep in Huntington's chorea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, E. L.; den Heijer, J. C.; Ponsioen, C.; Kramer, C.; van der Velde, E. A.; van Dijk, J. G.; Roos, R. A.; Kamphuisen, H. A.; Buruma, O. J.


    In view of recent reports on lower brainstem dysfunction in Huntington's chorea, we studied respiration during sleep in 12 patients with Huntington's chorea (HC) and in controls. There were no statistically significant differences between patients and controls with respect to apnea periods,

  10. Falls and gait disturbances in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Knol, M.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Kremer, B.P.; Roos, R.A.C.; Munneke, M.


    Falls are common in patients with Huntington's disease, but the incidence, falling circumstances and contributing factors have never been examined. We recorded falls in 45 early to midstage Huntington's disease patients, both retrospectively (12 months) and prospectively (3 months). Fall rates were

  11. Apathy is not depression in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naarding, Paul; Janzing, Joost G E; Eling, Paul; van der Werf, Sieberen; Kremer, Berry


    Apathy and depression are common neuropsychiatric features of Huntington's disease. The authors studied a group of 34 Huntington's disease patients. In addition to the conventional classification according to DSM-IV criteria of depression, emphasis was put on a dimensional approach using scores on

  12. Drug-induced hyperthermia in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, D; Naarding, Paul; Stor, T; Kremer, H P H

    Until now, only three patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported in the literature. We describe four cases with advanced stage Huntington's disease who within a period of one year developed drug-induced hyperthermia, either the neuroleptic

  13. Plasma melatonin is reduced in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Kalliolia, Eirini; Silajdžić, Edina; Nambron, Rajasree; Hill, Nathan R; Doshi, Anisha; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T


    This study was undertaken to determine whether the production of melatonin, a hormone regulating sleep in relation to the light/dark cycle, is altered in Huntington's disease. We analyzed the circadian rhythm of melatonin in a 24-hour study of cohorts of control, premanifest, and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. The mean and acrophase melatonin concentrations were significantly reduced in stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects compared with controls. We also observed a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean and acrophase melatonin in premanifest Huntington's disease subjects. Onset of melatonin rise was significantly more temporally spread in both premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects compared with controls. A nonsignificant trend also was seen for reduced pulsatile secretion of melatonin. Melatonin concentrations are reduced in Huntington's disease. Altered melatonin patterns may provide an explanation for disrupted sleep and circadian behavior in Huntington's disease, and represent a biomarker for disease state. Melatonin therapy may help the sleep disorders seen in Huntington's disease. © © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Making Sense of Things: Constructing Aesthetic Experience in Museum Gardens and Galleries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Mangione


    Full Text Available Studies of museum behaviour in sociology often examine how external environments shape organizational practice. Through an ethnographic study, this article considers programmes for visitors with disabilities at a major metropolitan art museum and botanical garden to ask how ‘sensory conventions’ vary across museums, and with what effects. I trace how museum staff construct the aesthetic experience of art and nature differently to shape how visitors use their senses, and which senses they use, when interacting with museum collections. Examining aesthetic meanings across different kinds of museums reveals these institutions’ differing local cultures and how such cultures affect visitor experience. In particular, aesthetic practices across museums facilitate varying opportunities for perception, and interactions that may privilege particular embodied capacities. Key words: art museums; botanical gardens; aesthetics; senses; disability

  15. Climate Museum and Garden (United States)

    Gregg, Jay; Bille, Dorthe


    The Climate Museum and Garden is conceived as a cross-disciplinary experience, where the arts and sciences link together to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and its relevance to our fate as a species. This would be a place of inspiration. The Climate Museum and Garden would merge concepts of modern art museums and modern science museums, with exhibitions, live music and theater performances, visitor interaction, unique discoveries and reflection. It would be a place where visitors are immersed in experiences, lingering indoors and out in quiet consideration and gratitude for our planet's atmosphere. The story of climate change is compelling in its own right; theories of the greenhouse effect go back over century and climate policy has stretched back a few decades. Whereas scientific researchers have been contributing to understanding the mechanisms and impacts of climate change for many decades; whereas researchers have participated in climate summits and informed policy makers; whereas researchers have taught classes of gifted students; in all of this, the public has mostly missed out. This public relations gap has been unfortunately filled by those that would seek to politicize and mislead the public, leading to an engagement gap among the general public. Now we stand on a precipice. Therefore we see a ripe opportunity to reach out and inspire the population. We build off of current pedagogic research that shows that experienced-based learning is more impactful when it engages the senses and elicits an emotional response. People understand what they experience, what they feel, and this serves as the basis for personal reflection. In this sense the visitor experience is generative, in that it promotes further personal investigation and interaction. The Climate Museum and Garden would be a start. In the future, we envisage a future network of climate museums in all major cities. It would be a flagship attraction for any city, along with their art


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel


    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape as infrastructure...

  17. The Garden and the Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel


    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure...

  18. Rain Gardens: Stormwater Infiltrating Systems (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  19. Huntington disease: pathogenesis and treatment. (United States)

    Dayalu, Praveen; Albin, Roger L


    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, behavioral, and cognitive decline, culminating in death. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Even years before symptoms become overt, mutation carriers show subtle but progressive striatal and cerebral white matter atrophy by volumetric MRI. Although there is currently no direct treatment of HD, management options are available for several symptoms. A better understanding of HD pathogenesis, and more sophisticated clinical trials using newer biomarkers, may lead to meaningful treatments. This article reviews the current knowledge of HD pathogenesis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric symptoms and CAG expansion in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.W.; Schmid, W.; Spiegel, R. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The mutation responsible for Huntington`s disease (HD) is an elongated CAG repeat in the coding region of the IT15 gene. A PCR-based test with high sensitivity and accuracy is now available to identify asymptomatic gene carriers and patients. An inverse correlation between CAG copy number and age at disease onset has been found in a large number of affected individuals. The influence of the CAG repeat expansion on other phenotypic manifestations, especially specific psychiatric symptoms has not been studied intensively. In order to elucidate this situation we investigated the relation between CAG copy number and distinct psychiatric phenotypes found in 79 HD-patients. None of the four differentiated categories (personality change, psychosis, depression, and nonspecific alterations) showed significant differences in respect to size of the CAG expansion. In addition, no influence of individual sex on psychiatric presentation could be found. On the other hand in patients with personality changes maternal transmission was significantly more frequent compared with all other groups. Therefore we suggest that clinical severity of psychiatric features in HD is not directly dependent on the size of the dynamic mutation involved. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms leading to psychiatric alterations are still unknown and thus genotyping does not provide information about expected psychiatric symptoms in HD gene carriers. 40 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. [The eternal gardener]. (United States)

    Hammer, Veit


    The German master gardener Georg Meister (1653-1713) is one of the main characters responsible for a change in the European perception of Japan in the late 17th and early 18th century. Meister gained direct personal experience of the country during two short stays in the 1680s at the Dejima Island in Nagasaki while being employed by the Dutch VOC. Whilst an impression of Meister's earlier years can be gained, in part, from his masterpiece "Der orientalisch-indianische Kunst- und Lust-Gärtner" of 1692, this information is of only relatively small assistance in the further development of an understanding of Meister's later life in the Saxon city of Dresden, where he was employed as a gardener at the "Grosse Garten" after his return to Europe in 1689. In 1973 it was Friedemann Berger who first paid attention to the importance of Meister's later period. In his short biography are some valuable sources mentioned but unfortunately not quoted. This current paper documents some of the main sources relating to Georg Meister and his life in Dresden, including facts on his work and research, housing and death.

  2. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.


    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  3. Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations. (United States)

    Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E


    Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown.

  4. Botanical-drug interactions: a scientific perspective. (United States)

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei


    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. A general lack of knowledge of the interaction potential together with an under-reporting of botanical use poses a challenge for the health care providers and a safety concern for patients. Botanical-drug interactions increase the patient risk, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., warfarin, cyclosporine, and digoxin). Examples of case reports and clinical studies evaluating botanical-drug interactions of commonly used botanicals in the US are presented. The potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bases of such interactions are discussed, as well as the challenges associated with the interpretation of the available data and prediction of botanical-drug interactions. Recent FDA experiences with botanical products and interactions including labeling implications as a risk management strategy are highlighted. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages. (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg


    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  6. Sub-Saharan Botanical Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Beentje, Henk; Cheek, Martin


    Many historical specimens from sub-Saharan Africa are only found in European herbaria, but a higher number of newer specimens than widely assumed are kept in African herbaria, with a concentration in eastern and southern parts of the continent. Many of these herbaria were initiated in connection ...... in collaboration between African and European herbaria, and the increasing digitization of herbaria and the general development of relevant services on the Internet, which provides new possibilities for botanical studies in Africa....

  7. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection


    Grdiša, Martina; Gršić, Kristina


    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems....

  8. The Neuropsychology of Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Snowden, Julie S


    Huntington's disease is an inherited, degenerative brain disease, characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive disorder and neuropsychiatric change. Men and women are affected equally. Symptoms emerge at around 40 years, although there is wide variation. A rare juvenile form has onset in childhood or adolescence. The evolution of disease is insidious and structural and functional brain changes may be present more than a decade before symptoms and signs become manifest. The earliest site of pathology is the striatum and neuroimaging measures of striatal change correlate with neurological and cognitive markers of disease. Chorea and other aspects of the movement disorder are the most visible aspect of the disease. However, non-motor features have greatest affect on functional independence and quality of life, so require recognition and management. The evidence-base for non-pharmacological treatments in Huntington's disease is currently limited, but recent intervention studies are encouraging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min


    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Personality Traits in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua


    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-e...... symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms.......Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene......-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons...

  11. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction. (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane


    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  12. The Child in the Garden: An Evaluative Review of the Benefits of School Gardening (United States)

    Blair, Dorothy


    Although educators widely use school gardens for experiential education, researchers have not systematically examined the evaluative literature on school-gardening outcomes. The author reviewed the U.S. literature on children's gardening, taking into account potential effects, school-gardening outcomes, teacher evaluations of gardens as learning…

  13. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  14. Functional imaging in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Niethammer, Martin; Eidelberg, David


    Functional imaging has been increasingly used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases as such techniques can elucidate neurochemical and functional changes that cannot be captured with structural imaging. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in Huntington disease (HD) genetic testing allows for diagnostic certainty. Thus, the focus has been on understanding the pathophysiogic processes underlying the development of the disease, as well as the identification of potential biomarkers to monitor disease progression, particularly during the presymptomatic stage. These imaging methods have expanded our understanding of HD beyond dopaminergic deficits and striatal cell loss, and have described alteration in widespread networks relating to motor and cognitive symptoms. In this chapter, we review the current literature on radiotracer and functional magnetic resonance imaging relating to HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Huntington disease - another chapter rewritten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nance, M.A. [Hennepin County Medical Center and Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center, MN (United States)


    To those of us who began life when humans had 48 chromosomes and who began working in genetics when the (by then 46) chromosomes had no bands and chromosome 4 could not reliably be distinguished from chromosome 5, the mere ability to diagnose and correlate the clinical phenotypes of genetic disorders with their molecular genotypes is a source of continuing astonishment and pleasure. Indeed, molecular genetic analysis of neurogenetic disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) has provided a steady stream of challenges and surprises to all who believe the genetic principles that they were taught about these disorders. The paper by Rubinsztein et al. in this issue of the Journal highlights yet another surprise, which was adumbrated even in the initial paper announcing the discovery of the HD gene: incomplete penetrance of HD gene mutations. 59 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Garden of Eden – Paradise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, Jacques van; Collins/ John J.,; Harlow/Daniel C.,


    Jacques van Ruiten, “Garden of Eden – Paradise,” in The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism (ed. John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow; Grand Rapids, Mich., and Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2010), 658-661.

  17. Huntington's disease: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Raymund AC


    Full Text Available Abstract Huntington disease (HD is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD. The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which

  18. Neuroendocrine Disturbances in Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Saleh, Nadine; Moutereau, Stéphane; Durr, Alexandra; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Tranchant, Christine; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Morin, Françoise; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Maison, Patrick


    Background Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized, in addition to neurological impairment, by weight loss suggesting endocrine disturbances. The aims of this study were to look for neuroendocrine disturbances in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and to determine the relationship with weight loss seen in HD Methods and Finding We compared plasma levels of hormones from the five pituitary axes in 219 patients with genetically documented HD and in 71 sex- and age-matched controls. Relationships between hormone levels and disease severity, including weight-loss severity, were evaluated. Growth hormone (GH) and standard deviation score of insulin-like growth factor 1 (SDS IGF-1) were significantly higher in patients than in controls (0.25 (0.01–5.89) vs. 0.15 (0.005–4.89) ng/ml, p = 0.013 and 0.16±1.02 vs. 0.06±0.91, p = 0.039; respectively). Cortisol was higher (p = 0.002) in patients (399.14±160.5 nmol/L vs. 279.8±130.1 nmol/L), whereas no differences were found for other hormone axes. In patients, elevations in GH and IGF-1 and decreases in thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and testosterone (in men) were associated with severity of impairments (Independence scale, Functional score, Total Functional Capacity, Total Motor score, Behavioral score). Only GH was independently associated with body mass index (β = −0.26, p = 0.001). Conclusion Our data suggest that the thyrotropic and in men gonadotropic axes are altered in HD according to the severity of the disease. The somatotropic axis is overactive even in patients with early disease, and could be related to the weight loss seen in HD patients. PMID:19319184

  19. The graveyard and the Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulla; Bildsøe, Helle Schulz


    and conflate into one overarching web that is the metropolis: there is a systemic network of control materialized in Montparnasse graveyard and an organic network out of control manifested in a community garden where people congregate to tell stories. Indeed, Dasgupta revisits Benjaminian storytelling...... as a global networking practice which, while locally contextualized in an impromptu garden in Paris, hints at an awareness of worldwide connectivity....

  20. Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action (United States)

    Toh, May Fern


    The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines. PMID:20837111

  1. No Panacea Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Tobias


    Full Text Available NEW!  Postscript (pp. 17-19 Three of the seven distinguished researchers whose autobiographical chapters (Berliner, 2016; Sternberg, 2016; Sweller, 2016 I edited, and one that is in process (Gordon, in press, indicate that they were poor or indifferent students early in their academic careers. That is also true of me; so five of the first seven scholars in the Acquired Wisdom series were poor students. I did not explicitly mention my studying difficulties in this chapter because they had already been described in my memoir about how my family found safe haven from the Holocaust in Shanghai, China, during World War II (Tobias, 2009. It may be useful to examine my difficulties and how they relate to educational practice and concepts in the contemporary educational psychology literature. Essay Excerpt The late Dick Snow, a friend and colleague at Stanford, once commented that research on instructional innovations seemed to him like a random walk through the panacea garden. I have become sceptical of any instructional development, theory, or instructional method that is expected to improve learning for all students in all subjects. I have lived through prior panaceas like programmed and computer assisted instruction, multimedia education, computer games, and educational movements such as progressive, competency based, open corridor, and inquiry education, and the current panacea - constructivist instruction - from all of which I learned something. There are no panaceas that will easily improve learning for everyone, because good instruction is hard work and difficult to do. [Download the PDF

  2. Progress and challenges in RNA interference therapy for Huntington disease. (United States)

    Harper, Scott Q


    Huntington disease is an incurable, dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Reducing mutant huntingtin expression may offer a treatment for Huntington disease. RNA interference has emerged as a powerful method to silence dominant disease genes. As such, it is being developed as a prospective Huntington disease therapy. Here I discuss the current progress and important remaining challenges of RNA interference therapy for Huntington disease.

  3. Botanical Literature in India 1973-1983. (United States)

    Maheswarappa, B. S.; Nagaraju, A.


    Describes a study that used bibliometrics to examine botanical research activity in India. The findings discussed include the growth of botanical literature, authorship patterns and collaborative research, important research centers and their rankings, journals preferred by Indian botanists, subfields of research, and the applicability of…

  4. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential. (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T


    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  5. Use of school gardens in academic instruction. (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri


    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P garden was for enhancement of academic instruction. Gardens were most commonly used for teaching science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  6. Epigenetic modifications as novel therapeutic targets for Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Wang, Fengli; Fischhaber, Paula L; Guo, Caixia; Tang, Tie-Shan


    Huntington's disease is a late-onset, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptomatology. The earliest stage of Huntington's disease is marked by alterations in gene expression, which partially results from dysregulated epigenetic modifications. In past decades, altered epigenetic markers including histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation and phosphorylation) and DNA modifications (cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation) have been reported as important epigenetic features in patients and multiple animal models of Huntington's disease. Drugs aimed to correct some of those alterations have shown promise in treating Huntington's disease. This article discusses the field of epigenetics for potential Huntington's disease interventions and presents the most recent findings in this area.

  7. Modeling Huntington disease in yeast (United States)

    Mason, Robert P


    Yeast have been extensively used to model aspects of protein folding diseases, yielding novel mechanistic insights and identifying promising candidate therapeutic targets. In particular, the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington disease (HD), which is caused by the abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (htt) protein, has been widely studied in yeast. This work has led to the identification of several promising therapeutic targets and compounds that have been validated in mammalian cells, Drosophila and rodent models of HD. Here we discuss the development of yeast models of mutant htt toxicity and misfolding, as well as the mechanistic insights gleaned from this simple model. The role of yeast prions in the toxicity/misfolding of mutant htt is also highlighted. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the application of HD yeast models in both genetic and chemical screens, and the fruitful results obtained from these approaches. Finally, we discuss the future of yeast in neurodegenerative research, in the context of HD and other diseases. PMID:22052350

  8. Aberrant palmitoylation in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Sanders, Shaun S; Hayden, Michael R


    Huntington disease (HD) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the HTT gene. HD is characterized by striatal atrophy and is associated with motor, cognitive and psychiatric deficits. In the presence of the HD mutation, the interactions between huntingtin (HTT) and huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14 or DHHC17) and HIP14-like (DHHC13, a HIP14 orthologue), palmitoyl acyltransferases for HTT, are disturbed, resulting in reduced palmitoylation of HTT. Genetic ablation of either Hip14 or Hip14l recapitulates many features of HD, including striatal atrophy and motor deficits. However, there are no changes in palmitoylation of HTT in either mouse model and, subsequently, the similarities between the phenotypes of these two mouse models and the HD mouse model are believed to result from underpalmitoylation of other HIP14 and HIP14L substrates. HTT acts as a modulator of HIP14 activity such that in the presence of the HD mutation, HIP14 is less active. Consequently, HIP14 substrates are less palmitoylated, leading to neuronal toxicity. This suggests that altered HIP14-HTT and HIP14L-HTT interactions in the presence of the HD mutation reduces palmitoylation and promotes mislocalization of HTT and other HIP14/HIP14L substrates. Ultimately, HD may be, in part, a disease of altered palmitoylation.

  9. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S


    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  10. Language functions in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Podoll, K; Caspary, P; Lange, H W; Noth, J


    A comprehensive language test battery (Aachen Aphasia Test) was administered to 45 patients in the early, middle or later stages of Huntington's disease (HD) and to 20 control subjects. In spontaneous speech, many HD patients exhibited a loss of conversational initiative. Dysarthria was a common finding. Reading skills were found to be impaired mainly as a consequence of dysarthria; some HD patients displayed visual dyslexia. In addition to the characteristic disturbances of writing skills due to the choreiform movement disorder, the writing of HD patients with advanced dementia indicated constructional dysgraphia, characterized by frequent omissions, perseverations and substitutions. HD patients exhibited no evidence of word-finding difficulty or other semantic deficits in spontaneous speech. There was, however, a marked impairment in visual confrontation naming, with a significant rise in naming error rate as the disease progressed in severity. In most instances, the inappropriate names referred to an object visually similar to the target object, suggesting that visual misperception is the major cause of the naming disorder in HD. Syntactical structure of spontaneous speech was typically reduced to short, simple sentence construction. Verbal stereotypes were only rarely encountered and occurred late in the course of the disease. Tests of language comprehension reflected the general degree of dementia. It is concluded that there are no primary language changes in HD. Instead, a variety of language impairments develop secondary to other neurological and neuropsychological changes.

  11. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia (United States)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  12. The benefits of a therapeutic garden. (United States)


    Can an indoor garden room reduce patients' physical and verbal aggression? Elaine Cole, writing in Nursing Older People, discusses how an indoor sensory garden (and a coloured toilet door) led to a reduction in incidents of verbal aggression by 59%.

  13. Gardens on the Arid Climate (United States)

    Eka Saputra, Weldy


    Bahrain is located in the climate of the arid zone which rainfall is low and irregular. This paper discusses the approaches which response to the local context that has been implemented by the government of Bahrain to sustain the quality of the public garden in the arid climate, turning to green. Generally, the approach is an improvement in the central treatment of waste water system plant that used to irrigate the landscaping, agriculture as well as for industry use. These approaches are not the only technologically, but also involves the participation of community to achieve sustainable garden in this country.

  14. The Garden and the Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel


    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure......, which has been developed within the current discourses on landscape urbanism and ecological urbanism. It will be argued that the emphasis of performance, functionality and horizontality, which seems to follow the promotion of landscape as infrastructure, in some cases could be counterproductive...

  15. Metropolitan gardens : Gardens in the interstices of the metropolitan tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, S.I.


    The heterogeneity of the contemporary metropolitan landscape has led to a multiplicity of intermediate spaces, in between and within the different tissues of the metropolitan landscape. These interstices can provide favourable conditions to be transformed into gardens. What design instruments can be

  16. Penstemons are for Great Basin gardens (United States)

    Heidi Kratsch


    Penstemons are flowering perennials much loved by the gardening public. Gardeners appreciate their diversity of flower colors that are at peak bloom in June and July, their many shapes and sizes, and their attractiveness to hummingbirds and other native pollinators. You may even have planted some in your own garden. Most people don't realize there are about 280...

  17. Rain garden guidelines for southwest Ohio (United States)

    Rain gardens are a unique and practical landscape feature that can enhance the beauty of home gardens. When properly installed, they are one method of limiting the negative effects of rainfall runoff in urban areas. Indeed, rain gardens turn a "negative" into a "positive" by capt...

  18. Wellbeing and Social Relations in School Gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Dyg, Pernille Malberg


    garden program promotes students’ wellbeing through their positive emotions about being outside in the outdoor environment. Garden activities and their relations with peers, garden educators, and teachers seemed to positively affect the students’ self-esteem. Over and above the positive social...

  19. Our Friendship Gardens: Healing Our Mother, Ourselves (United States)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri


    Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay…

  20. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens? (United States)

    Salter, Cathy


    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  1. Urban domestic gardens: the effects of human interventions on garden composition. (United States)

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip; Thompson, Ken; Gaston, Kevin


    Private domestic gardens contribute substantially to the biodiversity of urban areas and benefit human health and well-being. We previously reported a study of 267 gardens across five cities in the United Kingdom in which variation in geographical and climatic factors had little bearing on the richness, diversity and composition of plant species. We therefore hypothesise that garden management is an important factor in determining garden characteristics. Here, from the same sample of gardens, we investigate potential associations between the uses to which people put their gardens, the types of management activities they undertake, and the characteristics of those gardens. Householders (n = 265) completed a questionnaire detailing various aspects of garden use and management activities. The majority of respondents used their gardens chiefly for relaxation, recreation, and eating. Fewer than one fifth included "gardening" amongst their garden uses even though all performed some garden management, suggesting that not all management activity resulted from an interest in gardening. Garden-watering and lawn-mowing were the most prevalent activities and were predictors of other types of management including weeding, vegetation-cutting, leaf-collection, and dead-heading flowers. A number of these activities were associated with one another, the richness and composition of plant species, and the number of land uses in gardens. However, relationships between management activities and the amount of tall vegetation were less consistent, and garden management appeared to be independent of garden area. More species of amphibians, birds, and mammals were observed in gardens with ponds and in which efforts were made to attract wildlife, particularly by providing drinking water. This study supports the hypothesis that garden use and management is associated with garden characteristics.

  2. [Genetic bases in Huntington disease]. (United States)

    Benítez, J


    Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative syndrome of late appearance in 80% of the cases. Its clinical course shows motor and cognitive disorders which lead to total incapacity of the individual 10 to 15 years after the appearance of the first syndromes. From a genetic point of view, this disease is of autosomic dominant inheritance with complete penetration. The gene (IT15) is localized in the short arm of chromosome 4 in the telemaric region 4p16.3 and it is known that the mutation is produced by an increase in the number of trinucleotides CAG (glutamine) localized in the 5' end of the gene, in the first exon. In the general population these are repeated in a number of less than 30 repetitions and in the disease population in a number greater than 36 and, in some cases, even greater than 100 repetitions. These sequences are unstable from one generation to another and this fact may explain the phenomenon of genetic anticipation shown in this disease since there is an inversely proportional correlation between the number of repetitions and the age of appearance of the first symptoms. The gene codifies for a protein known as "huntingtina" which is expressed not only in brain but also in different tissues. Although the function remains unknown, it is known that it is bound to other proteins related to the transmission of neuron signals and to the regulation of neuron death (apoptosis) among others. The defect is produced by a gain in function closely related to the number of repetitions. At present, presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis of the disease may be achieved since the reliability of the studies is practically 100%. Nonetheless, the demand is lower than expected and this may be due to psychologic, social and legal problems, together with the lack of adequate infrastructure for completely guaranteeing the performance of these studies.

  3. An Experience in Froebel's Garden. (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth S.


    Describes the activities of a classroom teacher and her students at Addison Gardens British Nursery School in London, England, which was influenced by, and incorporated the tenets of, Friedrich Froebel's educational philosophy of children's learning. Discusses the application of Froebel's principles to art education. (BB)

  4. Biosecurity protocols for heritage gardens (United States)

    Ian Wright; David Slawson


    This project aims to protect The National Trust (NT) from the increasing number of harmful plant pests and diseases that slip though official controls and threaten our gardens, plant collections and landscapes. During 2008, the National Trust (NT) with the seconded help of Dr. David Slawson, Head of Pest and Disease Identification Programme, Food and Environment...

  5. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest botanical products... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products § 223.277 Forest botanical products definition. As used in this subpart, the following term shall mean: Forest botanical...

  6. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin. (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori


    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  7. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care. (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P


    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  8. Kas Huntington oli prohvet? / Priit Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simson Priit, 1977-


    Autor käsitleb Samuel Huntingtoni teese ning leiab, et tegelikult Huntington ei pakkunud õigustust islamiriikide ründamisele, vaid pigem hoiatas tsivilisatsioonide siseasjusse sekkumise, tekkida võiva ahelreaktsiooni eest, kus üks tsivilisatsiooni liige tõmbab sõtta ka teise

  9. Destination and source memory in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Verny, C.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.


    Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults

  10. Remifentanil in a patient with Huntington's chorea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    both her father and one of her brothers dying of complications of Huntington's chorea at the ages of 50 years and 45 years respectively. The aetiology of her quadriparesis was ... extension in addition to her quadreparesis due to the involvement of her cervical laminae. Her Mallampati score was. 2. She had a 30 year history ...

  11. Revisiting the neuropsychiatry of Huntington's disease


    Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Souza, Leonardo Cruz de; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Lauterbach, Edward C.


    ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease classified under the choreas. Besides motor symptoms, HD is marked by cognitive and behavioral symptoms, impacting patients' functional capacity. The progression of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in parallel with neurodegeneration. The nature of these symptoms is very dynamic, and the major clinical challenges include executive dysfunction, apathy, depression and irritability. Herei...

  12. Silencing Huntington's chorea: Is RNA Interference a Potential Cure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde A. Metz


    Full Text Available In 1872, George Huntington described Huntington's disease as characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Huntington's disease is a dominant and autosomal mutation on chromosome 4 featuring the insertion of numerous CAG repeats. CAG codes for the amino acid, glutmanine that forms part of the Huntingtin protein (htt. Excess glutamine attachments make htt prone to accumulate in neurons. Three genes can be considered when developing therapies for Huntington's disease. They include targeting the symptoms of the disease, the progression of the disease and the cause of the disease. By using RNA interference (RNAi, the cause of the disease can be targeted. RNAi is a method that could potentially silence the formation of abnormal htt. This paper will discuss how RNAi could potentially cure Huntington's disease, by describing the genetic and proteinomic basis of Huntington's disease, the function of RNAi in Huntington's disease and the problems of benefits of RNAi. Preliminary work using RNAi in transgenic mice has shown a decrease in the behavioural expression of the mutant Huntington gene. There are several limitations associated with using RNAi as a gene therapy. For example, the effects of RNAi are short lived. A transposition system such as Sleeping Beauty can be used to increase the integration of the gene, however, for patients who currently have Huntington's disease, RNAi may potentially be used in combination with drugs or other treatments to target both symptoms and the underlying cause of Huntington's disease. This combination could eventually alleviate many painful symptoms associated with Huntington's disease and could even stop the progressive neurodegeneration of Huntington's disease. This review concludes that a substantial amount of new research is still necessary before RNAi is directly applicable to human patients with Huntington's disease.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Botanical Drugs and Plant Extracts. (United States)

    Dominguez More, Gina Paola; Cardenas, Paola Andrea; Costa, Geison M; Simoes, Claudia M O; Aragon, Diana Marcela


    Botanical drugs contain plant extracts, which are complex mixtures of compounds. As with conventional drugs, it is necessary to validate their efficacy and safety through preclinical and clinical studies. However, pharmacokinetic studies for active constituents or characteristic markers in botanical drugs are rare. The objective of this review was to investigate the global state of the art in pharmacokinetic studies of active ingredients present in plant extracts and botanical drugs. A review of pharmacokinetics studies of chemical constituents of plant extracts and botanical drugs was performed, with a total of 135 studies published between January 2004 and February 2015 available in recognized scientific databases. Botanical preparations were mainly found in the form of aqueous extracts of roots and rhizomes. The most widely studied species was Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the compound most frequently used as a pharmacokinetic marker was berberine. Most studies were performed using the Sprague Dawley rat model, and the preparations were mainly administered orally in a single dose. Quantification of plasma concentrations of pharmacokinetic markers was performed mainly by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector. In conclusion, in recent years there has been an increasing interest among researchers worldwide in the study of pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs and plant extracts, especially those from the Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  14. The Vallarta Botanical Garden's advancements in conserving the diversity of native Mexican oaks and magnolias (United States)

    N.A. Gerlowski; M.A. Muñiz-Castro


    Mexico is both an oak (Quercus) biodiversity hotspot (over 160 described species) and the western hemisphere's leader in magnolia (Magnolia) diversity (36 described species). In the face of myriad threats to these groups, including climate change, habitat loss/fragmentation, overharvesting, and plant pests/pathogens, the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available As the continuous demography registered during the last decades of the last century increases, the population on the Earth reached alarming levels due to the increasing needs of the population in continuous increase on the one hand and on the other hand, due to the human intervention in larger areas of the Earth. This continuously increased ominous anthropic influence, that attracts also the limitation of the planetary resources of all kinds, conducted during the last years to the unanimous recognition of the fact that the plants have the status of vital element within the world natural heritage, being a main element for maintaining the life on Earth and representing at the same time an essential resource for the future, for the planet existence (Convention on Biological Variety, 1992; The Declaration from Grand Canaria on World Program for Plants Preservation, 2000.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Dalberg Poulsen


    Full Text Available Tiga belas jenis Etlingera telah dideskripsi berdasarkan material yang diperoleh dari Sumatera, selanjutnya lima jenis lainnya telah didokumentasi sebagai catatan baru (new records. Salah satu jenis Etlingera dari Sumatera yang cukup spektakuler adalah Etlingera loerzingii. Deskripsi asli jenis ini dahulu dibuat berdasarkan material yang tidak lengkap, dan sekarang deskripsi lengkapnya disajikan di dalam tulisan ini. Dengan daun yang indah serta bentuk dan warna perbungaan yang menarik, E. loerzingii memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai tanaman hias.

  17. Fungi and pests of woody plants in the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University


    Grigaliūnaitė, Banga


    2003–2011 m. Vilniaus universiteto Botanikos sode tirta 45 genčių sumedėjusių augalų fitosanitarinė būklė. Nustatytos 109 grybų rūšys. Plačiau išplitę ir kiekvienais metais aptinkami yra patogeniniai Diaphorte, Diplodia, Exobasidium, Erysiphe, Gymnosporangium, Guignardia, Laphodermium, Mycosphaerella, Monilinia, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Plasmopara, Rhytisma, Thedgonia genčių grybai ir kenkėjai lapinukai (Phyllobius). Labiausiai pažeidžiami šių genčių augalai: Acer, Aesculus,...

  18. Historic Gardens Chorbog In The Islamic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustayev Bahrom Bahodirovich


    Full Text Available In principle any garden reminds us of beauty and unity of nature. But there exist gardens arranged in accordance with the traditional principles of the Islamic Chorbog or architecturally -organized a Four-sides garden which possesses as it seems to me considerably more potential than the gardens planned without such principles. At the present paper an attempt has been made to prove it and it is noted that the Koran is sacred for Moslem people and its references to nature as well as the description of paradise gardens deserves the careful study when considering the meaning of the Islamic gardens. Types and peculiarities of the Islamic countries gardens are also considered in the given paper.

  19. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nambron

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III and controls.Control (n = 15, premanifest (n = 14 and stage II/III (n = 13 participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a, fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test.We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05 that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious.Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that

  20. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Nambron, Rajasree; Silajdžić, Edina; Kalliolia, Eirini; Ottolenghi, Chris; Hindmarsh, Peter; Hill, Nathan R; Costelloe, Seán J; Martin, Nicholas G; Positano, Vincenzo; Watt, Hilary C; Frost, Chris; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T


    Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III) and controls. Control (n = 15), premanifest (n = 14) and stage II/III (n = 13) participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test. We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine) there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05) that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious. Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that the majority

  1. Monoculture of leafcutter ant gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich G Mueller


    Full Text Available Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens.Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens and extended lifespans (10-20 years. In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells, and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys.Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants, an analog of artificial selection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Throughout history, gardens and garden designing has been in the attention of Persian architects who had special expertise in the construction of gardens. The appearance of Islam and allegories of paradise taken from that in Koran and Saints’ sayings gave spirituality to garden construction. Climate conditions have also had an important role in this respect but little research has been done about it and most of the investigations have referred to spiritual aspects and forms of garden. The cold and dry climate that has enveloped parts of West and North West of Iran has many gardens with different forms and functions, which have not been paid much attention to by studies done so far. The aim of this paper is to identify the features and specifications of cold and dry climate gardens with an emphasis on Tabriz’s Gardens.  Due to its natural and strategic situation, Tabriz has always been in the attention of governments throughout history; travellers and tourists have mentioned Tabriz as a city that has beautiful gardens. But, the earthquakes and wars have left no remains of those beautiful gardens. This investigation, by a comparative study of the climates in Iran and the effect of those climates on the formation of gardens and garden design, tries to identify the features and characteristics of gardens in cold and dry climate. The method of study is interpretive-historical on the basis of written documents and historic features and field study of existing gardens in this climate. The results show that, with respect to natural substrate, vegetation, the form of water supply, and the general form of the garden; gardens in dry and cold climate are different from gardens in other climates.

  3. MR imaging and spectroscopy in juvenile Huntington disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapiro, Mark; Doescher, Jason [Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Cecil, Kim M.; Kiefer, Alaina M. [Imaging Research Center, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)


    Juvenile Huntington disease manifests differently from adult Huntington disease and has more variability in presentation. We describe a child with cognitive decline and adventitial movements in whom Huntington disease was confirmed with genetic testing. MR imaging showed abnormal T2 prolongation in the putamina and progressive caudate atrophy, and MR spectroscopy revealed elevated myoinositol and diminished N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, and phosphocreatine. Imaging findings of caudate atrophy and abnormal T2 prolongation in the putamina with MR spectroscopy findings consistent with dense gliosis can be helpful indicators of juvenile Huntington disease. (orig.)

  4. [A Prussian in Venice: the botanist Melchior Wieland (1520-1589), pioneer in botanical field research in the Levant]. (United States)

    Herrmann, Sabine


    The Italian physician and botanist Prospero Alpini (1553-1617) is considered as one of the most famous 16th Century Italian botanists having explored the plant species of Egypt and the Near East. Alpinis best-known works as for example De medicina Egyptiorum (Venetijs 1591) or De plantis Aegypti liber (Venetijs 1592), however, wouldn't certainly have been made possible without the influence of his academic teacher, the Prussian physician and botanist Melchior Wieland (ca. 1520-1589), having been applied director of the botanical garden of Padua in 1561. This study is therefore dedicated to the life, academic career, works and reception of this nearly forgotten botanist.

  5. [Sporadic juvenile forms of Huntington's chorea]. (United States)

    Zinchenko, A P; Goncharov, V D; Burtianskii, D L; Zakhar'ev, Iu M


    Six patients with Huntington's chorea in the age of 15-24 years old, suffered from diffusive choreic hyperkynesis with slowly progressive dementia. The development of this disease in childhood and adolescence was atypical, as nobody in the family and in kin sufferred from it and it was difficult to diagnose the disease. Recognition of the disease was promoted by pneumoencephalography, electromyography and memory investigation.

  6. Multicultural School Gardens: Creating Engaging Garden Spaces in Learning about Language, Culture, and Environment (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy


    Children's gardening programs have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. An Australian environmental education non-profit organization implemented a program, entitled Multicultural Schools Gardens, in disadvantaged (low-income) schools that used food gardening as a focus for implementing a culturally-focused environmental education…

  7. The Force of Gardening: Investigating Children's Learning in a Food Garden (United States)

    Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris


    School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…

  8. Introducing a longitudinal study of community gardeners and gardens in New York City (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Nancy Falxa-Raymond; Jessica Northridge; Edie. Stone


    For almost a decade, the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation GreenThumb program has collected data about hundreds of New York City community gardens citywide to understand how these gardens function. Building on a data set that includes surveys and interviews conducted periodically with garden representatives since 2003, GreenThumb and USDA Forest Service...

  9. Geographic Information System arboretum garden of Sochi "Dendrarium"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annenkova Irina Vladimirovna


    and other. GIS technology is a perspective direction in the conduct of collections of botanical gardens. They provide new tools for the analysis and monitoring of botanical collections.

  10. modelling gait syndrome in huntington's disease: the genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Huntington's disease (HD) which usually affects the patients at middle age results from malfunctioning of the basal ganglia. It is characterized by cognitive impairment, involuntary movements, neuropsychiatric and psychological disturbances. Early motor signs of Huntington's disease typically include the gradual onset of ...

  11. Clinical and genetic data of Huntington disease in Moroccan patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Huntington's disease (HD) occurs worldwide with prevalence varying from 0.1 to 10 /100,000 depending of the ethnic origin. Since no data is available in the Maghreb population, the aim of this study is to describe clinical and genetic characteristics of Huntington patients of Moroccan origin. Methods: Clinical ...

  12. Riluzole in Huntington's disease: a 3-year, randomized controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Dubois, B.; Yebenes, J.G. de; Kremer, H.P.H.; Gaus, W.; Kraus, P.H.; Przuntek, H.; Dib, M.; Doble, A.; Fischer, W.; Ludolph, A.C.


    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized double-blind trial of riluzole in Huntington's disease to investigate the efficacy of this antiexcitotoxic drug in slowing disease progression. METHODS: The study included 537 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease confirmed by

  13. Comprehension of Complex Discourse in Different Stages of Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Fors, Angelika; Stroberg, Sofia; Hartelius, Lena


    Background: Huntington's disease not only affects motor speech control, but also may have an impact on the ability to produce and understand language in communication. Aims: The ability to comprehend basic and complex discourse was investigated in three different stages of Huntington's disease. Methods & Procedures: In this experimental group…

  14. Organisation of the Botanical Survey of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.


    From the new (quarto 2-column) journal ”Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India”, initiated to supplement the ’Records’ and ’Annual Reports’ and to e cited as Bull. Bot. Surv. India, we are now informed about the shape of the studies of the Indian flora, since the reorganisation in 1954-55. Three

  15. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.


    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant exctracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  16. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.


    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant extracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  17. Scientific Opinion on a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    The Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach, initially developed for the assessment of microorganisms referred to EFSA and added to the food chain is equally applicable to the assessment of botanicals or botanical preparations. Using the principles to establish the suitability of a botanical...... preparation for QPS status, it has been possible to develop a structured assessment scheme that provides a practical method for assessing botanicals and botanical preparations for which an adequate body of knowledge exists and therefore without the need for further testing. Reiterative applications...... of the assessment scheme to related botanicals or different botanical preparations obtained from the same plant variety can allow a QPS status to be derived for specific groupings. However, the particularity of botanicals that may be presented in a wide variety of forms or whose morphology and chemical composition...

  18. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens. (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R


    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  19. Integrate the Arts. Monet's Garden Pops Up! (United States)

    Parks, Mary


    This article outlines the steps in an art activity on the elements of landscapes and touches on the topic of perspective. In the activity students create three-dimensional secret gardens of their own out of construction paper. The activity is based on Claude Monet's painting and his garden in Giverny (Normandy, France). (SM)

  20. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey. (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux


    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  1. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time. (United States)

    Ashman, Julann


    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included.

  2. School Food Gardens: Fertile Ground for Education (United States)

    Beery, Moira; Adatia, Rachel; Segantin, Orsola; Skaer, Chantal-Fleur


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to respond to food insecurity and environmental sustainability through school food gardens in Johannesburg, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Permaculture is a method of organic agriculture where the garden design maintains a stable and productive ecosystem, mimicking natural processes and thereby…

  3. Roots and Research in Urban School Gardens (United States)

    Gaylie, Veronica


    This book explores the urban school garden as a bridge between environmental action and thought. As a small-scale response to global issues around access to food and land, urban school gardens promote practical knowledge of farming as well as help renew cultural ideals of shared space and mutual support for the organic, built environment. Through…

  4. Havens tider / The Times of the Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jacob


    Bilingual text (English and Danish) for exhibition catalogue. ARoS Triennal: The Garden - End of Times, Beginning of Times.......Bilingual text (English and Danish) for exhibition catalogue. ARoS Triennal: The Garden - End of Times, Beginning of Times....

  5. Invasive plants often emanate from southern gardens (United States)

    J.H. Miller; A. Miller


    Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    garden estate, found throughout biblical texts – and trust learning can be transferred. Pentateuchal .... agents are appointed to wreak devastation, and the dwelling place becomes bereft of fruitfulness and joy. .... ourselves living – on commodity real estate or in the cosmic garden – and it will affect our behavior. The role of ...

  7. Creating a Schoolyard Mini-Garden (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Francisca


    The creation of schoolyard gardens is a growing movement in the United States and around the world (Ballard, Tong, and Usher 1998; Pope 1998; Lewis 2004). It brings together all of the features of authentic hands-on science: Students can collect data on plant growth, observe the plant and animal interactions in the garden, and acquire a sense of…

  8. Communication and Huntington's Disease: Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups with Persons with Huntington's Disease, Family Members, and Carers (United States)

    Hartelius, Lena; Jonsson, Maria; Rickeberg, Anneli; Laakso, Katja


    Background: As an effect of the cognitive, emotional and motor symptoms associated with Huntington's disease, communicative interaction is often dramatically changed. No study has previously included the subjective reports on this subject from individuals with Huntington's disease. Aims: To explore the qualitative aspects of how communication is…

  9. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily


    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  10. Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

  11. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.


    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  12. Altered Fractional Anisotropy in Early Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silky Singh


    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease best known for chorea. The disorder includes numerous other clinical features including mood disorder, eye movement abnormalities, cognitive disturbance, pendular knee reflexes, motor impersistence, and postural instability. We describe a mild case of HD early in the disease course with depression and subtle neurological manifestations. In addition, we review MRI and diffusion tensor imaging features in this patient. The bicaudate ratio, a measure of caudate atrophy, was increased. Fractional anisotropy values of the bilateral caudate and putamen were increased, signifying neurodegeneration of these structures in HD.

  13. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population




    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repe...

  14. The use of botanical products and vitamins in sunscreens. (United States)

    Monico, Gabriela; Leo, Micheal; Ma, Brian; Johal, Ritika S; Ma, Thomas; Sivamani, Raja K


    The use of botanical products and vitamins in skin care creams and sunscreens is prevalent. Herein we conduct an evaluation of sunscreens to quantitatively assess how often sunscreens incorporate botanically derived products and vitamins. The most commonly used botanicals products and vitamins are identified and stratified based on the sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF). The overall prevalence for the use of botanical agents and vitamins was 62% and 79%, respectively. Aloe vera and licorice root extracts were the most common botanical agents used in sunscreens. Retinyl palmitate was the most common vitamin derivative utilized in sunscreens. The prices of sunscreens significantly increased when more than one botanical product was added. Botanical products and vitamins are widely utilized in sunscreens and more research is needed to assess how their inclusion may enhance or alter the function of sunscreens.

  15. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions. (United States)

    Grimstein, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei


    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions and labeling implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Cystathionine γ-lyase deficiency mediates neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Paul, Bindu D; Sbodio, Juan I; Xu, Risheng; Vandiver, M Scott; Cha, Jiyoung Y; Snowman, Adele M; Snyder, Solomon H


    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a mutation in the gene encoding huntingtin (Htt) leading to expanded polyglutamine repeats of mutant Htt (mHtt) that elicit oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and motor and behavioural changes. Huntington's disease is characterized by highly selective and profound damage to the corpus striatum, which regulates motor function. Striatal selectivity of Huntington's disease may reflect the striatally selective small G protein Rhes binding to mHtt and enhancing its neurotoxicity. Specific molecular mechanisms by which mHtt elicits neurodegeneration have been hard to determine. Here we show a major depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the biosynthetic enzyme for cysteine, in Huntington's disease tissues, which may mediate Huntington's disease pathophysiology. The defect occurs at the transcriptional level and seems to reflect influences of mHtt on specificity protein 1, a transcriptional activator for CSE. Consistent with the notion of loss of CSE as a pathogenic mechanism, supplementation with cysteine reverses abnormalities in cultures of Huntington's disease tissues and in intact mouse models of Huntington's disease, suggesting therapeutic potential.

  17. Cognitive and autonomic dysfunction in presymptomatic and early Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Kobal, Jan; Melik, Ziva; Cankar, Ksenija; Strucl, Martin


    Huntington's disease is characterized by disorders of movement, cognition and behavior. Individuals with Huntington's disease display aberrant changes in the autonomic nervous system that are detected even before the onset of other symptoms. Subtle cognitive dysfunction may start before other clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system response to mental arithmetic and the relationship between the autonomic and cognitive/motor function in presymptomatic and early Huntington's disease. We examined 15 presymptomatic Huntington's disease gene carriers (PHD), 15 early Huntington's disease patients (EHD) and 30 healthy controls. PHD and EHD groups were determined according to Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor score. ECG, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and cutaneous laser Doppler flux were measured during rest and during a simple mental arithmetic test. UHDRS cognitive test battery was applied to determine cognitive dysfunction. During mental arithmetic, the heart rate of PHD/EHD increased significantly less than that of controls. Decreased microvascular response to mental arithmetic was found in EHD. Significant correlations for the PHD/EHD group were found between laser Doppler flux response and Symbol Digit Modalities Test score, and between laser Doppler flux response and UHDRS motor score. It seems that central autonomic dysregulation of cardiovascular system in Huntington's disease goes along with the degeneration of other central neuronal systems. This finding is relevant as it could enable simple and noninvasive testing of disease progression.

  18. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan


    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  20. Fundamental phenomenological categories of garden and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zgarbová


    Full Text Available The current scientific methods describing gardens and landscapes all over the world are not always sufficient for the purpose of deep understanding of specific and close relations between landscape/garden and its inhabitants/visitors. A new dimension of qualitative investigation of these phenomena and relations between humans and the environment, as distinguished from the common mechanistic methods, has to be acquired. While a systematic anti-mechanistic research on the interaction of humans and living space is carried out especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, Continental Europe persist mechanistic in its core.In Continental Europe phenomenology as well as hermeneutics are regarded mostly as the particular areas of abstract philosophical studies that do not refer enough to practical sciences such as, for example, garden and landscape architecture. However, there are some especially transatlantic centres of applied phenomenological research. This article examines the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach as it might be used to explore the specific field of garden and landscape issues. In the first step, the nature of hermeneutics and phenomenology as compared to the common mechanistic scientific methods is discussed and the parallels between hermeneutics and phenomenology are outlined. Then, using the phenomenological method helps we give evidence on the fundamental categories of garden and landscape. These categories, in contrast to mechanistic constructions, represent garden and landscape as they are intimately experienced by humans. The focus of this research is both methodological (it is an effort to articulate a method alternative to the objectivity and abstraction of strict science, to be used in the field of garden and landscape architecture and related areas and hermeneutical (it is an effort to achieve a deeper and profound understanding of garden and landscape as the irreplaceable base for every responsible

  1. Grow Science Achievement in Your Library with School Gardens (United States)

    Mackey, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeniffer Mackey


    Over the past decade or so, gardens have been blossoming in schools all across the United States. These gardens are as varied as their schools and are as unique as each child who tends to them. Some are bountiful vegetable gardens, and others are arid natural habitat gardens. Some are acres of land with entire classes devoted to their teachings…

  2. Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits (United States)

    Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.


    Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…

  3. Evaluating the effect of therapeutic gardens. (United States)

    Heath, Yuko


    Sometimes the visitors to therapeutic gardens do not necessarily experience the garden the way the designers intended. A postoccupancy evaluation (POE) can reveal discrepancies between the designer's intentions and use of the environment by the actual visitors. A POE is a user-oriented assessment that elicits the opinions of the visitors to a building, facility, or environment. This paper describes a POE of therapeutic gardens at a multilevel care facility for the aged. The population included patients at various stages of Alzheimer's disease progression.

  4. Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden. (United States)

    Van Tonder, Gert J; Lyons, Michael J; Ejima, Yoshimichi


    The dry landscape garden at Ryoanji Temple in Kyoto, Japan, a UNESCO world heritage site, intrigues hundreds of thousands of visitors every year with its abstract, sparse and seemingly random composition of rocks and moss on an otherwise empty rectangle of raked gravel. Here we apply a model of shape analysis in early visual processing to show that the 'empty' space of the garden is implicitly structured and critically aligned with the temple's architecture. We propose that this invisible design creates the visual appeal of the garden and was probably intended as an inherent feature of the composition.

  5. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.


    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  6. Practical Uses of Botanicals in Skin Care


    Stallings, Alison F.; Lupo, Mary P.


    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medic...

  7. Unawareness of motor phenoconversion in Huntington disease. (United States)

    McCusker, Elizabeth A; Gunn, David G; Epping, Eric A; Loy, Clement T; Radford, Kylie; Griffith, Jane; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S


    To determine whether Huntington disease (HD) mutation carriers have motor symptoms (complaints) when definite motor onset (motor phenoconversion) is diagnosed and document differences between the groups with and without unawareness of motor signs. We analyzed data from 550 HD mutation carriers participating in the multicenter PREDICT-HD Study followed through the HD prodrome. Data analysis included demographics, the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Participant HD History of symptoms, self-report of progression, and cognitive, behavioral, and imaging measures. Unawareness was identified when no motor symptoms were self-reported but when definite motor HD was diagnosed. Of 38 (6.91%) with onset of motor HD, almost half (18/38 = 47.36%) had no motor symptoms despite signs of disease on the UHDRS motor rating and consistent with unawareness. A group with motor symptoms and signs was similar on a range of measures to the unaware group. Those with unawareness of HD signs reported less depression. Patients with symptoms had more striatal atrophy on imaging measures. Only half of the patients with newly diagnosed motor HD had motor symptoms. Unaware patients were less likely to be depressed. Self-report of symptoms may be inaccurate in HD at the earliest stage.

  8. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  9. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University. (United States)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis


    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  10. O desenvolvimento político em Huntington e Fukuyama Huntington and Fukuyama on political development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Nóbrega de Mello


    Full Text Available O artigo contrasta as teses de Huntington e Fukuyama sobre desenvolvimento político. As obras analisadas, Ordem política nas sociedades em mudança e O fim da história, inscrevem-se entre duas conjunturas decisivas - 1968 e 1989. Huntington desmontou a equivalência entre desenvolvimento político e modernização e Fukuyama reafirmou a democracia como o destino de todos os países e, desse modo, como o fim da história. Nesta comparação, dois eixos se sobressaem: o contexto de produção das obras e a alternância entre os polos teóricos da democracia e da estabilidade. Procura-se demonstrar como, apesar de reinserir a democracia no desenvolvimento político, a instabilidade continua a ser um foco privilegiado de análise no pensamento de Fukuyama.The article contrasts the theories of Huntington and Fukuyama on political development. The analyzed works, Political order in changing societies and The end of history, fall between two decisive historical moments - in 1968 and 1989. Huntington disassembled the equivalence between political development and modernization; Fukuyama reaffirmed democracy as the destiny of all countries and, as such, it is the end of history. In this comparison, two axes call our attention: the production context of these works and the alternation between the theoreticals poles of democracy and stability. The article shows how, although reenters democracy in the political development theory, instablility remains a prime focus of analysis in Fukuyama's thought.

  11. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.


    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  12. Américo Negrette and Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Moscovich


    Full Text Available The authors present a historical review of the seminal clinical contribution of Professor Américo Negrette, a Venezuelan neurologist, to the evolution of scientific knowledge about Huntington's disease.

  13. Clinical characterization of dystonia in adult patients with Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Zande, N A; Massey, T H; McLauchlan, D; Pryce Roberts, A; Zutt, R; Wardle, M; Payne, G C; Clenaghan, C; Tijssen, M A J; Rosser, A E; Peall, K J

    Background and purposeHuntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative movement disorder, typically characterized by chorea. Dystonia is also recognized as part of the HD motor phenotype, although little work detailing its prevalence, distribution, severity and impact on

  14. The calpain-suppressing effects of olesoxime in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Weber, Jonasz J; Ortiz Rios, Midea M; Riess, Olaf; Clemens, Laura E; Nguyen, Huu P


    Olesoxime, a small molecule drug candidate, has recently attracted attention due to its significant beneficial effects in models of several neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's disease. Olesoxime's neuroprotective effects have been assumed to be conveyed through a direct, positive influence on mitochondrial function. In a long-term treatment study in BACHD rats, the latest rat model of Huntington's disease, olesoxime revealed a positive influence on mitochondrial function and improved specific behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes. Moreover, a novel target of the compound was discovered, as olesoxime was found to suppress the activation of the calpain proteolytic system, a major contributor to the cleavage of the disease-causing mutant huntingtin protein into toxic fragments, and key player in degenerative processes in general. Results from a second model of Huntington's disease, the Hdh (Q111) knock-in mouse, confirm olesoxime's calpain-suppressing effects and support the therapeutic value of olesoxime for Huntington's disease and other disorders involving calpain overactivation.

  15. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in preclinical Huntington disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Joost C. H.; Sijens, Paul E.; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Leenders, Klaus L.


    Huntington disease (HD) is a hereditary brain disease, causing progressive deterioration after a preclinical phase. The pathophysiology of early brain abnormalities around disease onset is largely unknown. Some preclinical mutation carriers (PMC) show structural or metabolic changes on brain imaging

  16. Unravelling and Exploiting Astrocyte Dysfunction in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakh, Baljit S; Beaumont, Vahri; Cachope, Roger


    Astrocytes are abundant within mature neural circuits and are involved in brain disorders. Here, we summarize our current understanding of astrocytes and Huntington's disease (HD), with a focus on correlative and causative dysfunctions of ion homeostasis, calcium signaling, and neurotransmitter...




    In the course of a continuing search for means of predicting Huntington's chorea before the onset of neurological symptoms, a study of fingerprint patterns was undertaken, using the technique employed by Hodges and Simon in the investigation of patients with Wilson's disease. Fingerprint patterns of 61 patients with Huntington's chorea and 50 with Parkinson's disease were compared with norms established by Scotland Yard. Although an increased incidence of the "whorl" pattern was seen in the left second and third fingers in patients with Huntington's chorea, this finding could not be interpreted as having diagnostic or prognostic value as it was found also in some normal subjects and in occasional cases of Parkinson's disease. The pattern supposedly characteristic of Wilson's disease was also seen in persons with Huntington's chorea.

  18. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.


    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  19. A Garden City in Southeast Asia


    O'Neill, Jesse


    Not long after Ebenezer Howard’s Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, the English ‘garden city’ became an aspirational urban model for places in colonial Malaya like Kuala Lumpur, Kuching and Singapore. What originally responded to nineteenth century industrial expansion was in this context a reaction to early twentieth century laissez-faire urbanism, aiming to beautify cities, improve health, and boost commerce. From the 1950s, private developers announced their ‘garden cities’, which c...

  20. School Gardens in the Distrito Federal, Brazil


    Bernardon, Renata; Schmitz, Bethsáida De Abreu Soares; Recine, Elisabetta Gioconda Iole; Rodrigues, Maria De Lourdes Carlos Ferreirinha; Gabriel, Cristine Garcia


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify experiences with gardens in public schools in the Distrito Federal, Brazil, and to analyze factors involved in their use to promote healthy eating habits. METHODS: This is an analytical cross-sectional study with data collection in two phases: (1) telephone contact with all public schools in the Distrito Federal; (2) interviews conducted with a sample of schools with a garden (n=105). RESULTS: Of the 582 schools in the Distrito Fed...

  1. On the neurolinguistic nature of language abnormalities in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Wallesch, C W; Fehrenbach, R A


    Spontaneous language of 18 patients suffering from Huntington's disease and 15 dysarthric controls suffering from Friedreich's ataxia were investigated. In addition, language functions in various modalities were assessed with the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). The Huntington patients exhibited deficits in the syntactical complexity of spontaneous speech and in the Token Test, confrontation naming, and language comprehension subtests of the AAT, which are interpreted as resulting from their dementia. Errors affecting word access mechanisms and production of syntactical structures as such were not encountered.

  2. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O


    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... eminences grown as free-floating roller-tube cultures can be successfully grafted in a rat Huntington model and that a clinical MR scanner offers a useful noninvasive tool for studying striatal graft development....

  3. Ubiquitin: a potential cerebrospinal fluid progression marker in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Vinther-Jensen, T; Simonsen, A H; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Hjermind, L E; Nielsen, J E


    Finding early and dynamic biomarkers in Huntington's disease is a key to understanding the early pathology of Huntington's disease and potentially to tracking disease progression. This would benefit the future evaluation of potential neuroprotective and disease-modifying therapies, as well as aid in identifying an optimal time point for initiating a potential therapeutic intervention. This explorative proteomics study evaluated cerebrospinal fluid from 94 Huntington's disease gene-expansion carriers (39 premanifest and 55 manifest) and 27 Huntington's disease gene-expansion negative individuals using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Differences in peak intensity from SELDI-TOF spectra were evaluated. Levels of 10 peaks were statistically significantly different between manifest gene-expansion carriers and controls. One of them identified as ubiquitin was shown to be dependent on the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale Total Functional Capacity, a pseudo-measure of disease severity (P = 0.001), and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (0.04) in manifest and CAG-age product score (P = 0.019) in all gene-expansion carriers. Multiple studies have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in Huntington's disease pathogenesis and understanding of this involvement may have therapeutic potential in humans. This is the first study on cerebrospinal fluid to confirm the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in Huntington's disease. Furthermore it is shown that ubiquitin increases with disease progression and CAG-age product score and therefore may have the potential as a Huntington's disease progression marker, also prior to motor onset. © 2015 EAN.

  4. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment. (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E


    The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation

  5. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winsum-Westra Marijke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening

  6. Gardening in the desert: a spatial optimization approach to locating gardens in rapidly expanding urban environments. (United States)

    Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin


    Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert

  7. Phytochemical and Botanical Therapies for Rosacea: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K


    Botanical and cosmeceutical therapies are commonly used to treat symptoms of rosacea such as facial erythema, papules/pustule counts, and telangiectasia. These products may contain plant extracts, phytochemicals, and herbal formulations. The objective of this study was to review clinical studies evaluating the use of botanical agents for the treatment of rosacea. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for clinical studies evaluating botanical therapies for rosacea. Major results were summarized, and study methodology was analyzed. Several botanical therapies may be promising for rosacea symptoms, but few studies are methodologically rigorous. Several plant extract and phytochemicals effectively improved facial erythema and papule/pustule counts caused by rosacea. Many studies are not methodologically rigorous. Further research is critical, as many botanicals have been evaluated in only one study. Botanical agents may reduce facial erythema and effectively improve papule/pustule counts associated with rosacea. Although promising, further research in the area is imperative. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Neuronal Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Giacomello, Marta; Oliveros, Juan C; Naranjo, Jose R; Carafoli, Ernesto


    The expansion of the N-terminal poly-glutamine tract of the huntingtin (Htt) protein is responsible for Huntington disease (HD). A large number of studies have explored the neuronal phenotype of HD, but the molecular aethiology of the disease is still very poorly understood. This has hampered the development of an appropriate therapeutical strategy to at least alleviate its symptoms. In this short review, we have focused our attention on the alteration of a specific cellular mechanism common to all HD models, either genetic or induced by treatment with 3-NPA, i.e. the cellular dyshomeostasis of Ca(2+). We have highlighted the direct and indirect (i.e. transcriptionally mediated) effects of mutated Htt on the maintenance of the intracellular Ca(2+) balance, the correct modulation of which is fundamental to cell survival and the disturbance of which plays a key role in the death of the cell.

  9. Destination and source memory in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Caillaud, Marie; Verny, Christophe; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe


    Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults had to put 12 items in a black or a white box (destination task), and to extract another 12 items from a blue or a red box (source task). Afterwards, they had to decide in which box each item had previously been deposited (destination memory), and from which box each item had previously been extracted (source memory). HD participants showed poorer source as well as destination recall performance than healthy adults in the proposed tasks. Correlation analysis showed that destination recall was significantly correlated with episodic recall in HD participants. Destination memory impairment in HD participants seems to be considerably influenced by their episodic memory performance. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Huntington disease : Dna analysis in brazilian population


    Raskin, Salmo; Jardim, Laura Bannach


    A doença de Huntington (DH) está associada a expansões da seqüência repetitiva de trinucleotídeos CAG no gene HD. Através de análise do número de repetições CAG em indivíduos brasileiros, amostras de 92 indivíduos-controle não afetados pela DH, 44 pacientes com DH e 40 indivíduos de 6 famílias com a DH, demonstrou-se a presença de repetições de 7 até 33 trinucleotídeos CAG nos indivíduos-controle e de 39 até 88 nos alelos mutados dos indivíduos afetados. Foi constatada relação inversa entre a...

  11. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  12. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary


    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  13. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyhum, W; Hautot, D; Dobson, J; Pankhurst, Q A


    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls

  14. Autonomic nervous system function in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Andrich, J; Schmitz, T; Saft, C; Postert, T; Kraus, P; Epplen, J T; Przuntek, H; Agelink, M W


    To investigate whether Huntington's disease (HD) affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. Twenty patients with HD who had positive genetic test results underwent standardised ANS function tests including sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) of the hands and feet, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), both during five minutes of resting and deep respiration, and an orthostatic blood pressure test. Patients were classified according to the motor subscale of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale (UHDRS; mean (SD) score 26.4 (13.6)) and divided into two subgroups: UHDRS or =25 points (mid stages, M-HD). Autonomic indices were compared with those obtained for a group of well matched healthy controls (n=60). Overall, patients showed lower HRV indices than controls. Multivariate analysis with the independent factor of "group" (controls, E-HD, M-HD) showed a significant group effect on both the high frequency power (F=4.32, p=0.017) and the coefficient of variation (F=4.23, p=0.018), indicating a significant reduction in vagal modulation in the M-HD group. There was a shift in autonomic neurocardiac balance towards sympathetic predominance in the M-HD group compared with controls (F=2.89, p=0.062). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the severity of clinical HD symptoms (assessed by the UHDRS) and the modulation of cardiovagal activity (p=0.028). Vagal dysregulation was present in two patients; one of them also showed a pathological blood pressure test and a latency prolongation in the SSRs of the hands. Two other patients had pathologically reduced SSR amplitudes. Only patients of the M-HD group were affected. Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS.

  15. Proteasomal dysfunction in aging and Huntington disease. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shihua


    Protein degradation plays a central role in many cellular functions. Misfolded and damaged proteins are removed from the cells to avoid toxicity. Eukaryotic cells have two main routes for clearing misfolded or toxic proteins: the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is ubiquitously present in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and various subcellular regions whereas autophagy predominantly functions in the cytoplasm. The activity of the UPS often remains at a high level, whereas basal autophagy constitutively occurs at low levels in cells for the performance of homeostatic functions. Because of the presence of the UPS in the nucleus, the UPS function may be more important for clearing misfolded proteins in the nucleus. Polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington disease (HD), show the age-dependent neurological symptoms and the accumulation of misfolded proteins that are often found in the nucleus. The selective neuropathology in HD is also found to associate with the preferential accumulation of the disease protein huntingtin in neuronal cells. Although it is clear that the UPS is important for clearing mutant huntingtin, it remains unclear whether aging or HD affects the capacity of neuronal UPS to remove toxic and misfolded proteins. In this review, we focus on the relationship between the UPS function and aging as well as Huntington disease. We also discuss findings that suggest that aging is a more important factor that can negatively impact the function of the UPS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autophagy and protein degradation in neurological diseases." Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Winsum-Westra, van M.; Vries, de S.; Dillen, van S.M.E.


    Background - The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and

  17. [Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design]. (United States)

    Rivasseau-Jonveaux, Thérèse; Pop, Alina; Fescharek, Reinhard; Chuzeville, Stanislas Bah; Jacob, Christel; Demarche, Laëtitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel


    The French Alzheimer plan anticipates new specialized structures for cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioural therapy of Alzheimer's patients: the cognitive-behavioural units as follow-care units, the units of reinforced hospitalization inside the long term care units and the adapted activities units. this plan indicates the need to make healing gardens integral parts of these units. The benefits of green space in urban environments has been demonstrated with regards to physical, psychological and sociological effects and similarly studies in hospitals have revealed objective and measurable improvements of patients well being. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French care units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of Alzheimer's patients. For the garden "art, memory and life" a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach was developed, complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. It is already used in the frame of non-pharmacological therapies to improve symptoms such as deambulation, sleep disorders, apathy and aggressive behaviors. Based on the literature, and our experience and research, recommendations for the design of such gardens dedicated to Alzheimer's patients can be proposed. Beyond taking into account obvious aspects relating to security, allowing for free access, a careful design of walk-ways and a conscious choice of plants is needed. A systematic analysis of the existing green spaces or garden must be conducted in order to pinpoint the weakness of the space and identify the potential for developing it into a real healing garden. Evaluation of adapted questionnaires for users and professionals allow to establish a list of requirements combining both user requests and therapeutic needs as basis for the design of the garden as well as to evaluate during the course of the project, whether the needs of the various stakeholders have been met or if adjustments are necessary.

  18. Huntington's disease (HD) : the neuropathology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder of the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, U.; Seidel, K.; Heinsen, H.; Vonsattel, J. P.; den Dunnen, W. F.; Korf, H. W.


    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, and currently untreatable, neuropsychiatric disorder. This progressive and ultimately fatal disease is named after the American physician George Huntington and according to the underlying molecular biological mechanisms is assigned to

  19. Iglesia en Garden Grove, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.


    Full Text Available The Community Church, in Garden Grove has a ground area of 1067 m2 and provides 672 seats for the congregation. Its total planned capacity is 1000 people. The total project involves halls for cultural and social activities, church office, kitchen, as well as secondary annexes; also a Sunday school, with a nursery and schoolrooms for children of various ages. Outdoors, there is an ample parking space, where the motorcars—the Americans' second home—can be orientated facing the altar. Thus their occupants can follow the Mass visually, when the large sliding doors are opened, at the beginning of the service; then, at the end of the service these doors are slowly and solemnly closed. Furthermore, these automobile owners can also follow the service by listening to it through individual loudspeakers, which are supplied to each vehicle. Once more Mr. Neutra has designed thinking of man as a human being, and finding room for the women the children and the men who go to church not only inside the church, but also within the more intimate atmosphere of their own cars. He feels that religion must be something living, evolving with the times. The modern congregation is not that of the primitive Christians, living in their sombre catacombs, nor is it similar to the picturesque and intense believers of the Middle Ages. He has therefore created a happy solution, very apt to the anxious and hopeful people of today.La iglesia de la Comunidad de Garden Grove ocupa una superficie de 1.067,45 m2, y dispone de 672 asientos y capacidad total para 1.000 feligreses. El complejo parroquial consta, además, de una serie de dependencias anexas: salas para actividades culturales, sociales, oficinas de la parroquia, cocina..., etc., y una escuela dominical; esta última, con guardería infantil y aulas para grupos de diferentes edades. En el exterior ha sido dispuesta una zona de aparcamiento, en la que los coches familiares—segunda casa de los norteamericanos

  20. Drug-botanical interactions: a review of the laboratory, animal, and human data for 8 common botanicals. (United States)

    Shord, Stacy S; Shah, Kanan; Lukose, Alvina


    Many Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent or alleviate common illnesses, and these medicines are commonly used by individuals with cancer.These medicines or botanicals share the same metabolic and transport proteins, including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), with over-the-counter and prescription medicines increasing the likelihood of drug-botanical interactions.This review provides a brief description of the different proteins, such as CYPs, UGTs, and Pgp.The potential effects of drug-botanical interactions on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug or botanical and a summary of the more common models used to study drug metabolism are described.The remaining portion of this review summarizes the data extracted from several laboratory, animal, and clinical studies that describe the metabolism, transport, and potential interactions of 8 selected botanicals. The 8 botanicals include black cohosh, Echinacea, garlic, Gingko biloba, green tea, kava, milk thistle, and St John's wort; these botanicals are among some of the more common botanicals taken by individuals with cancer.These examples are included to demonstrate how to interpret the different studies and how to use these data to predict the likelihood of a clinically significant drug-botanical interaction.

  1. A strategy for the survey of urban garden soils (United States)

    Schwartz, C.; Chenot, E. D.; Cortet, J.; Douay, F.; Dumat, C.; Pernin, C.; Pourrut, B.


    In France and all over the world, there is no systematic data available on the quality (fertility and contamination) of garden soils. Nevertheless, there is a growing need for a typology and for a method dedicated to national and international garden soil survey. This inventory is much needed in the context of environmental risk assessment, to predict the potential impact on human health of the direct contact with garden soils and of the consumption of vegetables from gardens. The state of the art on the international knowledge on garden soils, gardening practices and food production, shows that gardens remain poorly known and very complex ecological, economical and social systems. Their global quality is the result of a wide number of factors including environment, history, specific characteristics of the gardens, gardeners and their practices, plant and/or animal productions and socio-economic context. The aim is then to better know the determinism of the agronomic, environmental and sanitary properties of gardens as a function of gardening practices and their impact on the quality of soils and plants. We propose a definition of "garden" and more generally of all the field "garden". The system "garden" is represented by attributes (soil and plant characteristics) and factors with various impacts (e.g. environment > soil parent material > former land uses > age and sex of gardener > gardening practices > socio-professional group > type and proportion of productions > climate > age of the garden > size of the garden > education, information > cultural origin > functions of the garden > regulations). A typology of gardens including 7 selected factors and associated categories and a method for describing, sampling and characterizing a population of gardens representative (for a country) are proposed. Based on the statistical analysis on regional databases, we have determined and proposed an optimum size for the collected population of garden soils. The discussion of

  2. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review. (United States)

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B


    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  3. Quantitative 7T phase imaging in premanifest Huntington disease. (United States)

    Apple, A C; Possin, K L; Satris, G; Johnson, E; Lupo, J M; Jakary, A; Wong, K; Kelley, D A C; Kang, G A; Sha, S J; Kramer, J H; Geschwind, M D; Nelson, S J; Hess, C P


    In vivo MR imaging and postmortem neuropathologic studies have demonstrated elevated iron concentration and atrophy within the striatum of patients with Huntington disease, implicating neuronal loss and iron accumulation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder. We used 7T MR imaging to determine whether quantitative phase, a measurement that reflects both iron content and tissue microstructure, is altered in subjects with premanifest Huntington disease. Local field shift, calculated from 7T MR phase images, was quantified in 13 subjects with premanifest Huntington disease and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants underwent 3T and 7T MR imaging, including volumetric T1 and 7T gradient recalled-echo sequences. Local field shift maps were created from 7T phase data and registered to caudate ROIs automatically parcellated from the 3T T1 images. Huntington disease-specific disease burden and neurocognitive and motor evaluations were also performed and compared with local field shift. Subjects with premanifest Huntington disease had smaller caudate volume and higher local field shift than controls. A significant correlation between these measurements was not detected, and prediction accuracy for disease state improved with inclusion of both variables. A positive correlation between local field shift and genetic disease burden was also found, and there was a trend toward significant correlations between local field shift and neurocognitive tests of working memory and executive function. Subjects with premanifest Huntington disease exhibit differences in 7T MR imaging phase within the caudate nuclei that correlate with genetic disease burden and trend with neurocognitive assessments. Ultra-high-field MR imaging of quantitative phase may be a useful approach for monitoring neurodegeneration in premanifest Huntington disease. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Rating scales for cognition in Huntington's disease: Critique and recommendations. (United States)

    Mestre, Tiago A; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Marinus, Johan; Stout, Julie C; Paulsen, Jane S; Como, Peter; Duff, Kevin; Sampaio, Cristina; Goetz, Christopher G; Cubo, Esther; Stebbins, Glenn T; Martinez-Martin, Pablo


    Cognitive impairment is one of the main features of Huntington's disease and is present across the disease spectrum. As part of the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored project to review all clinical rating scales used in Huntington's disease, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify cognitive scales used in Huntington's disease and make recommendations for their use. A total of 17 cognitive scales were identified and evaluated. None of the scales met criteria for a "recommended" status. For assessing severity of cognitive dysfunction, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment was "recommended with caveats." The UHDRS Cognitive Assessment, the UHDRS-For Advanced Patients cognitive section, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, the Frontal Assessment Battery, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status were "suggested" for evaluating severity of cognitive impairment. The MoCA was "suggested" as a screening tool for cognitive impairment. The major challenge in the assessment of cognition in Huntington's disease is the lack of a formal definition of dementia and/or mild cognitive impairment in this disease. The committee concluded that there is a need to further validate currently available cognitive scales in Huntington's disease, but that it is premature to recommend the development of new scales. Recently developed Huntington's disease-specific scales, such as the Huntington's Disease-Cognitive Assessment Battery, hold promise but require the completion of more comprehensive clinimetric development. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. 77 FR 22616 - Huntington Asset Advisors, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ...''), Huntington Strategy Shares (``Trust''), and SEI Investments Distribution Co. Summary of Application... occur at negotiated market prices; (c) certain series to pay redemption proceeds, under certain..., Huntington U.S. Equity Rotation Strategy ETF and Huntington EcoLogical Strategy ETF (together, the ``Initial...

  6. 75 FR 38710 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY (United States)


    ..., Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 13454). The Coast Guard received no comments...

  7. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must be...

  8. 75 FR 13454 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY (United States)


    ... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of proposed rulemaking... Special Local Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran... championship swim on the waters of Huntington Bay, NY during a single day in July. This swim has historically...

  9. Placebo effect characteristics observed in a single, international, longitudinal study in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubo, E.; Gonzalez, M.; Puerto, I. del; Yebenes, J.G. de; Arconada, O.F.; Gabriel y Galan, J.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; et al.,


    BACKGROUND: Classically, clinical trials are based on the placebo-control design. Our aim was to analyze the placebo effect in Huntington's disease. METHODS: Placebo data were obtained from an international, longitudinal, placebo-controlled trial for Huntington's disease (European Huntington's


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Despot


    Full Text Available A green wall is a wall partially or completely covered with greenery that includes a growing medium, such as soil. Most green walls also feature an integrated water delivery system. Green walls are also known as living walls or vertical gardens. Green walls are used as one of means which for many years have been used to enrich the appearance of building elevations. They make it possible to introduce greenery into urban areas, which are often limited by the size of the building plot. They add an exceptional aesthetic aspect to the so-called ‘blind’ walls found in city centers. Green walls not only bring with them an element of beauty and integration with nature, but by being used to a wider extent, could also have a positive impact on the city’s microclimate. Various technologies enable the creation of green walls on the outside of buildings as well as in semi-open spaces and interiors. In this publication, five different methods of setting up living walls are described, from the relatively simple technique of planting climbers that easily cover bare walls to modular panel systems or green wall systems with flower pots to ‘living wall’ solutions and finally, to Patrick Blanc’s highly sophisticated vertical garden technology.

  11. Fertilization of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal: effects on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen, phosphate and lime on change in botanical composition and utilisation under grazing of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are presented. Nitrogen, phosphate, lime and type of nitrogen affected botanical composition significantly. Generally, fertilisation had the same effect on species ...

  12. Visualization of DNA in highly processed botanical materials. (United States)

    Lu, Zhengfei; Rubinsky, Maria; Babajanian, Silva; Zhang, Yanjun; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary


    DNA-based methods have been gaining recognition as a tool for botanical authentication in herbal medicine; however, their application in processed botanical materials is challenging due to the low quality and quantity of DNA left after extensive manufacturing processes. The low amount of DNA recovered from processed materials, especially extracts, is "invisible" by current technology, which has casted doubt on the presence of amplifiable botanical DNA. A method using adapter-ligation and PCR amplification was successfully applied to visualize the "invisible" DNA in botanical extracts. The size of the "invisible" DNA fragments in botanical extracts was around 20-220 bp compared to fragments of around 600 bp for the more easily visualized DNA in botanical powders. This technique is the first to allow characterization and visualization of small fragments of DNA in processed botanical materials and will provide key information to guide the development of appropriate DNA-based botanical authentication methods in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mr Napite's botanical knowledge: bridging farmers' and scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though his broad and detailed botanical knowledge is recognised by other local experts, this does not provide him any particular social status. Although he received extensive formal training, his botanical knowledge draws largely on personal and traditional concepts. Clear morphological characteristics, other than the ...

  14. A model on how to obtain data from botanical practitioners. (United States)

    Elsas, Siegward M


    This paper addresses the challenge on how to obtain information from practitioners with experience in using medicinal plants. Collecting information on medicinal uses of plants is very challenging; since botanical remedies are used within the context of multiple differing medical systems, practitioners differ in training from Western physicians and scientists, and active ingredients of botanicals vary with preparation method, growth, and harvest conditions. A model on how useful data on safety and efficacy can be obtained from botanical practitioners is presented, based on methods developed by the association of anthroposophic physicians in Europe, a system of integrative medicine which includes the use of botanicals and is practiced mostly by medical doctors. Decades of experience by hundreds of practitioners are summarized and made accessible in a manual, which alphabetically lists the most commonly used botanicals and describes the most successful therapeutic experiences which could be confirmed by several of the contributing practitioners. This approach of continuous, multilingual systematic collection of successful therapeutic experiences within a community of practitioners with similar goals and a common therapeutic framework can be used not only for the training of successful future botanical practitioners, but also for helping to identify promising botanicals for scientific research and to further their development, and could support their official registration with governing bodies in countries of their use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Therapy Garden Nacadia®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Ulrik

    collaborative process that used state-of-the-art evidence and expert knowledge on therapy gardens and NBT. This PhD project is an exploratory study that examines the relationship between the design of a therapy garden, a nature-based therapy program and citizens with severe stress. The overall aim is to gain......The therapy garden Nacadia® is designed to provide a setting and framework for a nature-based therapy (NBT) program for people suffering from stress-related illnesses. It was established through an evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL) process, an interdisciplinary...... a deeper understanding of and develop more knowledge about landscape architecture in a therapeutic intervention under Danish conditions. Data were collected from 42 severely stress citizens during a 10 week NBT program in Nacadia. Several data collection and data processing methods were used: Landscape...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska Sandeva


    Full Text Available As we know we live in a process of industrialization and massive building of residential buildings, both individually and as a collective housing. Given all that happens even with the procedural other things to come up with all this, the country remains less green space that is required for a single environment, so the roof gardens are the best choice for all of this to get a beautiful country. For roof gardens should be given the explanation that, roof gardens, call it beautiful, flat roofs, and with gentle slope, with rich composition intensively maintained and often impose a constructive adaptation of the building and benefits by the architectural beauty, insulation, absorption. Commonly found in urban areas and almost always are placed foliage with not very high growth.

  17. Scholar garden: Educational strategy for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Rodríguez Haros


    Full Text Available About five years ago, and worried about the erosion of knowledge related to the process of food production, access and safety, anagroenvironmental vegetable garden was established and named “Un pasito en grande” (A large baby step, where the use of agrochemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, etc. are forbidden. Everything takes place with the participation of boys, girls, fathers and mothers of the Colegio Ateneo nursery school of Tezoyuca, State of Mexico. Childrens' participation has helpedspread the word about the experience and little by little, the strategy has spread to other educational spaces. The school garden has become a space to raise ecological and environmental awareness that is strengthened with daily activities and specific activities that are implemented. The school garden is based on a series of philosophical principles that help reflect upon our learning-doing; in methodological terms, its implementation is based on ethics and on the principles of permaculture.

  18. A New Look for the Globe Gardens

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Designs to develop the grounds of the Globe of Science and Innovation have recently been unveiled. The plan is to extend the visitor activities on offer, transforming the area into a public arena for scientific exploration.   Design for the new Globe Gardens. © Jencks Squared and Groupe H. After months of conceptual development, plans to develop the site around the Globe are taking shape. The innovative designs were drawn up for CERN by a unique collaboration consisting of landscape architects Charles and Lily Jencks, and "Groupe H", a group of architects headed by Globe designer Hervé Dessimoz. They comprise new venues, covered walkways, a café and gift shop, a separate VIP entrance and a physics-inspired garden for visitors. The landscape itself becomes a feature – dramatically altered to create a cosmic garden formed by shaped mounds, ponds, and a natural amphitheatre for public events. “The new exhibition in the G...

  19. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure after Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Vucicevic


    Full Text Available Acute nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis may arise when the energy supply to muscle is insufficient to meet demands, particularly in physically untrained individuals. We report on a psychiatric patient who developed large bruises and hemorrhagic blisters on both hands and arms, rhabdomyolysis of both forearm muscles with a moderate compartment syndrome, and consecutive acute renal failure following excessive work in the garden. Although specifically asked, the patient denied any hard physical work or gardening, and heteroanamnestic data were not available. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was easy to establish, but until reliable anamnestic data were obtained, the etiology remained uncertain. Four days after arrival, the patient recalled working hard in the garden. The etiology of rhabdomyolysis was finally reached, and the importance of anamnestic data was once more confirmed.

  20. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements (United States)


    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  1. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements. (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B


    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  2. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt


    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  3. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita


    The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p disease burden (p Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease.

  4. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Matteson


    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  5. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.


    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and



    Tabinda Qaiser; Hassnain Shah; Sajida Taj; Murad Ali


    Kitchen Gardening Project is the revolutionary step to increase vegetables production as well as provision of cheap vegetables to the consumers. The main focus of the study was to assess the impact of kitchen gardening training given by Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI) under watershed project in Arokas and Ghoragali. Capacity building of rural women in Kitchen Gardening was the focus and twenty trainees of kitchen gardening were selected randomly from each location to assess the impa...

  7. Constipation and Botanical Medicines: An Overview. (United States)

    Cirillo, Carla; Capasso, Raffaele


    Constipation affects 14% of the adult population globally, mainly women, and significantly impacts on health-related quality of life. The causes of constipation are mainly three: lifestyle related (functional constipation), disease related, and drug induced. Constipation can generate considerable suffering, including abdominal pain and distension, anorexia, and nausea. The value of some therapeutic measures such as increased fluid intake, physical activity, diet rich in fiber, and nutritional supplements recommended for the relief of constipation is still questionable. The treatment of constipation can be carried out not only with traditional drugs but also with herbal medicines or with nutraceuticals, which are used to prevent or treat the disorder. We have reviewed the most common botanical laxatives such as senna, cascara, frangula, aloe, and rhubarb and their use in the treatment of constipation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sören


    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical attributes that drive the kinetic behavior of a plant and the exothermic reaction of the combustion. Coupled with realistic physics for rods, the particles enable dynamic branch motions. We model material properties, such as moisture and charring behavior, and associate them with individual particles. The combustion is efficiently processed in the surface domain of the tree model on a polygonal mesh. A user can dynamically interact with the model by initiating fires and by inducing stress on branches. The flames realistically propagate through the tree model by consuming the available resources. Our method runs at interactive rates and supports multiple tree instances in parallel. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerous examples and evaluate its plausibility against the combustion of real wood samples.

  9. The Frequency of Huntington Disease and Huntington Disease-Like 2 in the South African Population. (United States)

    Baine, Fiona K; Krause, Amanda; Greenberg, L Jacquie


    Huntington disease (HD) has most recently been estimated to affect between 10.6 and 13.7 per 100,000 individuals in European populations. However, prevalence is known to differ geographically. In South Africa, the only published estimates are from a survey performed in the 1970s, an era when the disease was believed to be rare or absent in black individuals and molecular confirmation was absent. The disease phenotype in South Africa is currently attributable to mutations in both the huntington and junctophilin-3 genes, which underlie the well-known HD and the rarer HD-like 2 (HDL2) respectively. This study aimed at providing improved minimum estimates of disease frequency in South Africa, based on molecular genetic testing data. A review of all testing records for HD and HDL2 over a 20-year period was undertaken. HDL2 is virtually indistinguishable on clinical features, thus necessitating its inclusion. Based on molecular diagnostic records, minimum estimates of disease frequency are: 5.1, 2.1 and 0.25 (per 100,000 individuals) for the white, mixed ancestry and black population groups respectively. Although ascertainment remains incomplete, these minimum estimates suggest that disease frequencies are significantly higher than those previously reported in South Africa. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Elementary School Garden Programs Enhance Science Education for All Learners (United States)

    Rye, James A.; Selmer, Sarah J.; Pennington, Sara; Vanhorn, Laura; Fox, Sarah; Kane, Sarah


    A national movement is underway to establish elementary school gardens, which can serve both academic and social purposes. These gardens can positively impact students' science achievement and provide the thematic and hands-on approach especially conducive to learning for students with disabilities. Garden-based learning (GBL) broadens the scope…

  11. School-Community Gardening: Learning, Living, Earning, and Giving (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Bowles, Freddie A.


    Elementary teacher Ms. Huff realized that her third grade students were limited in their knowledge and experiences related to gardening. Most of today's young learners in the United States do not live on farms, and few families maintain gardens. Only a few of Ms. Huff's students could say they had a family garden. In schools, students learn about…

  12. Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and

  13. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Custers, M.H.G.


    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and

  14. Rural life in the city: the chalet garden in Denmark (United States)

    Amy Damin; James F. Palmer


    Allotment gardens with small cottages make a rural lifestyle partially available in urban areas. Temporary living quarters, combined with the tending of annual and perennial plants, let urbanites coexist with nature for a few months out of the year. This paper investigates the history and social life these gardens play in Denmark. A particular garden, Sano near...

  15. School Gardens: Teaching and Learning outside the Front Door (United States)

    Passy, Rowena


    This article reports on two projects: one that investigated the impact of school gardens on primary children's learning and one that is currently exploring the pedagogies involved in teaching children in the garden. The evidence presented suggests that school gardens can be an interesting and effective way of engaging children with learning, but…

  16. Demography of Zoo Animals in Four Zoological Gardens in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between October and December 2012 to determine the demography of animals in Zoological gardens in South-western Nigeria, using questionnaires and records of the Zoological gardens. A total of 250 animals were in the four Zoological gardens in the zone with the avians, reptiles and primates ...

  17. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  18. Weed Garden: An Effective Tool for Extension Education (United States)

    Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.


    A weed garden was constructed to quantify and improve identification skills among clientele. The garden was planted with over 100 weed species based on surveys on problematic weeds. The weed garden proved useful for introducing additional hands-on learning activities into traditional lecture-based seminars. Through seminar and field day attendee…

  19. 3-Hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase activity is increased in the brains of Huntington disease victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarcz, R.; Okuno, E.; White, R.J.; Bird, E.D.; Whetsell, W.O. Jr.


    An excess of the tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid in the brain has been hypothetically related to the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Quinolinate's immediate biosynthetic enzyme, 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase, has now been detected in human brain tissue. The activity of 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase is increased in Huntington disease brains as compared to control brains. The increment is particularly pronounced in the striatum, which is known to exhibit the most prominent nerve-cell loss in Huntington disease. Thus, the Huntington disease brain has a disproportionately high capability to produce the endogenous excitotoxin quinolinic acid. This finding may be of relevance for clinical, neuropathologic, and biochemical features associated with Huntington disease

  20. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal


    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  1. Personalized gene silencing therapeutics for Huntington disease. (United States)

    Kay, C; Skotte, N H; Southwell, A L; Hayden, M R


    Gene silencing offers a novel therapeutic strategy for dominant genetic disorders. In specific diseases, selective silencing of only one copy of a gene may be advantageous over non-selective silencing of both copies. Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Silencing both expanded and normal copies of HTT may be therapeutically beneficial, but preservation of normal HTT expression is preferred. Allele-specific methods can selectively silence the mutant HTT transcript by targeting either the expanded CAG repeat or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium with the expansion. Both approaches require personalized treatment strategies based on patient genotypes. We compare the prospect of safe treatment of HD by CAG- and SNP-specific silencing approaches and review HD population genetics used to guide target identification in the patient population. Clinical implementation of allele-specific HTT silencing faces challenges common to personalized genetic medicine, requiring novel solutions from clinical scientists and regulatory authorities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Haplotype-based stratification of Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Chao, Michael J; Gillis, Tammy; Atwal, Ranjit S; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Arjomand, Jamshid; Harold, Denise; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Lee, Jong-Min


    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in HTT, resulting in an extended polyglutamine tract in huntingtin. We and others have previously determined that the HD-causing expansion occurs on multiple different haplotype backbones, reflecting more than one ancestral origin of the same type of mutation. In view of the therapeutic potential of mutant allele-specific gene silencing, we have compared and integrated two major systems of HTT haplotype definition, combining data from 74 sequence variants to identify the most frequent disease-associated and control chromosome backbones and revealing that there is potential for additional resolution of HD haplotypes. We have used the large collection of 4078 heterozygous HD subjects analyzed in our recent genome-wide association study of HD age at onset to estimate the frequency of these haplotypes in European subjects, finding that common genetic variation at HTT can distinguish the normal and CAG-expanded chromosomes for more than 95% of European HD individuals. As a resource for the HD research community, we have also determined the haplotypes present in a series of publicly available HD subject-derived fibroblasts, induced pluripotent cells, and embryonic stem cells in order to facilitate efforts to develop inclusive methods of allele-specific HTT silencing applicable to most HD patients. Our data providing genetic guidance for therapeutic gene-based targeting will significantly contribute to the developments of rational treatments and implementation of precision medicine in HD.

  3. Cell-based technologies for Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Santoro Haddad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal genetic disorder, which causes the progressive breakdown of neurons in the human brain. HD deteriorates human physical and mental abilities over time and has no cure. Stem cell-based technologies are promising novel treatments, and in HD, they aim to replace lost neurons and/or to prevent neural cell death. Herein we discuss the use of human fetal tissue (hFT, neural stem cells (NSCs of hFT origin or embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs, in clinical and pre-clinical studies. The in vivo use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which are derived from non-neural tissues, will also be discussed. All these studies prove the potential of stem cells for transplantation therapy in HD, demonstrating cell grafting and the ability to differentiate into mature neurons, resulting in behavioral improvements. We claim that there are still many problems to overcome before these technologies become available for HD patient treatment, such as: a safety regarding the use of NSCs and pluripotent stem cells, which are potentially teratogenic; b safety regarding the transplantation procedure itself, which represents a risk and needs to be better studied; and finally c technical and ethical issues regarding cells of fetal and embryonic origin.

  4. [Pharmaceutical botanical studies on some Glycyrrhiza species]. (United States)

    Kusano, Genjiro; Shibano, Makio; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Kazuo


    Some Glycyrrhiza species grown in several domestic research gardens of medicinal plants were collected by the Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences and were cultivated to compare their morphological properties. HPLC profile analysis was performed and index compounds of MeOH extracts of aerial parts and EtOAc extracts of subterranean parts were determined. Glycyrrhizin contents and growth rates of the underground parts of some types of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra were compared and four excellent types were selected as candidates for cultivation. One of them was due to Kanzo-Yashiki (Enzan, Yamanashi prefecture), where G. uralensis was cultivated in the Edo period. Alkaloidal constituents of G. uralensis and G. glabra were also investigated and anabasine (an insecticide) and a new tricyclic alkaloid were obtained.

  5. Predictors of School Garden Integration: Factors Critical to Gardening Success in New York City. (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Burgermaster, Marissa; Jacquez, Raquel


    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of integration of school gardens and identify factors that predict integration. 211 New York City schools completed a survey that collected demographic information and utilized the School Garden Integration Scale. A mean garden integration score was calculated, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of integration and assess relationships between individual integration characteristics and budget. The average integration score was 34.1 (of 57 points) and ranged from 8 to 53. Operating budget had significant influence on integration score, controlling for all other factors ( p integrated, as budget is a modifiable factor. When adequate funding is secured, a well-integrated garden may be established with proper planning and sound implementation.

  6. Contested claims to gardens and land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obika, Julaina; Adol, Ben Otto; Babiiha, Sulayman Mpisi


    This chapter explores how, in a patrilineal and patriarchal society recovering from two decades of war, women and men frame arguments about entitlement. Here claims to gardens (plots of land for cultivation) become a contested conversation about women’s rights of belonging to family and community...

  7. Garden walking for depression: a research report. (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William


    This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.

  8. Students Dig for Real School Gardens (United States)

    Reeves, Lacey; Emeagwali, N. Susan


    There's a lot of talk about saving the environment and going green these days. But the challenge is to turn the words into action, and that includes getting young students to become part of the discussion about sustainability. The Texas-based Rainwater Environmental Alliance for Learning (REAL) School Gardens is cultivating success by providing…

  9. Integrated Curriculum in a Tiny Texas Garden. (United States)

    Monk, Sarah K.


    Describes how a first-grade class in East Texas learned to garden in a project that allows children to plant seeds and watch their plants mature while developing skills in mathematics, science, reading and writing, and interpreting a calendar. (SW)

  10. Gardening takes root in Governador Valadares

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    port the gardeners receive from municipal staff emanated from a research project in 2003, supported by ... recent Health Department survey that included data on what people were growing in their backyards. ... sizes data from maps, aerial views, and databases — to identify vacant plots that were suitable for urban agricul-.

  11. Business plan for a Zen garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žibrat Maja


    Full Text Available The placement of a theme park in the form of a Zen garden, as a business opportunity in the Slovenian rural area, is discussed. The design of the garden, with all the major points of a standard business plan, is accurately presented, with a description of the business, branch, and services, market analysis, marketing strategy, financial projections, and a plan of the work and activities. The financial aspect is presented as the amount of investment, net present value, and internal rate of return. The amount of investment is estimated at € 14.891, which should be reimbursed within 4 years of operations. The estimated internal rate of return is estimated at 16.86%. Part of the study is the market analysis - conduction of a survey into knowledge of, and interest in, Zen and Zen gardens. The principles of landscape ecology are respected, as the Zen garden would be set in the woods and will blend seamlessly into the landscape.

  12. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden. (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia


    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  13. Cultivating Bakhtin in the garden: Children's ecological narratives on becoming community gardeners (United States)

    Grugel, Annie H.


    This dissertation illustrates how a children's community garden, designed specifically to promote intergenerational, multi-sociocultural relationships, is an "ideological environment" linking individuals and their community and connecting people with nature, in order to promote feelings of belonging, social connection, and encourage a sense of stewardship and identification with the environment (Bakhtin, 1978). By spending time in a community garden, responding to the natural ecosystems which exist on this land, and reflecting, through image and story about our childhood experience, the participants and I engaged in the dialogic process of what Thomashow (1996) refers to as "doing ecological identity work." Throughout this study I question how our past experiences with nature in ideological environments shape our ecological epistemologies, and how the dialogic process of becoming a gardener within the context of a community garden shapes a person's ecological identity. To frame this exploration of ecological identity work as a dialogic process and its role in the development of an ecological identity, I draw from sociocultural theory (Holland, et al., 1998), Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, and ecological identity studies (Clayton and Opotow, 2003; Cobb, 1993; Orr, 1994, 2006; Sobel, 1996, 2008; Thomashow, 1996). A large body of scholarly writing done by environmental researchers is devoted to examining and describing how adults, who self-identify as environmentalists, developed an ecological worldview. However, only a fraction of research is devoted to theorizing how children develop an environmental epistemology. In this study, I focus on how community gardens are dialogic spaces that provide a place for elementary-aged children to "experience" the discourse of gardening. Here, I describe the discourses that shape the garden and describe how gardeners, as a result of their collaborative experiences between human and non-human actors, take up social and dialogical

  14. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.


    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  15. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements. (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B


    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management. (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Graham, James G; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F


    This article reviews and develops a perspective for the meaning of authenticity in the context of quality assessment of botanical materials and the challenges associated with discerning adulterations vs. contaminations vs. impurities. Authentic botanicals are by definition non-adulterated, a mutually exclusive relationship that is confirmed through the application of a multilayered set of analytical methods designed to validate the (chemo)taxonomic identity of a botanical and certify that it is devoid of any adulteration. In practice, the ever-increasing sophistication in the process of intentional adulteration, as well as the growing number of botanicals entering the market, altogether necessitate a constant adaptation and reinforcement of authentication methods with new approaches, especially new technologies. This article summarizes the set of analytical methods - classical and contemporary - that can be employed in the authentication of botanicals. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. An NMR-based untargeted metabolomic model is proposed as a rapid, systematic, and complementary screening for the discrimination of authentic vs. potentially adulterated botanicals. Such analytical model can help advance the evaluation of botanical integrity in natural product research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Clinical manifestations of intermediate allele carriers in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Ramos-Arroyo, María A; Martinez-Horta, Saul; Martínez-Descalls, Asunción; Calvo, Sara; Gil-Polo, Cecilia


    There is controversy about the clinical consequences of intermediate alleles (IAs) in Huntington disease (HD). The main objective of this study was to establish the clinical manifestations of IA carriers for a prospective, international, European HD registry. We assessed a cohort of participants at risk with Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor, cognitive, and behavior domains, Total Functional Capacity (TFC), and quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36]). This cohort was subdivided into IA carriers (27-35 CAG) and controls (genetic status, IAs might confer a late-onset abnormal motor and cognitive phenotype. These results might have important implications for genetic counseling. NCT01590589. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Gray and green revisited: a multidisciplinary perspective of gardens, gardening, and the aging process. (United States)

    Wright, Scott D; Wadsworth, Amy Maida


    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of "gray and green" was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion.

  19. Gray and Green Revisited: A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Gardens, Gardening, and the Aging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Wright


    Full Text Available Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000 to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivenge E.


    Full Text Available Zimbabwe has experienced an unprecedented decline of nearly all human development indicators for the past ten years. Despite the introduction of community gardens in drought-prone areas of Zimbabwe, poverty persists amongst the vulnerable groups. The potential to improve household, community and national food and nutrition security through garden activities is high if issues of water availability cost and availability of inputs, marketing and farmer empowerment can be addressed. This paper seeks to assess the community garden's cost structure to sales volume and profitability and the land use efficiency. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A two stage sampling techniques was used to select respondents. The study was conducted in Zaka district. Three major crops namely tomatoes, covo and onion were chosen for the study basing on size of land under that particular crop. Cost-Volume-Profit analysis employed for analysis of cost structure to sales volume and profitability. Land use efficiency was also employed to measure the ratio yield per acre of farm to average yield of locality. The results showed that although the farmers are able to break even the margin of safety is small especially for cove and onion. The study recommends farmers to increase the size of acreage under onion production whilst reduce acreage under production of covo. Farmers should adopt technology that would improve land use efficiency of onion. There is a need for the intervention by the Government and other stakeholders to improve the profitability and efficiency of the community gardeners. Stakeholders' collaboration especially, in terms of farmer training which can improve garden activities as participants lack knowhow.

  1. Gardens, knowledge and the sciences in the early modern period

    CERN Document Server

    Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim


    This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.

  2. The National Institutes of Health Investment in Research on Botanicals (United States)

    Coates, Paul M.; Meyers, Catherine M.


    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) were both established by Congress in the 1990’s. ODS aims to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements (DS). NCCAM promotes exploration of complementary and alternative medicine in the context of rigorous science. Together, they developed the Botanical Research Centers Program to promote interdisciplinary study of botanicals, particularly those found in DS, by supporting research activities ranging from plant and characterization to preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. These Centers are part of the coordinated efforts of ODS and NCCAM to enhance botanical research. PMID:21075178

  3. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul


    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  4. Spa Garden in Daruvar – Methods of Renewal and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćitaroci Mladen Obad


    Full Text Available Spa garden in Daruvar ‘Julius’s Park’ is the oldest spa garden in continental Croatia. The counts Jankovich and their successors created the garden during the 18th and 20th century. The garden resumed its nowadays form and surface in the time of count Julius Jankovich in the mid-19th century and it was named after him. The garden is protected as a cultural heritage. The garden’s renovation is seen as an urban, architectural and landscape unity and it attempts to affirm the missing and neglected parts of the garden, to provide technological and municipal space modernization and to make a pleasant urban garden ambiance with new facilities and high space arrangement qualities, contributing to the economic development of the local community.

  5. Auditory dysfunction in patients with Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Profant, Oliver; Roth, Jan; Bureš, Zbyněk; Balogová, Zuzana; Lišková, Irena; Betka, Jan; Syka, Josef


    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease. The main clinical features are motor impairment, progressive cognitive deterioration and behavioral changes. The aim of our study was to find out whether patients with HD suffer from disorders of the auditory system. A group of 17 genetically verified patients (11 males, 6 females) with various stages of HD (examined by UHDRS - motor part and total functional capacity, MMSE for cognitive functions) underwent an audiological examination (high frequency pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, speech audiometry, speech audiometry in babble noise, auditory brainstem responses). Additionally, 5 patients underwent a more extensive audiological examination, focused on central auditory processing. The results were compared with a group of age-matched healthy volunteers. Our results show that HD patients have physiologic hearing thresholds, otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses; however, they display a significant decrease in speech understanding, especially under demanding conditions (speech in noise) compared to age-matched controls. Additional auditory tests also show deficits in sound source localization, based on temporal and intensity cues. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between the perception of speech in noise, and motoric and cognitive functions. However, a correlation between genetic predisposition (number of triplets) and function of inner ear was not found. We conclude that HD negatively influences the function of the central part of the auditory system at cortical and subcortical levels, altering predominantly speech processing and sound source lateralization. We have thoroughly characterized auditory pathology in patients with HD that suggests involvement of central auditory and cognitive areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Tetrabenazine is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tie-Shan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in Huntingtin protein (Htt. PolyQ expansion in Httexp causes selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN in HD patients. A number of previous studies suggested that dopamine signaling plays an important role in HD pathogenesis. A specific inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2 tetrabenazine (TBZ has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of HD patients in the USA. TBZ acts by reducing dopaminergic input to the striatum. Results In previous studies we demonstrated that long-term feeding with TBZ (combined with L-Dopa alleviated the motor deficits and reduced the striatal neuronal loss in the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128 mice. To further investigate a potential beneficial effects of TBZ for HD treatment, we here repeated TBZ evaluation in YAC128 mice starting TBZ treatment at 2 months of age ("early" TBZ group and at 6 months of age ("late" TBZ group. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that both "early" and "late" TBZ treatments alleviated motor deficits and reduced striatal cell loss in YAC128 mice. In addition, we have been able to recapitulate and quantify depression-like symptoms in TBZ-treated mice, reminiscent of common side effects observed in HD patients taking TBZ. Conclusions Our results further support therapeutic value of TBZ for treatment of HD but also highlight the need to develop more specific dopamine antagonists which are less prone to side-effects.

  7. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the "next generation" of evo-devo research. (United States)

    Dosmann, Michael; Groover, Andrew


    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking toward the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing 1,000 Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them.

  8. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research (United States)

    Dosmann, Michael; Groover, Andrew


    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking toward the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing 1,000 Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them. PMID:22737158

  9. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the next generation of evo-devo research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eGroover


    Full Text Available Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing One Thousand Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch-points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them.

  10. Examining the gardens of the preschool education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Orçan Kaçan


    Full Text Available In the study, it is aimed to reveal current features and practices of the gardens of the preschool education institutions, the obstacles to being qualified gardens in the schools and professional trainings related to the gardens which the teachers want to participate in. The population of the study consists of the teachers working in preschool education institutions in 2014-2015 academic years. The sample of the study consists of 56 preschool teachers who have been willing to participate in the study in the preschool education institutions under the Ministry of National Education which have been selected randomly from the population. The study is a survey study, and a questionnaire form has been prepared by the researchers by investigating related domestic and foreign literature to analyze the views of the teachers related to gardens. The questionnaire form consisted of sections like general information, garden features and applications of the schools, obstacles to gardens in the schools, professional trainings related to garden that the teachers want to participate in. In the analysis of the data obtained in the direction of the goals of the study, frequency and percentage distribution from descriptive statistical techniques have been used. As a result of the research, it was determined that half of the schools had the garden and the other half did not have the garden. Teachers have stated that the majority of school gardens use grasses, wild habitats and ornamental plants, use more than half of the school gardens for activities, and that these activities are mostly play, movement, science and field trips. The majority of teachers reported budget deficiencies and inadequate space as obstacles to the quality gardening of schools. In addition, they reported that the majority of them want to participate in professional training fields related to garden-based teaching such as outdoor classroom management, language and math, nutrition, science and

  11. Global Genome Biodiversity Network: saving a blueprint of the Tree of Life – a botanical perspective (United States)

    Seberg, O.; Droege, G.; Barker, K.; Coddington, J. A.; Funk, V.; Gostel, M.; Petersen, G.; Smith, P. P.


    Background Genomic research depends upon access to DNA or tissue collected and preserved according to high-quality standards. At present, the collections in most natural history museums do not sufficiently address these standards, making them often hard or impossible to use for whole-genome sequencing or transcriptomics. In response to these challenges, natural history museums, herbaria, botanical gardens and other stakeholders have started to build high-quality biodiversity biobanks. Unfortunately, information about these collections remains fragmented, scattered and largely inaccessible. Without a central registry or even an overview of relevant institutions, it is difficult and time-consuming to locate the needed samples. Scope The Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) was created to fill this vacuum by establishing a one-stop access point for locating samples meeting quality standards for genome-scale applications, while complying with national and international legislations and conventions. Increased accessibility to genomic samples will further genomic research and development, conserve genetic resources, help train the next generation of genome researchers and raise the visibility of biodiversity collections. Additionally, the availability of a data-sharing platform will facilitate identification of gaps in the collections, thereby empowering targeted sampling efforts, increasing the breadth and depth of preservation of genetic diversity. The GGBN is rapidly growing and currently has 41 members. The GGBN covers all branches of the Tree of Life, except humans, but here the focus is on a pilot project with emphasis on ‘harvesting’ the Tree of Life for vascular plant taxa to enable genome-level studies. Conclusion While current efforts are centred on getting the existing samples of all GGBN members online, a pilot project, GGI-Gardens, has been launched as proof of concept. Over the next 6 years GGI-Gardens aims to add to the GGBN high-quality genetic

  12. Narrowcasting of virtual cultural portals: the cases of Barcelona's Botanic Gardens and the Boí valley

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    Cèsar Carreras


    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the reasons behind the success of a cultural resource on the internet. It is not always the number of hits that determines this success, instead they need to be used by specialist groups and in the context of cultural dissemination, education and research. The aim in defining the key concepts of cybermetrics, the discipline that studies the quantitative description of the content and communication processes seen on the internet, is to show how the narrowcasting of cultural resources to groups of interest is more important than general broadcast over the internet.



    Lia Hapsari; Ahmad Masrum


    Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is one of the most serious banana diseases, constraint and devastate to the local and regional banana production. Some of banana cultivars were more readily infected by the virus, but considering no cultivars is resistant. The incidences of BBTD and the type and severity symptoms in natural conditions without any artificial inoculation were recorded. The observations results on 2009 showed that 12.14% of the total acces...

  14. Preliminary Screening Resistance Of Musa Germplasms For Banana Bunchy Top Disease In Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan, East Jawa


    Hapsari, Lia; Masrum, Ahmad


    Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is one of the most serious banana diseases, constraint and devastate to the local and regional banana production. Some of banana cultivars were more readily infected by the virus, but considering no cultivars is resistant. The incidences of BBTD and the type and severity symptoms in natural conditions without any artificial inoculation were recorded. The observations results on 2009 showed that 12.14% of the total acces...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari


    Full Text Available Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD caused by Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV is one of the most serious banana diseases, constraint and devastate to the local and regional banana production. Some of banana cultivars were more readily infected by the virus, but considering no cultivars is resistant. The incidences of BBTD and the type and severity symptoms in natural conditions without any artificial inoculation were recorded. The observations results on 2009 showed that 12.14% of the total accessions indicated positively infected BBTD. The BBTD incidences were increased rapidly about twofolds per year, 28.57% in October 2011 and 54.29% in October 2011. The spread and development of BBTD is optimum at humid, high rainfall intensity and temperatures, high soil fertility and also low light intensity or shaded. The latest monitoring on February 2012 (62.14% comprises of 64 accessions were positively infected and 39 accessions were symptomless. Those symptomless accessions were initially indicated as tolerant banana cultivars to BBTD e.g. Pisang Kepok (BBB, Pisang Sobo (BBB, Pisang Bandung (ABB, Pisang Nangka (AAB, Pisang Candi (AAB and  Pisang Raja Marto (AAB. These preliminary results are in agreement with several previous studies indicated that genotypes with one or two B genomes tend to be more tolerant to BBTD. However several cultivars which known tend to BBTD tolerant are indicated susceptible to Blood Disease. Some cultivars also showing complication symptoms both BBTD and Blood Disease.

  16. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

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    Tamar Nadiradze


    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  17. Obtaining of nectarinum (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. polyploid plants in Nikitsky Botanical Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов


    Full Text Available Firstly in Ukraine as the result of resiprocal interbreedings of autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 / diploid (2n=2x=16 and diploid (2n=2x=16 / autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 four sintetic triploid (2n=3x=24 hybrid forms (611-91, 13-93, 14-93, 18-93 have been obtained. Spontaneous triploid nectarinum 166-80 has been shared out from diploid hybrid seedlings population. Tetraploid and triploid nectarinum forms are valuable sources for directoinal selection and making hybrids with the complex of new signs, which are difficult or impossible to receive on diploid level.

  18. The use of canals for water supply in ancient city of Coimbra and on the botanical garden of the university


    Simão, Helena; Marques, Afreu Sá


    Shaped by humans to meet their demands, cities are artificial, complex ecosystems, subject to environmental challenges that have significant implications for human health, life quality and the city's economy. Cities developed and expanded in places where natural and environmental conditions were favorable, and they can only continue to thrive as long as they safeguard the natural resources that are the drivers of wealth and quality of life for their citizens. People living in cities val...

  19. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.


    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  20. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo


    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...... interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12...

  1. Efficacy of Nigeria-Derived Diatomaceous Earth, Botanicals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Bularafa diatomaceous earth (DE), Riverbed Sand, and combinations of the two botanicals with Bularafa DE and Riverbed Sand were evaluated as protectants of wheat seed against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.).

  2. An improved assay for the determination of Huntington`s disease allele size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, C.; Klinger, K.; Miller, G. [Intergrated Genetics, Framingham, MA (United States)


    The hallmark of Huntington`s disease (HD) is the expansion of a polymorphic (CAG)n repeat. Several methods have been published describing PCR amplification of this region. Most of these assays require a complex PCR reaction mixture to amplify this GC-rich region. A consistent problem with trinucleotide repeat PCR amplification is the presence of a number of {open_quotes}stutter bands{close_quotes} which may be caused by primer or amplicon slippage during amplification or insufficient polymerase processivity. Most assays for HD arbitrarily select a particular band for diagnostic purposes. Without a clear choice for band selection such an arbitrary selection may result in inconsistent intra- or inter-laboratory findings. We present an improved protocol for the amplification of the HD trinucleotide repeat region. This method simplifies the PCR reaction buffer and results in a set of easily identifiable bands from which to determine allele size. HD alleles were identified by selecting bands of clearly greater signal intensity. Stutter banding was much reduced thus permitting easy identification of the most relevant PCR product. A second set of primers internal to the CCG polymorphism was used in selected samples to confirm allele size. The mechanism of action of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction is not clear. It may be possible that the minimal isostabilizing effect of N,N,N trimethylglycine at 2.5 M is significant enough to affect primer specificity. The use of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction facilitated identification of HD alleles and may be appropriate for use in other assays of this type.

  3. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease | Kromberg | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one ...

  4. Reduced gluconeogenesis and lactate clearance in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Signe M B; Campos, André


    We studied systemic and brain glucose and lactate metabolism in Huntington's disease (HD) patients in response to ergometer cycling. Following termination of exercise, blood glucose increased abruptly in control subjects, but no peak was seen in any of the HD patients (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 0.0 ± 0.2mM, P...

  5. Biological Markers of Cognition in Prodromal Huntington's Disease: A Review (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Kaplan, Richard F.; Snyder, Peter J.


    Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder, has historically been viewed as a degenerative movement disorder but it also includes psychiatric symptoms and progressive cognitive decline. There has been a lack of consensus in the literature about whether or not cognitive signs can be detected in carriers before clinical…

  6. Observations on Patient and Family Coping with Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Falek, Arthur


    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. No definitive method for the preclinical detection of carriers is known. The consequences of this diagnosis are discussed. The significance of genetic counseling and a description of the phases in psychological coping is presented to enable informed decision making by family…

  7. The Counselor and Genetic Disease: Huntington's Disease as a Model. (United States)

    Wexler, Nancy S.

    This speech offers a brief description of Huntington's Disease (HD): its causes, symptoms, and incidence. It then concentrates on the psychological problems of persons one of whose parents had the disease, and the role of the counselor in helping these humans cope with their fears about contacting it themselves. A relatively detailed case study is…

  8. Clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W


    Huntington disease was one of the first neurological hereditary diseases for which genetic testing was made possible as early as 1993. The study describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. Data of 35 consecutive patients tested from 2007 to 2012 at the Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo was analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data and genetic diagnostic results were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Thirty patients had fully penetrant (FP) CAG repeat mutations and 5 had reduced penetrant (RP) CAG repeat mutations. In the FP group mean ages of onset and diagnosis were 37.5 and 40.4 years, while in the RP group it was 63.0 and 64.8 years respectively. The age of diagnosis ranged from 15 to 72 years, with 2 patients with Juvenile onset (60 years) Huntington disease. The symptoms at diagnosis were predominantly motor (32/35 -91%). Three patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The age difference between onset and genetic diagnosis showed significant delay in females compared to males (p disease. In both groups, those with a family history had a significantly lower age of presentation (p genetic features seen in patients with Huntington disease in the Sri Lankan study population were similar to that previously reported in literature.

  9. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Resource Handbook. (United States)

    Braun, L.; And Others

    Instructions for using the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT are contained in this resource handbook. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which affect the quality of a water resource. The output is…

  10. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita


    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  11. Remifentanil in a patient with Huntington's chorea - case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively few published case reports related to the anaesthetic management of Huntington's chorea (HC) exist. At the time of surgery no publications were found related to remifentanil's use in patients with HC. This case report describes the management of a confirmed HC patient requiring urgent decompression of a spinal ...

  12. The emotional experiences of family carers in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Williams, Janet K; Skirton, Heather; Paulsen, Jane S; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Jarmon, Lori; McGonigal Kenney, Meghan; Birrer, Emily; Hennig, Bonnie L; Honeyford, Joann


    This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the emotional experience of caregiving by family carers of people with Huntington disease and to describe strategies they used to deal with that experience. Huntington disease, commonly diagnosed in young to middle adulthood, is an inherited single gene disorder involving loss of cognitive, motor and neuropsychiatric function. Many family members become caregivers as well as continuing as parents and wage earners. The emotional aspects of caregiving contribute to mental health risks for family members. Focus groups were conducted with 42 adult carers of people with Huntington disease in four United States and two Canadian Huntington disease centers between 2001 and 2005. Data were analyzed through descriptive coding and thematic analysis. All participants reported multiple aspects of emotional distress. Being a carer was described as experiencing disintegration of one's life. Carers attempted to cope by seeking comfort from selected family members, anticipating the time when the care recipient had died and/or using prescription medications. Spousal carers were distressed by the loss of their relationship with their spouse and dealt with this by no longer regarding the person as an intimate partner. Carers were concerned about the disease risk for children in their families and hoped for a cure. Emotional distress can compromise the well-being of family carers, who attempt to maintain multiple roles. Nurses should monitor carer mental health, identify sources of emotional distress and support effective strategies used by carers to mediate distress.

  13. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Braun, L.; And Others

    This teacher's guide is written to accompany the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which effect the quality of a water resource. The teacher's guide provides…

  14. Biographical sketch: Thomas W. Huntington, MD (1849-1929). (United States)

    Brand, Richard A


    This biographical sketch on Thomas Huntington corresponds to the historic text, The classic: case of bone transference. use of a segment of fibula to supply a defect in the tibia (1905), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2496-z .


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Batta


    Full Text Available Background. Huntington disease occurrs rarely, it can be encountered not only by neurologists and psychiatrists but also by other medical practitioners. Its characteristic features are involuntary movements, cognitive disorders and gradual development of dementia. Diagnosis is given on the basis of these clinical features, positive familial anamnesis, with the laboratory exclusion of other neuropsychiatric diseases and with the help of neuroimaging methods (in particular NMR. The disease can be only confirmed by means of genetic analysis.Patients and methods. In this article, four cases of patients with Huntington disease and diverse psychiatric disorders that were hospitalised at the psychiatric department of the Maribor General Hospital between October 2002 and March 2003 are described. All the patients fulfilled the valid criteria for the diagnosis of Huntington disease. However, they differed according to their accompanying psychiatric psychopathology, age and social problems.Conclusions. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to different psychiatric symptoms and clinical manifestations of Huntington disease that are often misleading in the diagnostic process. In addition, exigency of early diagnostics, guidelines for referrals to genetic testing and psychiatric monitoring of these patients are emphasised.

  16. Premanifest Huntington's disease: Examination of oculomotor abnormalities in clinical practice. (United States)

    Winder, Jessica Y; Roos, Raymund A C


    Different oculomotor abnormalities have been reported to occur in premanifest Huntington's disease. The aim of this study is to investigate which oculomotor items of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) are affected in premanifest individuals compared to healthy controls, and if CAG repeat length and age are correlated with oculomotor abnormalities in premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers. We compared baseline data of 70 premanifest individuals and 27 controls who participated in the Enroll-HD study at the Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands. Premanifest gene carriers were divided in individuals near to disease onset and individuals far from disease onset. Using a logistic regression model, only horizontal ocular pursuit of the six oculomotor items of the UHDRS was significantly more frequently affected in premanifest individuals close to disease onset compared to controls (p = 0.044, OR 13.100). Age was significantly higher in premanifest individuals with affected horizontal ocular pursuit (p = 0.016, OR 1.115) and with affected vertical ocular pursuit (p = 0.030, OR 1.065) compared to premanifest individuals without ocular pursuit deficits. Our results suggest that horizontal ocular pursuit is the only affected oculomotor item of the UHDRS in premanifest individuals and could be used to assess early clinical signs of Huntington's disease. Saccade initiation and saccade velocity do not seem useful for detecting differences between premanifest individuals and controls.

  17. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja D. Gupta


    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25–50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived. Crude extracts of medicinal plants could serve as an alternate source of resistance modifying agents owing to the wide variety of secondary metabolites. These metabolites (alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols etc. could act as potentials for antimicrobials and resistance modifiers. Plant extracts have the ability to bind to protein domains leading to modification or inhibition protein–protein interactions. This enables the herbals to also present themselves as effective modulators of host related cellular processes viz immune response, mitosis, apoptosis and signal transduction. Thus they may exert their activity not only by killing the microorganism but by affecting key events in the pathogenic process, thereby, the bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to develop resistance to botanicals. The article is meant to stimulate research wherein the cidal activity of the extract is not the only parameter considered but other mechanism of action by which plants can combat drug resistant microbes are investigated. The present article emphasizes on mechanisms involved in countering multi drug resistance.

  18. Development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool: An Evidence-Based Model for School Garden Integration. (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel


    Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study. Participants were identified with the help of Grow To Learn, the organization coordinating the New York City school garden initiative, and recruited via e-mail. A stratified, purposeful sample of 21 New York City elementary and middle schools participated in this study throughout the 2013/2014 school year. The sample was stratified in their garden budgets and purposeful in that each of the schools' gardens were determined to be well integrated and sustained. The processes and strategies used by school gardeners to establish well-integrated school gardens were assessed via data collected from surveys, interviews, observations, and concept mapping. Descriptive statistics as well as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to examine the survey and concept mapping data. Qualitative data analysis consisted of thematic coding, pattern matching, explanation building and cross-case synthesis. Nineteen components within four domains of school garden integration were found through the mixed-methods concept mapping analysis. When the analyses of other data were combined, relationships between domains and components emerged. These data resulted in the development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool. When schools with integrated and sustained gardens were studied, patterns emerged about how gardeners achieve institutionalization through different combinations of critical components. These patterns are best described by the GREEN Tool, the first framework to identify how to

  19. Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cefalu, William T; Chilton, Floyd H; Farnsworth, Norman R; Raskin, Ilya; van Breemen, Richard B; Weaver, Connie M


    There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several of the centers specialize in fractionation and high-throughput evaluation to identify the individual bioactive agent or a combination of agents. Some centers are using DNA microarray analyses to determine the effects of botanicals on gene transcription with the goal of uncovering the important biochemical pathways they regulate. Other centers focus on bioavailability and uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the phytochemicals as for all xenobiotics. Because phytochemicals are often complex molecules, synthesis of isotopically labeled forms is carried out by plant cells in culture, followed by careful fractionation. These labeled phytochemicals allow the use of accelerator mass spectrometry to trace the tissue distribution of 14C-labeled proanthocyanidins in animal models of disease. State-of-the-art proteomics and mass spectrometry are also used to identify proteins in selected tissues whose expression and posttranslational modification are influenced by botanicals and dietary supplements. In summary, the skills needed to carry out botanical centers’ research are extensive and may exceed those practiced by most NIH investigators. PMID:18258642

  20. Semantic, phonologic, and verb fluency in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    Full Text Available Abstract Verbal fluency tasks have been identified as important indicators of executive functioning impairment in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Although the usual evaluation of this ability considers phonologic and semantic criteria, there is some evidence that fluency of verbs would be more sensitive in disclosing frontostriatal physiopathology since frontal regions primarily mediate retrieval of verbs. Huntington's disease usually affects these circuitries. Objective: To compare three types of verbal fluency task in the assessment of frontal-striatal dysfunction in HD subjects. Methods: We studied 26 Huntington's disease subjects, divided into two subgroups: mild (11 and moderate (15 along with 26 normal volunteers matched for age, gender and schooling, for three types of verbal fluency: phonologic fluency (F-A-S, semantic fluency and fluency of verbs. Results: Huntington's disease subjects showed a significant reduction in the number of words correctly generated in the three tasks when compared to the normal group. Both controls and Huntington's disease subjects showed a similar pattern of decreasing task performance with the greatest number of words being generated by semantic elicitation followed by verbs and lastly phonologic criteria. We did not find greater production of verbs compared with F-A-S and semantic conditions. Moreover, the fluency of verbs distinguished only the moderate group from controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that phonologic and semantic fluency can be used to evaluate executive functioning, proving more sensitive than verb fluency. However, it is important to point out that the diverse presentations of Huntington's disease means that an extended sample is necessary for more consistent analysis of this issue.

  1. Community Gardens as Environmental Health Interventions: Benefits Versus Potential Risks. (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M


    The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.

  2. Study protocol: effects of school gardens on children's physical activity. (United States)

    Wells, Nancy M; Myers, Beth M; Henderson, Charles R


    Childhood obesity is an epidemic. Strategies are needed to promote children's healthy habits related to diet and physical activity. School gardens have the potential to bolster children's physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary activity; however little research has examined the effect of gardens on children's physical activity. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examines the effect of school gardens on children's overall physical activity and sedentary behavior; and on children's physical activity during the school day. In addition, physical activity levels and postures are compared using direct observation, outdoors, in the garden and indoors, in the classroom. Twelve New York State schools are randomly assigned to receive the school garden intervention or to serve in the wait-list control group that receives gardens and lessons at the end of the study. The intervention consists of a raised bed garden; access to a curriculum focused on nutrition, horticulture, and plant science and including activities and snack suggestions; resources for the school including information about food safety in the garden and related topics; a garden implementation guide provided guidance regarding planning, planting and maintaining the garden throughout the year; gardening during the summer; engaging volunteers; building community capacity, and sustaining the program. Data are collected at baseline and 3 post-intervention follow-up waves at 6, 12, and 18 months. Physical activity (PA) "usually" and "yesterday" is measured using surveys at each wave. In addition, at-school PA is measured using accelerometry for 3 days at each wave. Direct observation (PARAGON) is used to compare PA during an indoor classroom lesson versus outdoor, garden-based lesson. Results of this study will provide insight regarding the potential for school gardens to increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviors. # NCT02148315.

  3. Pattern formation in confined chemical gardens (United States)

    De Wit, Anne; Haudin, Florence; Brau, Fabian; Cartwright, Julyan


    Chemical gardens are plant-like mineral structures first described in the seventeenth century and popularly known from chemistry sets for children. They are classically grown in three-dimensional containers by placing a solid metal-salt seed into a silicate solution. When the metal salt starts dissolving in the silicate solution, a semi-permeable membrane forms by precipitation across which water is pumped by osmosis from the silicate solution into the metal salt solution, further dissolving the salt. Above a given pressure, the membrane breaks. The dissolved metal salt solution being generally less dense than the reservoir silicate solution, it rises as a buoyant jet through the broken membrane and further precipitates in contact with the silicate solution, producing a collection of mineral forms that resemble a garden. Such gardens are the subject of increased interest as a model system to understand pattern formation in sea-ice brinicles and hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, among others. All these self-organized precipitation structures at the interface between chemistry, fluid dynamics and mechanics share indeed common chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. In this framework, we study experimentally spatial patterns resulting from the growth of chemical gardens in confined quasi-two-dimensional (2D) geometries upon radial injection of a metallic salt solution into a silicate solution in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. We find a large variety of patterns including spirals, fingers, worms, filiform tubes, and flower-like patterns. By exploring the phase space of reactant concentrations and injection flow rates, we observe transitions between these spatio-temporal structures resulting from a coupling between the precipitation reaction, mechanical effects and hydrodynamic instabilities.

  4. Disease stage, but not sex, predicts depression and psychological distress in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Shimozaki, Steve


    OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety significantly affect morbidity in Huntington's disease. Mice. models of Huntington's disease have identified sex differences in mood-like behaviours that vary across disease lifespan, but this interaction has not previously been explored in humans with Huntington......'s disease. However, among certain medical populations, evidence of sex differences in mood across various disease stages has been found, reflecting trends among the general population that women tend to experience anxiety and depression 1.5 to 2 times more than men. The current study examined whether...... disease stage and sex, either separately or as an interaction term, predicted anxiety and depression in Huntington's disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of REGISTRY data involving 453 Huntington's disease participants from 12 European countries was undertaken using the Hospital Anxiety...

  5. Placebo effect characteristics observed in a single, international, longitudinal study in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; González, Miguel; del Puerto, Inés; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Arconada, Olga Fernández; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo


    Classically, clinical trials are based on the placebo-control design. Our aim was to analyze the placebo effect in Huntington's disease. Placebo data were obtained from an international, longitudinal, placebo-controlled trial for Huntington's disease (European Huntington's Disease Initiative Study Group). One-hundred and eighty patients were evaluated using the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale over 36 months. A placebo effect was defined as an improvement of at least 50% over baseline scores in the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale, and clinically relevant when at least 10% of the population met it. Only behavior showed a significant placebo effect, and the proportion of the patients with placebo effect ranged from 16% (first visit) to 41% (last visit). Nondepressed patients with better functional status were most likely to be placebo-responders over time. In Huntington's disease, behavior seems to be more vulnerable to placebo than overall motor function, cognition, and function Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools. Harvard Education Letter Impact Series (United States)

    Hirschi, Jane S.


    "Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools" takes a big-picture view of the school garden movement and the state of garden-based learning in public K--8 education. The book frames the garden movement for educators and shows how school gardens have the potential to be a significant resource for teaching and learning. In this…

  7. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han


    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  8. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen


    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...... an unequivocally positive academic learning effect. The review extracts and discusses some of the factors that are consistently emphasized in the research literature as central to ensuring successful subject integration in school gardens. Taking these as a point of departure, it is concluded that developing...

  9. Smell and Anosmia in the Aesthetic Appreciation of Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tafalla


    Full Text Available In his Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant defined the garden as a visual art and considered that smell plays no role in its aesthetic appreciation. If the Kantian thesis were right, then a person who has no sense of smell (who suffers from anosmia would not be impaired in his or her aesthetic appreciation of gardens. At the same time, a visually impaired person could not appreciate the beauty of gardens, although he or she could perceive them through hearing, smell, taste, and touch. In this paper I discuss the role of smell and anosmia in the aesthetic appreciation of gardens. I accept the Kantian idea that the appreciation of a garden is the appreciation of its form, but I also defend that, at least in some cases, smell can belong to the form of gardens and, consequently, the ability or inability to smell influences their aesthetic appreciation.

  10. Refugees connecting with a new country through community food gardening. (United States)

    Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn


    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.

  11. Productive Urban Landscape In Developing Home Garden In Yogyakarta City (United States)

    Irwan, S. N. R.; Sarwadi, A.


    Home garden is one type of agroecosystem that supports ecosystem services even in the urban settlement. The studies involved literature references and field survey along with a framework of the productive urban landscape that support ecosystem services in home garden. Productive urban landscape provided environmentally, socially and economically benefits that contained in ecosystem services. Problems on limited space in the urban settlement have to be managed by modified home garden system in order to work for ecosystem service in developing productive landscape. This study aimed to assess home garden (Pekarangan) system in a cluster of high density settlement in Yogyakarta City. Structured interview and vegetation identification of home garden have been conducted on 80 samples in Rejowinangun Kotagede District, Yogyakarta City. People showed enthusiasm in ecosystem services provided by home garden “Pekarangan Produktif” through developing productive urban landscape. Some benefits on ecosystem services of home garden were revealed on this study consisted of food production for sale (4.7%), home industry (7.69%), aesthetics (22.65%), food (14.10%), biodiversity (10.68%), ecosystem (12.82%), education (2.56), social interaction (11.54%), recreation (4.70%), and others (8.55%). Nevertheless, vegetation and other elements of home gardens have been managed irregularly and in particularly, the planned home gardens were only 17.07%. Actually, home gardens provided a large set of ecosystem services including being cultural services those are the category most valued. The urban people almost hided the understanding of the cultural benefit of ecosystem services of home garden, even though Yogyakarta has known the cultural city. Thus, urban home garden, as way as “Pekarangan Produktif” in the limited space that managed and planned sustainably, provide many benefits of ecosystem services in a productive urban landscape.

  12. Recycling urban waste as possible use for rooftop vegetable garden


    Grard, baptiste; Bel, N.; Marchal, N.; Madre, N.; Castell, Jean-François; Cambier, Philippe; Houot, Sabine; Manouchehri, Nastaran; Besancon, S.; Michel , J.C.; Chenu, Claire; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Aubry, Christine


    Urban authorities in Europe are confronted with increasing demands by urban dwellers for allotment gardens, but vacant urban soil tends to be scarce and/or polluted by past industrial activities. A possible solution for local authorities could therefore be to promote rooftop gardening. However little technical information exists on certain forms of rooftop urban agriculture, called Z-Farming. In 2012, a pilot experiment was run in Paris (France). Simple and cheap systems of rooftop gardening ...

  13. School Gardens: A Qualitative Study on Implementation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Huys


    Full Text Available School gardens have beneficial effects on children’s dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10–13 years old in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium. We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden, but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves. In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children’s health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.

  14. School Gardens: A Qualitative Study on Implementation Practices. (United States)

    Huys, Nele; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Roesbeke, Marleen; Cardon, Greet; De Lepeleere, Sara


    School gardens have beneficial effects on children's dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10-13 years old) in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium). We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden), but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum) and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden) and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves). In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children's health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.

  15. Determining Barriers to Use of Edible School Gardens in Illinois. (United States)

    Loftus, Lucy; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Steffen, Richard; Kopsell, Dave; Nnakwe, Nweze


    The objective of this study was to gather data regarding the awareness, perceived benefits, interest in, and barriers to establishment of edible school gardens in Illinois public schools. Setting/Design: This study used an online survey design. Participants included Illinois public elementary school principals and superintendents. Region and community population, current edible garden use, perception (Likert scale) of garden benefits, interest in establishment of a school edible garden, and barriers to establishment of a school edible garden were the variables of interest. Logit regression and Kruskal-Wallis with follow-up where p school principals and superintendents are aware of gardens and their potential benefits to students, but many barriers exist that make their use challenging. Funding, staff and volunteer support, and class time were identified as the major barriers. Region affected likelihood of garden use, and community population size also affected the odds of having an edible school garden. Data suggest that edible garden use would increase with provision of resources and organization of dedicated supporters.

  16. Architectural Programme On Formation Of The Uzbek National Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustayev Bahrom Bahodirovich


    Full Text Available in the present paper an attempt has been made to base the actuality of creating national Uzbek gardens and the search of its roots out of gardens of the period of Timur and the Timurids and as well as Baburids gardens in the style of Chorbog. In this connection for the first time from the scientific point of view the architectural Program of a new national garden of Uzbekistan based on the style of Chorbog was formed. It was proved that this problem is an urgent one for construction of modern landscape architecture in Uzbekistan.

  17. Huntington disease: a case study of early onset presenting as depression. (United States)

    Duesterhus, Pia; Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Wittkugel, Oliver; Schulte-Markwort, Michael


    Huntington disease is a dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by choreiform movement disturbances and dementia, usually with adult onset. The rare juvenile-onset Huntington disease differs from the adult phenotype. A case presenting twice, at age 10 with all the signs of a major depression and age 14 with mutism and rigidity, is reported. Meanwhile, the father developed the adult variant of Huntington disease. The boy's diagnosis was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis and magnetic resonance imaging. It is important to be aware of hereditary conditions such as Huntington disease and to provide family counseling before genetic testing and after the diagnosis is confirmed.

  18. Design of evidence-based gardens and garden therapy for neurodisability in Scandinavia: data from 14 sites. (United States)

    Spring, Josephine Anne


    A total of 14 Scandinavian therapy gardens were visited and data collected on plantings, therapeutic activities and assessment of effectiveness in Spring 2014. Data were gathered by a questionnaire and by interviewing staff in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The data collection structured proforma used the post-occupation assessment method. Gardening promoted physical movement, presented cognitive challenges and provided opportunities for social participation. Half the gardens were enclosed with sensory plants and 85% were adapted for wheelchairs. A total of 57% of gardens visited had simple designs with flowers, shrubs, lawns and trees. A social center was important especially for dementia clients. Planted pots were used in 79% of gardens. The effectiveness of therapy gardens was assessed at 71% of sites.

  19. Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Denzler

    Full Text Available Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics, this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica, the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses.

  20. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo


    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification

  1. Botanical and phytochemical therapy of acne: a systematic review. (United States)

    Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Sivamani, Raja K


    Acne is prevalent among adolescents and adults with significant psychological effects. Standard oral and topical therapies can have significant side effects including skin irritation, gastrointestinal upset, and the development of drug-resistant bacteria. The use of botanicals and phytochemicals in dermatological products is increasingly popular, and many patients are turning to these alternative therapies for treatment of acne. This study aimed to systematically review clinical studies that have investigated the use of botanical agents in the treatment of acne. PubMed and Embase databases were searched in March 2013 for trials assessing botanical therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Data from these trials are presented, and methodology of each study is assessed. Twenty-three trials met inclusion criteria. Interventions included plant extracts, herbal formulations, and phytochemicals. All studies reported favorable results, and several showed equal or superior treatment to standard therapies. No serious adverse events were reported. Few studies were methodologically rigorous. Each botanical was studied in only one or two trials. Botanicals are promising therapies for acne vulgaris although further research is warranted, especially with regard to severe acne and acne resistant to conventional therapy. There is a need for standardized methods for grading acne and assessing therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. In chemico skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients. (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A


    Skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients is necessary for consumers' protection and occupational hazard identification. There are currently very few available alternative methods that can assist in the evaluation of complex mixtures. Chemical methods can provide essential information in a timely manner and thus help to reduce the need for in vivo testing, and they can complement and facilitate targeted in vitro assays. In the present work, the applicability of the high-throughput screening with dansyl cysteamine (DCYA) method for the systematic evaluation of skin sensitization of complex botanicals was explored. Botanical ingredients of four unrelated plant species were obtained and tested with the high-throughput fluorescence method at three concentrations. To illustrate the minimal matrix effects of the tested extracts on the developed method, the least DCYA-reactive extract (Rosa canina) was spiked with known sensitizers at different concentrations. The data obtained from the four plant extracts and the spiking experiments with known sensitizers, suggest that the high-throughput screening-DCYA method can be successfully applied for estimating the skin sensitization potential of complex botanical matrices. This is the first report of an attempt to develop a versatile in chemico method for the rapid detection of reactive skin sensitizers in complex botanical extracts, which could complement the battery of existing validated, non-animal methods. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics. (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé


    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Botanicals as Modulators of Neuroplasticity: Focus on BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sangiovanni


    Full Text Available The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in different central nervous system (CNS diseases suggests that this neurotrophin may represent an interesting and reliable therapeutic target. Accordingly, the search for new compounds, also from natural sources, able to modulate BDNF has been increasingly explored. The present review considers the literature on the effects of botanicals on BDNF. Botanicals considered were Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell, Coffea arabica L., Crocus sativus L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea, Ginkgo biloba L., Hypericum perforatum L., Olea europaea L. (olive oil, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Rhodiola rosea L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Vitis vinifera L., Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, and Perilla frutescens (L. Britton. The effect of the active principles responsible for the efficacy of the extracts is reviewed and discussed as well. The high number of articles published (more than one hundred manuscripts for 14 botanicals supports the growing interest in the use of natural products as BDNF modulators. The studies reported strengthen the hypothesis that botanicals may be considered useful modulators of BDNF in CNS diseases, without high side effects. Further clinical studies are mandatory to confirm botanicals as preventive agents or as useful adjuvant to the pharmacological treatment.

  5. Abnormalities in the tricarboxylic Acid cycle in Huntington disease and in a Huntington disease mouse model. (United States)

    Naseri, Nima N; Xu, Hui; Bonica, Joseph; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Cortes, Etty P; Park, Larry C; Arjomand, Jamshid; Gibson, Gary E


    Glucose metabolism is reduced in the brains of patients with Huntington disease (HD). The mechanisms underlying this deficit, its link to the pathology of the disease, and the vulnerability of the striatum in HD remain unknown. Abnormalities in some of the key mitochondrial enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, may contribute to these deficits. Here, activities for these enzymes and select protein levels were measured in human postmortem cortex and in striatum and cortex of an HD mouse model (Q175); mRNA levels encoding for these enzymes were also measured in the Q175 mouse cortex. The activities of PDHC and nearly all of the TCA cycle enzymes were dramatically lower (-50% to 90%) in humans than in mice. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase increased with HD in human (35%) and mouse (23%) cortex. No other changes were detected in the human HD cortex or mouse striatum. In Q175 cortex, there were increased activities of PDHC (+12%) and aconitase (+32%). Increased mRNA levels for succinyl thiokinase (+88%) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (+64%) suggested an upregulation of the TCA cycle. These patterns of change differ from those reported in other diseases, which may offer unique metabolic therapeutic opportunities for HD patients.

  6. Family caregivers' views on coordination of care in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C


    BACKGROUND: Collaboration between family caregivers and health professionals in specialised hospitals or community-based primary healthcare systems can be challenging. During the course of severe chronic disease, several health professionals might be involved at a given time, and the patient......'s illness may be unpredictable or not well understood by some of those involved in the treatment and care. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and expectations of family caregivers for persons with Huntington's disease concerning collaboration with healthcare professionals. METHODS......: To shed light on collaboration from the perspectives of family caregivers, we conducted an explorative, qualitative interview study with 15 adult participants experienced from caring for family members in all stages of Huntington's disease. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation, a cross...

  7. Preimplantation genetics and other reproductive options in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Blancato, Jan K; Wolfe, Erin; Sacks, Preston C


    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a form of prenatal diagnosis applied to potential parents with known carrier status of a genetic disease, such as Huntington disease. It employs the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify single cells from early embryos obtained with in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques. PGD allows the couple the chance to have a pregnancy and livebirth child without Huntington disease, although there are some risks and expenses related to the procedures. Success of the procedure may be greater than standard IVF because the patients are not infertility patients, but are undergoing the procedure to avoid passing a highly deleterious disease gene to offspring. Recent advances in sequencing may allow for higher success rates as the chromosomally abnormal embryos will be identified more easily and the embryos with the highest chance of survival will be transferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Huntington ou la culture de l'ennemi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Éric Dagorn


    Full Text Available « Savoir de qui nous devons avoir peur » (p. 66, et accréditer « l'idée qu'il n'y a pas de politique sans désignation de l'ennemi » (p. 75 : tels sont pour Marc Crépon deux des principaux objectifs de Samuel Huntington dans son ouvrage Le choc des civilisations (Huntington, 1996 issu d'un article paru pendant l'été 1993 dans Foreign Affairs (1993 ; traduction française dans Commentaire , 1994. Car il faut dire et redire que cette théorie du ...

  9. Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia mimicking Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Bruhn, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen E


    Behavioral changes and cognitive decline are the core clinical manifestations in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD). The behavioral changes may include characteristic stereotypic movements. These movements, although without clear purpose, are not involuntary. Involuntary m...... and Huntington's disease-like (HDL) phenotypes. Although a definite diagnosis will require neuropathological confirmation, we conclude that a HDL phenotype may be part of the clinical spectrum of the bv-FTD phenotype....... movements are usually not seen in FTD.Two patients with involuntary choreoathetoid movements but otherwise presenting a bv-FTD-phenotype were referred and Huntington's disease (HD) was suspected. The diagnoses of bv-FTD were made after comprehensive assessment and exclusion of other diagnoses, including HD...

  10. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty


    results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft......Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...... European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation...

  11. Caregiver roles in families affected by Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C


    AIM: The objective of this study was to explore family caregivers' experiences with the impact of Huntington's disease (HD) on the family structure and roles in the family. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed 15 family caregivers in families affected by HD, based on a semi-structured interview guide...... for impairments by taking on adult responsibilities, and in some families, a child had the role as main caregiver. The increasing need for care could cause conflicts between the role as family member and family caregiver. The burden of care within the family could fragment and isolate the family. CONCLUSIONS....... The participants were recruited through hospital departments and a lay organisation for HD in Norway. Data from the interviews were analysed with systematic text condensation. RESULTS: Huntington's disease could have a substantial impact on the family system, the shape of roles among family members...

  12. "Otherways" into the Garden: Re-Visioning the Feminine in "The Secret Garden." (United States)

    Parsons, Linda T.


    Documents the author's interpretation of Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden." Explores a series of questions dealing with issues such as sight, speech, power, gender construction, and symbolism. Reveals the positive and potent ways women subvert the hegemony of patriarchal society and the celebration of the divine feminine…

  13. Farmer's market, demonstration gardens, and research projects expand outreach of Extension Master Gardeners (United States)

    Pamela J. Bennett; Ellen M. Bauske; Alison Stoven O' Connor; Jean Reeder; Carol Busch; Heidi A. Kratsch; Elizabeth Leger; Angela O' Callaghan; Peter J. Nitzche; Jim Downer


    Extension Master Gardener (EMG) volunteers are central to expanding the outreach and engagement of extension staff. A workshop format was used at the Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science on 31 July 2012 in Miami, FL to identify successful management techniques and projects that expand EMG volunteer outreach, leading to increased extension...

  14. The emotional experiences of family carers in Huntington disease (United States)

    Williams, Janet K.; Skirton, Heather; Paulsen, Jane S.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Jarmon, Lori; Kenney, Meghan McGonigal; Birrer, Emily; Hennig, Bonnie L.; Honeyford, Joann


    Aim This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the emotional experience of caregiving by family carers of people with Huntington disease and to describe strategies they used to deal with that experience. Background Huntington disease, commonly diagnosed in young to middle adulthood, is an inherited single gene disorder involving loss of cognitive, motor and neuropsychiatric function. Many family members become caregivers as well as continuing as parents and wage earners. The emotional aspects of caregiving contribute to mental health risks for family members. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 42 adult carers of people with Huntington disease in four United States and two Canadian Huntington disease centers between 2001 and 2005. Data were analyzed through descriptive coding and thematic analysis. Findings All participants reported multiple aspects of emotional distress. Being a carer was described as experiencing disintegration of one’s life. Carers attempted to cope by seeking comfort from selected family members, anticipating the time when the care recipient had died and/or using prescription medications. Spousal carers were distressed by the loss of their relationship with their spouse and dealt with this by no longer regarding the person as an intimate partner. Carers were concerned about the disease risk for children in their families and hoped for a cure. Conclusion Emotional distress can compromise the well-being of family carers, who attempt to maintain multiple roles. Nurses should monitor carer mental health, identify sources of emotional distress and support effective strategies used by carers to mediate distress. PMID:19228233

  15. Mechanisms of Copper Ion Mediated Huntington's Disease Progression


    Fox, Jonathan H.; Kama, Jibrin A.; Lieberman, Gregory; Chopra, Raman; Dorsey, Kate; Chopra, Vanita; Volitakis, Irene; Cherny, Robert A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Hersch, Steven


    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a dominant polyglutamine expansion within the N-terminus of huntingtin protein and results in oxidative stress, energetic insufficiency and striatal degeneration. Copper and iron are increased in the striata of HD patients, but the role of these metals in HD pathogenesis is unknown. We found, using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy, that elevations of copper and iron found in human HD brain are reiterated in the brains of affected HD transgeni...

  16. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease. (United States)

    De Diego-Balaguer, R; Couette, M; Dolbeau, G; Dürr, A; Youssov, K; Bachoud-Lévi, A-C


    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington's disease (pre-HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients Huntington's disease (18 stage II, two stage III and one stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage Huntington's disease patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the 20 age- and education-matched controls. Huntington's disease patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly

  17. Tracking motor impairments in the progression of Huntington's disease


    Long, JD; Paulsen, JS; Marder, K; Zhang, Y; Kim, JI; Mills, JA; Cross, S; Ryan, P; Epping, EA; Vik, S; Chiu, E; Preston, J; Goh, A; Antonopoulos, S; Loi, S


    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of effi...

  18. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder


    Ribeiro, Raquel


    Huntington's Disease (HD) can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the ...

  19. Identification of genetic variants associated with Huntington's disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hensman Moss, Davina J; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Langbehn, Douglas


    at this SNP was associated with a 0·4 units per year (95% CI 0·16-0·66) reduction in the rate of change of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) Total Motor Score, and a reduction of 0·12 units per year (95% CI 0·06-0·18) in the rate of change of UHDRS Total Functional Capacity score...

  20. Chronic subdural haematoma in patients with Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Pechlivanis, I; Andrich, J; Scholz, M; Harders, A; Saft, C; Schmieder, K


    We studied the frequency of patients who had chronic subdural haematomas (CSDH) and Huntington's disease (HD) in a 1-year study period. In our department a total of 58 patients with CSDH were treated. Four patients (6.9% of them) had HD. Surgical evacuation of the haematoma was performed in all four cases with the use of a twist drill trepanation without a drainage system.

  1. Challenges of Huntington's disease and quest for therapeutic biomarkers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotrčová, Eva; Jarkovská, Karla; Valeková, Ivona; Žižková, Martina; Motlík, Jan; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana


    Roč. 9, 1-2 (2015), s. 147-158 ISSN 1862-8346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : HD biomarkers * Huntington´s disease * Huntingtin neurotoxicity * Huntingtin pathogenesis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.959, year: 2015

  2. Factors contributing to institutionalization in patients with Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam; Kumar, Brahma V; Margolis, Russell L; Welsh, Claire S; Ross, Christopher A


    The objective of this study was to determine which factors are predictive of institutionalization in Huntington's disease. Seven hundred and ninety-nine subjects with 4313 examinations from the Baltimore Huntington's Disease Center were included in the data set; 88 of these patients with an average follow-up time of 9.2 years went from living at home to being institutionalized while being observed in our clinic. We examined demographic, genetic, and clinical variables for a relationship with institutionalization using linear regressions, a Cox proportional hazards model, and χ2 or t tests in certain cases. In our linear models, scores on the Quantified Neurologic Examination (R2=0.203, Pinstitutionalization. In addition, CAG repeat length (R2=0.248, Pinstitutionalization, when controlling for age at onset. In the Cox proportional hazards model, scores on the Activities of Daily Living Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Quantified Neurologic Examination, and Motor Impairment Score all significantly predicted placement in long-term care. Finally, institutionalized patients were shown to have a higher CAG number and a lower level of educational attainment than patients who avoided institutionalization for at least 15 years after disease onset. Neurologic findings, functional capacity, cognitive impairment, and CAG repeat length are all likely determinants of institutionalization. In contrast with other dementing conditions like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, psychiatric symptoms were not shown to predict institutionalization in Huntington's disease. This may illustrate the especially debilitating nature of the movement disorder of Huntington's disease in comparison with the other dementias. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden (United States)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham


    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  4. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions. (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B


    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Botanical Composition in Maribaya Pasture, Brebes, Central Java (United States)

    Umami, N.; Ngadiyono, N.; Panjono; Agus, F. N.; Shirothul, H. M.; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Hendrawati, Y.; Subroto, I.


    The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures. The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement. The botani sampling was performed using square with size of 1×1 m2. The observation was performed before the pasture made (at 2015) and after the pasture made (at 2017). Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at 2015 and at 2017. It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed.

  6. Informativeness of Early Huntington Disease Signs about Gene Status. (United States)

    Oster, Emily; Eberly, Shirley W; Dorsey, E Ray; Kayson-Rubin, Elise; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira


    The cohort-level risk of Huntington disease (HD) is related to the age and symptom level of the cohort, but this relationship has not been made precise. To predict the evolving likelihood of carrying the Huntington disease (HD) gene for at-risk adults using age and sign level. Using data from adults with early signs and symptoms of HD linked to information on genetic status, we use Bayes' theorem to calculate the probability that an undiagnosed individual of a certain age and sign level has an expanded CAG repeat. Both age and sign levels have substantial influence on the likelihood of HD onset, and the probability of eventual diagnosis changes as those at risk age and exhibit (or fail to exhibit) symptoms. For example, our data suggest that in a cohort of individuals age 26 with a Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor score of 7-10 70% of them will carry the HD mutation. For individuals age 56, the same motor score suggests only a 40% chance of carrying the mutation. Early motor signs of HD, overall and the chorea subscore, were highly predictive of disease onset at any age. However, body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance scores were not as highly predictive. These results suggest that if researchers or clinicians are looking for early clues of HD, it may be more foretelling to look at motor rather than cognitive signs. Application of similar approaches could be used with other adult-onset genetic conditions.

  7. Clinical characterization of dystonia in adult patients with Huntington's disease. (United States)

    van de Zande, N A; Massey, T H; McLauchlan, D; Pryce Roberts, A; Zutt, R; Wardle, M; Payne, G C; Clenaghan, C; Tijssen, M A J; Rosser, A E; Peall, K J


    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative movement disorder, typically characterized by chorea. Dystonia is also recognized as part of the HD motor phenotype, although little work detailing its prevalence, distribution, severity and impact on functional capacity has been published to date. Patients (>18 years of age) were recruited from the Cardiff (UK) HD clinic, each undergoing a standardized videotaped clinical examination and series of functional assessment questionnaires (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and modified version of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale). The presence and severity of dystonia were scored by four independent neurologists using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon test, anova and calculation of correlation coefficients where appropriate. Forty-eight patients [91% (48/53)] demonstrated evidence of dystonia, with the highest prevalence in the left upper limb (n = 44, 83%), right upper limb most severely affected and eyes least affected. Statistically significant positive correlations (P disease stage and motor disease duration. Deterioration in functional capacity also correlated with increasing dystonia severity. No significant relationship was observed with age at motor symptom onset or CAG repeat length. We report a high prevalence of dystonia in adult patients with HD, with worsening dystonia severity with increasing HD disease stage and motor disease duration. The recognition and management of dystonic symptoms in routine clinical practice will aid overall symptomatic treatment and functional improvement. © 2017 EAN.

  8. Front gardens to car parks: changes in garden permeability and effects on flood regulation. (United States)

    Warhurst, Jennifer R; Parks, Katherine E; McCulloch, Lindsay; Hudson, Malcolm D


    This study addresses the consequences of widespread conversion of permeable front gardens to hard standing car parking surfaces, and the potential consequences in high-risk urban flooding hotspots, in the city of Southampton. The last two decades has seen a trend for domestic front gardens in urban areas to be converted for parking, driven by the lack of space and increased car ownership. Despite media and political attention, the effects of this change are unknown, but increased and more intense rainfall, potentially linked to climate change, could generate negative consequences as runoff from impermeable surfaces increases. Information is limited on garden permeability change, despite the consequences for ecosystem services, especially flood regulation. We focused on eight flooding hotspots identified by the local council as part of a wider urban flooding policy response. Aerial photographs from 1991, 2004 and 2011 were used to estimate changes in surface cover and to analyse permeability change within a digital surface model in a GIS environment. The 1, 30 and 100 year required attenuation storage volumes were estimated, which are the temporary storage required to reduce the peak flow rate given surface permeability. Within our study areas, impermeable cover in domestic front gardens increased by 22.47% over the 20-year study period (1991-2011) and required attenuation storage volumes increased by 26.23% on average. These increases suggest that a consequence of the conversion of gardens to parking areas will be a potential increase in flooding frequency and severity - a situation which is likely to occur in urban locations worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Botanical environmental monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.


    Botanical samples were used as monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic. Euphorbia terracina and Calotropis procera were the botanical monitors used in this work. Zinc concentrations were reported alongside a motorway stretch of 50 km. Variations in concentration with respect to the perpendicular distance from the roadside were also reported. The effect of wind turbulence and the wind direction on the concentrations is discussed. In addition, differences between open areas and confined areas with respect to the elemental uptake were also discussed. INAA, using reactor neutrons, was employed for the determination of Zn concentrations in the samples. (author)

  10. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon


    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  11. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.64 Huntington... Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region...

  12. Children Gardening: First Steps Towards a Sustainable Future. (United States)

    Moore, Robin C.


    Children's gardening is introduced within the broader frame of reference of sustainable development, regenerative design, and biodesign. Gardening in the primary grades is proposed as one of the most feasible pedagogical approaches for ensuring a daily learning experience that provides contact with nature. Presents a case study of children's…

  13. Development and pilot study findings of the Delta Garden Study (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore how school–based gardening programs can affect health and related behaviors and to assess how such programs can be sustainable over time and replicated to more settings. Across the world, there has been a recent revitalization and reinvention of gardening eff...

  14. Predicting Teacher Likelihood to Use School Gardens: A Case Study (United States)

    Kincy, Natalie; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria; Knauft, David


    A quantitative survey, built around the theory of planned behavior, was used to investigate elementary teachers' attitudes, school norms, perceived behavioral control, and intent in both current and ideal teaching situations toward using gardens in their curriculum. With positive school norms and teachers who garden in their personal time, 77% of…

  15. Measurement of farm level efficiency of home gardens in Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the farm level efficiency of home vegetable gardens in Uyo, a stochastic production function which incorporates a model for the technical inefficiency effects was used. Using farm-level data from 80 home gardeners obtained through structured questionnaire, the parameters were estimated simultaneously with ...

  16. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  17. From Garden to Recipient: A Direct Approach to Nutrition Education (United States)

    Murphy, Barbara


    Maine Harvest for Hunger (MHH) involves Master Gardeners in food security through participation in gleaning and gardening projects that benefit food pantries. A statewide survey (Murphy, 2011a) indicates many food pantries face increased demand but are unable to distribute all of the donated produce. The MHH program in Oxford County is designed to…

  18. Society News: Astronomy in the garden wins RHS prize (United States)


    The Spaced Out garden, sponsored by the RAS, won a Gold Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society at the Tatton Park Garden Show in August. It also provided a showcase for a model of the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and an unusual occasion for astronomy outreach.

  19. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan


    of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  20. An all-inorganic polyoxometalate-polyoxocation chemical garden. (United States)

    Points, Laurie J; Cooper, Geoffrey J T; Dolbecq, Anne; Mialane, Pierre; Cronin, Leroy


    Herein, we show it is possible to produce wholly inorganic chemical gardens from a cationic polyoxometalate (POM) seed in an anionic POM solution, demonstrating a wholly POM-based chemical garden system that produces architectures over a wide concentration range. Six concentration dependent growth regimes have been discovered and characterized: clouds, membranes, slugs, tubes, jetting and budding.

  1. A Rain Garden for Our School: Becoming Environmental Stewards (United States)

    McFadyen, Joy


    In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…

  2. Community and School Gardens as Spaces for Learning Social Resilience (United States)

    Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne


    Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…

  3. School Gardens: Cultivating Food Security in Nova Scotia Public Schools? (United States)

    Carlsson, Liesel; Williams, Patricia L; Hayes-Conroy, Jessica S; Lordly, Daphne; Callaghan, Edith


    A small but growing body of peer-reviewed research suggests that school gardens can play a role in building community food security (CFS); however, to date little research exploring the role of school gardens in supporting CFS is available. This paper begins to address this gap in the literature. A qualitative, exploratory, single-case study design was used. The focus of this case study was the school food garden at an elementary school in the River Valley, Nova Scotia, school community. Results provide useful information about potential CFS effects of school gardens in addition to the environmental effects on school gardens important to their effectiveness as CFS tools. Findings suggest children gained food-related knowledge, skills, and values that support long-term CFS. A local social and political landscape at the community, provincial, and school board level were key to strengthening this garden's contributions to CFS. We support Dietitians of Canada's nomination of school gardens as an indicator of CFS with theoretical and practical evidence, underscore the importance of a supportive environment, and need for further research in this area. Health professionals and community organizations provide critical support, helping to weave gardens into a greater movement towards building CFS.

  4. School Gardens: Situating Students within a Global Context (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Lapp, Diane


    School-based gardens are increasingly common. The benefits to students reflect principles of global education by modeling sustainability through responsible ecological planning and service to the community, the environment, and humanity. The authors propose a pedagogical framework for planning school gardens and related experiences that…

  5. Bauran Pemasaran Yang Mempengaruhi Loyalitas Konsumen Di Hotel Garden Palace


    Wijaya, Adeline; Cynthia, Cynthia


    Bauran Pemasaran yang Mempengaruhi Loyalitas Konsumen di Hotel Garden Palace Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bauran pemasaran terhadap loyalitas konsumen dengan kepuasan konsumen sebagai variabel perantara di hotel Garden Palace Surabaya. Indikator-indikator yang terdapat dalam bauran pemasaran berperan dalam membentuk kepuasan konsumen sehingga menghasilkan loyalitas konsumen. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Partial Least Square (PLS). Hasil penelitian menunjukk...

  6. Flow Dynamics and Nutrient Reduction in Rain Gardens (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  7. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used ...

  8. Herbal gardens of India: A statistical analysis report | Rao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge system of the herbal garden in India was developed and these herbal gardens' information was statistically classified for efficient data processing, sharing and retrieving of information, which could act as a decision tool to the farmers, researchers, decision makers and policy makers in the field of medicinal ...

  9. Engaging Urban Students in a Schoolyard Beautification and Gardening Project (United States)

    Ramey, Linda


    Community gardening provides many benefits for students like outdoor physical activity, an understanding of plant life cycles, food production and healthy eating (Blair, 2009; Whiren, 1995). Gardening also provides hands-on learning opportunities to draw parallels between what is needed for plants to grow and what students need to be healthy. When…

  10. Indicators to support healthy urban gardening in urban management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Otte, Piet; Dirven, Liesbet; Breure, Anton M


    Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to

  11. Nutraceuticals and botanicals: overview and perspectives. (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello


    The discovery, development and marketing of food supplements, nutraceuticals and related products are currently the fastest growing segments of the food industry. Functional foods can be considered part or borderline to these products and may be defined as foods or food ingredients that have additional health or physiological benefits over and above the normal nutritional value they provide. This trend is driven by several factors, mainly due to the current consumer perceptions: the first and dominant being 'Natural is good', and other secondary, such as the increasing cost of many pharmaceuticals and their negative secondary effects, the insistent marketing campaign, the increasing perception of the need of a healthy diet and its importance in the health and homeostasis organism conditions. However, the central point is that nutraceuticals, botanicals and other herbal remedies, including the entry of new functional foods, are important because of their acceptance as the novel and modern forms to benefit of natural substances. Due to the rapid expansion in this area, the development of several aspects is considered as it could influence the future of the market of these products negatively: an imbalance existing between the increasing number of claims and products on the one hand, the development of policies to regulate their application and safety on the other, rapid and valuable controls to check the composition, including the plant extracts or adulteration to improve efficacy, like the presence of synthetic drugs. It is interesting to see that, from the negative factors reported by the market analysts, a change in consumers preferences is absent. The functional properties of many plant extracts, in particular, are being investigated for potential use as novel nutraceuticals and functional foods. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly improving, the central aspect concerns the validation of these products. The first step of this crucial aspect is

  12. Effects of substrate, ant and fungal species on plant fiber degradation in a fungus-gardening ant symbiosis. (United States)

    DeMilto, Alexandria M; Rouquette, Monte; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kellner, Katrin; Seal, Jon N


    Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste. While leaf-cutting ants are important consumers of primary plant tissue, there have been fewer studies on physiological activity of fungi grown by closely related ant species in the genus Trachymyrmex, which generally grow related species of fungi, have smaller colonies and consume a wider variety of fungal substrates in addition to fresh leaves and flowers. In this study, we measured the cellulase activity of the fungus-gardening ants Atta texana, Trachymyrmex arizonensis and T. septentrionalis. We then quantified fiber consumption of the fungus-gardening ants Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Trachymyrmex arizonensis by comparing the amounts and percentages present in their food and in fungus garden refuse during a controlled feeding experiment over the span of several months. Finally, we compared waste composition of T. arizonensis colonies growing different fungal strains, because this species is known to cultivate multiple strains of Leucoagaricus in its native range. The leaf-cutting ant A. texana was found to have lower cellulytic activity than T. arizonensis or T. septentrionalis. Total lignocellulose and hemicellulose amounts were significantly lower in refuse piles than in the substrates fed to the Trachymyrmex colonies, thus these fibers were consumed by the fungal symbionts of these ant species. Although lignocellulose utilization was similar in two distinct


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G


    an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...

  14. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.


    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  15. Predictive testing of minors for Huntington's disease : The UK and Netherlands experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarrell, Oliver W.; Clarke, Angus J.; Compton, Cecilia; de Die-Smulders, Christine E. M.; Fryer, Alan; Jenkins, Sian; Lahiri, Nayana; MacLeod, Rhona; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick J.; Musgrave, Hannah; O'Driscoll, Mary; Strong, Mark; van Belzen, Martine J.; Vermeer, Sascha; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C.; Bijlsma, Emilia K.

    A consistent feature of predictive testing guidelines for Huntington's disease (HD) is the recommendation not to undertake predictive tests on those < 18 years. Exceptions are made but the extent of, and reasons for, deviation from the guidelines are unknown. The UK Huntington's Prediction

  16. aliving with Huntington´s disease in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Monika


    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 6-6 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Czech Huntington Association * life with Huntington´ disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Joint Ventures: Marshall University, Ashland Oil, Inc., and Huntington Alloys, Inc., 1977-78. (United States)

    Mayer, Lynne S.

    Two retreat seminars were held between Marshall University and Ashland Oil, Inc. of Ashland, Kentucky and Marshall University and Huntington Alloy, Inc., of Huntington, West Virginia during 1977-78 to identify key problems of mutual concern and prepare a set of recommendations for consideration by the management of both institutions. This report…

  18. Study of plasma-derived miRNAs mimic differences in Huntington's disease brain. (United States)

    Hoss, Andrew G; Lagomarsino, Valentina N; Frank, Samuel; Hadzi, Tiffany C; Myers, Richard H; Latourelle, Jeanne C


    Biomarkers for Huntington's disease progression could accelerate therapeutic developments and improve patient care. Brain microRNAs relating to clinical features of Huntington's disease may represent a potential Huntington's disease biomarker in blood. This study was undertaken to examine candidate microRNAs in plasma to determine whether changes observed in HD brains are detectable in peripheral samples. Four microRNAs from 26 manifest Huntington's disease, four asymptomatic Huntington's disease gene carriers, and eight controls were quantified in plasma using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression was used to assess microRNA levels across control, asymptomatic gene carriers, and manifest patients. miR-10b-5p (P = 0.0068) and miR-486-5p (P = 0.044) were elevated in Huntington's disease plasma. miR-10b-5p was decreased in asymptomatic gene carriers as compared with patients with Huntington's disease (P = 0.049), but no difference between asymptomatic gene carriers and healthy controls was observed (P = 0.24). These findings suggest that microRNA changes observed in Huntington's disease brain may be detectable in plasma and have potential clinical utility. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Targeting Gpr52 lowers mutant HTT levels and rescues Huntington's disease-associated phenotypes. (United States)

    Song, Haikun; Li, Hexuan; Guo, Shimeng; Pan, Yuyin; Fu, Yuhua; Zhou, Zijian; Li, Zhaoyang; Wen, Xue; Sun, Xiaoli; He, Bingqing; Gu, Haifeng; Zhao, Quan; Wang, Cen; An, Ping; Luo, Shouqing; Hu, Youhong; Xie, Xin; Lu, Boxun


    Lowering the levels of disease-causing proteins is an attractive treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disorders, among which Huntington's disease is an appealing disease for testing this strategy because of its monogenetic nature. Huntington's disease is mainly caused by cytotoxicity of the mutant HTT protein with an expanded polyglutamine repeat tract. Lowering the soluble mutant HTT may reduce its downstream toxicity and provide potential treatment for Huntington's disease. This is hard to achieve by small-molecule compound drugs because of a lack of effective targets. Here we demonstrate Gpr52, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, as a potential Huntington's disease drug target. Knocking-out Gpr52 significantly reduces mutant HTT levels in the striatum and rescues Huntington's disease-associated behavioural phenotypes in a knock-in Huntington's disease mouse model expressing endogenous mutant Htt. Importantly, a novel Gpr52 antagonist E7 reduces mutant HTT levels and rescues Huntington's disease-associated phenotypes in cellular and mouse models. Our study provides an entry point for Huntington's disease drug discovery by targeting Gpr52.

  20. Huntington disease and Huntington disease-like in a case series from Brazil. (United States)

    Castilhos, R M; Souza, A F D; Furtado, G V; Gheno, T C; Silva, A L; Vargas, F R; Lima, M-A F D; Barsottini, O; Pedroso, J L; Godeiro, C; Salarini, D; Pereira, E T; Lin, K; Toralles, M-B; Saute, J A M; Rieder, C R; Quintas, M; Sequeiros, J; Alonso, I; Saraiva-Pereira, M L; Jardim, L B


    The aim of this study was to identify the relative frequency of Huntington's disease (HD) and HD-like (HDL) disorders HDL1, HDL2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), SCA17, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian degeneration (DRPLA), benign hereditary chorea, neuroferritinopathy and chorea-acanthocytosis (CHAC), in a series of Brazilian families. Patients were recruited in seven centers if they or their relatives presented at least chorea, besides other findings. Molecular studies of HTT, ATXN2, TBP, ATN1, JPH3, FTL, NKX2-1/TITF1 and VPS13A genes were performed. A total of 104 families were ascertained from 2001 to 2012: 71 families from South, 25 from Southeast and 8 from Northeast Brazil. There were 93 HD, 4 HDL2 and 1 SCA2 families. Eleven of 104 index cases did not have a family history: 10 with HD. Clinical characteristics were similar between HD and non-HD cases. In HD, the median expanded (CAG)n (range) was 44 (40-81) units; R(2) between expanded HTT and age-at-onset (AO) was 0.55 (p=0.0001, Pearson). HDL2 was found in Rio de Janeiro (2 of 9 families) and Rio Grande do Sul states (2 of 68 families). We detected HD in 89.4%, HDL2 in 3.8% and SCA2 in 1% of 104 Brazilian families. There were no cases of HDL1, SCA17, DRPLA, neuroferritinopathy, benign hereditary chorea or CHAC. Only six families (5.8%) remained without diagnosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.