WorldWideScience

Sample records for hunters desiring feathers

  1. Desire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter I shall try to explain desire according to psychoanalysis (here primarily Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan), and why desire is also a concept for that which drives language, literature, and the reader. I hope to show what it means to focus on the dynamics of desire when analysing...

  2. Feather pecking and feather loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.

    2004-01-01

    Characterizing feather peckers seems a viable approach towards a better understanding of the problem of feather pecking. With our current state of knowledge on the causation of feather peckinq, the environmental factors that influence the development of feather pecking and the characteristics of fea

  3. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  4. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  5. Vulnerable Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Asha Begum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps contain more risk. But user may not know the effects that are caused by the app which is installed until the performance of mobile is reduced. With the prosperity of the Android app economy, many apps have been published and sold in various markets. However, short development applications and insufficient security development apps have led to many vulnerable apps. So to reduce these type of problems Vulnerable Hunter is proposed. Through the proposed application user can see which application is risky and then the user may uninstall that application. The main advantage of designing this app is without internet also the users will use this application. Users also feel more convenient to work with mobile apps.

  6. The morphogenesis of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingke; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2002-11-21

    Feathers are highly ordered, hierarchical branched structures that confer birds with the ability of flight. Discoveries of fossilized dinosaurs in China bearing 'feather-like' structures have prompted interest in the origin and evolution of feathers. However, there is uncertainty about whether the irregularly branched integumentary fibres on dinosaurs such as Sinornithosaurus are truly feathers, and whether an integumentary appendage with a major central shaft and notched edges is a non-avian feather or a proto-feather. Here, we use a developmental approach to analyse molecular mechanisms in feather-branching morphogenesis. We have used the replication-competent avian sarcoma retrovirus to deliver exogenous genes to regenerating flight feather follicles of chickens. We show that the antagonistic balance between noggin and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has a critical role in feather branching, with BMP4 promoting rachis formation and barb fusion, and noggin enhancing rachis and barb branching. Furthermore, we show that sonic hedgehog (Shh) is essential for inducing apoptosis of the marginal plate epithelia, which results in spaces between barbs. Our analyses identify the molecular pathways underlying the topological transformation of feathers from cylindrical epithelia to the hierarchical branched structures, and provide insights on the possible developmental mechanisms in the evolution of feather forms.

  7. Fossilization of feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul G.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    1995-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of feathers has revealed evidence that a bacterial glycocalyx (a network of exocellular polysaccharide fibers) played a role in promoting their fossilization in some cases. This mode of preservation has not been reported in other soft tissues. The majority of fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces. More rarely, bacteria on the surface are replicated by authigenic minerals (bacterial autolithification). The feathers of Archaeopteryx are preserved mainly by imprintation following early lithification of the substrate and decay of the feather. Lacustrine settings provide the most important taphonomic window for feather preservation. Preservation in terrestrial and normal-marine settings involves very different processes (in amber and in authigenically mineralized coprolites, respectively). Therefore, there may be a significant bias in the avian fossil record in favor of inland water habitats.

  8. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  9. Unzipping bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments. PMID:24352674

  10. Family Feathers. [Videotape Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    Family Feathers is a set of 18 videotapes for parents of preschool children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on practical advice from Tlingit and Haida parents, wisdom from elders, and some of…

  11. On the Morphogenesis of Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingke; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The most unique character of the feather is its highly ordered hierarchical branched structure1, 2. This evolutionary novelty confers flight function to birds3–5. Recent discoveries of fossils in China have prompted keen interest in the origin and evolution of feathers6–14. However, controversy arises whether the irregularly branched integumentary fibers on dinosaurs such as Sinornithosaurus are truly feathers6, 11, and whether an integumentary appendage with a major central shaft and notched edges is a non-avian feather or a proto-feather8–10. Here we take a developmental approach to analyze molecular mechanisms in feather branching morphogenesis. We have used the replication competent avian sarcoma (RCAS) retrovirus15 to efficiently deliver exogenous genes to regenerating chicken flight feather follicles. We show that the antagonistic balance between noggin and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plays a critical role in feather branching, with BMP4 promoting rachis formation and barb fusion, and noggin enhancing rachis and barb branching. Furthermore we show that sonic hedgehog (SHH) is essential for apoptosis of the marginal plate epithelia to become spaces between barbs. Our analyses show the molecular pathways underlying the topological transformation of feathers from cylindrical epithelia to the hierarchical branched structures, and provide first clues on the possible developmental mechanisms in the evolution of feather forms. PMID:12442169

  12. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  13. On the Morphogenesis of Feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Mingke; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2002-01-01

    The most unique character of the feather is its highly ordered hierarchical branched structure1, 2. This evolutionary novelty confers flight function to birds3–5. Recent discoveries of fossils in China have prompted keen interest in the origin and evolution of feathers6–14. However, controversy arises whether the irregularly branched integumentary fibers on dinosaurs such as Sinornithosaurus are truly feathers6, 11, and whether an integumentary appendage with a major central shaft and notched...

  14. The Infrared Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 This image composite compares infrared and visible views of the famous Orion nebula and its surrounding cloud, an industrious star-making region located near the hunter constellation's sword. The infrared picture is from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, and the visible image is from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, headquartered in Tucson, Ariz. In addition to Orion, two other nebulas can be seen in both pictures. The Orion nebula, or M42, is the largest and takes up the lower half of the images; the small nebula to the upper left of Orion is called M43; and the medium-sized nebula at the top is NGC 1977. Each nebula is marked by a ring of dust that stands out in the infrared view. These rings make up the walls of cavities that are being excavated by radiation and winds from massive stars. The visible view of the nebulas shows gas heated by ultraviolet radiation from the massive stars. Above the Orion nebula, where the massive stars have not yet ejected much of the obscuring dust, the visible image appears dark with only a faint glow. In contrast, the infrared view penetrates the dark lanes of dust, revealing bright swirling clouds and numerous developing stars that have shot out jets of gas (green). This is because infrared light can travel through dust, whereas visible light is stopped short by it. The infrared image shows light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Light with wavelengths of 8 and 5.8 microns (red and orange) comes mainly from dust that has been heated by starlight. Light of 4.5 microns (green) shows hot gas and dust; and light of 3.6 microns (blue) is from starlight.

  15. Dinosaurs of a Feather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Hone

    2010-01-01

    @@ From the earliest days of paleontological research,the origin of birds was an area of special interest.Largely thanks to the work of Thomas Huxley and the discovery of Archaeopteryx,theropod dinosaurs(the large group of bipeds that contain all the carnivorous species)rapidly became the most likely candidate for the ancestor of birds.However,controversy over this idea raged for many decades,and while the evidence supporting the dinosaur theory grew,there remained one outstanding problem.Apart from Archaeopteryx,there were simply no fossils of dinosaurs with feathers.

  16. Planet Hunters: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

  17. Identification and specialization as a waterfowl hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Like specialization, identity offers a way for differentiating and understanding recreationists and for gaining insight into the question of participant progression in an activity. We examined how identity related to measures of specialization among lapsed and current waterfowl hunters. Lapsed hunters included those who had purchased a Minnesota waterfowl stamp between 2000 and 2004, but not since this time. Current hunters had purchased a 2010 stamp. Results suggested that some waterfowl hunters specialize and progress toward a waterfowl-hunter identity. Others, however, either hunt for years but never specialize and identify as waterfowl hunters, or move toward but do not attain a waterfowl hunter identity. Individuals who achieve a waterfowl hunter identity may also later relinquish this identity. Identification was associated with increased specialization and resistance to change from a preference for waterfowl hunting. Individuals who had relinquished their identity retained social and knowledge-based commitment to waterfowl hunting, whereas attraction and centrality declined.

  18. Feather loss in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the incidence of different forms of feather loss and cannibalism in laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting and in laying hens following exploitation for a period of one year. The forms of feather loss were considered in detail through a repeated examination of video recordings and they were sorted according to localization - to feather loss on the ventral part of the neck, on the dorsal part of the neck, and on the back between the wings. Feather loss on the ventral part of the neck was established in 47.9% hens, and in the dorsal part in 16.77% hens of the 167 laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting. The group of 129 laying hens that were observed following one-year exploitation exhibited considerably more frequent feather loss, in 96.90% hens it was localized on the ventral part of the neck, in 60.47% hens on the dorsal part of the neck, and in 20.16% hens it was localized on the back between the wings. A comparison of the results of the incidence of co localized forms of feather loss in the one and the other group of laying hens using the t-test showed statistically very significant differences. A detailed consideration of the video recordings using the method of sequence analysis did not reveal any cannibalism in either group of laying hens.

  19. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  20. Hunter Valley的诚信%Hunter Valley's Honesty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 去年圣诞节假期,我和小T曾和大连狮子一家三口,到悉尼附近知名旅游地Hunter Valley(猎人谷)度过了快乐充实的三天. 我们一行五人在圣诞节那天乘坐提前预订好的马车,大约走访了八、九个大大小小的葡萄洒园.

  1. Hunters in the new millennium”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Peter

    of the modern world continue to practice hunting? What are the preferences of the modern hunter? How are the preferences and conduct of hunters related to the social and demographic factors? What are the social, political and economical impacts of hunting? What motivates people to hunt? - In spite of the fact...... that hunting is a common source of conflict between different interests, only very few studies has been made to produce knowledge about people hunting for leisure. The survey “Hunters in the new millennium” is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of hunters and hunting in an increasing urbanized...

  2. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers...

  3. Feather damage due to mycotic infections in wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Shotts, E B; Teska, J; Moreland, D W

    1989-10-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Pearl River Wildlife Management Area, St. Tammany Parish and from adjacent St. Helena Parish, Louisiana (USA) were observed to have broken and frayed rectrices. The condition was noted in 21% of 90 wild turkeys harvested by hunters during the springs of 1985 through 1988 from the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area. Damage to feathers ranged from mild to severe. Histologic and microbiologic study of five birds disclosed colonization and invasion of the rachis sheath and pulp by fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Dactylella, Exophiala, Helminthosporium and Trichophyton and by Streptomyces. Sterilized normal rectrices from wild turkeys were inoculated with these organisms and subsequently developed damage that was histologically compatible with field cases. The condition was diagnosed as a multiple etiology mycosis. Successful colonization and invasion of experimentally inoculated feathers required addition of moisture and elevation of relative humidity within the cultures. The apparent high moisture requirements of the fungi suggest that late winter and early spring flooding may be a probable predisposing factor for this condition.

  4. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the basis of irony, and revealing a simulation of the desire, violence, and despondency which have been expressed in myths of nymphs and Persephone. The protagonist never reaches this unity, but his narrative of erotic and romantic love reveals him as a pathetic addict engaged in mechanical reproduction related to the phenomena of desire, seduction, violence, and sex. His The Enchanted Hunters does not simulate what he expects of his childhood love with Annabel; rather, it simulates the erotic imagination suggested in Mary D. Sheriff’s term “nymphomania,” in which artists fall degenerately to a model of tragedy. Keywords: simulation, nymph, nymphomania, The Enchanted Hunters The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita refers to the name of a hotel and the title of a play. This seeming coincidence is actually not coincidental: Nabokov weaves a story concerning a pedophile’s seduction of a prepubescent child into a “story within a story,” in which the girl is imagined as a seducer who bewitches a number of hunters. Just as the girl in the play is a figment of a poet’s imagination, so Lolita in the novel Lolita is an imaginary production of a middle-aged pedophile. Yet Lolita is not so much a novel revealing guilt and mental disorder, but a mélange of art and reality, or more specifically, it is about a coinage in which the author fabricates art and myth in real life. Parallel to the protagonist who simulates what he expects of his childhood love, Annabel, in the form of the nymphet, Lolita, Nabokov replicates the beauty of butterflies in the pursuit of beauty and immortality, and develops the world of art with a pathetic tone whereby we gradually perceive a simulation of the desire, violence, and

  5. desirability scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro C. Cosentino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La deseabilidad social es la necesidad de los sujetos de obtener aprobación respondiendo de un modo culturalmente aceptable y apropiado. Uno de los instrumentos más utilizado para medirla es la Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS, desarrollada por los autores en 1960. Es de frecuente aplicación en diversos tipos de estudios de diferentes áreas de la Psicología y la Medicina. Resulta adecuada tanto para estimar sesgos de respuestas en un sentido socialmente deseable como para operacionalizar constructos psicológicos, tales como de necesidad de aprobación o de defensividad. Es la medida estándar para discriminar entre los estilos de respuesta al estrés del modelo de Weinberger, Schwartz y Davidson (1979. A lo largo del tiempo, diversos autores le han realizado modificaciones tales como: cambios de formato de administración, abreviaciones, traducciones y adaptaciones a diversas culturas. En este estudio se describe el desarrollo de la Escala de Deseabilidad Social de Crowne y Marlowe (EDSCM que es una adaptación argentina de la escala completa MCSDS en su formato original de papel y lápiz. Los datos obtenidos a través de diferentes muestras (estudiantes universitarios, adultos y solicitantes de empleos respaldan que la EDSCM posee adecuadas confiabilidad y validez de constructo, como lo demuestra el estudio de su validez convergente, validez divergente, validez por técnica de instrucciones diferenciales y validez de grupos conocidos. Se sugiere el uso de la EDSCM para investigaciones en diferentes áreas de Psicología y Medicina en poblaciones argentinas.

  6. Danes - The keen bargain hunters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2008-01-01

    New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product.......New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product....

  7. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  8. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  9. Feather eating in individually caged hens which differ in their propensity to feather peck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, D E.F.; Savory, C J.

    2001-07-28

    Two experiments examined the responses of 16 individually caged laying hens to the presentation of feathers plucked from dead birds of the same genetic line. In the first experiment, hens known from a previous experiment to be either feather 'peckers' or 'non-peckers' (8 of each) were tested for their propensity to eat feathers in four 10min trials, in which they were offered fresh semiplumes measuring 4-6cm (length), one at a time, in front of their cage. Wide variation between birds was observed in numbers of feathers eaten, pecked, picked-up and manipulated. Fourteen out of 16 birds readily ate presented feathers on one or more occasion and both birds that ate no feathers were non-peckers. Peckers ate, picked-up and manipulated feathers significantly more often than did non-peckers (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). A second experiment investigated the possibility that presence of preen (uropygial) oil might contribute to the attractiveness of feathers to eat. The same group of 16 pecker and non-pecker hens were offered a choice between 20 washed and 20 unwashed semiplumes, presented simultaneously in separate containers, in two 10min trials. Unwashed feathers were eaten, pecked and picked-up in preference to washed feathers by both peckers and non-peckers (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), indicating an attraction towards unwashed feathers, or an avoidance of washed feathers for some reason. Peckers and non-peckers did not differ significantly in their preferences. These results provide evidence of a relationship between feather eating and feather pecking at an individual level. The finding that hens could distinguish between normal feathers and those treated in such a way as to alter their olfactory (but not visual) properties suggests olfactory cues may be of importance in determining the attractiveness of conspecific feathers.

  10. Applying chemical stimuli on feathers to reduce feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that spraying a distasteful substance (quinine) on a bird's feather cover reduced short-term feather pecking. The present experiment evaluated if other substances offer similar or better protection against feather pecking. One hundred and twenty birds were divided into 12 g

  11. The hunter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th century: humankind has become a spacefaring civilization, colonizing the solar system and beyond. While no alien forms of life have yet been encountered in this expansion into space, colonists suddenly encounter machines of alien origin - huge robots able to reproduce themselves.  Called replicators by the colonists, they seem to have but a single goal: to destroy all organic life they come in contact with. Since the colonial governments have no means to fight this menace directly, they instead promise huge rewards to whoever destroys a replicator. As a result, the frontier attracts a new kind of adventurers, the Hunters, who work to find and destroy the replicators. Mike Edwards, a skilled young maintenance technician and robotics expert at a faraway outpost, will not only become one of them - but be the very first one to unlock the secret behind the replicators’ origin and mission.   The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular space travel, robotics and self-replica...

  12. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  13. The allometry of number of feathers in birds changes seasonally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape Møller

    2015-01-01

    Background:Feathers are a defining feature of birds with multiple functions such as flight, insulation, protection against predation and signaling. Feathers are lost during the annual molt while the rate of such loss at other times of the year and its fitness consequences remain poorly known. Methods:I used information on the number and the mass of feathers for 160 individuals belonging to 85 species of birds in general linear mixed models to analyze allometry of feathers and to investigate possible factors explaining variation in the number of feathers. A phylogenetic effect was assessed by quantifying the random effect of genus. Results:The total mass of feathers increased isometrically with body mass, while the total number of feathers and the mean mass of feathers showed negative allometry. Negative allometry implied that small-sized species had relatively many small feathers. There was a negative association between the number of feathers and migration distance. The total number of feathers initially increased during fall and winter, consistent with individuals growing more feathers later during the year or with individuals with fewer feathers selectively disappearing from the population. In contrast, the number of feathers decreased from winter through spring and summer. Conclusions:These findings suggest that thermoregulation has affected the evolution of the number and the size of feathers, there is selection against feather loss, and that the number of feathers varies across seasons.

  14. The allometry of number of feathers in birds changes seasonally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders; Pape; Mller

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feathers are a defining feature of birds with multiple functions such as flight, insulation, protection against predation and signaling. Feathers are lost during the annual molt while the rate of such loss at other times of the year and its fitness consequences remain poorly known.Methods: I used information on the number and the mass of feathers for 160 individuals belonging to 85 species of birds in general linear mixed models to analyze allometry of feathers and to investigate possible factors explaining variation in the number of feathers. A phylogenetic effect was assessed by quantifying the random effect of genus.Results: The total mass of feathers increased isometrically with body mass, while the total number of feathers and the mean mass of feathers showed negative allometry. Negative allometry implied that small-sized species had relatively many small feathers. There was a negative association between the number of feathers and migration distance. The total number of feathers initially increased during fall and winter, consistent with individuals growing more feathers later during the year or with individuals with fewer feathers selectively disappearing from the population. In contrast, the number of feathers decreased from winter through spring and summer.Conclusions: These findings suggest that thermoregulation has affected the evolution of the number and the size of feathers, there is selection against feather loss, and that the number of feathers varies across seasons.

  15. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  16. Morphometry of auricular feathers of barn owls (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, U R; Wagner, H

    2002-02-01

    In all owl species, the facial plumage forms a parabolic dish, the facial ruff, which is most conspicuous in the the barn owl (Tyto alba). The center of the ruff is formed by auricular feathers. Such feathers are also found on the preaural flaps which cover the ear openings, and in the region of the beak. In this study, we compare the different types of auricular feathers of the barn owl with contour feathers from the neck. Auricular feathers are characterised by an open vane structure and fewer barbs as compared to contour feathers. Auricular feathers also have fewer distal and proximal barbules than contour feathers. The open vane of the auricular feather results from an acute angle between the barb and the basis of the barbules, and from the extension of the pennula parallel to the barbs. These reductions are differently expressed in the three different types of auricular feathers investigated here and correspond with their function (protecting the ruff from dust).

  17. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  18. Towards a comprehensive model of feather regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderson, Paul F A; Hillenius, Willem J; Hiller, Uwe; Dove, Carla C

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549-562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, beta- and alpha-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation long inhibited progress in understanding. This article reviews and reevaluates the available literature and provides a synthetic, comprehensive, morphological model for the regeneration of a generalized, adult contour feather. Particular attention is paid to several features that have previously been largely ignored. Some of these, such as the beta-keratogenic sheath and the alpha-keratogenic, supra-umbilical, pulp caps, are missing from mature, functional feathers sensu stricto because they are lost through preening, but these structures nevertheless play a critical role in development. A new developmental role for a tissue unique to feathers, the medullary pith of the rachis and barb rami, and especially its importance in the genesis of the superior umbilical region (SUR) that forms the transition from the spathe (rachis and vanes) to the calamus, is described. It is postulated that feathers form through an intricate interplay between cyto- and histodifferentiative processes, determined by patterning signals that emanate from the dermal core, and a suite of interacting biomechanical forces. Precisely regulated patterns of loss of intercellular adhesivity appear to be the most fundamental aspect of feather morphogenesis and regeneration: rather than a hierarchically branched structure, it appears more appropriate to conceive of feathers as a sheet of mature keratinocytes that is "full of holes.

  19. A novel DNA virus associated with feather inclusions in psittacine beak and feather disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, K S; Rakich, P M; Steffens, W L; Kircher, I M; Ritchie, B W; Niagro, F D; Lukert, P D

    1991-07-01

    The nature of feather inclusions was characterized in 32 psittacine birds (30 cockatoos, one peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis), and one red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis autumnalis] with naturally-acquired psittacine beak and feather disease. Intranuclear inclusions within feather epithelial cells and intracytoplasmic inclusions within macrophages in the feather epithelium and pulp cavity contained psittacine beak and feather disease viral antigen when stained by the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique. Ultrastructurally, inclusions were observed primarily within macrophages and to a lesser extent within epithelial cell nuclei. Macrophage inclusions appeared as paracrystalline arrays of viral particles. Intranuclear inclusions were less well defined, although scattered viral particles were present. Intracytoplasmic and intranuclear particles in ultrastructural preparations were identified by colloidal gold labeling as psittacine beak and feather disease virus. Feather epithelium was more frequently and severely involved in the disease process than was adjacent follicular epithelium. Plucked feathers with an intact epidermal collar and feather epithelium were preferred to follicular biopsies for histopathologic examination.

  20. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  1. 32 CFR 636.10 - Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration. 636.10... Stewart, Georgia § 636.10 Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration. Personnel assigned or employed at Hunter Army Airfield are required to register their privately owned vehicles within five days...

  2. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  3. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  4. Hunters Try to Capture Their Past

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Daily

    2012-01-01

    Mo Guizhen was 5 when she saw a real bed for the first time.She refused to sleep on it,accustomed as she was to deer furs laid on the ground of hunters' huts in the depths of the Greater Hinggan Mountains in northeastern China.

  5. Hunters syndrom og hørenedsaettelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Eva Kirkegaard; Møller, Troels Reinholdt; Wetke, Randi

    2010-01-01

    functions and language were delayed, and he made audible respiratory sounds and was obviously nasally congested. The boy was referred for further investigations at the Department of Paediatrics. The tests showed that the boy suffered from Hunter Syndrome (MPSII) and he underwent relevant treatment....

  6. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Ice Formation Delay on Penguin Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehbirjandi, Elaheh; Tavakoli-Dastjerdi, Faryar; St. Leger, Judy; Davis, Stephen H.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic penguins reside in a harsh environment where air temperature may reach -40 °C with wind speed of 40 m/s and water temperature remains around -2.2 °C. Penguins are constantly in and out of the water and splashed by waves, yet even in sub-freezing conditions, the formation of macroscopic ice is not observed on their feathers. Bird feathers are naturally hydrophobic; however, penguins have an additional hydrophobic coating on their feathers to reinforce their non-wetting properties. This coating consists of preen oil which is applied to the feathers from the gland near the base of the tail. The combination of the feather's hydrophobicity and surface texture is known to increase the contact angle of water drops on penguin feathers to over 140 ° and classify them as superhydrophobic. We here develop an in-depth analysis of ice formation mechanism on superhydrophobic surfaces through careful experimentations and development of a theory to address how ice formation is delayed on these surfaces. Furthermore, we investigate the anti-icing properties of warm and cold weather penguins with and without preen oil to further design a surface minimizing the frost formation which is of practical interest especially in aircraft industry.

  8. Investigations on feathering, feather growth and potential influences of nutrient supply on feathers' regrowth in small pet birds (canaries, budgerigars and lovebirds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P; Rabehl, N; Kamphues, J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitate feathering in several companion birds. Besides the ratio of feathers to whole body mass, feather length as well as feather weight were of interest. Furthermore, data on feather loss and growth rates were estimated. In general, it could be observed that the proportion of feathers relative to body mass varied between 14 (canaries) and 7.4% (lovebirds). Feather losses (outside the moult period) amounted to an average of 6.65 (canaries), 8.98 (budgerigars), and 8.43 (lovebirds) mg/bird/day respectively or 37 (canaries), 20 (budgerigars), and 17 (lovebirds) mg/100 g body weight/day (values of interest in calculating of protein requirements for maintenance). In canaries, the average growth rate of the developing feathers amounted to 2 mm/day. In contrast to the onset of feather regeneration, the growth rate of new feathers leaving the follicle was not influenced by the supplements used here. The regeneration period (first measurable feather growth) of a plucked pinion can be used as an indicator and objective parameter to test potential nutritional influences. Parallel to the improvement of nutrient supply the rates of feather losses and also replacement increased, whereas the rates decreased when seed mixtures without any addition of minerals, sulphurous amino acids, and vitamins were fed.

  9. Maturation experiments reveal bias in the fossil record of feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Field, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary history of birds and feathers is a major focus in palaeobiology and evolutionary biology. Diverse exceptionally preserved birds and feathered dinosaurs from Jurassic and Cretaceous biotas in China have provided pivotal evidence of early feathers and feather-like integumentary features, but the true nature of many of these fossil soft tissues is still debated. Interpretations of feathers at intermediate developmental stages (i.e. Stages II, III and IV) and of simple quill-like (Stage I) feathers are particularly controversial. This reflects key uncertainties relating to the preservation potential of feathers at different evolutionary-developmental stages, and to the relative preservation potential of diagnostic features of Stage I feathers and hair. To resolve these issues, we used high pressure-high temperature autoclave experiments to simulate the effects of burial on modern feathers from the Black Coucal (Centropus grilii) and Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and on human hair. Our results reveal profound differences in the recalcitrance of feathers of different types during maturation: Stage I and Stage V feathers retain diagnostic morphological and ultrastructural details following maturation, whereas other feather types do not. Further, the morphology and arrangement of certain ultrastructural features diagnostic of Stages III and IV, e.g. barbules, are preferentially lost during maturation. These results indicate a pervasive bias in the fossil record of feathers, whereby preservation of feathers at Stages I and V is favored. Critical stages in the evolution of feathers, i.e. Stages II, III and IV, are less likely to be preserved and more likely to be misinterpreted as feathers at earlier developmental stages. Our discovery has major implications for our understanding of the fidelity of the fossil record of feathers and provides a framework for testing the significance of putative examples of fossil feathers at different developmental

  10. The fearful feather pecker : applying the principles to practice to prevent feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Billions of laying hens are kept worldwide. Severe feather pecking (SFP) is a behaviour which occurs with a high prevalence on commercial farms. SFP, the pecking and plucking of feathers of another bird, induces pain and stress and can ultimately lead to cannibalism. Moreover, SFP can occur if a

  11. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  12. Feather eating and its associations with plumage damage and feathers on the floor in commercial farms of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2016-01-01

    Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main...... for each floor feather. In week 62, a higher prevalence of hens with poor plumage condition was found in barn (22.2%) compared with organic production systems (7.4%; P... directly from other hens or dislodged during preening of own feathers....

  13. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N.; Clayton, Anita H

    2017-01-01

    to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided...

  14. Development of Bird-like Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglasang, Jonathan; Goto, Norihiro; Isogai, Koji

    To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle utilizes both the flapping and feathering motions of an avian wing by employing a novel flapping-feathering mechanism, which has been synthesized and constructed so as to best describe the properly coordinated flapping and feathering wing motions at phase angle difference of 90° in a horizontal steady level flight condition. This design allows high flapping and feathering amplitudes and is configurable for asymmetric wing motions which are desirable in high-speed flapping flight and maneuvering. The preliminary results indicate its viability as a practical and an efficient flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle.

  15. Evaluation of a novel feather scoring system for monitoring feather damaging behaviour in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Bergers, Madeleine J; van der Valk, Lisette; Schoemaker, Nico J; Lumeij, Johannes T

    2013-05-01

    Feather damaging behaviour is common in captive psittacine birds and there is a need for reliable methods to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive interventions. This study compared the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities of a novel feather scoring system with an existing system to assess the plumage of grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Regions of the body were photographed separately at 1 week intervals and shown at random to 35 examiners (avian veterinarians and veterinary students), who used the two scoring systems to assess plumage. Since the quality of the photographs was insufficient to allow accurate assessment of the individual flight and tail feathers, the novel scoring system was only evaluated for its reliability regarding covert and down feathers. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine absolute reliabilities for both systems. Correlation coefficients were 0.90 and 0.95 for intra-observer reliability and 0.83 and 0.89 for inter-observer reliability for the existing and novel feather scoring systems, respectively. When using the novel system, a change in plumage condition of ≥10% was needed to ensure that the change reflected a real difference in 95% of cases, while a change of ≥15% was needed for the existing system. Since it may take from 4 weeks (covert or down feathers) to over 1 year (flight or tail feathers) for feathers to regrow, sufficient time should be allowed to elapse between two scoring sessions to reliably evaluate the efficacy of preventive or therapeutic interventions for feather damaging behaviour.

  16. Stabilization of solutions of feather keratins by sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooyen, P.M.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Oberthür, Radulf C.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Feijen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Feather keratins were extracted from chicken feathers with aqueous solutions of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. After filtration of the insoluble residue, a feather keratin solution was obtained. Removal of 2-mercaptoethanol and urea by dialysis resulted in aggregation of the keratin polypeptide chains

  17. Feather pecking and related behavioural characteristics in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Feather pecking is a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. It is characterised by pecking at- and pulling out of feathers of conspecifics. A bird's propensity to develop feather pecking may be related with other behavioural characteristics, such as reaction to frustration (the omission

  18. Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners and the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    . Significant differences in wildlife value orientations were found. Mutualists and distanced dominated in the public; most landowners and hunters were utilitarian followed by pluralist. Male hunters were more utilitarian than female. More active hunters were more utilitarian; hunters belonging to a hunting...... association were more utilitarian than those who did not belong to associations. Full-time farmers were more utilitarian than part-time farmers, and conventional farmers were more utilitarian than organic farmers. No significant difference with regard to residence for all three groups was found. Future...

  19. Desire, Democracy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  20. The Weight of Iron and Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the popular question concerning the difference in weight between 1 kg of iron and 1 kg of feathers, by taking into account the non-trivial aspect of the semantic interpretation of "weight" and the weighting procedure. The inclusion of air buoyancy makes the correct answer an interesting one. We describe and comment on the…

  1. Arsenic species in poultry feather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, K E; Raber, G; Francesconi, K A; Navas-Acien, A; Love, D C

    2012-02-15

    Organoarsenical drugs are widely used in the production of broiler chickens in the United States. Feathers from these chickens are processed into a meal product that is used as an animal feed additive and as an organic fertilizer. Research conducted to date suggests that arsenical drugs, specifically roxarsone, used in poultry production result in the accumulation of arsenic in the keratinous material of poultry feathers. The use of feather meal product in the human food system and in other settings may result in human exposures to arsenic. Consequently, the presence and nature of arsenic in twelve samples of feather meal product from six US states and China were examined. Since arsenic toxicity is highly species-dependent, speciation analysis using HPLC/ICPMS was performed to determine the biological relevance of detected arsenic. Arsenic was detected in all samples (44-4100 μg kg(-1)) and speciation analyses revealed that inorganic forms of arsenic dominated, representing 37 - 83% of total arsenic. Roxarsone was not detected in the samples (arsenic in the food system, and may pose additional risks to humans as a result of its use as an organic fertilizer and when animal waste is managed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioactive caesium in hunters and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, G.; Bergman, R. [Natonal Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Center for Risk Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Enander, A. [National Defence Research Establishment, Karlstad (Sweden); Johansson, K.J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    We have measured the whole-body content of radiocesium in men and women in households, where at least one member is a hunter. Hunter families live to a great extent on forest products, such as mushrooms, berries and meat from game. Measurements were performed in two areas in northern Sweden and in three areas in the middle part of Sweden with deposition levels between 7 to 80 kBq/m{sup 2}. The average whole body content of {sup 137}Cs varied between 0.3 to 1.9 kBq for women and 0.6 to 4.7 kBq for men, depending on the deposition level. Each individual in the measured group was also asked to fill in questionnaire and a food diary to provide complementary information of, e.g., food intake and other life conditions. The single dietary factor most clearly related to whole-body content in these groups is the intake of meat from moose. The best regression model with variables from the questionnaire explained 60% of the variance in the whole-body content of {sup 137}Cs in the measurement group. Some of the variables in this model were deposition level, sex, rate of intake and estimated consumption of moose meat and estimated amount of bilberries in the fridge. 6 refs, 5 figs, 14 tabs.

  3. Feather-pecking response of laying hens to feather and cellulose-based rations fed during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegseis, I; Bessei, W; Meyer, B; Zentek, J; Würbel, H; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies in laying hens have shown that feather peckers eat more feathers than nonpeckers. We hypothesized that food pellets containing feathers would decrease the birds' appetite for feathers and thereby also decrease feather pecking. To separate the effect of feathers from that of insoluble fiber per se, additional control groups were fed pellets containing similar amounts of cellulose. Sixty (experiment 1) and 180 (experiment 2) 1-d-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn birds were divided into 12 groups of 5 (experiment 1) and 15 (experiment 2) birds, respectively, and kept on slatted floors. During the rearing period, 4 groups each had ad libitum access to either a commercial pelleted diet, a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of chopped feathers, respectively, or a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of cellulose, respectively. In the consecutive laying period, all groups received a commercial pelleted diet. In experiment 1, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to wk 16. In the laying period, observations were made in wk 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 30. In experiment 2, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to 11, in wk 16 to wk 18, and in wk 20 and 21. At the end of the rearing period, plumage condition per individual hen was scored. Scores from 1 (denuded) to 4 (intact) were given for each of 6 body parts. The addition of 10% of feathers to the diet reduced the number of severe feather-pecking bouts (P < 0.0129) and improved plumage condition of the back area (P < 0.001) significantly compared with control diets. The relationship between feather pecking/eating and the gastrointestinal consequences thereof, which alter feather pecking-behavior, are unclear. Understanding this relationship might be crucial for understanding the causation of feather pecking in laying hens.

  4. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  5. Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The author offers the thesis that hunter-gatherers promoted, through cultural means, the playful side of their human nature and this made possible their egalitarian, nonautocratic, intensely cooperative ways of living. Hunter-gatherer bands, with their fluid membership, are likened to social-play groups, which people could freely join or leave.…

  6. Attribute-based analysis of hunters' lease preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Munn, Ian A; Hudson, Darren; West, Ben

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of hunter preferences for hunting lease attributes is important to landowners because such knowledge provides key information for managing and marketing fee-hunting in order to maximize revenues. Premised on this insight, we used attribute based modeling to investigate how hunter preferences for potential leases were influenced by lease and hunter-specific attributes. A mail survey of Mississippi licensed hunters provided the necessary data. Estimation results based on McFadden conditional logit regression suggested that lease attributes including game diversity, lease location relative to hunter residence, lease size, lease duration and lease rate influenced willingness to pay for additional units of lease attributes. Depending on the specific levels of these attributes, WTP could vary as much as $5.70 per acre. Of the hunter-specific attributes, age and income significantly influenced hunter decision to buy a lease or opt for status quo. Results of this study should assist landowners in increasing financial returns from fee-hunting endeavors through appropriate changes to their hunting access policies and wildlife management activities in response to hunter preferences regarding lease attributes.

  7. Wild boar hunters profile in Shimane prefecture, western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda, G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars have been expanding their range and seriously damage agricultural crops all over Japan. Such situation is obvious in Shimane Prefecture, western end of Honshu Island, where most of its territory is mountainous. Populaton control is strongly expected by farmers and administration. However, the number of hunters has been drastically decreasing since the 1970’s. To maintain and increase hunters, we must investigate their activities and attitudes to clarify the problems. Questionnaires were conducted in 2001 on 310 hunters who renewed their hunting license at local office. The response rate was 80.0%. Wild boar hunters accounted for 61.6%, and the others were mostly bird hunters (32.5%. The objective of wild boar hunting was predominantly nuisance control, and very few hunted for money despite of its high commercial value. Most of them were farmers (35.8% and/or farm village dwellers (53.6%, and used the leg snare (61.4%. Despite the stable number of hunters, the number of hunters using guns is decreasing. Hunters do not to appear to be interested in maintaining the local hunting society. Leisure is the most pursued objective rather nuisance control. Therefore, actions should be taken to stimulate hunting as a leisure activity thus maintaining an important tool for wild boar management.

  8. 78 FR 77113 - Bakken Hunter, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bakken Hunter, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 2, 2013 Bakken Hunter, LLC (Bakken), 410 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202, filed in Docket No....

  9. Why do good hunters have higher reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric Alden

    2004-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence from many hunter-gatherer societies suggests that successful hunters experience higher prestige and greater reproductive success. Detailed quantitative data on these patterns are now available for five widely dispersed cases (Ache, Hadza, !Kung, Lamalera, and Meriam) and indicate that better hunters exhibit higher age-corrected reproductive success than other men in their social group. Leading explanations to account for this pattern are: (1) direct provisioning of hunters' wives and offspring, (2) dyadic reciprocity, (3) indirect reciprocity, (4) costly signaling, and (5) phenotypic correlation. I examine the qualitative and quantitative evidence bearing on these explanations and conclude that although none can be definitively rejected, extensive and apparently unconditional sharing of large game somewhat weakens the first three explanations. The costly signaling explanation has support in some cases, although the exact nature of the benefits gained from mating or allying with or deferring to better hunters needs further study.

  10. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sonia L

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction, with estimates of prevalence approximating 10%. By definition it is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes distress. HSDD has no single cause, but physiological, psychological and socio-cultural factors underpinning female sexual desire may all be important in its development. Medical therapeutic strategies to date have concentrated on modulation of hormone levels, particularly androgen administration, yet few products have been approved for the treatment of HSDD in developed countries. More recent medical targets have included agents with 5-hydroxytryptamine agonist activity. Psychological therapeutic approaches have been infrequently studied but concentrate on cognitive behavioural therapy. HSDD is an evolving diagnosis, the existence of which has been questioned by some critics. Whilst HSDD remains the subject of ongoing research, its title and definition are under debate as a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association approaches publication in 2012.

  11. Biothermoplastics from hydrolyzed and citric acid crosslinked chicken feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Chen, Lihong; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach of developing thermoplastic films from feathers by alkaline hydrolysis and crosslinking with citric acid. Unlike previous approaches that used toxic chemicals, complicated and/or expensive methods to develop films, in this research, feathers were hydrolyzed using various concentrations of alkali and the hydrolyzed feathers were compression molded into films using glycerol as plasticizer and crosslinked with citric acid to improve water stability. Alkali hydrolyzed feathers could be compression molded into films with tensile strength of 5.9 MPa and elongation of 31.7% but had poor wet strength. Feather films crosslinked with citric acid had tensile strength of 1.9 MPa and elongation of 24.6% after being in 90% humidity at 21 °C for 24 hours. Alkaline hydrolysis and citric acid crosslinking provides an opportunity to develop inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastics from the inexpensive, renewable and sustainable poultry feathers.

  12. Mathematics, Mathematicians, and Desire

    OpenAIRE

    Roodal Persad, Veda

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about mapping the landscape of engagement with mathematics, including elucidating aspects of who we are, as human beings, when we do mathematics and of what mathematics calls us to do if we are to engage with it. Using the concept of desire in the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan and the forms of desire as elucidated by the Lacanian theorist, Mark Bracher, I seek to find out what the mathematical encounter takes (the demands and costs) and what it gives (the offers and re...

  13. From feathers to syngas - technologies and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudyński, Marek; Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Bajer, Konrad

    2012-04-01

    The poultry waste produced by industrial slaughterhouses typically contains not only feathers, but also a mixture of animal entrails, nails, blood, beaks and whole carcasses. Economical utilisation of this mixture, varying strongly in composition and moisture content, is, in general, difficult. We demonstrate that this awkward material can be successfully used for gasification in a simple, fixed-bed gasifier. The method of gasification, which we developed, enables control of the gasification process and ensures its stability in the operational regime of a working poultry processing plant. The installation, which has been working in Poland for 2 years, utilises 2 tons of feathers per hour and produces syngas of stable composition and fairly high quality. The syngas is burnt in the combustion chamber adjacent to the gasifier. Heat is recuperated in a boiler producing 3.5 tons per hour of technological steam continuously used for the operation of the slaughterhouse. The whole process complies with the stringent emission standards. In the paper we present the end-use device for feather utilisation and describe the underlying gasification and syngas combustion processes. Key elements of the whole installation are briefly discussed. The environmental impacts of the installation are summarized.

  14. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  15. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...

  16. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villa, Ana Lúcia Vazquez; Aragão, Márcia Regina Senrra; Dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Zingali, Russolina B; de Souza, Edilma Paraguai; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    .... Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained...

  17. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety; Final Rule #0;#0... Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and...

  18. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  19. The Hunter Drain Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Fallon, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines water quality concerns related to the operation of the Hunter Drain located in the vicinity of the Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  20. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  1. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  2. perceptions and adaptations of beekeepers and honey hunters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    honey sector (i.e. honey hunters) to climate change are, however, not adequately explored. The objective ... resort, beekeepers that are severely affected by climate change had no other choice than abandoned beekeeping for .... Trees, shrub.

  3. Morality and Gender: A Commentary on Pratt, Golding, and Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems in Pratt, Golding, and Hunter's investigation (in this issue) of two propositions central to Gilligan's (1982) thesis on the mismeasurement of women's moral orientation and development. Describes research addressing the problems and indicates directions for further research. (RH)

  4. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  5. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  6. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  7. [A case of tularemia in a Danish hunter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edfors, Robert; Smith, Birgitte; Lillebaek, Troels

    2010-02-01

    "Rabbit fever" (Francisella Tularensis) is a rare infection in Denmark. It was first described in Denmark in 1987. It is most likely to affect people who come into close contact with infected animals or ticks, such as hunters, butchers and veterinarians. The diagnosis should be suspected in such persons presenting with fever, headache, lethargy, lymphadenitis and bite wounds. We present a Danish case describing the diagnosis and treatment of a hunter infected with T. tularensis.

  8. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  9. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  10. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-05

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey.

  11. Improvements to the Hunter Dose tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Aucott, T. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-01

    Since 1965, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted deer hunts which are open to the general public. SRS performs field monitoring for cesium-137 (Cs-137) of each harvested animal to determine whether the animal may be released to the hunter. A new field system for measuring Cs-137 in the harvested animals has been developed. The system incorporates numerous enhancements compared to the original system. The original system was composed of two Ludlum Measurements scalar-driven 2 inch x 2 inch sodium iodide counters, while the new system is based on a single Ametek Ortec Digibase-driven 2 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch sodium iodide gamma spectrometer. The new system includes a series of easy-to-assemble stainless steel encapsulated lead shields. The combination of the larger detector size and lead shielding improved the detection limit of the new system by a factor of approximately three compared to the original system. This lower detection limit allows for a larger number of measurements to be directly compared to the laboratory results, in cases where animal portions have been sampled. The results from developing and using this system are presented as well as recommendations on improvements to the overall field monitoring of the SRS hunts.

  12. An HST Archival Survey of Feathers in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    La Vigne, M A; Ostriker, E C; Vigne, Misty A. La; Vogel, Stuart N.; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a survey of spiral arm extinction substructure referred to as feathers in 223 spiral galaxies using HST WFPC2 images. The sample includes all galaxies in the RC3 catalog with cz < 5000 km/s, B_T < 15, i < 60 degrees, and types Sa--Sd with well-exposed broadband WFPC2 images. The detection frequency of delineated, periodic feathers in this sample is 20% (45 of 223). This work is consistent with Lynds (1970), who concluded that feathers are common in prototypical Sc galaxies; we find that feathers are equally common in Sb galaxies. Sb--Sc galaxies without clear evidence for feathers either had poorer quality images, or flocculent or complex structure. We did not find clearly defined feathers in any Scd--Sd galaxy. The probability of detecting feathers was highest (83%) for spirals with well-defined primary dust lanes (PDLs; the lanes which line the inner edge of an arm); well-defined PDLs were only noted in Sab--Sc galaxies. Consistent with earlier work, we find that neighboring feathers ten...

  13. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...

  14. Non-food industrial applications of poultry feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-11-01

    Poultry feathers are one of the unique coproducts that have versatile applications ranging from composites, fibers, tissue engineering scaffolds, nano and micro particles, electronic devices and many others. Despite their low cost, abundant availability, wide applicability and unique properties, non-food industrial applications of feather keratin are very limited. Poor-thermoplasticity, difficulty in dissolving keratin and limited knowledge on the processability and properties of products developed are some of the limitations for the large scale use of feather/keratin. Nevertheless, increasing interests in using renewable and sustainable raw materials and need to decrease dependence on non-renewable petroleum resources make feathers an attractive raw material for bioproducts. This review provides an overview of the products developed from poultry feathers and their limitations and advantages.

  15. Desire Beyond Simpathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Zuluaga

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:La esquematización que realiza Jhon Bricke de Hume, me condujo a plantear ciertas preguntas que encuentran un terreno fértil en el análisis sobre la simpatía realizado por Hume. Esta propuesta plantea como hipótesis fundamental que el deseo de ser apreciado es el rasgo fundamental del ser apasionado, que Hume contempla en el Libro II del Tratado. Dicho deseo está vinculado a las afecciones de orgullo y aprecio, así como al ansia de aquellos bienes (riqueza, poder, belleza, virtud considerados por Hume causas de dichas afecciones. La hipótesis esclarece posibles relaciones entre las afecciones de aprecio y orgullo, simpatía y comparación, y hace posible una lectura particular del origen natural de la convención.Abstract:The central hypothesis set forth in this essay is that the desire to be appreciated is the fundamental feature of the passionate being, described by Hume in the context of his analysis of sympathy in Book II of the Treatise. That desire is linked to the affections of pride and appreciation, as well as to the yearning for those goods (wealth, power, beauty, and virtue, which Hume considers the causes of such affections. Said hypothesis clarifies the potential relationships between the affections of appreciation and pride, as well as of sympathy and comparison, and it makes possible a peculiar reading of the natural origin of convention.

  16. Biomimetic Drag Reduction Study on Herringbone Riblets of Bird Feather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huawei Chen; Fugang Rao; Xiaopeng Shang; Deyuan Zhang; Ichiro Hagiwara

    2013-01-01

    Birds have gradually formed various excellent structures such as streamlined shape and hollow shaft of feather to improve their flying performance by millions of years of natural selection.As typical property of bird feather,herringbone riblets align along the shaft of each feather,which is caused by perfect link of barbs,especially for the primary and secondary feathers of wings.Such herringbone riblets of feather are assumed to have great impact on drag reduction.In this paper,microstructures of secondary feathers of adult pigeons are investigated by SEM,and their structural parameters are statistically obtained.Based on quantitative analysis of feather structure,novel biomimetic herringbone riblets with narrow smooth edge are proposed to reduce surface drag.In comparison with traditional microgroove riblets and other drag reduction structures,the drag reduction rate of the proposed biomimetic herringbone riblets is experimentally clarified up to 16%,much higher than others.Moreover,the drag reduction mechanism of herringbone riblets are also confirmed and exploited by CFD.

  17. Keratinase Production by Three Bacillus spp. Using Feather Meal and Whole Feather as Substrate in a Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Mazotto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Bacillus species (B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1270, B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1273, and B. licheniformis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1274, isolated from the poultry industry, were evaluated for keratinase production using feathers or feather meal as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources in a submerged fermentation. The three Bacillus spp. produced extracellular keratinases and peptidases after 7 days. Feather meal was the best substrate for keratinase and peptidase production in B. subtilis 1273, with 412 U/mL and 463 U/ml. The three strains were able to degrade feather meal (62–75% and feather (40–95% producing 3.9–4.4 mg/ml of soluble protein in feather meal medium and 1.9–3.3 mg/ml when feather medium was used. The three strains produced serine peptidases with keratinase and gelatinase activity. B. subtilis 1273 was the strain which exhibited the highest enzymatic activity.

  18. On a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We determine the solution of the geodesic equation associated with a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton system on a semidirect product obtained from the diffeomorphism group of the circle, modulo rigid rotations, and a space of scalar functions. In particular, we compute the time of breakdown of the geodesic flow. As a further goal, we establish a local well-posedness result for the two-component Hunter-Saxton system in the smooth category. The paper gets in line with some recent results for the generalized Hunter-Saxton equation provided by Escher, Wu and Wunsch in [J. Escher, Preprint 2010] and [H. Wu, M. Wunsch, arXiv:1009.1688v1 [math.AP

  19. Theory of the development of curved barbs and their effects on feather morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Simon, Emma; Prum, Richard O

    2016-08-01

    Feathers exhibit an extraordinary diversity of shapes, which are used by birds to accomplish a diverse set of functions. Pennaceous feathers have a double branched morphology that develops from a tube of epidermis, and variation in branch geometry determines feather shape. Feather development is both complex (i.e., a simple developmental modification can have multiple effects on mature feather shape), and redundant (i.e., different developmental modifications can create the same shape). Due to this, it is not readily apparent how different feather shapes develop. In many feathers, barbs are not straight, but instead curve in toward, or away, from the feather tip. Barb curvature can affect the shape of mature feathers but the development of curved barbs is unknown. Previous research has hypothesized that barb curvature could develop either during the helical growth of barb ridges in the tubular feather germ, or during barb angle expansion as the feather unfurls from the sheath. To better understand the development of curved barbs and their effects on mature feathers we present a theoretical model of curved barb development and test the model with empirical investigations of feathers. We find that curved barbs affect many aspects of feather morphology including vane width, barb length, and barb spacing. In real feathers, curved barbs can develop both during helical barb ridge growth and during barb angle expansion, with most of the observed curvature due to barb angle expansion. Our results demonstrate that barb angle expansion as a feather unfurls from the sheath is a complex and dynamic process that plays an important role in determining the shape and structure of mature feathers. Curved barbs create heterogeneity in barb geometry within the feather vane, which could have important implications for aerodynamic function and the development of within feather pigmentation patterns. J. Morphol. 277:995-1013, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the lower cretaceous of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Kebai; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Qingyu; Xing, Lida; Sullivan, Corwin; Hu, Dongyu; Cheng, Shuqing; Wang, Shuo

    2012-04-04

    Numerous feathered dinosaur specimens have recently been recovered from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northeastern China, but most of them represent small animals. Here we report the discovery of a gigantic new basal tyrannosauroid, Yutyrannus huali gen. et sp. nov., based on three nearly complete skeletons representing two distinct ontogenetic stages from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Y. huali shares some features, particularly of the cranium, with derived tyrannosauroids, but is similar to other basal tyrannosauroids in possessing a three-fingered manus and a typical theropod pes. Morphometric analysis suggests that Y. huali differed from tyrannosaurids in its growth strategy. Most significantly, Y. huali bears long filamentous feathers, thus providing direct evidence for the presence of extensively feathered gigantic dinosaurs and offering new insights into early feather evolution.

  1. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  2. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil.

  3. Purification and characterization of a keratinase from the feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... polymers (Yamauchi, 1996). Feather- ... quently reported form various bacterial species including. Bacillus spp ... enzyme, compared to those from various microbial ..... keratin degradation by a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis.

  4. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.; Haas, de E.N.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ellen, E.D.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Güntürkün, O.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Korte, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28–

  5. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  6. The distribution of integumentary structures in a feathered dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Q; Norell, M A; Gao, K Q; Ji, S A; Ren, D

    2001-04-26

    Non-avian theropod dinosaurs with preserved integumentary coverings are becoming more common; but apart from the multiple specimens of Caudipteryx, which have true feathers, animals that are reasonably complete and entirely articulated that show these structures in relation to the body have not been reported. Here we report on an enigmatic small theropod dinosaur that is covered with filamentous feather-like structures over its entire body.

  7. Toxic metals and associated sporulated bacteria on Andean hummingbird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Esteban; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Dussán, Jenny

    2016-11-01

    Human activities in the Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia, release toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) into the environment polluting the air, water, and soil. Because birds are in contact with these pollutants and their sources, they may serve as bioindicator organisms. We evaluated the use of hummingbird feathers obtained from individuals captured in three sites of the Sabana de Bogotá as bioindicators of toxic metal pollution using spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods based on single-feather samples. We also characterized the bacterial microbiota associated with hummingbird feathers by molecular identification using the 16S rRNA with a special focus on sporulated bacteria. Finally, we described the interactions which naturally occur among the feathers, their associated bacteria, and pollutants. We found differences in Pb and Cr concentrations between sampling sites, which ranged from 2.11 to 4.69 ppm and 0.38 to 3.00 ppm, respectively. This may reflect the impact of the activities held in those sites which release pollutants to the environment. Bacterial assemblages mainly consisted of sporulated bacilli in the Bacillaceae family (65.7 % of the identified morphotypes). We conclude that the feathers of wild tropical birds, including hummingbirds, can be used as lead and chromium bioindicators and that bacteria growing on feathers may in fact interact with these two toxic metals.

  8. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  9. Stable-Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Songbird Feathers Grown in Two Terrestrial Biomes: Implications for Evaluating Trophic Relationships and Breeding Origins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith A. Hobson

    1999-01-01

    ... (108 feathers representing 12 species). No difference in feather δ 13C values between these biomes was found, but feathers from boreal forest songbirds were depleted in 15N compared to feathers from birds in southern agricultural areas...

  10. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  11. Hunter-gatherer plant use in southwest Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Ibañez, Juan José; Zapata, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on plant use by the last hunter-gatherers in the Levant, from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the first experiments with plant cultivation at the beginning of the Holocene. This review of Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic plant use summarises available archaeobotanical and t...

  12. Planet Hunters 2 in the K2 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fischer, Debra; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Ishikawa, Sascha; Lintott, Chris; Lynn, Stuart; Schmitt, Joseph; Snyder, Chris; Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) is an online citizen science project enlisting hundreds of thousands of people to search for planet transits in the publicly released Kepler data. Volunteers mark the locations of visible transits in a web interface, with multiple independent classifiers reviewing a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment. In September 2014, Planet Hunters entered a new phase. The project was relaunched with a brand new online classification interface and discussion tool built using the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) latest technology and web platform. The website has been optimized for the rapid discovery and identification of planet candidates in the light curves from K2, the two-wheeled ecliptic plane Kepler mission. We will give an overview of the new Planet Hunters classification interface and Round 2 review system in context of the K2 data. We will present the first results from the Planet Hunters 2 search of K2 Campaigns 0 and 1 including a summary of new planet candidates.

  13. Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short Period Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwamb, Megan E; Fischer, Debra A; Giguere, Matthew J; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M; Brewer, John M; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of \\geq 2 R\\oplus planets on short period (< 15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, \\geq 4 R\\oplus Planet Hunters \\geq 85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Ke...

  14. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives.

  15. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Karla; Harper Tisha; Lans Cheryl; Bridgewater Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Pe...

  16. Sources of nonresponse to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Geissler, P.H.; Hoover, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Response rates to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey (WHQS) have declined since the 1950's, suggesting that harvest estimates may be biased. Consequently, we investigated reasons for WHQS nonresponse using surveys of waterfowl hunters in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Texas [USA]. Sampling frames were constructed using lists of buyers of state hunting licenses or state duck stamps. We mailed questionnaires to 16,452 randomly selected hunters, with 2 follow-up mailings at 3-week intervals. Questionnaires were completed by 8,812 respondents, and a further 587 interviews were conducted by telephone. Post offices accounted for between 53.7% (Minn.) and 92.8% (N.J.) of federal waterfowl duck stamp sales, and stores accounted for most other sales. Of hunters who bought a federal waterfowl stamp from sample post offices, between 16.7% (Minn.) and 40.0% (Ark.) reported receiving a WHQS contact card. Of those receiving contact cards, between 30.0% (N.J.) and 64.3% (La. and Tex.) reported returning them. Because survey coverage of the target population is poor, we recommend that a new sampling frame be developed for the WHQS.

  17. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A. [SRC for Ore Deposit Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Maillet, P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Geology; Maillet, P. [ORSTOM Centre de Brest, France, (France); Monzier, M. [ORSTOM Centre, Ecuador, (Ecuador)

    1997-12-31

    The Hunter `fracture zone` is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle. Extended abstract. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-01-01

    In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the...

  19. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  20. Librarians as Hunter-Gatherers: Lessons Learned from an Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by the pressing need for electronic resource usage statistics, librarians are finding themselves being thrust into the role of hunter-gatherer. This article discusses the work done at University Library at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis to provide usage statistics for all its paid subscriptions for a 3-year period. The…

  1. Hunter syndrome: Case report and review of literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are about thirteen different clinical syndromes of. MPS.2 We report a case of Hunter syndrome, as far as we know this is the .... egaly and cardiovascular complications after the transplant in children. ' .... Bone marrow trans- plantation in ...

  2. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...

  3. Feathering collisions in beating reed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Tamara; Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.

    2003-10-01

    Pressure controlled valves are the primary sound production mechanisms for woodwind and brass musical instruments, as well as for many bioacoustic vocal systems such as the larynx and syrinx (the vocal organ in birds). During sound production, air flow sets a reed or membrane into motion creating a variable height in the valve channel and, potentially, periodically closing the channel completely. Depending on how this event is handled, an abrupt termination of air flow between open and closed states can cause undesirable discontinuities and inaccuracies in a discrete-time simulation-particularly at relatively low audio sampling rates. A solution was developed by re-examining the behavior of the differential equation governing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve, paying particular attention to this rather troublesome transition. A closed-form solution for the time evolution of volume flow is given and used to derive an update for volume flow. The result is a smoother, more accurate, and nearly alias-free transition from open to closed. ``Feathered collisions'' of this nature can refine the sound quality produced by the numerical simulation of beating reeds, such as in clarinets, at typical audio sampling rates.

  4. Paedophilia, Sexual Desire, and Perversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes justifications given by pedophiles for having sex with children, including an analysis of "sexual desire" and "erotic." Raises the question of whether pedophile activities can ever be morally permissible. Uses principles of mutual consent and non-exploitation to answer negatively. Examines whether pedophile desires can be regarded as…

  5. The neural correlates of desire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kawabata

    Full Text Available In an event-related fMRI study, we scanned eighteen normal human subjects while they viewed three categories of pictures (events, objects and persons which they classified according to desirability (desirable, indifferent or undesirable. Each category produced activity in a distinct part of the visual brain, thus reflecting its functional specialization. We used conjunction analysis to learn whether there is a brain area which is always active when a desirable picture is viewed, regardless of the category to which it belongs. The conjunction analysis of the contrast desirable > undesirable revealed activity in the superior orbito-frontal cortex. This activity bore a positive linear relationship to the declared level of desirability. The conjunction analysis of desirable > indifferent revealed activity in the mid-cingulate cortex and in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the former, activity was greater for desirable and undesirable stimuli than for stimuli classed as indifferent. Other conjunction analyses produced no significant effects. These results show that categorizing any stimulus according to its desirability activates three different brain areas: the superior orbito-frontal, the mid-cingulate, and the anterior cingulate cortices.

  6. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios.

  8. A bivalent scale for measuring crowding among deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

    2014-01-01

    One factor that may influence satisfaction in outdoor recreation is crowding, which historically has been defined as a negative evaluation of the density of other participants. While this definition is suitable for most scenarios, there are circumstances where encounters with others in the area are evaluated positively and thus contribute to the satisfaction of the participant. To adequately describe this phenomenon we suggest a more inclusive measurement of crowding that allows for both positive and negative evaluations of participant density to more accurately explore the relationship between crowding and satisfaction. We identified a sub-group of deer hunters who negatively evaluated the low density of other hunters, which reduced their satisfaction with their overall hunting experience. The methodology for measuring crowding in recreation research may have an important effect in identifying the relationship crowding has with other relevant variables as well as management implications.

  9. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots : A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R. A.; Spruit, Berry M.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Riedstra, Bernd; van Hierden, Yvonne M.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Korte, S. Mechiel; Lumeij, Johannes T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  10. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry.

  11. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2013-01-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-

  12. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeland, van Y.R.A.; Spruit, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Hierden, van Y.M.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  13. The development and causation of feather pecking in the domestic fowl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Feather pecking in poultry consists of pecking directed at the feathers of other birds, sometimes pulling out and eating these feathers. It may result in severe damage of the integument of the birds, including wounds of the skin. Finally wounded birds may be pecked to death (cannibalism). About 30 y

  14. 75 FR 30013 - South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of...), Commission staff has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) regarding South Feather Water and Power Agency... Creek development of the South Feather Power Project (FERC No. 2088). Sly Creek is located on Sly...

  15. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  16. Sacrificing Steve: How I Killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Carman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  17. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  18. Sacrificing Steve : how I killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  19. Hunter Fleming与Access合作开发oligotropin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆义(摘)

    2005-01-01

    英国Hunter Fleming公司已与美国的药物输送公司Access Pharmaceuticals签署合作协议,采用Access公司的维生素B12口服药物输送技术,开发治疗亨廷顿氏阿尔茨海默氏病的口服制剂oligotropin(HF0420)。

  20. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Hervey C; Duda, Pavel; Marlowe, Frank W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait "high gods" stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.

  1. Nonmedical factors associated with feather picking in pet psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Lori A; Hungerford, Laura

    2014-06-01

    A nested case-control study was performed to determine nonmedical risk factors associated with feather picking in psittacine birds. Forty-two case birds, reported by their owners to pick their feathers, and 126 unaffected birds were compared. The odds of feather picking were higher in 2 species categories, African grey parrots (Psitticus erithacus, adjusted odds ratio [ORadj = 8.4, P picking also were higher for birds that were out of their cages more than 8 hours per day (ORadj = 7.4, P picking decreased by almost 90% (ORadj = 0.1, P < .005) for birds that interacted with people at least 4 hours a day. These findings identify characteristics that practitioners may want to include when asking bird owners about behavioral history and may be useful in focusing future research regarding this behavior.

  2. Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic paravian feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Cincotta, Aude; Uvdal, Per; Hutcheson, Steven W; Gustafsson, Ola; Lefèvre, Ulysse; Escuillié, François; Heimdal, Jimmy; Engdahl, Anders; Gren, Johan A; Kear, Benjamin P; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Yans, Johan; Godefroit, Pascal

    2015-08-27

    Feathers are amongst the most complex epidermal structures known, and they have a well-documented evolutionary trajectory across non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds. Moreover, melanosome-like microbodies preserved in association with fossil plumage have been used to reconstruct original colour, behaviour and physiology. However, these putative ancient melanosomes might alternatively represent microorganismal residues, a conflicting interpretation compounded by a lack of unambiguous chemical data. We therefore used sensitive molecular imaging, supported by multiple independent analytical tests, to demonstrate that the filamentous epidermal appendages in a new specimen of the Jurassic paravian Anchiornis comprise remnant eumelanosomes and fibril-like microstructures, preserved as endogenous eumelanin and authigenic calcium phosphate. These results provide novel insights into the early evolution of feathers at the sub-cellular level, and unequivocally determine that melanosomes can be preserved in fossil feathers.

  3. Melanin concentration gradients in modern and fossil feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Field

    Full Text Available In birds and feathered non-avian dinosaurs, within-feather pigmentation patterns range from discrete spots and stripes to more subtle patterns, but the latter remain largely unstudied. A ∼55 million year old fossil contour feather with a dark distal tip grading into a lighter base was recovered from the Fur Formation in Denmark. SEM and synchrotron-based trace metal mapping confirmed that this gradient was caused by differential concentration of melanin. To assess the potential ecological and phylogenetic prevalence of this pattern, we evaluated 321 modern samples from 18 orders within Aves. We observed that the pattern was found most frequently in distantly related groups that share aquatic ecologies (e.g. waterfowl Anseriformes, penguins Sphenisciformes, suggesting a potential adaptive function with ancient origins.

  4. Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. METHODOLOGY: Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. RESULTS: Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice. DISCUSSION: Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities.

  5. PhosphoHunter: An Efficient Software Tool for Phosphopeptide Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tiengo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation is a protein posttranslational modification. It is responsible of the activation/inactivation of disease-related pathways, thanks to its role of “molecular switch.” The study of phosphorylated proteins becomes a key point for the proteomic analyses focused on the identification of diagnostic/therapeutic targets. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is the most widely used analytical approach. Although unmodified peptides are automatically identified by consolidated algorithms, phosphopeptides still require automated tools to avoid time-consuming manual interpretation. To improve phosphopeptide identification efficiency, a novel procedure was developed and implemented in a Perl/C tool called PhosphoHunter, here proposed and evaluated. It includes a preliminary heuristic step for filtering out the MS/MS spectra produced by nonphosphorylated peptides before sequence identification. A method to assess the statistical significance of identified phosphopeptides was also formulated. PhosphoHunter performance was tested on a dataset of 1500 MS/MS spectra and it was compared with two other tools: Mascot and Inspect. Comparisons demonstrated that a strong point of PhosphoHunter is sensitivity, suggesting that it is able to identify real phosphopeptides with superior performance. Performance indexes depend on a single parameter (intensity threshold that users can tune according to the study aim. All the three tools localized >90% of phosphosites.

  6. Securing a Future: Cree Hunters' Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Sayles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the adaptive responses of northern aboriginal peoples include examples of purposive modification and management of ecologically favorable areas to increase resource productivity. Practices include clearing of trees, burning of berry patches and construction of fish weirs. This paper examines the adaptive capacity of the northern aboriginal community of Wemindji, east coast James Bay, in relation to long term landscape changes induced by coastal uplift processes. Associated changes are noticeable within a human lifetime and include the infilling of bays, the merger of islands with the mainland, as well as shifts in vegetative and wildlife communities. In response, generations of Cree hunters have actively modified the landscape using a variety of practices that include the construction of mud dykes and the cutting of tuuhiikaan, which are corridors in the coastal forest, to retain and enhance desirable conditions for goose hunting. We provide an account of the history, construction, and design of these features as well as the motivations and social learning that inform them. We reveal a complex and underappreciated dynamic between human resistance and adaptation to environmental change. While landscape modifications are motivated by a desire to increase resource productivity and predictability, they also reflect an intergenerational commitment to the maintenance of established hunting places as important connections with the past. Our findings support a revised perspective on aboriginal human agency in northern landscape modification and an enhanced role for aboriginal communities in adaptive planning for environmental change.

  7. Fertility Desire and Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era ... and related consequences. ... inform national policy decisions on PMTCT, HIV ... The study population was included proportional to.

  8. Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire; Epps, Patience; Gray, Russell; Hill, Jane; Hunley, Keith; McConvell, Patrick; Zentz, Jason

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance) status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56), despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of borrowing were

  9. Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bowern

    Full Text Available In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56, despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of

  10. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility is deeply entangled with all aspects of hunter-gatherer life ways, and is therefore an issue of central importance in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility, and understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. Since mobility is, to a large extent, driven by the need for a continuous supply of food, a natural framework for addressing this question is provided by the metabolic theory of ecology. This provides a powerful framework for formulating formal testable hypotheses concerning evolutionary and ecological constraints on the scale and variation of hunter-gatherer residential mobility. We evaluate these predictions using extant data and show strong support for the hypotheses. We show that the overall scale of hunter-gatherer residential mobility is predicted by average human body size, and the limited capacity of mobile hunter-gatherers to store energy internally. We then s...

  11. Doubling desire: The Yeatsian Daimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meihuizen

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Through the agency of Daimonic desire, Yeatsian spiritualism repeats empirical existence. In positing a desire that extends beyond the limits of individual human life, Yeats denies the definitive value of an exclusive finitude, such as that perceived by Michel Foucault in The Order of Things (1974. If Yeats, involved in a qualified manner in an aspect of Foucault’s analytic of finitude, is a modernist, he is related to that type Fredric Jameson calls the “anti-modern modernist” (Jameson, 1991:304, the modernist who reacts against modernisation. In discussing Daimonic desire, then, it is congruous with a reading of Yeats to do so both from the perspective of the empirical realm of the “dying generations”, and the spiritual realm of the “artifice of eternity”. In the first case the Daimon can surely be understood as a manifestation of the Zeitgeist, but how do we understand the spirits in the second case, who have transcended the ultimate limit of finitude, death itself, and who thus rock the three Foucauldian cornerstones of finitude – life, labour, and language, “marked by the spatiality of the body, the yawning of desire, and the time of language” (Foucault, 1974:315? Clearly, for Yeats, life is not limited by death; labour is not limited by a somnolent desire; and language is not confined within the span of a single life.

  12. The disposition of oxytetracycline to feathers after poultry treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Bor, G.; Gerritsen, H.W.; Jansen, L.J.M.; Zuidema, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the combat against bacterial resistance, there is a clear need to check the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, including poultry breeding. The use of chicken feathers as a tool for the detection of use of antibiotics was investigated. An extraction method for the analysis of oxytetracycline

  13. Plumage disorders in psittacine birds - part 2: feather damaging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Schoemaker, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plumage disorders in parrots represent one of the more common, but also one of the more challenging and frustrating problems that veterinarians dealing with parrots in their daily practice face on a day-to-day basis. This second part of the review will deal with diseases causing lack of feather grow

  14. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  15. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  16. Desire as response to experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . The first part of the paper presents and critically discusses the answers given by need gratification theory (Maslow, McClelland, McGregor) and by learning theories placed within the field of workplace learning or organizational learning (Senge, Argyris et Schön, Wenger) and it opens up the ambition...... to rethink motivation from the point of view of a phenomenological understanding of desire. The second and third part of the paper follows up this ambition by presenting an understanding of desire based within a phenomenological framework (Merleau-Ponty) and by discussing the implication of a shift in focus...

  17. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  18. The Hunter pulmonary angiography catheter for a brachiocephalic vein approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Galia; Kowalik, Karen J; Ganguli, Suverano; Hunter, David W

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to describe our experience in performing pulmonary angiography using the Hunter pulmonary catheter, manufactured by Cook, Inc., which is a modified 6F pigtail catheter with a "C-shaped" curve, designed for a brachiocephalic vein approach. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent pulmonary angiograms using the Hunter catheter between August 1997 and January 2002. Operator comments were gathered in 86 (70%) of the cases. The operator was, if possible, the most junior resident on the service. Thirty-nine operators participated in the survey. Efficacy, safety, and ease of use of the catheter were determined by operators' comments and ECG observations during the procedure. Corroborating clinical data were gathered from medical records. In 68 (79%) of the procedures that were commented upon, the operator described insertion into the pulmonary artery (PA) as easy; only 2 (2%) indicated difficulty in accessing the PA. In 41 (63%) of the bilateral angiograms that were commented upon, the operator described accessing the left PA from the right PA as easy; only 6 (9%) rated it as difficult and all were with an older technique in which the catheter was withdrawn to the pulmonary bifurcation without a wire or with only the soft tip of the wire in the pigtail and then rotated to the left main pulmonary artery. Thirty-one of the 41 patients who demonstrated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had a previous history of heart disease. Nineteen of the 39 patients who did not have PVCs had a history of heart disease (p = 0.018). The maneuverability and shape of the Hunter catheter make pulmonary angiography an easy procedure, even for operators with minimal experience and limited technical proficiency. PVCs demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with a positive patient history for cardiac disease, rather than being a universal risk.

  19. The Fugue Pattern in The Heart is a Lonely Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭主美

    2013-01-01

    Carson McCullers The Heart is a Lonely Hunter is her representative work. McCullers deploys the skill of fugue pattern through the multi-voices reflected in the characters, tactfully unite the form and content into a whole. By adopting Bakhtin ’s theory of polyphony, this paper aims to analyze the fugue pattern together with its multi-voices in the three parts, namely, the exposition, the development and the return reflected in the novel, which highlights its theme of universal loneliness so impressive-ly.

  20. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  1. Becoming-Teachers: Desiring Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a reading of the lives of teachers through a Deleuzian-Guattarian materialistic approach. By asking the question "what kind of life do teachers live?" this article reminds us that teachers sometimes welcome the imposed policies, procedures and programmes, the consequences of which remove them from students. This desire is…

  2. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  3. Paedophilia, Sexual Desire, and Perversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes justifications given by pedophiles for having sex with children, including an analysis of "sexual desire" and "erotic." Raises the question of whether pedophile activities can ever be morally permissible. Uses principles of mutual consent and non-exploitation to answer negatively. Examines whether pedophile desires…

  4. Adrenocortical reactivity and central serotonin and dopamine turnover in young chicks from a high and low feather-pecking line of laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hierden, YM; Korte, SM; Ruesink, EW; van Reenen, CG; Engel, B; Korte-Bouws, GAH; Koolhaas, JM; Blokhuis, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Feather pecking in domestic fowl is a behavioral abnormality that consists of mild or injurious pecking at feathers of conspecifics. Previously, it was shown that chicks from a high feather-pecking (HFP) and low feather-pecking (LFP) line of laying hens already differ in their propensity to feather

  5. Bristles before down: a new perspective on the functional origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Walter S; Currie, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, the understanding of the early evolution of feathers in nonavian dinosaurs has been revolutionized. It is now recognized that early feathers had a simple form comparable in general structure to the hairs of mammals. Insight into the prevalence of simple feathers throughout the dinosaur family tree has gradually arisen in tandem with the growing evidence for endothermic dinosaur metabolisms. This has led to the generally accepted opinion that the early feather coats of dinosaurs functioned as thermo insulation. However, thermo insulation is often erroneously stated to be a likely functional explanation for the origin of feathers. The problem with this explanation is that, like mammalian hair, simple feathers could serve as insulation only when present in sufficiently high concentrations. The theory therefore necessitates the origination of feathers en masse. We advocate for a novel origin theory of feathers as bristles. Bristles are facial feathers common among modern birds that function like mammalian tactile whiskers, and are frequently simple and hair-like in form. Bristles serve their role in low concentrations, and therefore offer a feasible first stage in feather evolution.

  6. Keratinolytic activity of Bacillus megaterium F7-1, a feather-degrading mesophilic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun-Tae; Son, Hong-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate environmental conditions affecting chicken feather degradation and keratinolytic enzyme production by Bacillus megaterium F7-1, a feather-degrading mesophilic bacterium. B. megaterium F7-1 degraded whole chicken feather completely within 7 days. The bacterium grew with an optimum at pH 7.0-11.0 and 25-40 degrees C, where maximum keratinolytic activity was also observed. The production of keratinolytic enzyme by B. megaterium F7-1 was inducible with feather. Keratinolytic enzyme production by B. megaterium F7-1 at 0.6% (w/v) skim milk was 468U/ml, which was about 9.4-fold higher than that without skim milk. The amount of keratinolytic enzyme production depended on feather concentrations. The degradation rate of autoclaved chicken feathers by cell-free culture supernatant was 26% after 24h of incubation, but the degradation of untreated chicken feathers was unsuccessful. B. megaterium F7-1 effectively degraded feather meal, duck feather and human nail, whereas human hair and sheep wool showed relatively low degradation rates. B. megaterium F7-1 presented high keratinolytic activity and was very effective in feather degradation, providing potential use for biotechnological processes of keratin hydrolysis.

  7. A closer look at the feather coloration in the male purple sunbird, Nectarinia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Biswa Bhusana; Marathe, Sandhya Amol; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Mishra, Monalisa

    2016-06-01

    During the breeding season male, but not female, individuals of the purple sunbird possess colourful plumage of chiefly blue and black coloration with a splatter of orange and yellow on the chest. Representative feathers of these colours were collected from male birds during the breeding season and analyzed by reflectance and scanning electron microscopy. The rachis, which is the central support of a feather on which various barbs and barbules are arranged, is spongy and made up of keratin layers with rod-shaped melanosomes sparsely distributed within these layers. Barbs and barbules are the structural units of the feather and depending on how they are arranged provide a characteristic shape to the feather. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the feathers revealed the presence of various metal elements that might contribute to the feathers' colorations. Blue feathers are iridescent and contain mainly iron, copper, zinc and cobalt (in that order of abundance); black feathers were also found to contain mainly iron and copper, but chromium instead of zinc and cobalt, while yellow feathers were found to contain predominantly cobalt and nickel. The metal content of the feathers in an as yet unknown way may be involved in the production of the distinct absorbance and reflectance patterns that the brilliant plumage of the purple sunbird is renowned for.

  8. Differential effects of 4 types of environmental enrichment on aggressive pecking, feather pecking, feather loss, food wastage and productivity in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K A; Mench, J A

    2006-12-01

    1. We examined the effects of 4 types of environmental enrichment (foraging opportunities, structural complexity, sensory stimulation/novelty, and social companionship) on aggressive and feather pecking, feather condition, food wastage, body weight, feed conversion, and egg production in adult Japanese quail. Sex differences were examined where possible. 2. GLM analysis was used to evaluate the effects of enrichment and housing, while test-retest reliability and the stability of measures over 18 d were assessed using partial correlation. 3. Foraging enrichment reduced food wastage. 4. Body weight, feed conversion, and egg production were not affected by enrichment. Rates of aggressive and feather pecking were also not significantly affected, but these behaviours were observed very infrequently in this study. 5. Socially-housed birds had poorer feather condition, lower body weight and less efficient feed conversion than singly-housed birds. Social housing did not affect food wastage. 6. There were not sex differences in feather pecking, feather condition, food wastage, or feed conversion. 7. All measures except feather pecking were reliable over 24 h, but only feather condition and body weight were stable over 18 d. The instability f the behavioural measures over time suggest that enrichment effects may vary with age.

  9. Influence of dietary feathers on the fecal microbiota in captive Arctic fox: do dietary hair or feathers play a role in the evolution of carnivorous mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Shuhui; Xu, Yanchun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2014-11-01

    Hair and feathers are composed of keratin and are indigestible, inalimental and unpalatable for carnivores. However, carnivores often ingest hair and feathers during feeding or when grooming. We hypothesized that ingestion of hair and feathers changes species diversity and relative abundance of bacteria in the gut of carnivores. To test this hypothesis, we added disinfected poultry down feathers to the normal diet of captive Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We then used fluorescently labeled terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) to examine changes in fecal bacterial diversity and abundance. The results showed that the number of bacterial species increased significantly after feather ingestion, but that total abundance was unchanged. This demonstrated that addition of disinfected feathers to the diet stimulated increased production among less abundant bacteria, resulting in a balancing of relative abundance of different bacterial species, or that some newly-ingested microbial species would colonize the gut because a suitable microhabitat had become available. This implies that the overall production of bacterial metabolites would be made up of a greater range of substances after feather ingestion. On one hand, the host's immune response would be more diverse, increasing the capacity of the immune system to regulate gut microflora. On the other hand, the animal's physiological performance would also be affected. For wild animals, such altered physiological traits would be subjected to natural selection, and, hence, persistent geographic differences in the character of ingested feathers or fur would drive speciation.

  10. Solar Energy Development Assistance for Fort Hunter Liggett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Chvala, William D.

    2011-03-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided assistance to Fort Hunter Liggett to determine the opportunities for solar energy development on the site. Increasing use of renewable energy is mandated by several executive orders and legislation. Fort Hunter Liggett has many attributes that enhance its suitability for renewable energy development. First, the site is located south of San Francisco in a remote portion of the costal foothills. Brush and forest fires are frequent and often result in power outages, which subsequently impacts the site’s training mission. In addition, the site’s blended electric rate during fiscal year (FY) 2010 was high at 12 ¢/kWh. Lastly, the solar resource is moderately high; the site receives nearly 5.7 kWh/m2/day on a south facing, latitude-tilted surface. In light of these factors, the site is a clear candidate for a solar photovoltaic array. Prior to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) involvement, the site secured funding for a 1 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) array that will also provide shading for site vehicles. To best implement this project, PNNL conducted a site visit and was tasked with providing the site technical guidance and support regarding module selection, array siting, and other ancillary issues.

  11. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  12. Metagenome Sequencing of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Consolandi, Clarissa; Turroni, Silvia; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Brigidi, Patrizia; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Henry, Amanda G; Candela, Marco

    2015-06-29

    Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, we present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle. We found that the Hadza GM is adapted for broad-spectrum carbohydrate metabolism, reflecting the complex polysaccharides in their diet. Furthermore, the Hadza GM is equipped for branched-chain amino acid degradation and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. Resistome functionality demonstrates the existence of antibiotic resistance genes in a population with little antibiotic exposure, indicating the ubiquitous presence of environmentally derived resistances. Our results demonstrate how the functional specificity of the GM correlates with certain environment and lifestyle factors and how complexity from the exogenous environment can be balanced by endogenous homeostasis. The Hadza gut metagenome structure allows us to appreciate the co-adaptive functional role of the GM in complementing the human physiology, providing a better understanding of the versatility of human life and subsistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  14. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  15. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  16. Modern day relevance of William Hunter's approach to teaching "The organ of hearing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Helena; Smith, Robert A; Mackay, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    William Hunter, a pioneering teacher of Anatomy in the the eighteenth century, championed the use of dissected specimens as aids in the teaching of anatomy. Although Hunter promoted the Paris method of learning Anatomy, by student dissection, he also used prosected material as an adjunct to his lectures. We are fortunate that Hunter bequeathed his extensive collection of over 3,000 museum specimens to the University of Glasgow, many of which are housed in the Laboratory of Human Anatomy in the Thomson Building. Regions such as the temporal bone are frequently difficult for students, and indeed postgraduate trainees in ear nose and throat surgery, to visualize and understand. Hunter overcame this difficulty by producing elegant specimens highlighting the three-dimensional complexity of the area. The current vignette stresses the importance of Hunter in his contemporary setting, but also demonstrates the potential of his approach for current and future teaching programmes in this age of the Internet.

  17. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  18. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  19. UTILIZATION OF α-KERATIN OF CHICKEN FEATHERS AS ADSORBEN OF LEAD ION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Nur Latifah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research of Pb ions adsorption with chicken feathers adsorbent has been conducted. This research aims to determine adsorption properties of activated chicken feathers and the chicken feathers that were not activatedby Na2S for Pb ions. The adsorption process was conducted by batch method with variation of the concentration, pH, and contact time. Pb content in solution is characterized by AAS spectroscopy (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results show that the contact time and pH condition for adsorption equilibrium are 60 min for activated chicken feathers and 90 min for chicken feathers which were not activated by Na2S at pH 8. Pb absorption by chicken feathers follows Freundlich isotherm and the reaction kinetics follow the Ho equation.

  20. Iridescence in the neck feathers of domestic pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Shi, Lei; Sha, Jing; Li, Yizhou; Qin, Youhua; Dong, Biqin; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Li; Zi, Jian

    2006-11-01

    We conducted structural characterizations, reflection measurements, and theoretical simulations on the iridescent green and purple neck feathers of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica). We found that both green and purple barbules are composed of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. The thickness of the keratin cortex layer shows a distinct difference between green and purple barbules. Green barbules vary colors from green to purple with the observing angle changed from normal to oblique, while purple barbules from purple to green in an opposite way. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that structural colors in green and purple neck feathers should originate from the interference in the top keratin cortex layer, while the structure beyond acts as a poor mirror.

  1. Poultry feather wastes recycling possibility as soil nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Mézes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry feathers are produced in large amounts as a waste in poultry slaughterhouses. Only 60-70% of the poultry slaughterhouse products are edible for human being. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Papadopoulus et al., 1986; Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998. The keratin-content of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment are needed in practice, which have to be set according to the utilization method. Feather was enzymatic degraded, and then fermented in separated bioreactors. The anaerobic bioreactor system (4 digesters with 6 litre volume was controlled by ACE SCADA software running on Linux platforms. Pot scale seed germination tests were established to suggest the quantity of digested slurry to be utilized. The chosen test plants were lettuce (Lactuca sativa. In case of reproduction test Student’s t-test was applied to examine significant differences between the root lengths of the control and the treated plant species. In case of pot seed germination variance analysis with Tukey B’s and Duncan test was applied to examine significant differences between the root lengths of plants, grown on different treatments. The effect of treatments on germination ability of the plant species was expressed in the percentage of the controls. According to Student’s t-test significant difference was found between root lengths of different treatments. Based on variance analysis with Tukey B’s and Duncan tests could be detected a significant difference between the treatments. Utilization of the fermented material reduces the use of fertilizers and because of its large moisture content it reduces the watering costs. Recycle of the slaughterhouse feather and different agricultural wastes and by-products can solve three main problems: disposal of harmful materials, producing of renewable energy and soil nutrient, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can

  2. Grafting of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Chicken Feather Keratin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoxkin Estévez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin, obtained from chicken feathers, was grafted on the surface of commercially available carbon nanotubes. The original procedure developed allows a covalent interaction between some specific chemical groups characteristic of the keratin, with some functional groups introduced on purpose on the surface of the nanotubes, as revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies, which also allowed to determine structural changes introduced during the process, such as crystallinity, which lead to changes in other properties, as well.

  3. Regulation of chick early B-cell factor-1 gene expression in feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Awad, Ashraf; Shukry, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The chick Ebf1 (early B-cell factor-1) gene is a member of a novel family of helix loop helix transcription factors. The expression profile, regulation and significance of this gene have been extensively studied in lymphatic, nervous, adipose and muscular tissues. However, cEbf1 expression, regulation and function in the feather of chick embryo have not yet been investigated. cEbf1 expression was first detected throughout the mesenchymal core of some few feather placodes (D7-D7.5). After feathers became mature and grew distally (D9 and D10), the mesenchymal expression of cEbf1 became confined to the caudal margin of the proximal half of all formed feather buds. Because this dynamic pattern of expression resembles that of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp4) plus the crucial role of these two major signals in feather development, we hypothesized that cEbf1 expression in the feather may be regulated by Shh and Bmp4. In a feather explant culture system, Shh signals are necessary to initiate and maintain cEbf1 expression in the posterior half of the feather bud, while Bmp4 is crucial for the initial cEbf1 expression in the anterior half of the feather bud. Inhibition of Shh, not only down-regulates cEbf1, but also changes the morphology of feather buds, which become irregular and fused. This is the first study to demonstrate that cEbf1 expression in the feather bud is under the control of Shh and Bmp4 signals and that expression may play a role in the normal development of feathers.

  4. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service First, Menomonee Falls, WI; Amended Certification Regarding..., including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls... Maysteel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS,...

  5. Hunter standoff killer team (HSKT) ground and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Balinda; Ennis, Mark; Yeates, Robert; Condon, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Since the inception of powered flight, manned aerial vehicles have been a force multiplier on the battlefield. With the emergence of new technology, the structure of the military battlefield is changing. One such technology, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has emerged as a valuable asset for today's war fighter. UAVs have traditionally been operated by ground control stations, yet minimum research has been targeted towards UAV connectivity. Airborne Manned Unmanned System Technology Baseline (AMUST-Baseline) was a concept that demonstrated the battlefield synergy gained by Manned and Unmanned Vehicle teaming. AMUST-Baseline allowed an Apache Longbow's (AH-64D) co-pilot gunner (CPG) to have Level IV control of a Hunter fixed wing UAV. Level IV control of a UAV includes payload control, flight control and direct data receipt. With the success of AMUST-Baseline, AATD, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and the Boeing Company worked towards enhanced Manned and Unmanned connectivity through a technology investment agreement. This effort named Airborne Manned Unmanned System Technology Demonstration (AMUST-D) focused on the connectivity between two manned platforms, Apache Longbow (AH-64D) and Command and Control (C2) Blackhawk, and Hunter UAV. It allows robust communication from the UAV to each platform through the Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL). AMUST-D used decision aiding technology developed under the Rotorcraft Pilots Associate (RPA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) as to assist in control of the Hunter UAV, as well as assist the pilot in regularly performed duties. Through the use of decision aiding and UAV control, the pilot and commander were better informed of potential threats and targets, thus increasing his situational awareness. The potential benefits of improved situational awareness are increased pilot survivability, increased lethality, and increased operational effectiveness. Two products were developed under the AMUST-D program, the

  6. Crop impaction resulting from feather ball formation in caged layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T Y; Aye, P P; Harr, B S

    1999-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in commercial poultry, including feather pulling and pica, have been known to occur when birds are exposed to an unfamiliar environment. We report here the development of crop impactions resulting from feather ball formation. Twelve specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were placed in one of three cages housed among a commercial layer flock in three different buildings on a farm site. Three weeks after placement, the birds were removed from the cages and given a physical exam. Chickens were thin, and one bird in each of the three caged groups had a palpable mass at the level of the thoracic inlet. At necropsy, a mass was noted in the crop. Upon further dissection, a wet, foul-smelling mass consisting of feathers and feed debris was recovered. Results from our case indicate that unfamiliar surroundings can cause pica in birds. Hence, avian researchers and veterinarians planning to introduce new birds into a flock, i.e., SPF birds, should consider the birds' previous environmental conditions prior to placement because sudden placement in unfamiliar surroundings can result in pica.

  7. Archaeopteryx feathers and bone chemistry fully revealed via synchrotron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, U; Morton, R W; Manning, P L; Sellers, W I; Farrar, S; Huntley, K G; Wogelius, R A; Larson, P

    2010-05-18

    Evolution of flight in maniraptoran dinosaurs is marked by the acquisition of distinct avian characters, such as feathers, as seen in Archaeopteryx from the Solnhofen limestone. These rare fossils were pivotal in confirming the dinosauria-avian lineage. One of the key derived avian characters is the possession of feathers, details of which were remarkably preserved in the Lagerstätte environment. These structures were previously simply assumed to be impressions; however, a detailed chemical analysis has, until now, never been completed on any Archaeopteryx specimen. Here we present chemical imaging via synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) of the Thermopolis Archaeopteryx, which shows that portions of the feathers are not impressions but are in fact remnant body fossil structures, maintaining elemental compositions that are completely different from the embedding geological matrix. Our results indicate phosphorous and sulfur retention in soft tissue as well as trace metal (Zn and Cu) retention in bone. Other previously unknown chemical details of Archaeopteryx are also revealed in this study including: bone chemistry, taphonomy (fossilization process), and curation artifacts. SRS-XRF represents a major advancement in the study of the life chemistry and fossilization processes of Archaeopteryx and other extinct organisms because it is now practical to image the chemistry of large specimens rapidly at concentration levels of parts per million. This technique has wider application to the archaeological, forensic, and biological sciences, enabling the mapping of "unseen" compounds critical to understanding biological structures, modes of preservation, and environmental context.

  8. Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanguo; Clarke, Julia A; Gao, Ke-Qin; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Meng, Qingjin; Li, Daliang; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2014-03-20

    Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers. When this relationship evolved relative to the origin of feathers and other novel integumentary structures, such as hair and filamentous body covering in extinct archosaurs, has not been evaluated. Here we sample melanosomes from the integument of 181 extant amniote taxa and 13 lizard, turtle, dinosaur and pterosaur fossils from the Upper-Jurassic and Lower-Cretaceous of China. We find that in the lineage leading to birds, the observed increase in the diversity of melanosome morphologies appears abruptly, near the origin of pinnate feathers in maniraptoran dinosaurs. Similarly, mammals show an increased diversity of melanosome form compared to all ectothermic amniotes. In these two clades, mammals and maniraptoran dinosaurs including birds, melanosome form and colour are linked and colour reconstruction may be possible. By contrast, melanosomes in lizard, turtle and crocodilian skin, as well as the archosaurian filamentous body coverings (dinosaur 'protofeathers' and pterosaur 'pycnofibres'), show a limited diversity of form that is uncorrelated with colour in extant taxa. These patterns may be explained by convergent changes in the key melanocortin system of mammals and birds, which is known to affect pleiotropically both melanin-based colouration and energetic processes such as metabolic rate in vertebrates, and may therefore support a significant physiological shift in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  9. Bionic Research on Bird Feather for Drag Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Feng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce friction drag with bionic method in a more feasible way, the surface microstructure of bird feather was analyzed attempting to reveal the biologic features responding to skin friction drag reduction. Then comparative bionic surface mimicking bird feather was fabricated through hot-rolling technology for drag reduction. The microriblet film was formed on a PVC substrate through a self-developed hot-rolling equipment. The bionic surface with micron-scale riblets formed spontaneously due to the elastic-plastic deformation of PVC in high temperature and high pressure environment. Comparative experiments between micro-structured bionic surface and smooth surface were performed in a wind tunnel to evaluate the effect of bionic surface on drag reduction, and significant drag reduction efficiency was obtained. Numerical simulation results show that microvortex induced in the solid-gas interface of bionic surface has the effect of shear stress reduction and the small level of an additional pressure drag resulting from pressure distribution deviation on bird feather like surface, hence reducing the skin friction drag significantly. Therefore, with remarkable drag reduction performance and simple fabrication technology, the proposed drag reduction technique shows the promise for practical applications.

  10. International Politics: A Desirable Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Aiding; Feng Shuai

    2007-01-01

    This article first traces the origin of four concepts: International Politics (IP), International Relations (IR), World Politics (WP) and Global Politics (GP) and discusses the similarities among these four paradigms. It then analyses their application both at home and abroad. Finally, it argues for the desirability of selecting the concept of IP in academic training, thus facilitating practical application of concepts. It asserts that this will not only enhance academic discussion about IP among different Chinese schools of thought, but also help blazing new ideas.

  11. Melanin-based color of plumage: role of condition and of feathers' microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Gill, Lisa; Evans, Neil P.; Monaghan, Pat; Handel, Colleen M.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Whether melanin-based colors honestly signal a bird's condition during the growth of feathers is controversial, and it is unclear if or how the physiological processes underlying melanogenesis or color-imparting structural feather microstructure may be adversely affected by condition. Here we report results from two experiments designed to measure the effect of condition on expression of eumelanic and pheomelanic coloration in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), respectively. In chickadees, we compared feathers of birds affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder, while in zebra finches we compared feathers of controls with feathers of those subjected to an unpredictable food supply during development. In both cases we found that control birds had brighter feathers (higher total reflectance) and more barbules, but similar densities of melanosomes. In addition, the microstructure of the feathers explained variation in color more strongly than did melanosome density. Together, these results suggest that melanin-based coloration may in part be condition-dependent, but that this may be driven by changes in keratin and feather development, rather than melanogenesis itself. Researchers should be cautious when assigning variation in melanin-based color to melanin alone and microstructure of the feather should be taken into account.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feathers of colonial water-bird species from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, PO 45320 (Pakistan); Moeckel, Claudia [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, Kevin C.; Hughes, David [Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Feathers of two colonial water-birds species (Bubulcus ibis, Egretta garzetta) from four heronries in the Punjab province, Pakistan were analysed for 28 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) congeners. Median concentrations of {Sigma}PBDEs were 2.41 and 1.91 ng/g in little and cattle egrets. PBDE-47, -100, -138, -153 were abundant and detected in >70% of feather samples in both species. Species-specific differences based on dietary preferences indicated higher concentration of PBDE-47, -66, -75, -100, -153, -154, and -183 in fish eating little egret. BDE-47 and -100 were more frequent in little egrets and BDE-99 was more dominant in cattle egret which feed on terrestrial habitat. Higher {Sigma}hexa- and hepta-BDEs congeners showed larger concentrations in feathers from heronries close to water bodies which receive urban and industrial effluents whereas lower-brominated congeners (BDE-47-BDE-100) dominated in rural/agricultural regions. Hazard quotients (HQs) indicated that measured {Sigma}PBDEs pose no risk to egret population. - Highlights: > Feathers as non-destructive tool to asses Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) contamination. > PBDE-47 and -100 frequent in feathers of fish eating egrets. > BDE-99 dominant in feathers of egrets feed in terrestrial habitats. > Lower-brominated congeners (BDE-47-BDE-100) dominate in feathers from rural areas. > Greater contents of hexa- and hepta-BDEs in feathers from areas receive urban/industrial effluents. - Feathers are used as a biomonitoring tool for PBDEs contamination.

  13. Development of feather keratin nanoparticles and investigation of their hemostatic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju; Hao, Shilei; Luo, Tiantian; Yang, Qian; Wang, Bochu

    2016-11-01

    Chicken feathers are considered as the major waste in poultry industry, which are mostly constituted of keratin proteins. Development of feather keratin for biomedical application is very attractive for chicken feather recycling. Human hair keratins have been demonstrated the significant hemostatic efficacy in the previous studies, but there are few reports of feather keratin for the hemostatic application. Here, the chicken feather keratin nanoparticle was developed for use as a hemostatic agent. Keratin was extracted from chicken feather in the present study, and a modified ultrasonic dispersion method was used to prepare keratin nanoparticles. The characterizations of feather keratin extracts and nanoparticles were investigated, including electrophoretic separation, amino acid composition, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, chemical structure and crystal form. Additionally, the hemostatic efficacy in vitro and in vivo of keratin nanoparticles were also studied. The results of hemostatic tests showed that the bleeding time and blood loss in tail amputation and liver scratch rat models can be significantly decreased after application of feather keratin nanoparticles, which demonstrated the potential application of feather keratin nanoparticles for hemostasis.

  14. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  15. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider.

  16. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Zes, David A

    2015-01-01

    Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  17. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  18. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  19. Costs and benefits in hunter-gatherer punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Hunter-gatherer punishment involves costs and benefits to individuals and groups, but the costs do not necessarily fit with the assumptions made in models that consider punishment to be altruistic--which brings in the free-rider problem and the problem of second-order free-riders. In this commentary, I present foragers' capital punishment patterns ethnographically, in the interest of establishing whether such punishment is likely to be costly; and I suggest that in many cases abstentions from punishment that might be taken as defections by free-riders are actually caused by social-structural considerations rather than being an effect of free-rider genes. This presentation of data supplements the ethnographic analysis provided by Guala.

  20. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Bottjer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds.

  1. The Bayesian image retrieval system, PicHunter: theory, implementation, and psychophysical experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, I J; Miller, M L; Minka, T P; Papathomas, T V; Yianilos, P N

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the theory, design principles, implementation and performance results of PicHunter, a prototype content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system. In addition, this document presents the rationale, design and results of psychophysical experiments that were conducted to address some key issues that arose during PicHunter's development. The PicHunter project makes four primary contributions to research on CBIR. First, PicHunter represents a simple instance of a general Bayesian framework which we describe for using relevance feedback to direct a search. With an explicit model of what users would do, given the target image they want, PicHunter uses Bayes's rule to predict the target they want, given their actions. This is done via a probability distribution over possible image targets, rather than by refining a query. Second, an entropy-minimizing display algorithm is described that attempts to maximize the information obtained from a user at each iteration of the search. Third, PicHunter makes use of hidden annotation rather than a possibly inaccurate/inconsistent annotation structure that the user must learn and make queries in. Finally, PicHunter introduces two experimental paradigms to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the system, and psychophysical experiments are presented that support the theoretical claims.

  2. Influence of Age and Educational Level on the Behavior of Hunters in Vojvodina Province (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Marković

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as an important factor in the development of economy has a major impact on the development of hunting and hunting tourism. In this research, it has conducted a survey of hunters from the territory of Vojvodina Province regarding their attitude and motives for hunting, importance of education, importance of GIS in hunting, poaching as well as their level of hunting ethics. Using SPSS program, it was cross-referenced the individual responses in relation to age category and level of education. The results show that the youngest hunters (18 to 35 years compared to middle age hunters (35-59 years and old hunters (over 60 visit hunting events more, they are the most informed about GIS and they are most willing to learn about these technologies. The number of hunters that took part in the poaching is proportional with their level of education, so that most hunters that participate in poaching hold a university degree. However, hunters holding a university degree in the highest percentage believe that GIS can contribute to the development of hunting largely, and are willing to participate in training.

  3. Dietary inclusion of feathers affects intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in growing Leghorn-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Bessei, W; Bessei, A W; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem that is often associated with feather eating. The intake of feathers may influence the gut microbiota and its metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different diets, with or without 5% ground feathers, on the gut microbiota and the resulting microbial fermentation products and to identify keratin-degrading bacteria in chicken digesta. One-day-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn chicks were divided into 3 feeding groups: group A (control), B (5% ground feathers in the diet), and C, in which the control diet was fed until wk 12 and then switched to the 5% feather diet to study the effect of time of first feather ingestion. The gut microbiota was analyzed by cultivation and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ileum and cecum digesta. Short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and lactate concentrations were measured as microbial metabolites. The concentration of keratinolytic bacteria increased after feather ingestion in the ileum (P < 0.001) and cecum (P = 0.033). Bacterial species that hydrolyzed keratin were identified as Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus reuteri-like species (97% sequence homology), and Lactobacillus salivarius-like species (97% sequence homology). Molecular analysis of cecal DNA extracts showed that the feather diet lowered the bacterial diversity indicated by a reduced richness (P < 0.001) and shannon (P = 0.012) index. The pattern of microbial metabolites indicated some changes, especially in the cecum. This study showed that feather intake induced an adaptation of the intestinal microbiota in chickens. It remains unclear to what extent the changed metabolism of the microbiota reflects the feather intake and could have an effect on the behavior of the hens.

  4. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with muco­polysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Link

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS. The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years. Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle. Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required.

  5. Effect of an early bitter taste experience on subsequent feather-pecking behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander, A.; Beck, P.S.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that laying hens learn not to peck at bitter-tasting feathers from conspecifics. In the present experiment, feathers of newly hatched chicks were made distasteful by spraying them with a bitter-tasting substance (quinine). It was hypothesized that chicks could detect quinine an

  6. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte L; Buitenhuis, A J (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    , therefore we studied the behaviour of 16 birds from a high feather pecking (HFP) line and 16 birds from a low feather pecking (LFP) line at 35 weeks of age inside a plus-maze. Birds were from the 10th generation of selection for either high or low FP. First exposure to the maze was used to measure birds...

  7. 76 FR 76115 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air...

  8. Both feather peckers and victims are more asymmetrical than control hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado Tahamtani, Fernanda; Forkman, Björn; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    Feather pecking is the major welfare issue facing the egg farming industry worldwide. Previous research has found a relationship between cannibalistic behaviour, fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (FA) and body weight in laying hens. As cannibalism is linked to severe feather pecking...

  9. Metals in albatross feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of species, age, and nest location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the authors examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. They collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. The authors test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression they found significant models accounting for the variation in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. They also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated.

  10. Partial duplication of the PRLR and SPEF2 genes at the late feathering locus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.G.; Vallee, N.; Jungerius, B.J.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the loci responsible for feather development in chickens is K. The K allele is partially dominant to the k+ allele and causes a retard in the emergence of flight feathers at hatch. The K locus is sex linked and located on the Z chromosome. Therefore, the locus can be utilized to pr

  11. Replacement and growth of primary feathers in captive rock pigeons, Columba livia (Aves: Columbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The replacement and growth of 311 primary feathers of eight captive male rock pigeons, Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 were monitored daily. Feather replacement was recorded in all months, but the primaries 1 to 5 (innermost primaries were replaced mostly from September to December, whereas the primaries 6 to 10 (outermost primaries were more frequently replaced from January to August. Each primary was held in plumage from six to fifteen months, but the lifetime of the outer feathers was longer than that of the inner feathers. A new primary emerges two or three days after its predecessor has been dropped, but the primaries replacing the feathers accidentally lost during bird handling emerge only after about eight days. The average growth period of a primary ranged from 21 to 37 days, with the larger and outermost feathers exhibiting a longer growth period. A constant average growth rate of 4 to 5 mm/day was found for all primaries until the last two days of growth, when the growth rate of the feathers became progressively slower. Bilateral symmetry in the primary replacement, when the same feather is replaced simultaneously in both wings, was not significant (22.2% in the birds monitored in this study.

  12. 76 FR 5 - Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... aircraft, if powered, would be limited to a fixed or ground adjustable propeller.'' We determined that ``a... found in multi-engine aircraft, automatically feather a propeller in the event of a power loss during... manual feathering propeller on an LSA powered glider could impose a hazard to the aircraft...

  13. The prevention and control of feather pecking: application to commercial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicol, C.J.; Bestman, M.; Gilani, A.M.; Haas, de E.N.; Jong, de I.C.; Lampton, S.; Wagenaar, J.P.; Weeks, C.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence of feather pecking in different commercial laying hen 23 systems and its welfare and economic impacts are reviewed in the following paper. 24 Current methods for controlling feather pecking include beak-trimming and alterations to light regimes, but these methods have signi

  14. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the F-

  15. Variation in the mechanical properties of flight feathers of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla in relation to migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Hedenström, A.; Pérez-Tris, J.; Tellería, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Migration causes temporal and energetic constraints during plumage development, which can compromise feather structure and function. In turn, given the importance of a good quality of flight feathers in migratory movements, selection may have favoured the synthesis of feathers with better mechanical

  16. Desirable Skills in New Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Flowers, Schwanda K; Stowe, Cindy D

    2017-02-01

    To compare survey responses between licensed pharmacists who work with or employ new graduates and graduating senior pharmacy students at a college of pharmacy. This was a retrospective analysis of surveys given to 2 groups of pharmacists and students. Responses to items regarding importance of desirable qualities in new pharmacists and level of preparation of new graduates were analyzed. Qualities included drug information, pharmacology, therapeutics, communication with patients/customers or health care professionals, professionalism, ethics, management, and conflict resolution. There was consensus between pharmacists and students regarding the importance of all items ( P > .05 for all comparisons). However, the percentage of pharmacists versus students who agreed that new graduates communicate effectively differed (86.7% vs 100%, respectively, P communication as the 1 skill that would distinguish an applicant, and retail and hospital pharmacists displayed a statistically significant ( P skills essential for pharmacy practice but disagree on the level of preparation for effective communication. These results support ongoing efforts to improve the development of communication skills in the professional pharmacy curriculum.

  17. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  18. Symmetry Reduction and Group Invariant Solutions of Hunter-Saxton Equations%Hunter-Saxton方程的对称约化与群不变解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀美英; 胡恒春

    2016-01-01

    借助符号计算软件Maple,根据微分方程单参数不变群和群不变解的概念,利用李群对称的待定系数法,得到Hunter-Saxton方程的包含5个任意常数和一个任意函数的一般形式的对称.通过该对称中任意的函数和常数的不同选取,将Hunter-Saxton方程约化为不同形式的常微分方程.最后对约化后的常微分方程进行变换求解,进一步得出Hunter-Saxton方程的一些群不变解和精确解.

  19. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Finlayson

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1 does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2 did Middle (associated with Neanderthals and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3 is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4 was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to

  20. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive; Brown, Kimberly; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Negro, Juan José; Bortolotti, Gary R; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Rodríguez Vidal, Joaquín; Carrión, José S; Fa, Darren A; Rodríguez Llanes, José M

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of

  1. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  2. 羽绒羽毛检测方法分析%Down and Feather Detection Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢

    2014-01-01

    结合羽绒羽毛检测的内容,对羽绒羽毛的检测方法进行了简单分析。对氢氧化钠溶液对几种常见羽毛的化学溶解性进行了测试。结果表明,羽毛的溶解性差异可以作为羽绒羽毛的检测方法之一。%Combining content feather detection method for detecting down and Feather were simple analysis. Sodium hydroxide solution, the solubility of several common chemical feathers was tested. The results showed that differences in solubility feathers can be used as a method of detecting down feathers.

  3. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François; Erickson, Gregory M; DeBuhr, Christopher L; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Eberth, David A; Hadfield, Frank

    2012-10-26

    Previously described feathered dinosaurs reveal a fascinating record of feather evolution, although substantial phylogenetic gaps remain. Here we report the occurrence of feathers in ornithomimosaurs, a clade of non-maniraptoran theropods for which fossilized feathers were previously unknown. The Ornithomimus specimens, recovered from Upper Cretaceous deposits of Alberta, Canada, provide new insights into dinosaur plumage and the origin of the avian wing. Individuals from different growth stages reveal the presence of a filamentous feather covering throughout life and winglike structures on the forelimbs of adults. The appearance of winglike structures in older animals indicates that they may have evolved in association with reproductive behaviors. These specimens show that primordial wings originated earlier than previously thought, among non-maniraptoran theropods.

  4. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: liuxx751@umn.edu

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  5. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Spruit, Berry M; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately......, to date much of the information regarding the aetiology and treatment in both syndromes is based on ‘expert' opinion rather than on experimentally founded results. Comparative research in humans and parrots might therefore be mutually beneficial. Feather damaging behaviour (FDB) may also share...... similarities with behavioural disorders present in other bird species. Feather pecking (FP) in poultry is of particular interest in this case. Because of the major impacts on welfare and economy, the disorder has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that genetic, socio...

  6. Assessing the Main-Belt Comet Population with Comet Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Hsieh, Henry H.; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ying-Tung; Lintott, Chris; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Mishra, Ishan

    2017-01-01

    Cometary activity in the asteroid belt is a recent discovery. Evidence suggests recent collisions play a role excavating subsurface water ice in these Main Belt Comets (MBCs). MBCs may be an alternative source of Earth’s water. The properties and origins of the MBCs remain elusive. To date ~15 MBCs are known, but only with many tens to 100s of MBCs can we fully explore this new reservoir and its implications for the early Earth.Automated routines identify cometary objects by comparing the point spread functions (PSFs) of moving objects to background stars. This approach may miss cometary activity with low-level dust comae or trails that are too weak or extended to affect an object's near-nucleus PSF profile. Direct visual inspection of moving objects by survey team members can often catch such unusual objects, but such an approach is impractical for the largest surveys to date, and will only become more intractable with the next generation wide-field surveys.With the Internet, tens of thousands of people can be engaged in the scientific process. With this citizen science approach, the combined assessment of many non-experts often equals or rivals that of a trained expert and in many cases outperforms automated algorithms. The Comet Hunters (http://www.comethunters.org) project enlists the public to search for MBCs in data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) wide survey. HSC is to date the largest field-of-view camera (covering a 1.5 degree diameter circle on sky) on a 8-10-m class telescope. The HSC wide survey provides the sensitivity to detect cometary activity at lower levels than have been possible for previous surveys.We will give an overview of the Comet Hunters project. We will present the results from the first ~10,000 HSC asteroids searched and provide an estimate on the frequency of cometary activity in the Main Asteroid beltAcknowledgements: This work uses data generated via the Zooniverse.org platform, development of which was supported by a Global

  7. Integrability and Solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-Liu; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation is proposed and studied. It is shown that the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation can be transformed to the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation by reciprocal transformations. Based on the Lax-pair of the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation, a non-isospectral Lax-pair of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation is derived. In addition, exact singular solutions with a finite number of corners are obtained. Furthermore, the (2 + 1)-dimensional μ-Hunter-Saxton equation is presented, and its exact peaked traveling wave solutions are derived. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11471174 and NSF of Ningbo under Grant No. 2014A610018

  8. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  9. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  10. Hunter Harvest and Effort North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2001-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reports contains summarized yearly harvest of game species on Coldwater River, Dahomey, and Tallahatchie NWRs and the total hunter effort based on daily use cards...

  11. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  12. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  13. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  14. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt.

  15. Biomechanics of the Peacock's Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Dakin

    Full Text Available Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus perform a complex, multimodal "train-rattling" display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock's visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots-which strongly influence female mate choice-to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background.

  16. Interpopulation variation in contour feather structure is environmentally determined in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Broggi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plumage of birds is important for flying, insulation and social communication. Contour feathers cover most of the avian body and among other functions they provide a critical insulation layer against heat loss. Feather structure and composition are known to vary among individuals, which in turn determines variation in the insulation properties of the feather. However, the extent and the proximate mechanisms underlying this variation remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed contour feather structure from two different great tit populations adapted to different winter regimes, one northern population in Oulu (Finland and one southern population in Lund (Sweden. Great tits from the two populations differed significantly in feather structure. Birds from the northern population had a denser plumage but consisting of shorter feathers with a smaller proportion containing plumulaceous barbs, compared with conspecifics from the southern population. However, differences disappeared when birds originating from the two populations were raised and moulted in identical conditions in a common-garden experiment located in Oulu, under ad libitum nutritional conditions. All birds raised in the aviaries, including adult foster parents moulting in the same captive conditions, developed a similar feather structure. These feathers were different from that of wild birds in Oulu but similar to wild birds in Lund, the latter moulting in more benign conditions than those of Oulu. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Wild populations exposed to different conditions develop contour feather differences either due to plastic responses or constraints. Environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability during feather growth play a crucial role in determining such differences in plumage structure among populations.

  17. Symbiotic bacteria living in the hoopoe's uropygial gland prevent feather degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Valdivia, E; Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martínez-Bueno, M

    2009-11-01

    Among potential agents that might damage bird feathers are certain microorganisms which secrete enzymes that digest keratin, as is the case of the ubiquitous bacterium Bacillus licheniformis, present in both the feathers and skin of wild birds. It is therefore a good candidate for testing the effects of bird defences against feather-degrading microorganisms. One of these defences is the oil secreted by the uropygial gland, which birds use to protect their feathers against parasites. In previous studies we have shown how Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from nestling hoopoes exert antagonistic effects against B. licheniformis, mediated by the production of bacteriocins. Consequently we hypothesized that this enterococcus and the bacteriocins it engenders might act as a defence against feather-degrading microorganisms in hoopoes. We investigated this hypothesis in a series of laboratory experiments and evaluated the extent to which the keratinolytic effects caused by B. licheniformis were reduced by the E. faecalis MRR10-3 strain, isolated from hoopoes, and its bacteriocins. In different treatments, feathers or pure keratin was incubated with B. licheniformis, B. licheniformis together with E. faecalis MRR10-3, and B. licheniformis together with the bacteriocins produced by E. faecalis MRR10-3. Our results were in accordance with the predicted effects on hoopoe feathers. There was a significant decrease both in pure keratin loss and in feather degradation in the presence of the symbiotic bacterium or its bacteriocin. These results suggest that by preening their feathers hoopoes benefit from their symbiotic relationship with bacteriocin-producing enterococci, which constitute a chemical defence against feather degradation.

  18. Interpopulation Variation in Contour Feather Structure Is Environmentally Determined in Great Tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Juli; Gamero, Anna; Hohtola, Esa; Orell, Markku; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-01-01

    Background The plumage of birds is important for flying, insulation and social communication. Contour feathers cover most of the avian body and among other functions they provide a critical insulation layer against heat loss. Feather structure and composition are known to vary among individuals, which in turn determines variation in the insulation properties of the feather. However, the extent and the proximate mechanisms underlying this variation remain unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed contour feather structure from two different great tit populations adapted to different winter regimes, one northern population in Oulu (Finland) and one southern population in Lund (Sweden). Great tits from the two populations differed significantly in feather structure. Birds from the northern population had a denser plumage but consisting of shorter feathers with a smaller proportion containing plumulaceous barbs, compared with conspecifics from the southern population. However, differences disappeared when birds originating from the two populations were raised and moulted in identical conditions in a common-garden experiment located in Oulu, under ad libitum nutritional conditions. All birds raised in the aviaries, including adult foster parents moulting in the same captive conditions, developed a similar feather structure. These feathers were different from that of wild birds in Oulu but similar to wild birds in Lund, the latter moulting in more benign conditions than those of Oulu. Conclusions/Significance Wild populations exposed to different conditions develop contour feather differences either due to plastic responses or constraints. Environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability during feather growth play a crucial role in determining such differences in plumage structure among populations. PMID:21949798

  19. 弱耗散μ-Hunter-Saxton 方程的爆破%Blow-up of a weakly dissipative μ-Hunter-Saxton equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红杰; 刘静静; 齐静; 刘硕

    2015-01-01

    研究了弱耗散μ-Hunter-Saxton 方程 Caucly 问题的爆破现象。给出了一个新的爆破结果,推导出爆破强解精确的爆破率。%We study the Cauchy problem of the weakly dissipative μ-Hunter-Saxton equation.The present work is main-ly concerned with blow-up phenomena of the equation.We first present a new blow-up result for strong solutions to the equation.Then,we drive the precise blow-up rate for strong solutions to the equation.

  20. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Marjolein S; de Haas, Elske N; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ellen, Esther D; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Olivier, Berend; Güntürkün, O; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Korte, S Mechiel

    2013-08-15

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28-60 days). Here, brain monoamine levels were measured in adult laying hens; focusing on four brain areas that are involved in emotional behavior or are part of the basal ganglia-thalamopallial circuit, which is involved in obsessive compulsive disorders. Three behavioral phenotypes were studied: Severe Feather Peckers (SFPs), Victims of SFP, and Non-Peckers (NPs). Hens (33 weeks old) were sacrificed after a 5-min manual restraint test. SFPs had higher 5-HIAA levels and a higher serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the dorsal thalamus than NPs, with intermediate levels in victims. NPs had higher 5-HT levels in the medial striatum than victims, with levels of SFPs in between. 5-HT turnover levels did not differ between phenotypes in medial striatum, arcopallium and hippocampus. DA turnover levels were not affected by feather pecking phenotype. These findings indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal thalamus and striatum of adult laying hens depends on differences in behavioral feather pecking phenotype, with, compared to non-pecking hens, changes in both SFP and their victims. Further identification of different SFP phenotypes is needed to elucidate the role of brain monoamines in SFP.

  1. Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, P.M.; Gude, J.A.; Russell, R.E.; Ackerman, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  3. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Crittenden

    Full Text Available Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  4. Genetic and cultural kinship among the Lamaleran whale hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvard, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The human ability to form large, coordinated groups is among our most impressive social adaptations. Larger groups facilitate synergistic economies of scale for cooperative breeding, such economic tasks as group hunting, and success in conflict with other groups. In many organisms, genetic relationships provide the structure for sociality to evolve via the process of kin selection, and this is the case, to a certain extent, for humans. But assortment by genetic affiliation is not the only mechanism that can bring people together. Affinity based on symbolically mediated and socially constructed identity, or cultural kinship, structures much of human ultrasociality. This paper examines how genetic kinship and two kinds of cultural kinship--affinal kinship and descent--structure the network of cooperating whale hunters in the village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Social network analyses show that each mechanism of assortment produces characteristic networks of different sizes, each more or less conducive to the task of hunting whales. Assortment via close genetic kin relationships (r = 0.5) produces a smaller, denser network. Assortment via less-close kin relations (r = 0.125) produces a larger but less dense network. Affinal networks are small and diffuse; lineage networks are larger, discrete, and very dense. The roles that genetic and cultural kinship play for structuring human sociality is discussed in the context of these results.

  5. Adaptive memory: fitness relevance and the hunter-gatherer mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Gregory, Karie J; Van Arsdall, Joshua E

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed in terms of its fitness value. When people are asked to rate the relevance of words to a survival scenario, performance on subsequent surprise memory tests exceeds that obtained after most other known encoding techniques. The present experiments explored this effect using survival scenarios designed to mimic the division of labor thought to characterize early hunter-gatherer societies. It has been suggested that males and females have different cognitive specializations due to the unique survival tasks (hunting and gathering, respectively) they typically performed during periods of human evolution; the present experiments tested whether such specializations might be apparent in memory for words rated for relevance to these activities. Males and females were asked to rate the relevance of random words to prototypical hunting and gathering scenarios or to matched, non-fitness-relevant control scenarios (gathering food on a scavenger hunt or in a hunting contest). Surprise retention tests revealed superior memory for the words when they were rated for relevance to hunting and gathering scenarios, compared with when they were rated for relevance to the control scenarios, but no sex differences were found in memory performance.

  6. Conservation laws and symmetries of Hunter-Saxton equation: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Liu, Q. P.

    2016-03-01

    Through a reciprocal transformation {{T}0} induced by the conservation law {{\\partial}t}≤ft(ux2\\right)={{\\partial}x}≤ft(2uux2\\right) , the Hunter-Saxton (HS) equation {{u}xt}=2u{{u}2x}+ux2 is shown to possess conserved densities involving arbitrary smooth functions, which have their roots in infinitesimal symmetries of {{w}t}={{w}2} , the counterpart of the HS equation under {{T}0} . Hierarchies of commuting symmetries of the HS equation are studied under appropriate changes of variables initiated by {{T}0} , and two of these are linearized while the other is identical to the hierarchy of commuting symmetries admitted by the potential modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. A fifth order symmetry of the HS equation is endowed with a sixth order hereditary recursion operator, which is proved to have a bi-Hamiltonian factorization, by its connection with the Fordy-Gibbons equation. These results reveal the origin for the rich and remarkable structures of the HS equation and partially answer the questions raised by Wang (2010 Nonlinearity 23 2009).

  7. Rabbit hunter uveitis: case report of tularemia uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrada, Céline; Azza, Said; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography showed a late hyperfluorescence with focal vascular leakage. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of a 3.8 mm parietal granuloma with a few calcifications in the left eye. While extensive work-up eliminated any other infectious and non-infectious etiology, tularemia was diagnosed by advanced serology consisting of two-dimensional Western-immunoblotting. The patient, a hunter, recalled having killed rabbits in the days before the symptoms appeared. Uveitis was rapidly controlled following treatment with doxycycline, yet three years after initiation of the treatment, the patient still complained of loss of vision in the left eye with a central scotoma. Posterior uveitis may be an infrequent manifestation of tularemia infection, and therefore this infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraocular inflammation in areas where F. tularensis is endemic.

  8. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  9. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  10. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  11. Assessment of the effect of housing on feather damage in laying hens using IR thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichová, K; Bilčík, B; Košt'ál, L'

    2017-04-01

    Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring. At the start of the experiment, 16-week-old laying hens (n=30) were divided into two treatments such as deep litter pen and enriched cage. During 4 months, feather damage was assessed regularly in 2-week intervals. One more single assessment was done nine and a half months after the start of the experiment. The feather damage on four body regions was assessed by scoring and IR thermography: head and neck, back and rump, belly, and underneck and breast. Two variables obtained by IR thermography were used: the difference between the body surface temperature and ambient temperature (ΔTB) and the proportion of featherless areas, which were defined as areas with a temperature >33.5°C. Data were analyzed using a GLM model. The effects of housing, time, region and their interactions on feather damage, measured by the feather scoring and by both IR thermography measures, were all significant (P<0.001). The ΔTB in all assessed regions correlated positively with the feather score. Feather scoring revealed higher damage in enriched cages compared with deep litter pens starting from week 6 of the experiment on the belly and back and rump regions, whereas ΔTB from week 6 in the belly and from week 8 on the back and rump region. The proportion of featherless areas in the belly region differed significantly between the housings from week 8 of the experiment and on the back and rump region from week 12. The IR thermography

  12. Seagull feather shaft: Correlation between structure and mechanical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-01-15

    Flight feathers are unique among a variety of keratinous appendages in that they are lightweight, stiff and strong. They are designed to withstand aerodynamic forces, but their morphology and structure have been oversimplified and thus understudied historically. Here we present an investigation of the shaft from seagull primary feathers, elucidate the hierarchical fibrous and porous structure along the shaft length, and correlate the tensile and nanomechanical properties to the fiber orientation. An analysis of the compressive behavior of the rachis based on a square-section model shows a good fit with experimental results, and demonstrates the synergy between the cortex and medulla. Flexural properties of the shaft along the shaft length, analyzed as a sandwich composite, reveal that although all flexural parameters decrease towards the distal shaft, the specific equivalent flexural modulus and strength increase by factors of 2 and 3, respectively. The failure mode in flexure for all specimens is buckling on the compressive surface, whereas the foamy medulla prevents destructive axial cracking and introduces important toughening mechanisms: crack deflection, fiber bridging, and microcracking.

  13. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  14. Nuclear β-catenin localization supports homology of feathers, avian scutate scales, and alligator scales in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jacob M; Wagner, Günter P; Prum, Richard O

    2015-01-01

    Feathers are an evolutionary novelty found in all extant birds. Despite recent progress investigating feather development and a revolution in dinosaur paleontology, the relationship of feathers to other amniote skin appendages, particularly reptile scales, remains unclear. Disagreement arises primarily from the observation that feathers and avian scutate scales exhibit an anatomical placode-defined as an epidermal thickening-in early development, whereas alligator and other avian scales do not. To investigate the homology of feathers and archosaur scales we examined patterns of nuclear β-catenin localization during early development of feathers and different bird and alligator scales. In birds, nuclear β-catenin is first localized to the feather placode, and then exhibits a dynamic pattern of localization in both epidermis and dermis of the feather bud. We found that asymmetric avian scutate scales and alligator scales share similar patterns of nuclear β-catenin localization with feathers. This supports the hypothesis that feathers, scutate scales, and alligator scales are homologous during early developmental stages, and are derived from early developmental stages of an asymmetric scale present in the archosaur ancestor. Furthermore, given that the earliest stage of β-catenin localization in feathers and archosaur scales is also found in placodes of several mammalian skin appendages, including hair and mammary glands, we hypothesize that a common skin appendage placode originated in the common ancestor of all amniotes. We suggest a skin placode should not be defined by anatomical features, but as a local, organized molecular signaling center from which an epidermal appendage develops.

  15. Reassessment of the wing feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica suggests no robust evidence for the presence of elongated dorsal wing coverts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available Recently it was proposed that the primary feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica (HMN1880 were overlaid by long covert feathers, and that a multilayered feathered wing was a feature of early fossils with feathered forelimbs. The proposed long covert feathers of Archaeopteryx were previously interpreted as dorsally displaced remiges or a second set of impressions made by the wing. The following study shows that the qualitative arguments forwarded in support of the elongated covert hypothesis are neither robust nor supported quantitatively. The idea that the extant bird wing with its single layer of overlapping primaries evolved from an earlier multilayered heavily coveted feathered forelimb as seen in Anchiornis huxleyi is reasonable. At this juncture, however, it is premature to conclude unequivocally that the wing of Archaeopteryx consisted of primary feathers overlaid with elongated coverts.

  16. Desire on and off the couch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2013-03-01

    The concept of desire is potentially useful and underutilized for elucidating and understanding psychoanalytic material and informing psychoanalytic technique. It can be employed as a lens for viewing and clarifying diverse clinical phenomenon and other mental productions. One way of defining desire as a conceptual framework as applied to psychoanalytic theory is to refract it into three components: (1) love (emotional desire), (2) sex (physical desire), and (3) passion (other manifestations of desire). These different aspects of desire are manifest in and of themselves and as enhancements of one another. Focusing on each of them as manifest in the transference/countertransference relationship in analysis can facilitate a patient becoming more aware of psychological conflicts and working them through in analysis. This paper presents and discusses a case study in which these different aspects of desire are employed and analyzed.

  17. Desire thinking as a predictor of gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2014-04-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. A desired target can relate to an object, an internal state or an activity, such as gambling. This study investigated the role of desire thinking in gambling in a cohort of participants recruited from community and clinical settings. Ninety five individuals completed a battery of self-report measures consisting of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Gambling Craving Scale (GCS), the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Correlation analyses revealed that gender, educational level, recruitment source, anxiety and depression, craving and desire thinking were correlated with gambling. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both recruitment source and desire thinking were the only independent predictors of gambling when controlling for all other study variables, including craving. These findings are discussed in the light of metacognitive therapy (MCT).

  18. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  19. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pedro

    Full Text Available Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W. Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%. This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  20. Assessment of regrowth of flight feathers after manual removal in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Lair, Stéphane; Beauchamp, Guy; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if extraction of broken feathers outside the molting period was an efficient method to induce growth of new flight feathers as part of the rehabilitation process of raptors with damaged plumage. Primaries, secondaries, and rectrices (four of each) were removed under general anesthesia from 10 American kestrels (Falco sparverius) using two different protocols: with and without filling the follicle with bismuth subnitrate (Orbeseal) to prevent it from sealing. Birds were kept in large aviaries under natural daylight and outdoor temperatures. Rate and quality of growth of new feathers were assessed regularly for 4 mo. Results were significantly different between the types of feathers: 100% of rectrices, 58% of secondaries, and 8% of primaries started to grow within the 4 winter months, and 95% of rectrices, 30% of secondaries, and 0% of primaries completed their growth normally within this period. The use of Orbeseal did not improve the outcome. The tail feathers began to grow between the second and third weeks at about 2.7 mm/day, and growth was completed within 7 wk. Rate, starting time, and duration of remigial growth were less predictable and varied widely among individuals. Although the exact impact of these extractions on the natural molt is still unclear, most of the primaries that were plucked during this study failed to regrow normally during the following molt. In conclusion, plucking damaged tail feathers in kestrels can successfully decrease the duration of rehabilitation. However, this procedure would not be recommended for wing feathers.

  1. Production of keratinolytic enzyme by an indigenous feather-degrading strain Bacillus cereus Wu2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Hsun; Too, Jui-Rze; Wu, Jane-Yii

    2012-12-01

    A novel feather-degrading microorganism was isolated from a poultry farm in Taiwan, and was identified Bacillus cereus Wu2 according to 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolated strain produces keratinolytic enzyme using chicken feather as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The experimental results indicated that the extra carbon sources (glucose, fructose, starch, sucrose, or lactose) could act as a catabolite repressor to the enzyme secretion or keratinolytic activity when keratinous substrates were employed as protein sources. However, addition of 2 g/L of NH(4)Cl to the feather medium increased the enzyme production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for enzyme production were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 1.75 kU/mL in the optimal chicken feather medium; this value was about 17-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. The B. cereus Wu2 possessed disulfide reductase activity along with keratinolytic activity. The amino acid contents of feathers degradated by B. cereus Wu2 were higher, especially for lysine, methionine and threonine which were nutritionally essential amino acids and usually deficient in the feather meal. Thus, B. cereus Wu2 could be not only used to enhance the nutritional value of feather meal but is also a potential bioinoculant in agricultural environments.

  2. Bio-thermoplastics from grafted chicken feathers for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Jiang, Qiuran; Jin, Enqi; Shi, Zhen; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-10-01

    This research demonstrated the feasibility of using bio-thermoplastics developed from chicken feathers grafted with acrylates and methacrylates as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Keratin, the major protein in feathers, is a highly crosslinked biopolymer that has been reported to be biocompatible. However, it is difficult to break the disulfide bonds and make keratin soluble to develop materials for tissue engineering and other medical applications. Previously, keratin extracted from feathers using alkaline hydrolysis has been made into scaffolds but with poor water stability and mechanical properties. In this study, thermoplastic films were compression molded from chicken feathers grafted with 6 different acrylate monomers. The influence of the concentration and structures of grafted monomers on grafting parameters and the tensile strength, water stability and cytocompatibility of grafted feathers compression molded into films were investigated. It was found that the grafted feather films were water stable and had good strength and better supported cell growth than poly(lactic acid) films. Grafted feathers demonstrated the potential to be used for fabrication of biomaterials for various biomedical applications.

  3. Chemical composition and amino acid profile of differently processed feather meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adejumo Oluseun Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feather wastes represent potential alternative ingredients for animal feedstuffs which can ameliorate the protein shortage for food and feed. Previous attempts to provide information about the nutrient composition of feather meal are either too complicated for rural livestock farmers in developing countries or they provided incomplete information on chemical composition. Washed feathers were subjected to different processing techniques such as pre-soaking in distilled water, wood ash, 0.3M NaOH, a mixture of wood ash and 0.3M NaOH, incubated at 37°C and boiled at 150°C for 60 minutes. Treated feather meals were analysed for chemical composition and amino acid profile. The overall result showed that feather meal pre-soaked with wood ash for 24 hr boiled at 150oC for 60 minutes, those pre-soaked with 0.3M NaOH and wood ash incubated at 37°C for 24 hr boiled at 150°C for 60 minutes and raw feather meal pre-soaked in distilled water for 24 hr boiled at 150°C for 60 minutes gave better results. Wood ash and 0.3M NaOH and their mixture could enhance the nutritional value of feather meal.

  4. ESPRESSO: the ultimate rocky exoplanets hunter for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Denis; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Amate, Manuel; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.; Dekker, Hans; Abreu, Manuel; Affolter, Michael; Avila, Gerardo; Baldini, Veronica; Bristow, Paul; Broeg, Christopher; Carvas, Pedro; Cirami, Roberto; Coelho, João.; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cupani, Guido; D'Odorico, Valentina; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Delabre, Bernard; Figueira, Pedro; Fleury, Michel; Fragoso, Ana; Genolet, Ludovic; Gomes, Ricardo; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay; Hughes, Ian; Iwert, Olaf; Kerber, Florian; Landoni, Marco; Lima, Jorge; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Lovis, Christophe; Maire, Charles; Mannetta, Marco; Martins, Carlos; Moitinho, André; Molaro, Paolo; Monteiro, Manuel; Rasilla, José Luis; Riva, Marco; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Santin, Paolo; Sosnowska, Danuta; Sousa, Sergio; Spanò, Paolo; Tenegi, Fabio; Toso, Giorgio; Vanzella, Eros; Viel, Matteo; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO, the VLT rocky exoplanets hunter, will combine the efficiency of modern echelle spectrograph with extreme radial-velocity precision. It will be installed at Paranal on ESO's VLT in order to achieve a gain of two magnitudes with respect to its predecessor HARPS, and the instrumental radial-velocity precision will be improved to reach 10 cm/s level. We have constituted a Consortium of astronomical research institutes to fund, design and build ESPRESSO on behalf of and in collaboration with ESO, the European Southern Observatory. The project has passed the preliminary design review in November 2011. The spectrograph will be installed at the so-called "Combined Coudé Laboratory" of the VLT, it will be linked to the four 8.2 meters Unit Telescopes (UT) through four optical "Coudé trains" and will be operated either with a single telescope or with up to four UTs. In exchange of the major financial and human effort the building Consortium will be awarded with guaranteed observing time (GTO), which will be invested in a common scientific program. Thanks to its characteristics and the ability of combining incoherently the light of 4 large telescopes, ESPRESSO will offer new possibilities in many fields of astronomy. Our main scientific objectives are, however, the search and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of quiet, near-by G to M-dwarfs, and the analysis of the variability of fundamental physical constants. In this paper, we present the ambitious scientific objectives, the capabilities of ESPRESSO, the technical solutions for the system and its subsystems, enlightening the main differences between ESPRESSO and its predecessors. The project aspects of this facility are also described, from the consortium and partnership structure to the planning phases and milestones.

  5. Transsulfuration pathway thiols and methylated arginines: the Hunter Community Study.

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    Arduino A Mangoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum homocysteine, when studied singly, has been reported to be positively associated both with the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA, via inhibition of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH activity] and with symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA. We investigated combined associations between transsulfuration pathway thiols, including homocysteine, and serum ADMA and SDMA concentrations at population level. METHODS: Data on clinical and demographic characteristics, medication exposure, C-reactive protein, serum ADMA and SDMA (LC-MS/MS, and thiols (homocysteine, cysteine, taurine, glutamylcysteine, total glutathione, and cysteinylglycine; capillary electrophoresis were collected from a sample of the Hunter Community Study on human ageing [n = 498, median age (IQR = 64 (60-70 years]. RESULTS: REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT: a age (P = 0.001, gender (P = 0.03, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = 0.08, body mass index (P = 0.008, treatment with beta-blockers (P = 0.03, homocysteine (P = 0.02, and glutamylcysteine (P = 0.003 were independently associated with higher ADMA concentrations; and b age (P = 0.001, absence of diabetes (P = 0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.01, lower eGFR (P<0.001, cysteine (P = 0.007, and glutamylcysteine (P < 0.001 were independently associated with higher SDMA concentrations. No significant associations were observed between methylated arginines and either glutathione or taurine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders the combined assessment of transsulfuration pathway thiols shows that glutamylcysteine has the strongest and positive independent associations with ADMA and SDMA. Whether this reflects a direct effect of glutamylcysteine on DDAH activity (for ADMA and/or cationic amino acid transport requires further investigations.

  6. The night of the hunter: children & adults in the secret

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    Terry caesar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Night of the Hunter is  the 1956 Charles Laughton’s film considered  one of the best discussions about childhood. In this film, the story revolves around the fate of John and Pearl, two orphaned siblings whose father was hanged for stealing. The father had given the children the money, and they hid the money inside the girl’s doll. When the Preacher Powell enters their lives , both John and Pearl are in danger. The siblings have to keep a secret which is both where they put the money, and the fact that, for children, money is simply paper.

  7. The Effects of Changing Sea Ice on Marine Mammals and Their Hunters in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, H.; Quakenbush, L.; Nelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information and insight relevant to ecological understanding, conservation action, and the regulation of human activity. We interviewed hunters in villages from northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, focusing on bowhead whales, walrus, and ice seals. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice, with resulting effects on the timing of marine mammal migrations, the distribution and behavior of the animals, and the efficacy of certain hunting methods, for example the difficulty of finding ice thick enough to support a bowhead whale for butchering. At the same time, hunters acknowledged impacts and potential impacts from changing technology such as more powerful outboard engines and from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. Hunters have been able to adapt to some changes, for example by hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring on St. Lawrence Island, or by focusing their hunt in a shorter period in Nuiqsut to accommodate work schedules and worse weather. Other changes, such as reduced availability of ice seals due to rapid retreat of pack ice after spring break-up, continue to defy easy responses. Continued environmental changes, increased disturbance from human activity, and the introduction of new regulations for hunting may further challenge the ability of hunters to provide food as they have done to date, though innovation and flexibility may also provide new sources of adaptation.

  8. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-10-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource

  9. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  10. Avian feathers as bioindicators of the exposure to heavy metal contamination of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Marcin; Kaliński, Adam; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Bańbura, Mirosława; Markowski, Janusz; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using feathers of blue tit nestlings to assess the level of endogenous accumulation of lead. For this purpose we conducted an experiment with lead application to randomly chosen nestlings from eight randomly drawn broods. Five days after the exposure, feathers of lead-treated nestlings had significantly higher lead concentrations than control nestlings. This result suggests that feathers can be used as reliable non-destructive bioindicators to assess the level of heavy metals originating from contaminated food, which is of great significance for comparative studies on ecological consequences of pollution.

  11. Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus replication in feathers of infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-03-01

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) cause systemic diseases in chickens with high mortality. However, little is known about persistence of NDVs in contaminated tissues from infected birds. In this study, we examined viral replication in the feather pulp of chickens inoculated with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) genotype VII. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate viral persistence in the samples. vvNDV was detected in the oropharynx and cloaca and viral antigens were detected in the feathers, suggesting that feathers act as sources of viral transmission.

  12. Medicine and music: a note on John Hunter (1728-93) and Joseph Haydn (1732-1809).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-05-01

    Joseph Haydn was a central figure in the development and growth of the European classical musical tradition in its transition from the Baroque period. John Hunter as the Founder of Scientific Surgery was a dominant figure in 18th-century British medical science. Anne Hunter née Home (1742-1821) was in her own right a figure of some eminence in the literary circles of 18th-century London. Attracted to the burgeoning medical and musical scenes of London, John Hunter married Anne Home and became a famous surgeon; Haydn became acquainted with the Hunters. The people, the opportunities and the circumstances had coincided.

  13. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Paola; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid) was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases. PMID:28018694

  14. Applications of resilience theory in management of a moose-hunter system in Alaska

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    Casey L. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wildfire-related effects on a slow ecological variable, i.e., forage production, and fast social-ecological variables, i.e., seasonal harvest rates, hunter access, and forage offtake, in a moose-hunter system in interior Alaska. In a 1994 burn, average forage production increased slightly (5% between 2007 and 2013; however, the proportional removal across all sites declined significantly (10%. This suggests that moose are not utilizing the burn as much as they have in the past and that, as the burn has aged, the apparent habitat quality has declined. Areas with a greater proportion of accessible burned area supported both high numbers of hunters and harvested moose. Our results suggest that evaluating ecological variables in conjunction with social variables can provide managers with information to forecast management scenarios. We recommend that wildlife managers monitor fast variables frequently, e.g., annually, to adapt and keep their management responsive as resources fluctuate; whereas slower variables, which require less frequent monitoring, should be actively incorporated into long-term management strategies. Climate-driven increases in wildfire extent and severity and economically driven demographic changes are likely to increase both moose density and hunting pressure. However, the future resilience of this moose-hunter system will depend on integrated management of wildfire, hunter access, and harvest opportunities.

  15. DBD-Hunter: a knowledge-based method for the prediction of DNA-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2008-07-01

    The structures of DNA-protein complexes have illuminated the diversity of DNA-protein binding mechanisms shown by different protein families. This lack of generality could pose a great challenge for predicting DNA-protein interactions. To address this issue, we have developed a knowledge-based method, DNA-binding Domain Hunter (DBD-Hunter), for identifying DNA-binding proteins and associated binding sites. The method combines structural comparison and the evaluation of a statistical potential, which we derive to describe interactions between DNA base pairs and protein residues. We demonstrate that DBD-Hunter is an accurate method for predicting DNA-binding function of proteins, and that DNA-binding protein residues can be reliably inferred from the corresponding templates if identified. In benchmark tests on approximately 4000 proteins, our method achieved an accuracy of 98% and a precision of 84%, which significantly outperforms three previous methods. We further validate the method on DNA-binding protein structures determined in DNA-free (apo) state. We show that the accuracy of our method is only slightly affected on apo-structures compared to the performance on holo-structures cocrystallized with DNA. Finally, we apply the method to approximately 1700 structural genomics targets and predict that 37 targets with previously unknown function are likely to be DNA-binding proteins. DBD-Hunter is freely available at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/skolnick/webservice/DBD-Hunter/.

  16. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  17. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  18. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munier A. Nour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases.

  19. Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that some kinds of animal have surprisingly brilliant colors showing beautiful iridescence. These colors are called structural colors, and are thought to originate from optical interference caused by periodic microstructures that have sizes comparable with the wavelength of light. However, much larger structural modifications can also play an important role in the coloration mechanism. In this paper, we show through careful optical and structural investigations that the structural color of the neck feather of rock dove, Columba livia, has a very comprehensive mechanism: the thin-layer optical interference phenomenon fundamentally produces the iridescence, while the layer structure is accompanied by various kinds of larger-size structural modifications that control the angular range of the reflection. Further, it is found that the granules containing melanin pigment exist in a localized manner to effectively enhance the contrast of the color caused by optical interference.

  20. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rebecca Hylton; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.; Franzreb, Kathleen E.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope δ 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46 ± 0.02 μg g−1 (range 0.01–3.74 μg g−1). Twelve of 32 species had individuals (7 % of all birds sampled) with mercury concentrations higher than 1 μg g−1. Mercury concentrations were 17 % higher in juveniles compared to adults (n = 454). In adults, invertivores has higher mercury levels compared to omnivores. Mercury was highest at low-elevation sites near water, however mercury was detected in all birds, including those in the high elevations (1,000–2,000 m). Relative trophic position, calculated from δ 15N, ranged from 2.13 to 4.87 across all birds. We fitted linear mixed-effects models to the data separately for juveniles and year-round resident adults. In adults, mercury concentrations were 2.4 times higher in invertivores compared to omnivores. Trophic position was the main effect explaining mercury levels in juveniles, with an estimated 0.18 ± 0.08 μg g−1 increase in feather mercury for each one unit rise in trophic position. Our research demonstrates that mercury is biomagnifying in birds within this terrestrial mountainous system, and further research is warranted for animals foraging at higher trophic levels, particularly those associated with aquatic environments downslope from montane areas receiving high mercury deposition.

  1. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kevin P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards and lake systems (for example, African cichlids. Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.

  2. A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Chiappe, Luis M; Ji, Shu-An; Habib, Michael; Turner, Alan H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Liu, Xueling; Han, Lizhuo

    2014-07-15

    Microraptorines are a group of predatory dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs with aerodynamic capacity. These close relatives of birds are essential for testing hypotheses explaining the origin and early evolution of avian flight. Here we describe a new 'four-winged' microraptorine, Changyuraptor yangi, from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. With tail feathers that are nearly 30 cm long, roughly 30% the length of the skeleton, the new fossil possesses the longest known feathers for any non-avian dinosaur. Furthermore, it is the largest theropod with long, pennaceous feathers attached to the lower hind limbs (that is, 'hindwings'). The lengthy feathered tail of the new fossil provides insight into the flight performance of microraptorines and how they may have maintained aerial competency at larger body sizes. We demonstrate how the low-aspect-ratio tail of the new fossil would have acted as a pitch control structure reducing descent speed and thus playing a key role in landing.

  3. A water-quality assessment of the Feather Creek watershed, Vermillion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Stephen E.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical quality of surface water within the Feather Creek watershed is generally good. However, fecal bacteria concentrations are high enough to represent a potential problem, especially because of the high water-contact recreation proposed for the future reservoir.

  4. Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3: as novel isolate for chicken feathers degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darah, I; Nur-Diyana, A; Nurul-Husna, S; Jain, K; Lim, Sheh-Hong

    2013-12-01

    Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation.

  5. Comment on "A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2014-10-24

    Godefroit et al. (Reports, 25 July 2014, p. 451) reported scales and feathers, including "basal plates," in an ornithischian dinosaur. Their arguments against the filaments being collagen fibers are not supported because of a fundamental misinterpretation of such structures and underestimation of their size. The parsimonious explanation is that the filaments are support fibers in association with badly degraded scales and that they do not represent early feather stages.

  6. Use of infrared thermography to assess laying-hen feather coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Dong, B

    2013-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was compared with the traditional 4-scale feather scoring (FS, with 1 representing the worst feather coverage and 4 the best) method for assessing feather coverage of laying hens. The feather coverage of 6 body parts (head, dorsal neck, front neck and crop, back, breast, and belly), body surface temperature distribution, and relative change in sensible heat loss of 60 laying hens (Lohmann SL white breed) at 28, 56, or 73 wk of age (20 hens per age group) were compared by using IRT. For all the 6 body parts and the area-weighted overall, the area of excellent feather (EF) determined by IRT was positively correlated with the 4-scale scores determined by FS (P hens at all body parts. Feather coverage of the hens was classified as 98.7% EF, 1.3% FF, and 0% NF at 28 wk of age; 70.2% EF, 20.6% FF, and 9.2% NF at 56 wk of age; and 35.4% EF, 17.1% FF, and 49.5% NF at 73 wk of age. As a result of less feather coverage and higher surface temperature, sensible heat loss was speculated to be higher for 56- and 73-wk-old hens than for 28-wk-old hens, potentially leading to higher feed-to-egg conversion for the elder hens. It was concluded that IRT is a promising technique or tool that may provide a more objective and quantitative evaluation of laying-hen feather conditions and delineation of bird thermoregulation.

  7. Feather Vibration as a Stimulus for Sensing Incipient Separation in Falcon Diving Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    flight conditions as regions of locally separated flow. A life-size model in V-shape of a falcoperegrinus with artificial feathers fixed along the body...raction and to allow optical tracking, we used artificial feathers which are adapted in stiffness and shape to the bird’s ones and were marked at...a) pictures from life recording and b) transformation of wing-shape configuration into a physical model. body of a male falcon and modified the

  8. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial property of green composites from cellulose, wool, hair and chicken feather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chieu D; Prosencyes, Franja; Franko, Mladen; Benzi, Gerald

    2016-10-20

    Novel composites between cellulose (CEL) and keratin (KER) from three different sources (wool, hair and chicken feather) were successfully synthesized in a simple one-step process in which butylmethylimidazolium chloride (BMIm(+)Cl(-)), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent. The method is green and recyclable because [BMIm(+)Cl(-)] used was recovered for reuse. Spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD) and imaging (SEM) results confirm that CEL and KER remain chemically intact and homogeneously distributed in the composites. KER retains some of its secondary structure in the composites. Interestingly, the minor differences in the structure of KER in wool, hair and feather produced pronounced differences in the conformation of their corresponding composites with wool has the highest α-helix content and feather has the lowest content. These results correlate well with mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites. Specifically, adding CEL into KER substantially improves mechanical strength of [CEL+KER] composites made from all three different sources, wool, hair and chicken feathers i.e., [CEL+wool], [CEL+hair] and [CEL+feather]. Since mechanical strength is due to CEL, and CEL has only random structure, [CEL+feather] has, expectedly, the strongest mechanical property because feather has the lowest content of α-helix. Conversely, [CEL+wool] composite has the weakest mechanical strength because wool has the highest α-helix content. All three composites exhibit antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial property is due not to CEL but to the protein and strongly depends on the type of the keratin, namely, the bactericidal effect is strongest for feather and weakest for wool. These results together with our previous finding that [CEL+KER] composites can control release of drug such as ciprofloxacin clearly indicate that these composites can potentially be used as wound dressing.

  9. Ancient DNA recovers the origins of Māori feather cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnup, K; Huynen, L; Te Kanawa, R; Shepherd, L D; Millar, C D; Lambert, D M

    2011-10-01

    Feather cloaks ("kakahu"), particularly those adorned with kiwi feathers, are treasured items or "taonga" to the Māori people of "Aotearoa"/New Zealand. They are considered iconic expression of Māori culture. Despite their status, much of our knowledge of the materials used to construct cloaks, the provenance of cloaks, and the origins of cloak making itself, has been lost. We used ancient DNA methods to recover mitochondrial DNA sequences from 849 feather samples taken from 109 cloaks. We show that almost all (>99%) of the cloaks were constructed using feathers from North Island brown kiwi. Molecular sexing of nuclear DNA recovered from 92 feather cloak samples also revealed that the sex ratio of birds deviated from a ratio of 1:1 observed in reference populations. Additionally, we constructed a database of 185 mitochondrial control region DNA sequences of kiwi feathers comprising samples collected from 26 North Island locations together with data available from the literature. Genetic subdivision (G(ST)), nucleotide subdivision (N(ST)) and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variants (SAMOVA) analyses revealed high levels of genetic structuring in North Island brown kiwi. Together with sequence data from previously studied ancient and modern kiwi samples, we were able to determine the geographic provenance of 847 cloak feathers from 108 cloaks. A surprising proportion (15%) of cloaks were found to contain feathers from different geographic locations, providing evidence of kiwi trading among Māori tribes or organized hunting trips into other tribal areas. Our data also suggest that the east of the North Island of New Zealand was the most prolific of all kiwi cloak making areas, with over 50% of all cloaks analyzed originating from this region. Similar molecular approaches have the potential to discover a wealth of lost information from artifacts of endemic cultures worldwide.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  11. Specialized primary feathers produce tonal sounds during flight in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niese, Robert L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-07-15

    For centuries, naturalists have suggested that the tonal elements of pigeon wing sounds may be sonations (non-vocal acoustic signals) of alarm. However, spurious tonal sounds may be produced passively as a result of aeroelastic flutter in the flight feathers of almost all birds. Using mechanistic criteria emerging from recent work on sonations, we sought to: (1) identify characteristics of rock pigeon flight feathers that might be adapted for sound production rather than flight, and (2) provide evidence that this morphology is necessary for in vivo sound production and is sufficient to replicate in vivo sounds. Pigeons produce tonal sounds (700±50 Hz) during the latter two-thirds of each downstroke during take-off. These tones are produced when a small region of long, curved barbs on the inner vane of the outermost primary feather (P10) aeroelastically flutters. Tones were silenced in live birds when we experimentally increased the stiffness of this region to prevent flutter. Isolated P10 feathers were sufficient to reproduce in vivo sounds when spun at the peak angular velocity of downstroke (53.9-60.3 rad s(-1)), but did not produce tones at average downstroke velocity (31.8 rad s(-1)), whereas P9 and P1 feathers never produced tones. P10 feathers had significantly lower coefficients of resultant aerodynamic force (CR) when spun at peak angular velocity than at average angular velocity, revealing that production of tonal sounds incurs an aerodynamic cost. P9 and P1 feathers did not show this difference in CR These mechanistic results suggest that the tonal sounds produced by P10 feathers are not incidental and may function in communication.

  12. Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short-period Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of >=2 R ⊕ planets on short-period (=4 R ⊕ Planet Hunters >=85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler >=4 R ⊕ planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of >=4 R ⊕ short-period planets is nearly complete.

  13. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-01-01

    The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique pla......]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations....... in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence...

  14. Zoonotic disease risk and the bushmeat trade: assessing awareness among hunters and traders in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among both conservationists and public health officials for its influence on zoonotic disease transmission and animal conservation. While the association between infectious diseases and the bushmeat trade is well established in the research community, risk perception among bushmeat hunters and traders has not been well characterized. I conducted surveys of 123 bushmeat hunters and traders in rural Sierra Leone to investigate hunting practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risk associated with the bushmeat trade. Twenty-four percent of bushmeat hunters and traders reported knowledge of disease transmission from animals to humans. Formal education did not significantly affect awareness of zoonotic disease transmission. Individuals who engaged exclusively in preparation and trading of bushmeat were more likely to accidentally cut themselves compared to those who primarily engaged in bushmeat hunting (P zoonotic pathogens through accidental self-cutting compared to men (P zoonotic disease transmission risk among vulnerable communities.

  15. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  16. Ethical acceptability of recreational hunting - does the motive of the hunter matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ,001) and hunters (n=1,130) in Denmark. In this survey just under half of the general public indicated that the hunters’ motives affected their attitude to the acceptability of hunting. A significant difference in wildlife value orientations was found between the two groups. Motives relating to nature, the social...... is to assess the extent to which the perceived motive for recreational hunting plays a role in its public acceptance. We also compare public perceptions of the importance of motive with those of hunters. We conducted a nationally representative survey (web-based questionnaires) of the general public (n=1......’, ‘the sport’, ‘the excitement’, and ‘to kill’ to recreational hunting to a much greater degree than the hunters themselves; and these motives were associated with lower assessments of the acceptability of recreational hunting among the public. The mismatch between presumed and professed motives among...

  17. A Social Desirability Questionnaire for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, LeRoy H., Jr.; Rubin, Barry M.

    1970-01-01

    A Young Children's Social Desirability Scale based on the MMPI was constructed and administered to nursery school children. Results showed that social desirability scores increased with age, showed a low positive relationship to picture vocabularly IQ, and were unrelated to sex in a high socieconomic sample. (KJ)

  18. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  19. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  20. Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D; D'Alba, Liliana; Wozny, Joel; Eliason, Chad; Koop, Jennifer A H; Jia, Li

    2011-04-01

    Dynamic changes in integumentary color occur in cases as diverse as the neurologically controlled iridiphores of cephalopod skin and the humidity-responsive cuticles of longhorn beetles. By contrast, feather colors are generally assumed to be relatively static, changing by small amounts only over periods of months. However, this assumption has rarely been tested even though structural colors of feathers are produced by ordered nanostructures that are analogous to those in the aforementioned dynamic systems. Feathers are neither innervated nor vascularized and therefore any color change must be caused by external stimuli. Thus, we here explore how feathers of iridescent mourning doves Zenaida macroura respond to a simple stimulus: addition and evaporation of water. After three rounds of experimental wetting and subsequent evaporation, iridescent feather color changed hue, became more chromatic and increased in overall reflectance by almost 50%. To understand the mechanistic basis of this change, we used electron microscopy to examine macro- and nanostructures before and after treatment. Transmission electron microscopy and transfer matrix thin-film models revealed that color is produced by thin-film interference from a single (∼ 35 nm layer of keratin around the edge of feather barbules, beneath which lies a layer of air and melanosomes. After treatment, the most striking morphological difference was a twisting of colored barbules that exposed more of their surface area for reflection, explaining the observed increase in brightness. These results suggest that some plumage colors may be more malleable than previously thought, leading to new avenues for research on dynamic plumage color.

  1. Diverse feather shape evolution enabled by coupling anisotropic signalling modules with self-organizing branching programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Figueroa, Seth; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall; Nie, Qing; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of feathered dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds to new ecological niches was potentiated by rapid diversification of feather vane shapes. The molecular mechanism driving this spectacular process remains unclear. Here, through morphology analysis, transcriptome profiling, functional perturbations and mathematical simulations, we find that mesenchyme-derived GDF10 and GREM1 are major controllers for the topologies of rachidial and barb generative zones (setting vane boundaries), respectively, by tuning the periodic-branching programme of epithelial progenitors. Their interactions with the anterior–posterior WNT gradient establish the bilateral-symmetric vane configuration. Additionally, combinatory effects of CYP26B1, CRABP1 and RALDH3 establish dynamic retinoic acid (RA) landscapes in feather mesenchyme, which modulate GREM1 expression and epithelial cell shapes. Incremental changes of RA gradient slopes establish a continuum of asymmetric flight feathers along the wing, while switch-like modulation of RA signalling confers distinct vane shapes between feather tracts. Therefore, the co-option of anisotropic signalling modules introduced new dimensions of feather shape diversification. PMID:28106042

  2. The evolution of avian wing shape and previously unrecognized trends in covert feathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Clarke, Julia A

    2015-10-07

    Avian wing shape has been related to flight performance, migration, foraging behaviour and display. Historically, linear measurements of the feathered aerofoil and skeletal proportions have been used to describe this shape. While the distribution of covert feathers, layered over the anterior wing, has long been assumed to contribute to aerofoil properties, to our knowledge no previous studies of trends in avian wing shape assessed their variation. Here, these trends are explored using a geometric-morphometric approach with landmarks describing the wing outline as well as the extent of dorsal and ventral covert feathers for 105 avian species. We find that most of the observed variation is explained by phylogeny and ecology but shows only a weak relationship with previously described flight style categories, wing loading and an investigated set of aerodynamic variables. Most of the recovered variation is in greater primary covert feather extent, followed by secondary feather length and the shape of the wing tip. Although often considered a plastic character strongly linked to flight style, the estimated ancestral wing morphology is found to be generally conservative among basal parts of most major avian lineages. The radiation of birds is characterized by successive diversification into largely distinct areas of morphospace. However, aquatic taxa show convergence in feathering despite differences in flight style, and songbirds move into a region of morphospace also occupied by basal taxa but at markedly different body sizes. These results have implications for the proposed inference of flight style in extinct taxa.

  3. Environmental-induced acquisition of nuptial plumage expression: a role of denaturation of feather carotenoproteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Frías, Oscar; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2005-01-01

    Several avian species show a bright carotenoid-based coloration during spring and following a period of duller coloration during the previous winter, despite carotenoids presumably being fully deposited in feathers during the autumn moult. Carotenoid-based breast feathers of male linnets (Carduelis cannabina) increased in hue (redness), saturation and brightness after exposing them to outdoor conditions from winter to spring. This represents the first experimental evidence showing that carotenoid-based plumage coloration may increase towards a colourful expression due to biotic or abiotic environmental factors acting directly on full-grown feathers when carotenoids may be fully functional. Sunlight ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was hypothesized to denature keratin and other proteins that might protect pigments from degradation by this and other environmental factors, suggesting that sunlight UV irradiation is a major factor in the colour increase from winter to spring. Feather proteins and other binding molecules, if existing in the follicles, may be linked to carotenoids since their deposition into feathers to protect colourful features of associated carotenoids during the non-breeding season when its main signalling function may be relaxed. Progress towards uncovering the significance of concealment and subsequent display of colour expression should consider the potential binding and protecting nature of feather proteins associated with carotenoids. PMID:16191594

  4. Implementation of Combined Feather and Surface-Normal Ice Growth Models in LEWICE/X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, M. T.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental observations have shown that discrete rime ice growths called feathers, which grow in approximately the direction of water droplet impingement, play an important role in the growth of ice on accreting surfaces for some thermodynamic conditions. An improved physical model of ice accretion has been implemented in the LEWICE 2D panel-based ice accretion code maintained by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LEWICE/X model of ice accretion explicitly simulates regions of feather growth within the framework of the LEWICE model. Water droplets impinging on an accreting surface are withheld from the normal LEWICE mass/energy balance and handled in a separate routine; ice growth resulting from these droplets is performed with enhanced convective heat transfer approximately along droplet impingement directions. An independent underlying ice shape is grown along surface normals using the unmodified LEWICE method. The resulting dual-surface ice shape models roughness-induced feather growth observed in icing wind tunnel tests. Experiments indicate that the exact direction of feather growth is dependent on external conditions. Data is presented to support a linear variation of growth direction with temperature and cloud water content. Test runs of LEWICE/X indicate that the sizes of surface regions containing feathers are influenced by initial roughness element height. This suggests that a previous argument that feather region size is determined by boundary layer transition may be incorrect. Simulation results for two typical test cases give improved shape agreement over unmodified LEWICE.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 2 can replace ectodermal signaling for feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H; Wang, Y; Goetinck, P F

    1996-09-17

    The initiation and morphogenesis of cutaneous appendages depend on a series of reciprocal signaling events between the epithelium and mesenchyme of the embryonic skin. In the development of feather germs, early dermal signals induce the formation of epidermal placodes that in turn signal the mesoderm to form dermal condensations immediately beneath them. We find a spatially and temporally restricted pattern of transcription for the genes that encode fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and FGF receptor (FGFR) 1 in developing feather germs of the chicken embryo. FGF-2 expression is restricted to the epidermal placodes, whereas FGFR-1 expression is limited to the dermal condensations. Transcription of these genes could not be detected in skins of scaleless (sc/sc) embryos that fail to develop feathers as a result of an ectodermal defect. Treatment of sc/sc skins with FGF-2 results in the formation of feathers at the site of application of the growth factor and the induced feathers express FGFR-1 in their dermal condensations. Thus, we have established FGF-2 as an epidermal signal in early feather germ formation. The observation that FGF-2 can rescue the mutant phenotype of sc/sc embryos suggests that FGF-2 either is, or is downstream from, the signal that the sc/sc mutant ectoderm fails to generate.

  6. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  7. Radioiodination and biodistribution of quantum dots using Bolton-Hunter reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Park, Jae [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sup Lee, Tae, E-mail: nobelcow@kirams.re.k [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun Kang, Joo [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rita [Nano/Bio Chemistry Group, Institut Pasteur Korea (IP-Korea), Seongnam 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong Cheon, Gi, E-mail: larry@kirams.re.k [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the radioiodination and biodistribution of quantum dots (QDs) using Bolton-Hunter reagent were investigated. Radioiodination yield was 33.4{+-}2.0%. Fluorescent intensity of radioiodinated QDs decreased to 75.4% of the maximum prior to radioiodination. In biodistribution and ex vivo fluorescence imaging, radioiodinated QDs were highly accumulated in reticuloendothelial system (liver and spleen) and had low level bone uptakes and slow clearance from body. These results suggest that the radioiodination method of nanoparticles using Bolton-Hunter reagent could be easily used in the biodistribution and quantification of nanoparticles in vivo.

  8. 利用Hunter-Lab色差仪测量彩涂板的色差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红军; 陈剑; 王文杰; 曹彦婷

    2006-01-01

    介绍了利用Hunter-Lab色差仪对彩涂板进行色差测量的方法和原理,并对该方法的准确度和精密度进行了分析.结果表明,利用Hunter-Lab色差仪可快速准确的测量彩涂板色差,对彩涂板的生产具有极强的指导意义.

  9. Generic regularity and Lipschitz metric for the Hunter-Saxton type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Chen, Geng; Shen, Yannan; Tan, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The Hunter-Saxton equation determines a flow of conservative solutions taking values in the space H1 (R+). However, the solution typically includes finite time gradient blowups, which make the solution flow not continuous w.r.t. the natural H1 distance. The aim of this paper is to first study the generic properties of conservative solutions of some initial boundary value problems to the Hunter-Saxton type equations. Then using these properties, we give a new way to construct a Finsler type metric which renders the flow uniformly Lipschitz continuous on bounded subsets of H1 (R+).

  10. Molecular characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum isolated from an outbreak in treasure hunters Histoplasma capsulatum in treasure hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Bertha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, primary pulmonary histoplasmosis is the most relevant clinical form of the disease. The geographical distribution of specific strains of Histoplasma capsulatum circulating in Mexico has not been fully established. Outbreaks must be reported in order to have current, updated information on this disease, identifying new endemic areas, manner of exposure to the fungi, and molecular characterization of the causative agents. We report a recent outbreak of histoplasmosis in treasure hunters and the molecular characterization of two isolates obtained from these patients. Methods Six patients admitted to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER in Mexico City presented severe respiratory symptoms suggestive of histoplasmosis. They acquired the infection in the Veracruz (VZ endemic zone. Diagnosis was made by X-ray and Computed tomography (CT, liver function, immunological techniques, and culture. Identification of H. capsulatum isolates was confirmed by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted with a probe from the M antigen, and the isolates were characterized by means of Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR employed the 1253 oligonucleotide and a mixture of oligonucleotides 1281 and 1283. These were compared to eight reference strain isolates from neighboring areas. Results X-ray and CT revealed disseminated micronodular images throughout lung parenchyma, as well as bilateral retrocaval, prevascular, subcarinal, and hilar adenopathies, hepatosplenomegaly, and altered liver function tests. Five of the six patients developed disseminated histoplasmosis. Two H. capsulatum strains were isolated. The same band profile was detected in both strains, indicating that both isolates corresponded to the sole H. capsulatum strain. Molecular characterization of the isolates was similar in 100% with the EH-53 Hidalgo human (HG strain (reference strain integrated into the LAm A clade described for

  11. Hunter-Schmidt Meta-Analysis Paradigm: Its Properties and Applications%Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式:特征和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王拥军; 俞国良

    2010-01-01

    Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式是一种以随机效应模型为基础的比较完备的元分析技术,可以校正效应值的抽样误差、测量误差和全距误差.Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式是应用心理学领域30年来最重要的进展之一,它拓展了心理学的研究方法,开创了校正各种测验误差的方法论研究,激励了心理学家对预测因子的效度概化研究,确认了预测因子和效标之间的水平关系特征和结构关系特征.

  12. Sunday Schools and English Teaching: Re-Reading Ian Hunter and the Emergence of "English" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    This article represents an "overdue encounter" with the ideas of Ian Hunter to reconsider the historical emergence and descent of English teaching in the United States. Influenced by Hunter's account of the "pastoral" and "bureaucratic" genealogy of English teaching in England, my historical study documented…

  13. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 11: The extent that waterfowl hunting space met the needs of waterfowl hunters in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the adequacy of waterfowl hunting space, it is necessary to compare the number of hunters that space available can support with the number of hunters...

  14. The effects of environmental enrichment devices on feather picking in commercially housed Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S; Fraley, G S

    2014-09-01

    Like other poultry species, Pekin ducks occasionally show an auto-mutilation behavior referred to as feather picking. Self-picking can lead to further pecking by conspecifics and ultimately to reduced feather quality and poor overall health of the bird. Although the reasons underlying feather picking are not clear, it appears to occur when the ducks are transitioning between downy feathers and adult plumage, between 17 and 22 d of age. We hypothesized that giving Pekin ducks a substitute outlet for this behavior in the form of environmental enrichment devices (EED) would decrease feather picking and improve feather quality and duck health and welfare. The EED were plastic Wiffle-style balls, each threaded with 4 zip-ties. In the first experiment, we set out to determine that placement of EED would not induce fear or harmful behaviors. Five barns were each divided into 2 pens, holding an average combined total of approximately 4,500 ducks with one pen per barn used as control. Upon placement of the EED in one pen per barn, both pens were videotaped for a total of 2 h per day. The physical characteristics of 100 ducks per pen were scored at age 7, 21, 28, and 35. Results showed a decrease (P = 0.034) in both self-picking and conspecific-pecking in pens with EED compared with pens without EED. Although no differences in body condition scores were observed at 7 d of age, by d 21 ducks with EED showed better (P = 0.021) feather quality and cleanliness scores compared with ducks without EED. In a second experiment, we set out to determine if ducks had a color preference for blue/green, red, or white EED. Again, ducks with EED showed reduced (P = 0.038) feather picking compared with ducks without EED. Ducks interacted considerably more (P = 0.00089) frequently with blue/green EED then either red or white EED. These results suggest that providing environmental enrichment may minimize feather picking and improve feather quality and duck welfare.

  15. Feather meal: a previously unrecognized route for reentry into the food supply of multiple pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, D C; Halden, R U; Davis, M F; Nachman, K E

    2012-04-03

    Antimicrobials used in poultry production have the potential to bioaccumulate in poultry feathers but available data are scarce. Following poultry slaughter, feathers are converted by rendering into feather meal and sold as fertilizer and animal feed, thereby providing a potential pathway for reentry of drugs into the human food supply. We analyzed feather meal (n = 12 samples) for 59 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) using EPA method 1694 employing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All samples tested positive and six classes of antimicrobials were detected, with a range of two to ten antimicrobials per sample. Caffeine and acetaminophen were detected in 10 of 12 samples. A number of PPCPs were determined to be heat labile during laboratory simulation of the rendering process. Growth of wild-type E. coli in MacConkey agar was inhibited by sterilized feather meal (p = 0.01) and by the antimicrobial enrofloxacin (p < 0.0001) at levels found in feather meal. Growth of a drug-resistant E. coli strain was not inhibited by sterilized feather meal or enrofloxacin. This is the first study to detect antimicrobial residues in feather meal. Initial results suggest that more studies are needed to better understand potential risks posed to consumers by drug residues in feather meal.

  16. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  17. Rethinking Trait Conceptions of Social Desirability Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Reinout E.; Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous researchers have noted that, instead of response sets or styles, most social desirability scales seem to measure personality traits instead. In two studies, we investigated the substantive interpretation of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding in terms of the HEXACO model of pe...... and Agreeableness, but Honesty-Humility was by far its most important predictor. In a subsample (n = 465), Honesty-Humility and IM were unrelated to GPA....

  18. Is the Separating Equilibrium Really Desirable ?

    OpenAIRE

    大倉, 真人

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to investigate whether “risk sub-divided insurance” is really desirable or not. Compare to other insurance products, it submits lower insurance premium for low-risk individuals but higher insurance premium for high-risk individuals. Moreover, an adverse selection problem appears because the insurance companies cannot observe each risk type. But the other insurance which does not discriminate the insurance premium is not necessarily desirable because it appears cross s...

  19. Thermo-orientation and the movement of feather-feeding lice on hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Christopher W; Boughton, Rachel M

    2014-08-01

    Temperature variation on the host is known to influence ectoparasite distributions. Ectoparasites may also use temperature gradients between host regions when moving on the host; however, tests are rare. Feather-feeding wing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) spend the majority of their time on the flight feathers of their avian hosts where they insert their bodies between feather barbs to escape host preening. However, because wing lice feed on downy abdominal feathers, they must repeatedly migrate between the flight feathers and body regions of their hosts. We performed a series of experiments that tested thermo-orientation in wing lice and evaluated its potential use during louse migrations between host regions. We found that wing lice can rapidly and accurately locate nearby heat targets that approximate host temperatures (37 C), demonstrating a capacity for directed thermo-orientation. We next tested the preference of wing lice for temperatures found along migration routes between bird flight feathers and their body regions. Wing lice could distinguish between temperatures found within distinct bird regions, and lice that had recently fed preferred the cooler temperatures (32 C), similar to those within bird flight feathers where they typically reside. However, when starved for 18-20 hr, wing lice shifted their preferences toward temperatures typical of bird body regions where they feed (36 C), demonstrating an ability to use thermal cues when moving between bird regions. We discuss the use of thermal cues during louse migration and microhabitat selection, as well as other potential impacts of thermo-orientation on host-parasite interactions.

  20. Trace metals in primary feathers of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttatus) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneman, W D; Douben, P E

    1993-01-01

    The number of Barn Owls in The Netherlands has been reduced substantially over the last few decades. Death as a result of poisoning seems unlikely, but the pathology of all bird species found dead in The Netherlands between 1975 and 1988 (n = 15 422) shows that 21% of all the birds were contaminated. However, the most important factor responsible for the decline in Barn Owl numbers in The Netherlands has not yet been established. As a part of a new national protection plan for the Barn Owl, the role of heavy metals has been investigated. Concentrations of heavy metals in the primary feathers of the Barn Owl varied according to their position in the wing; especially As, Sb, Fe and Zn whose concentrations depended on the place of the primary feather in the wing and the part of the vane which is used for the monitoring. The HS7 feather vane appears to provide a good estimate, even though the metal concentrations of this feather are always slightly lower than the concentrations in mixed samples of all ten primaries. It is recommended that they are used as a standard. Many factors affect metal concentrations. Increasing levels with age are found, presumably because metals are stored during growth at the end of the feathers as a method of reducing possible harmful effects. No significant correlations were found between the metal concentrations in the organs and those in the feather. Kidney and liver concentrations are always lower than the generally accepted levels for pathological damage of these organs. Even though metal concentrations in Barn Owl feathers are high compared with those reported for other birds in the Netherlands, it is concluded that Barn Owls are not adversely affected by current levels of heavy metal contamination in The Netherlands.

  1. Response of sheep fed on concentrate containing feather meal and supplemented with mineral Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiani D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of protein concentrate with feather meal supplemented with organic chromium mineral on performance of lambs. Twenty five male lambs were fed basal feed of fresh chopped king grass ad libitum and were allotted to either one of five different supplements (five dietary treatments: Control (C; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal (FM; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr yeast at 1.5 mg (FMCrOrg; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr inorganic which equal to the amount of Cr bound in yeast (FMCr; Concentrate control supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr yeast (CCrOrg. Cr-organic was synthesized by incorporating CrCl3 in fermented rice flour by Rhizopus sp. The mineral is mixed with feather meal as a mineral carrier. Sheep in all treatments received iso protein concentrate. Parameters observed were body weight change, feed consumption and nutrient digestibility. Results shows that there was no significant effect of diet treatments on average daily gain (ADG, dry matter consumption and feed conversion, with the average value of 75.4 gr/day; 74.9 g/BW0.75 and 9.9 respectively, However diet treatment of organic chromium and protein substitution with feather meal (FMCrOrg showed tendency of having higher ADG (83.57 g/h/d. Average nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and NDF were 68.7; 69.6 and 60.9%, respectively. However NDF digestibility of FMCrOrg tended to be higher than other treatment (67.0%. It is concluded that partial substitution of protein concentrate by feather meal and 1.5 mg Cr-organic supplementation did not affect sheep performance.

  2. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stefan

    Full Text Available According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil, we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a

  3. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  4. Non-viral transfer approaches for the gene therapy of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanin, R; Friso, A; Alba, S; Piller Puicher, E; Mennuni, C; La Monica, N; Hortelano, G; Zacchello, F; Scarpa, M

    2002-01-01

    Hunter syndrome is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the housekeeping enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS). Deficiency of IDS causes accumulation of undegraded dermatan and heparan-sulphate in various tissues and organs. Approaches have been proposed for the symptomatic therapy of the disease, including bone marrow transplantation and, very recently, enzyme replacement. To date, gene therapy strategies have considered mainly retroviral and adenoviral transduction of the correct cDNA. In this paper, two non-viral somatic gene therapy approaches are proposed: encapsulated heterologous cells and muscle electro-gene transfer (EGT). Hunter primary fibroblasts were co-cultured with either cell clones over-expressing the lacking enzyme or with the same incorporated in alginate microcapsules. For EGT, plasmid vector was injected into mouse quadriceps muscle, which was then immediately electro-stimulated. Co-culturing Hunter primary fibroblasts with cells over-expressing IDS resulted in a three- to fourfold increase in fibroblast enzyme activity with respect to control cells. Fibroblast IDS activity was also increased after co-culture with encapsulated cells. EGT was able to transduce genes in mouse muscle, resulting in at least a tenfold increase in IDS activity 1-5 weeks after treatment. Although preliminary, results from encapsulated heterologous cell clones and muscle EGT encourage further evaluations for possible application to gene therapy for Hunter syndrome.

  5. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwamb, Megan E. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Parrish, Michael [Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: megan.schwamb@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of {>=}2 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets on short-period (<15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} Planet Hunters {>=}85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} short-period planets is nearly complete.

  6. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  7. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  8. Indice de Indices en la Biblioteca de Hunter College para el Estudiante Hispano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero Bielsa, Alberto; And Others

    Designed for Spanish-speaking students of Hunter College of the City University of New York, this guide explains the use of 70 English-language indexes found in the college library. The explanations are given in Spanish in order to simplify the process of library research for students who are not completely comfortable with English. Each index is…

  9. The seed hunter in het spoor van Vavilov (interview met C. Kik)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanderink, R.; Kik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Er moet voor een veredelaar een grote variatie aan plantmateriaal aanwezig zijn om uit te kunnen putten zodat onze gewassen, die vaak bestaan uit monoculturen, voor de toekomst veiliggesteld worden. Het vinden van die variatie is het werk van seed hunters of zadenverzamelaars. Eén van die seed

  10. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, Vicky; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gath

  11. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  12. Recent origin and cultural reversion of a hunter-gatherer group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oota

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary hunter-gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter-gatherer groups such as the Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term isolation and small population sizes. We report here genetic evidence concerning the origins of the Mlabri, an enigmatic hunter-gatherer group from northern Thailand. The Mlabri have no mtDNA diversity, and the genetic diversity at Y-chromosome and autosomal loci are also extraordinarily reduced in the Mlabri. Genetic, linguistic, and cultural data all suggest that the Mlabri were recently founded, 500-800 y ago, from a very small number of individuals. Moreover, the Mlabri appear to have originated from an agricultural group and then adopted a hunting-gathering subsistence mode. This example of cultural reversion from agriculture to a hunting-gathering lifestyle indicates that contemporary hunter-gatherer groups do not necessarily reflect a pre-agricultural lifestyle.

  13. Period Determination of Binary Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May-September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Oey, Julian; Pravec, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for seven confirmed or possible binary asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) and Leura Observatory from 2009 May through 2010 September: 1453 Fennia, 2501 Lohja, 3076 Garbor, 4029 Bridges, 5325 Silver, 6244 Okamoto, and (6265) 1985 TW3.

  14. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  15. Using the Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model to Improve Outcomes Assessments in Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Michelle D.; Martin, Gregory S.; Burns, Alvin C.; Bush, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces marketing educators to the Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model (HDIM) as an approach to significantly and substantially improve student learning through course-embedded assessment. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated in three different marketing courses taught by three different marketing professors. The…

  16. Adaptation of Hunter Cynism Scale to Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Zafer; Bakioglu, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to carry out the adaptation of Hunter Cynicism Scale to Turkish. For this purpose, this study consists of two stages. 311 university students participated in for the first stage and 313 university students participated in for the second stage of this study. In the first stage, translation, exploratory factor analysis,…

  17. 76 FR 9345 - Brian Hunter; Third Supplemental Notice of Designation of Commission Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hunter; Third Supplemental Notice of Designation of Commission Staff On February 1, 2008, the Commission issued an order that, inter alia, designated the staff of...

  18. History and Development of the Schmidt-Hunter Meta-Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I provide answers to the questions posed by Will Shadish about the history and development of the Schmidt-Hunter methods of meta-analysis. In the 1970s, I headed a research program on personnel selection at the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM). After our research showed that validity studies have low statistical power, OPM…

  19. Geometric Integrability of Two-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Juu-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the two-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number o, conservation laws are directly constructed. In addition, a class of nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  20. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugal, Cherie; van Beest, Floris; Vander Wal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying hi...

  1. Branch, Spur, and Feather Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, S; Shu, F H

    2003-01-01

    We use hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the response of geometrically thin, self-gravitating, singular isothermal disks of gas to imposed rigidly rotating spiral potentials. By minimizing reflection-induced feedback from boundaries, and by restricting our attention to models where the swing parameter $X sim 10$, we minimize the swing amplification of global normal modes even in models where Toomre's $Q_g sim 1-2$ in the gas disk. We perform two classes of simulations: short-term ones over a few galactic revolutions where the background spiral forcing is large, and long-term ones over many galactic revolutions where the spiral forcing is considerably smaller. In both classes of simulations, the initial response of the gas disk is smooth and mimics the driving spiral field. At late times, many of the models evince substructure akin to the so-called branches, spurs, and feathers observed in real spiral galaxies. We comment on the parts played respectively by ultraharmonic resonances, reflection off inte...

  2. Efficient Degradation of Feather by Keratinase Producing Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeevana Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinase producing microorganisms are being increasingly utilized for degradation and recycling of poultry feather waste. Two native strains BF11 (Bacillus subtilis and BF21 (Bacillus cereus degrading keratin completely were characterized. The native strains produced more than 10 KU/mL of enzyme. Strain improvement resulted in isolation of MBF11 and MBF21 from BF11 and BF21 isolates, respectively. Optimization of nutritional and physical parameters of these MBF isolates at laboratory scale increased the overall keratinase activity by 50-fold resulting in a yield of 518–520 KU/mL. Fermentation media designed with starch as carbon source and soya bean meal as nitrogen source supported high levels of enzyme production. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined to be pH 8.5 and temperatures of 45–55°C for MBF11 and 37°C for MBF21, respectively. Culture filtrate showed a significant increase in the amounts of cysteine, cystine, methionine, and total free amino acids during the fermentation period. The ratio of organic sulphur concentration was also considerably higher than that of the inorganic sulphate in the culture filtrate suggesting the hydrolysis of disulphide by the isolates.

  3. Serological surveillance of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases among hunters in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp., Francisella tularensis, Echinococcus spp., or hantaviruses. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of zoonotic agents, viz. A. phagocytophilum, hantaviruses, and Echinococcus spp., with special regard to B. burgdorferi s.l., among hunters in Lubelskie Voivodeship (eastern Poland. Methods: Serum samples collected from 134 hunters from Lubelskie Voivodeship were analyzed with the use of immunological techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, line immunoblot test, and indirect fluorescence assay for the presence of antibodies against the agents. Results: Specific antibodies were detected in 66% of the tested individuals. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. (39%, A. phagocytophilum (30%, hantaviruses (9%, and Echinococcus spp. (8% were detected individually or as mixed results. Interpretation & conclusion: The results confirm that there is a risk of exposure to different pathogens in the forested areas in eastern Poland and that hunters are highly vulnerable to infection with the examined zoonotic agents. A significant proportion of co-occurring antibodies against different pathogens was noticed. Thus, hunters have to take special care of their health status evaluation and mitigate the exposure risk by using adequate prophylaxis measures.

  4. Response of moose hunters to predation following wolf return in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Wikenros

    Full Text Available Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces, the main prey of wolves.We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25, and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43. There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827 during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2 compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2 wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas and to hunters (actual harvest. In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females.We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator-humans-that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves' main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds' habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica Wing and Tail Feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Pap

    Full Text Available Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1 and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6 and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5 tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the

  6. Molecular shifts in limb identity underlie development of feathered feet in two domestic avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domyan, Eric T; Kronenberg, Zev; Infante, Carlos R; Vickrey, Anna I; Stringham, Sydney A; Bruders, Rebecca; Guernsey, Michael W; Park, Sungdae; Payne, Jason; Beckstead, Robert B; Kardon, Gabrielle; Menke, Douglas B; Yandell, Mark; Shapiro, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Birds display remarkable diversity in the distribution and morphology of scales and feathers on their feet, yet the genetic and developmental mechanisms governing this diversity remain unknown. Domestic pigeons have striking variation in foot feathering within a single species, providing a tractable model to investigate the molecular basis of skin appendage differences. We found that feathered feet in pigeons result from a partial transformation from hindlimb to forelimb identity mediated by cis-regulatory changes in the genes encoding the hindlimb-specific transcription factor Pitx1 and forelimb-specific transcription factor Tbx5. We also found that ectopic expression of Tbx5 is associated with foot feathers in chickens, suggesting similar molecular pathways underlie phenotypic convergence between these two species. These results show how changes in expression of regional patterning genes can generate localized changes in organ fate and morphology, and provide viable molecular mechanisms for diversity in hindlimb scale and feather distribution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12115.001 PMID:26977633

  7. Determination of Adsorption of Diesel onto a Poultry Waste: Chicken Feather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Kelle, H. I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feather is a poultry waste. With the recent development of waste management strategy viz; waste recycle, re-use and waste reduction e.t.c., chicken feather has been put to various uses such as in the production of animal feed, organic fertilizer, biodegradable plastic and others. It has been mentioned in some text/resource that chicken feather can be used to mop oil spill. However, there is scarce literature on the mopping account of hydrocarbon oil by chicken feather. This led to the study. In this study the equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe of diesel onto chicken feather, the amount of adsorbed diesel recovered from chicken feather and the amount of diesel retained by chicken feather was determined by simple kinetic studies and compared with that of a conventional synthetic sorbent used in mopping oil spill in the oil industry. This conventional synthetic sorbent served as standard. Both sorbents were compared under the same experimental condition and the experiment was carried out at room temperature 290 C. Linearized adsorption isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to verify the adsorption process of both sorbents. The result of the study shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe of diesel onto chicken feather is 11.04g/g, the time required to attain equilibrium adsorption is 80 minutes, while that of the standard is 10.20g/g at 60 minutes. This shows that chicken feather has a higher adsorption capacity. The best fitting isotherm for the adsorption process of both sorbents is the linearized form Ce/qe versus Ce of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with coefficient of determination (r2 of 0.999 for both sorbents (chicken feather and standard. The validity of Langmuir model was check by calculating the average percentage error (APE %. The APE values obtained for chicken feather and standard are 0.0024 and 0.005 respectively. The low APE values show that Langmuir model is valid

  8. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  9. Assessing heavy metal pollution using Great Tits (Parus major): feathers and excrements from nestlings and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; Eeva, T; Eira, C; Vaqueiro, J; Vingada, J V

    2013-06-01

    Passerine species have been increasingly used as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation especially by taking benefit of non-invasive procedures, such as collecting feathers and excrements. In 2009, metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) concentrations were determined in feathers and excrements of nestling and adult female great tits (Parus major) in industrial (a paper mill) and rural sites in maritime pine forests on the west coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of metals between the areas but also between sampling methods (feather vs. excrement) and age classes (nestling vs. adult). Although excrements and feathers of nestling great tits showed different concentrations, similar patterns of accumulation were detected in both study areas. There was a significantly higher concentration of mercury in the industrial area and significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in the rural area in both sample types. Metal levels in adult females had quite different results when compared to nestlings, and only nickel presented significantly higher levels near the paper mill. Since metal levels showed a consistent pattern in feathers and excrements of nestling great tits, we conclude that both represent good and non-invasive methods for the evaluation of these elements in polluted areas.

  10. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density.

  11. k{sub 0}-INAA for determining chemical elements in bird feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@usp.b [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Antunes, Alexsander Z. [IF, Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo, Rua do Horto 931, Horto Florestal 02377-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-11

    The k{sub 0}-method instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) was employed for determining chemical elements in bird feathers. A collection was obtained taking into account several bird species from wet ecosystems in diverse regions of Brazil. For comparison reason, feathers were actively sampled in a riparian forest from the Marins Stream, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, using mist nets specific for capturing birds. Biological certified reference materials were used for assessing the quality of analytical procedure. Quantification of chemical elements was performed using the k{sub 0}-INAA Quantu Software. Sixteen chemical elements, including macro and micronutrients, and trace elements, have been quantified in feathers, in which analytical uncertainties varied from 2% to 40% depending on the chemical element mass fraction. Results indicated high mass fractions of Br (max=7.9 mg kg{sup -1}), Co (max=0.47 mg kg{sup -1}), Cr (max=68 mg kg{sup -1}), Hg (max=2.79 mg kg{sup -1}), Sb (max=0.20 mg kg{sup -1}), Se (max=1.3 mg kg{sup -1}) and Zn (max=192 mg kg{sup -1}) in bird feathers, probably associated with the degree of pollution of the areas evaluated. In order to corroborate the use of k{sub 0}-INAA results in biomonitoring studies using avian community, different factor analysis methods were used to check chemical element source apportionment and locality clustering based on feather chemical composition.

  12. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  13. Arc Discharge Synthesis and Photoluminescence of 3D Feather-like AlN Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou ZY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A complex three-dimensional (3D feather-like AlN nanostructure was synthesized by a direct reaction of high-purity Al granules with nitrogen using an arc discharge method. By adjusting the discharge time, a coral-like nanostructure, which evolved from the feather-like nanostructure, has also been observed. The novel 3D feather-like AlN nanostructure has a hierarchical dendritic structure, which means that the angle between the trunk stem and its branch is always about 30° in any part of the structure. The fine branches on the surface of the feather-like nanostructure have shown a uniform fish scale shape, which are about 100 nm long, 10 nm thick and several tens of nanometers in width. An alternate growth model has been proposed to explain the novel nanostructure. The spectrum of the feather-like products shows a strong blue emission band centered at 438 nm (2.84 eV, which indicates their potential application as blue light-emitting diodes.

  14. Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Sampo V

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage  = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self-report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex-of-rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex-of-target effects (p desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self-reports, and the construction of desirability-reduced personality inventories. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Study on Bible Archetypes in Desire under the Elms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li

    2014-01-01

    Desire under the Elms reveals a tragedy of spiritual and survival desire of human being. O’Neill creates many Bible ar-chetypes in Desire under the Elms. The thesis analyzes and appreciates Desire under the Elms from aspect of Bible archetype to highlight the destructive power of improper desires in Desire under the Elms.

  16. Power, desire, and pleasure in sexual fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Yost, Megan R

    2004-08-01

    One hundred and sixty-two participants (ages 21-45) wrote open-ended sexual fantasies and completed self-report measures of rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs, and attitudes toward women. We coded fantasies using a newly developed scoring system that includes themes of dominance, submission, sexual pleasure, and sexual desire. Men fantasized about dominance more than women did; they also tended to focus more on the desire and pleasure of their partner. Desire and pleasure were more closely linked in the fantasies of men than in the fantasies of women, for whom the two were distinct constructs. Although fantasies of submission were not associated with problematic attitudes for either gender, men's fantasies of dominance were associated with greater acceptance of rape myths. For women, greater rape myth acceptance was associated with emotional and romantic fantasy themes.

  17. The Self-Justifying Desire for Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2004-01-01

    In Happiness, Tabensky equates the notion of happiness to Aristotelian eudaimonia. I shall claim that doing so amounts to equating two concepts that moderns cannot conceptually equate, namely, the good for a person and the good person or good life. In §2 I examine the way in which Tabensky deals...... with this issue and claim that his idea of happiness is as problematic for us moderns as is any translation of the notion of eudaimonia in terms of happiness. Naturally, if happiness understood as eudaimonia is ambiguous, so will be the notion of a desire for happiness, which we find at the core of Tabensky......'s whole project. In §3 I shall be concerned with another aspect of the desire for happiness; namely, its alleged self-justifying nature. I will attempt to undermine the idea that this desire is self-justifying by undermining the criterion on which Tabensky takes self-justifiability to rest, i.e. its...

  18. Fertility Desires among Women Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ryan; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Spence, Andrew; Byrne, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices. It was hypothesized that pregnancy desires would be influenced by partners, families, the potential risk of HIV transmission to infants, and physicians’ recommendations. Methods WLHIV of childbearing age were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed an assessment of demographics (N = 49), fertility desires and a conjoint survey of factors associated with reproductive decision-making. Results Using conjoint analysis, we found that different decision paths exist for different types of women: Younger women and those with less education desired children if their partners wanted children; reproductive desires among those with less education, and with less HIV pregnancy-related knowledge, displayed a trend toward additional emphasis on their family’s desires. Conversely, older women and those with more education appeared to place more importance on physician endorsement in their plans for childbearing. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing preconception counselling for all women of reproductive age during routine HIV care. Counselling should be tailored to patient characteristics, and physicians should consider inclusion of families and/or partners in the process. PMID:27610626

  19. Clash of Desires: Detective vs. Femme Fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pituková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theme of desire presented in American hard-boiled detective fiction and its subsequent transformation on the screen in form of films noir of the 1940’s. The works in focus are novels The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett, Farewell, My Lovely by Raymond Chandler and Build My Gallows High by Daniel Mainwaring and their film noir adaptations – The Maltese Falcon (1941, Murder, My Sweet (1944 and Out of the Past (1947. The proposed paper seeks to offer a contrastive analysis of the novels and the films and situate them in their respective social and cultural contexts. The central conflict of this article is presented by the clash between the femme fatale’s and detective’s desires. Hard-boiled novels present femme fatale as a dame with a past, a spider woman, and the detective as a hero with no future, caught in her web of intrigues. The only way out for the detective is to suppress the sexual desire for the woman and hold strong to his professional code. The femme fatale’s desire for more and for better is deadly and dangerous for those who succumb to her lure, but the detective’s desire for truth can be fatal for the dark lady too.  This clash presented in the novels is confronted with the 1940’s Hollywood production. When the detective frees himself from the sexual lure of the fatal woman he has a chance to live and even bring her to justice, but she can still escape or decide herself what to do with her destiny. Both, the dame and the hero are victims of their desires. The 1940’s films noir’s femme fatales have to pay for their crimes, no matter how crafty, seductive or manipulative they are.  Thus these films present the masculine dominance as strong and undefeated.

  20. Reply to: “A response to some unwarranted criticisms of single-grain dating” by J.K. Feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2017-01-01

    In the note “A response to some unwarranted criticisms of single-grain dating” Feathers raises many issues with both the approach and the conclusions of Thomsen et al. (2016). After careful consideration, we find we disagree with Feather's analysis and conclusions, and stand by the original concl...

  1. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking and open-field reponse in laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    The object of this research was to study the relationship between feather pecking and open-field activity in laying hens at two different ages. A population of 550 birds of a laying hen cross was subjected to an open-field test at 5 and 29 weeks of age and to a social feather pecking test at 6 and 3

  2. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  3. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-01-01

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced

  4. Effects of dietary dilution source and dilution level on feather damage, performance, behaviour, and litter condition in pullets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaisrani, S.N.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dilution sources and levels on feather damage, performance, feeding behavior, and litter condition in rearing pullets. It was hypothesized that dietary dilution increases feeding-related behavior and improves feather condition, partic

  5. Metabolism of Chicken Feathers and Concomitant Electricity Generation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Employing Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinolytic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SDS3 has been evaluated for the metabolism of chicken feathers. Results indicated that strain SDS3 showed complete metabolism of 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v chicken feathers in minimal medium. Feathers were metabolized up to 80% at 1% (w/v concentration. Maximum soluble protein (480.8±17.1 μg/mL and keratinase (15.4±0.25 U/mL were observed in the presence of 1% chicken feathers after five days of incubation. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources showed that feather degradation was stimulated by complex carbon/nitrogen sources such as starch, malt extract, tryptone, and beef extract and was inhibited by simple carbon and nitrogen sources. Electricity production by employing chicken feathers as a substrate in microbial fuel cell (MFC was evaluated. It was observed that maximum voltage corresponding to 141 mV was observed after 14 days of incubation. Maximum power density of 1206.78 mW/m2 and maximum current density of 8.6 mA/m2 were observed. The results clearly indicate that chicken feathers can be successfully employed as a cheap substrate for electricity production in MFC. This is the first report showing employment of chicken feathers as substrate in MFC.

  6. Birds of a Feather: Moving Towards a Joint Acquisition Process to Support the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    AU/ACSC/9694/2008-09 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BIRDS OF A FEATHER Moving Towards a Joint Acquisition Process to Support the...number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BIRDS OF A FEATHER: Moving Towards a Joint...INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................1 " Birds of a

  7. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  8. Children's Social Desirability and Dietary Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F; Litaker, Mark S; Baglio, Michelle L; Guinn, Caroline H; Shaffer, Nicole M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated telephone administration of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD) scale and our adaptation for children of the Social Desirability for Food scale (C-SDF). Each of 100 4th-graders completed 2 telephone interviews 28 days apart. CSD scores had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and a 14-item subset was identified that sufficiently measures the same construct. Our C-SDF scale performed less well in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reliability; factor analysis revealed 2 factors, 1 of which was moderately related to the CSD. The 14-item subset of the CSD scale may help researchers understand error in children's dietary reports.

  9. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs.

  10. Using Pb-Al ratios to discriminate between internal and external deposition of Pb in feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiel, Iris E; Taggart, Mark A; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Feathers provide a potentially useful biomonitoring option in studies regarding pollution exposure in avian species. However, they must be used with care because the complex, fine structure is highly prone to accumulating surface contamination. This may therefore give a misleading indication of pollutant intake in the animal. Here, data are presented for 4 large scavenging raptor species collected in Spain, and analyses are undertaken on feather barbs and rachis for both Pb and Al concentrations. Aluminium levels are used as a marker of surface contamination by inorganic particulate material. Despite using a thorough washing technique, feather barbs showed significantly higher levels of Pb than did the rachis for all 4 species studied. We also observed a significant correlation (r=0.782, pfeather growth. As such, data would be more toxicologically relevant.

  11. Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastic pots containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Huda, M S; Smith, M C; Mulbry, W; Schmidt, W F; Reeves, J B

    2011-04-01

    The biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 °C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was very low (13 ± 3%) compared to literature values for other PLA materials. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results suggest that the PLA undergoes chemical structural changes during polymer extrusion and injection molding. These changes may be the basis of the low biodegradability value. Biodegradability of pot types B (containing 5% poultry feather, 80% PLA, 15% starch), and C (containing 50% poultry feather, 25% urea, 25% glycerol), were 53 ± 2% and 39 ± 3%, respectively. More than 85% of the total biodegradation of these bioplastics occurred within 38 days. NIRS results revealed that poultry feather was not degraded during composting.

  12. A continued role for signaling functions in the early evolution of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Persons Iv, W Scott; Currie, Philip J

    2017-03-01

    Persons and Currie (2015) argued against either flight, thermoregulation, or signaling as a functional benefit driving the earliest evolution of feathers; rather, they favored simple feathers having an initial tactile sensory function, which changed to a thermoregulatory function as density increased. Here, we explore the relative merits of early simple feathers that may have originated as tactile sensors progressing instead toward a signaling, rather than (or in addition to) a thermoregulatory function. We suggest that signaling could act in concert with a sensory function more naturally than could thermoregulation. As such, the dismissal of a possible signaling function and the presumption that an initial sensory function led directly to a thermoregulatory function (implicit in the title "bristles before down") are premature. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Microlichus americanus acariasis in saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) with dermatitis and feather loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Ossiboff, Robert J; McAloose, Denise; Knee, Wayne; Wade, Susan E; Paré, Jean A

    2015-05-01

    Over a 5-year period, 13 saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) housed in mixed aviaries at the Bronx Zoo (Bronx, New York) were examined with feather loss and dermatitis, primarily affecting the nape, neck, and dorsum. Feather loss, hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and mixed granulocytic and mononuclear inflammation were identified in biopsies from live birds and tissue sections from postmortem specimens. In 10 of 13 cases, sections of arthropod parasites were seen histologically within feather follicles and along the surface of affected skin. Based on morphological characteristics, mites recovered from samples of formalin-fixed skin in 4 birds were identified as Microlichus americanus, an epidermoptid mite infrequently reported from wild birds and hippoboscid flies. Gross and histological lesions strongly implicate M. americanus as the cause of dermatitis affecting practically all saffron finches in the collection.

  14. Sexual Desire in Sexual Minority and Majority Women and Men: The Multifaceted Sexual Desire Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sara B; Burke, Shannon M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N; van Anders, Sari M

    2017-01-09

    Sexual desire is increasingly understood to be multifaceted and not solely erotically oriented, but measures are still generally unitary and eroticism-focused. Our goals in this article were to explore the multifaceted nature of sexual desire and develop a measure to do so, and to determine how multifaceted sexual desire might be related to gender/sex and sexual orientation/identity. In the development phase, we generated items to form the 65-item Sexual Desire Questionnaire (DESQ). Next, the DESQ was administered to 609 women, 705 men, and 39 non-binary identified participants. Results showed that the DESQ demonstrated high reliability and validity, and that sexual desire was neither unitary nor entirely erotic, but instead was remarkably multifaceted. We also found that multifaceted sexual desire was in part related to social location variables such as gender/sex and sexual orientation/identity. We propose the DESQ as a measure of multifaceted sexual desire that can be used to compare factor themes, total scores, and scores across individual items in diverse groups that take social context into account. Results are discussed in light of how social location variables should be considered when making generalizations about sexual desire, and how conceptualizations of desire as multifaceted may provide important insights.

  15. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  16. Novel photonic crystals: incorporation of nano-CdS into the natural photonic crystals within peacock feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Su, Huilan; Song, Fang; Gu, Jiajun; Di, Zhang; Jiang, Limin

    2009-03-01

    In this investigation, the natural 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) within peacock feathers are applied to incorporate CdS nanocrystallites. Peacock feathers are activated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic/dimethylformamide suspension to increase the reactive sites on the keratin component, on which CdS nanoparticles (nano-CdS) are in situ formed in succession and serve as the "seeds" to direct further incorporation during the following solvothermal procedure. Thus, homogeneous nano-CdS are loaded both on the feathers' surface layer and inside the 2D PhCs. The obtained nano-CdS/peacock feathers hybrids are novel photonic crystals whose photonic stop bands are markedly different from that of the natural PhCs within original peacock feathers, as observed by the reflection spectra.

  17. Direct Growth of Feather-Like ZnO Structures by a Facile Solution Technique for Photo-Detecting Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yurong; Liu, Xingbing; Cai, Fangmin; Liu, Hairui

    2017-08-01

    The feather-like hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) was synthesized via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction without any seed layer or metal catalyst. A possible growth mechanism is proposed to explain the forming process of ZnO feather-like structures. Meanwhile, the photo-electronic performances of the feather-like ZnO have been investigated with the UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and I-tmeasurements. The results indicate that feather-like ZnO hierarchical structures have good anti-reflection and excellent photo-sensitivity. All results suggest that the direct growth processing of novel feather-like ZnO is envisaged to have promising application in the field of photo-detector devices.

  18. Origin of archosaurian integumentary appendages: the bristles of the wild turkey beard express feather-type beta keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Roger H; Washington, Lynette D; Salvatore, Brian A; Glenn, Travis C; Knapp, Loren W

    2003-06-15

    The discovery that structurally unique "filamentous integumentary appendages" are associated with several different non-avian dinosaurs continues to stimulate the development of models to explain the evolutionary origin of feathers. Taking the phylogenetic relationships of the non-avian dinosaurs into consideration, some models propose that the "filamentous integumentary appendages" represent intermediate stages in the sequential evolution of feathers. Here we present observations on a unique integumentary structure, the bristle of the wild turkey beard, and suggest that this non-feather appendage provides another explanation for some of the "filamentous integumentary appendages." Unlike feathers, beard bristles grow continuously from finger-like outgrows of the integument lacking follicles. We find that these beard bristles, which show simple branching, are hollow, distally, and express the feather-type beta keratins. The significance of these observations to explanations for the evolution of archosaurian integumentary appendages is discussed.

  19. Study on Fossil Feather%简说羽毛化石的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 周忠和

    2011-01-01

    自第一枚始祖鸟化石发现以来.鸟类的起源与演化成为了古生物研究的热点之一.有关鸟类的起源问题涉及了恐龙以及早期鸟类的形态结构、飞行以及羽毛等多方面内容.在早白垩世热河生物群以及相邻地区侏罗纪地层发现的许多保存精美的带毛恐龙,中生代的鸟类化石,为鸟类的恐龙起源提供了重要证据,并且使我们对羽毛的起源和演化有了较丰富的认识.笔者主要介绍了带毛恐龙的羽毛化石的研究现状,并结合发育生物学,讨论了关于羽毛的发育和演化问题.%The issues about the origin and evolution of the birds have been the hot biological topics since the first discovery of the Archaeopteryx. The question of the origin of birds includes many biological aspects, such as the morphology, flight and feathers. The exceptionally and exquisitely preserved feathered dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds fossils in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota and Jurassic deposits in Northeast China provided highly important evidences on the dinosaurian origin of birds, and increased our knowledge about the evolution of feathers. The researches on the feathers of feathered dinosaurs were mainly reviewed,and the origin and evolution of feathers, combining evidences from developmental biology.

  20. Aeroelastic flutter of feathers, flight and the evolution of non-vocal communication in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher J; Prum, Richard O

    2015-11-01

    Tonal, non-vocal sounds are widespread in both ordinary bird flight and communication displays. We hypothesized these sounds are attributable to an aerodynamic mechanism intrinsic to flight feathers: aeroelastic flutter. Individual wing and tail feathers from 35 taxa (from 13 families) that produce tonal flight sounds were tested in a wind tunnel. In the wind tunnel, all of these feathers could flutter and generate tonal sound, suggesting that the capacity to flutter is intrinsic to flight feathers. This result implies that the aerodynamic mechanism of aeroelastic flutter is potentially widespread in flight of birds. However, the sounds these feathers produced in the wind tunnel replicated the actual flight sounds of only 15 of the 35 taxa. Of the 20 negative results, we hypothesize that 10 are false negatives, as the acoustic form of the flight sound suggests flutter is a likely acoustic mechanism. For the 10 other taxa, we propose our negative wind tunnel results are correct, and these species do not make sounds via flutter. These sounds appear to constitute one or more mechanism(s) we call 'wing whirring', the physical acoustics of which remain unknown. Our results document that the production of non-vocal communication sounds by aeroelastic flutter of flight feathers is widespread in birds. Across all birds, most evolutionary origins of wing- and tail-generated communication sounds are attributable to three mechanisms: flutter, percussion and wing whirring. Other mechanisms of sound production, such as turbulence-induced whooshes, have evolved into communication sounds only rarely, despite their intrinsic ubiquity in ordinary flight.

  1. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  2. Fracture toughness of zirconia ceramic crowns made by feather-edge tooth preparation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fracture toughness determines functional crown strenght and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. There is a lack of relevant literature data about fracture toughness of crowns made by feather-edge preparation. Mechanical testing of ceramic samples is supposed to show if feather-edge tooth preparation is a successful method for making ceramic crowns without any risk of reduction of their mechanical properties. This research was done to establish effects of feather-edge tooth preparation on fracture toughness of single zirconia ceramic crowns. Methods. The research was performed as an experimental study. Sixty (60 ceramic crowns were made on non-carious extracted human premolars. Thirty (30 crowns were made on the basis of feather-edge preparation (experimental group I. The group II included 30 crowns made on 1 mm rounded shoulder. Crowns fabrication was executed on a copy mill production system “Zirkonzahn” (Zirkonzahn GMBH, Gais, Germany. The spherical compression test was used to determine fracture toughness, using 6 mm diameter ceramic ball. Fracture load for damaging ceramic crown was recorded on a universal testing machine - Zwick, type 1464, with the speed of 0.05 mm/min. Results. The results of this research introduced significant differences between fracture toughness of ceramic samples in every examined group. However, fracture toughness of crowns from both group was above 2 000 N, what was double beyond a recommended value. The mean value of fracture toughness in the feather-edge group was 2 090 N, and in shoulder group it was 2 214 N. Conclusion. This research showed a high fracture toughness of zirconia crowns made on feather-edge preparation. The examined crowns showed a fracture resistance at a sufficient distance in relation to the minimum values of functional loads. Further research of functional loads of these crown is necessary, as well as research of marginal adaptation of cemented crowns and

  3. Schooling and a "Blamable Desire for Knowledge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher the author often wishes that his students were more curious. Yet, Alice Ramos (this issue) proposes that curiosity can be a vice. She writes that there are times when a student might be motivated by a "blamable desire for knowledge." Ramos bases this claim on a distinction made by Thomas Aquinas, the thirteenth-century Aristotelian…

  4. Social Desirability Scales: More Substance than Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Compared self-reports from 215 adults to the external criterion of spouse ratings of personality traits to separate substance from style in social desirability (SD) scales. Results showed that correcting self-reports for SD failed to improve correspondence with an external, objective criterion and in several cases lowered agreement. (LLL)

  5. The Social Desirability of Social Value Orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2001-01-01

    To what degree are social value orientations as measured by decomposed games vulnerable to social desirability concerns? In contrast to prior research (Platow, 1994), this study, using a large scale survey in The Netherlands (n=450), shows that respondents classified as ‘prosocial’ agree more often

  6. Economic Soft Landing:A Common Desir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    An economic soft landing refers to steady deceleration of an overheated economy to a mole moderate rate of growth. As such, it may appear to relate to government macro,adjustmentrrather than the desire of the common people. But its effect is one of cooling down fleree economic growth that exerts high pressure on daily life and is, therefore, of social benefif.

  7. The Body Drawn Between Knowledge and Desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent Fitzsimons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The architectural drawing brings together two aspects of architecture’s inescapable relationship with the human body: knowledge and desire. When Adolf Loos designed the never built Josephine Baker House (1928, his drawings mobilized and transmitted knowledge of the human body in general. At the same time, Loos deployed architectural means to express desire for the dancer’s body. The sections and plans suggest that the Viennese architect imagined Baker swimming in a pool whose submerged walls include large windows looking into the watery stage, enveloping the dancer’s body while putting it on display for guests.Considered more generally, the architectural drawing always contains these two bodily moments, insofar as it describes proposals that give form to the lived world. This dynamic couple in the drawing corresponds to the difference between touching the body and grasping it; between an architect pursuing the desire to affect others through their senses and an architectural discipline extending its knowledge of human existence. This article considers relevant aspects in the writings of Robin Evans, Michel Foucault, Michel de Certeau, William T. Mitchell, and Jean-Luc Nancy to develop a theoretical basis for understanding the tensions and alliances at play when architecture draws the body between knowledge and desire.

  8. Fascination violence: on mind and brain of man hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie

    2010-11-01

    Why are savagery and violence so omnipresent among humans? We suggest that hunting behaviour is fascinating and attractive, a desire that makes temporary deprivation from physical needs, pain, sweat, blood and, ultimately, the willingness to kill tolerable and even appetitive. Evolutionary development into the "perversion" of the urge to hunt humans, that is to say the transfer of this hunt to members of one's own species, has been nurtured by the resultant advantage of personal and social power and dominance. While a breakdown of the inhibition towards intra-specific killing would endanger any animal species, controlled inhibition was enabled in humans in that higher regulatory systems, such as frontal lobe-based executive functions, prevent the involuntary derailment of hunting behaviour. If this control--such as in child soldiers for example--is not learnt, then brutality towards humans remains fascinating and appealing. Blood must flow in order to kill. It is hence an appetitive cue as is the struggling of the victim. Hunting for men, more rarely for women, is fascinating and emotionally arousing with the parallel release of testosterone, serotonin and endorphins, which can produce feelings of euphoria and alleviate pain. Bonding and social rites (e.g. initiation) set up the constraints for both hunting and violent disputes. Children learn which conditions legitimate aggressive behaviour and which not. Big game hunting as well as attack of other communities is more successful in groups--men also perceive it as more pleasurable. This may explain the fascination with gladiatorial combat, violent computer games but as well ritualized forms like football.

  9. Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins. © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Coating on Natural Feather Zeolite in Degradation of Orthomonochlorphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; ZHANG Zhi-xiang; CHEN Dong-hui

    2006-01-01

    TiO2 coatings on natural feather zeolite are respectively prepared by a collosol (Sol-gel) method and two powder coating methods with deionized water or dehydrated ethanol as a dispersant. During degradation of orthomonochlorphenol solutions by ultraviolet, the strong adsorption capability of the zeolite results in increased concentration of substrate on its surface. The TiO2 film coated on feather zeolite further enhances the photocatalytic activity. The TiO2 film on the zeolite prepared by the Sol-gel method is found more effective as a catalyst than that by two powder coating methods.

  11. Mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most fundamental question about sport is what is sport, what is its origin and its essence? Because sport is connected with the human being (there is no sport without human beings different anthropological visions of human being result in different understandings of sport. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to present and explain an anthropological vision of the human being and society as was developed by René Girard. In his view mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism have a central role in any culture, religion or other secular institutions. The explanatory power of his theory is presented when it is applied to the world of sport. METHODS: Our methodology is philosophical, involving conceptual analysis and the application of the outcomes to sport. RESULTS: In the paper we show that mimetic desire can be recognized as one of the important origins of recreational and competitive sports. When people recognize what other people are able to do or accomplish in sport this invokes the mimetic desire as a result of which motivation for sport and competiveness can arise. But mimetic rivalry leads to an unstable situation. Therefore a second element is needed: Scapegoating in sport is presented as a mean to preserve the good reputation of sport, to keep peace in sport as well as in society as a whole. Finally, the attempt to overcome mimetic desire and scapegoating in sport is presented and the question if this is worth trying at all is opened. CONCLUSIONS: The theories of mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism have great explanatory power when they are applied to the field of sport. They could reveal us some hidden motives and forces which drive athletes and sport as a whole. Moreover, they exceed the world of sport and reveal the influence of sport on the whole of society.

  12. Fish species and other data from DERWENT HUNTER from 31 August 1959 to 16 June 1960 (NODC Accession 7300634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 1959 the cruise programme for F.R.V. DERWENT HUNTER was changed and cruises were planned to investigate tuna in South-East Australian waters in a much...

  13. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephanie; Ambata, Philippe; Narat, Victor; Giles-Vernick, Tamara

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission. This initial host shift cannot explain the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Instead, we must understand the processes by which the virus became transmissible, possibly between Sangha basin inhabitants and ultimately reached Kinshasa. A historical epidemiology of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, provides a much-needed corrective to the major shortcomings of the cut hunter. Based on 62 oral historical interviews conducted in southeastern Cameroon and archival research, we show that HIV emerged from ecological, economic, and socio-political transformations of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The gradual imposition of colonial rule built on and reoriented ecologies and economies, and altered older patterns of mobility and sociality. Certain changes may have contributed to the initial viral host shift, but more importantly, facilitated the adaptation of HIV-1M to human-to-human transmission. Our evidence suggests that the most critical changes occurred after 1920. This argument has important implications for public health policy, underscoring recent work emphasizing alternative pathways for zoonotic spillovers into human beings.

  15. A Philatelic Excursion with Jeff Hunter in Probability and Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. H. Styan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an excursion with Jeff Hunter, visiting some of his research topics. Specifically, we will present some facts about certain people whose work seems to have influenced Jeff in his scientific career; we illustrate our presentation with postage stamps that have been issued in honour of these people. Our main guide is Hunter’s two-volume book entitled Mathematical Techniques of Applied Probability (Academic Press, 1983.

  16. Newborn screening for hunter disease: a small-scale feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, G J G; Goudriaan, D A; Boer, A M; Van den Bosch, J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Elvers, L H; Weinreich, S S; Reuser, A J

    2014-01-01

    Hunter disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Two main therapies have been reported for MPS II patients: enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Both treatment modalities have been shown to improve some symptoms, but the results with regard to cognitive functioning have been poor. Early initiation of therapy, i.e., before neurological symptoms have manifested, may alter cognitive outcome. The need for early identification makes Hunter disease a candidate for newborn screening (NBS). Our objective was to explore the use of a fluorometric assay that could be applicable for high-throughput analysis of IDS activity in dried blood spots (DBS). The median IDS activity in DBS samples from 1,426 newborns was 377 pmol/punch/17 h (range 78-1111). The IDS activity in one sample was repeatedly under the cutoff value (set at 20% of the median value), which would imply a recall rate of 0.07%. A sample from a clinically diagnosed MPS II individual, included in each 96-well test plate, had IDS activities well below the 20% cutoff value. Coefficients of variation in quality control samples with low, medium, and high IDS activities (190, 304, and 430 pmol/punch/17 h, respectively) were 12% to 16%. This small-scale pilot study shows that newborn screening for Hunter disease using a fluorometric assay in DBS is technically feasible with a fairly low recall rate. NBS may allow for identification of infants with Hunter disease before clinical symptoms become evident enabling early intervention.

  17. Shell beads of the Last Hunter-Gatherers and Earliest Farmers in South-Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Fernández, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the suspended objects of adornment made from marine mollusc shells that have been recorded at Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in southwest Europe. Particular attention will be given to taxonomic determination, technological aspects and the strategies utilised to obtain the raw materials for these objects. The distribution of certain species and the types of ornamentation used by the last hunter-gatherers and first farming communities will also be discussed.

  18. 演奏八弦吉他的怪才Charlie Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石岩

    2002-01-01

      一看到这把怪琴,少见的8弦配置加上扇形的弦品指板,你就会知道使用这把吉他的吉他手一定是个怪才.他就是Charlie Hunter,一个富于创新的年轻爵士吉他手.……

  19. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  20. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C. Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase®, Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients’ responses. PMID:25071396

  1. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S, an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S (Elaprase®, Shire enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.

  2. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants among Dozo hunters: an ethnobotanical survey in Niamberla village, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibiri, André; Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Dao, Abou; Elkington, Bethany G; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2015-05-01

    This investigation aims to provide a database of Dozo traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of common diseases. The study was conducted through individual interviews using a survey form. Data were recorded in a database allowing statistical analysis. Each plant was recorded and documented with a herbarium specimen. Settings/Location & Subjects: The term Dozo refers to great hunters from Burkina Faso, highly renowned for their knowledge of medicinal plants. Niamberla village was founded by Dozo hunters and is currently the residence of many traditional healers. Unfortunately, their indigenous knowledge is not well recorded and may be lost between two generations. A total of 16 traditional healers were interviewed, giving 89 recipes for the treatment of 37 diseases. The most common diseases are malaria (13%), psychological/spiritual issues (12%), gastric disorders (11%), sexually transmitted diseases (10%), and wounds (8%). A total of 56 medicinal plants have been identified, consisting mostly of trees (44%), shrubs (34%), and herbs (16%). The results of this research provide a basis for pharmacological and toxicological investigations and are necessary to preserve the indigenous knowledge of traditional medicine among Dozo hunters.

  3. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos García-Diez

    Full Text Available Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites. On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  4. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  5. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  6. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  7. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  8. Multimodal image analysis of the retina in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II): Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Isadora Darriba Macedo; Finzi, Simone; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Kim, Chong Ae; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2017-08-18

    We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation. There was hyperautofluorescence at the central fovea and perifovea, and a diffuse bilateral choroidal fluorescence in angiography. Macular SD-OCT showed a thinning of the external retina at the perifovea in both eyes. Visual field testing showed a bilateral ring scotoma. The full field ERG was subnormal, with a negative response in the scotopic phase. Visual Evoked Potencial test and cranial MRI were normal. Our multimodal analysis reported here attempted to contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of GAG deposition in the eye, focusing on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Defining this natural history is essential for a proper comparison with Hunter patients receiving systemic treatment, thus determining if it can or cannot improve retinal function in humans with this disorder.

  9. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience.

  10. Nonlocal Symmetries and Geometric Integrability of Multi-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lu; SONG Jun-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems. It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm, Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed. For the three-component Camo ssa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems, their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.%@@ We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems.It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm,Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable,namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces.As a consequence,their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed.For the three-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems,their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  11. Conflicts in A Streetcar Named Desire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹雪含

    2014-01-01

    A conflict is a disagreement, struggle, controversy or fight which usually provides the plot for a story. It is the promi-nent element of a work and the basis for everything else included in the work of literature. In the drama A Streetcar Named Desire of Tennessee Williams, several kinds of conflicts are proficiently and artistically revealed. This paper touches on different kinds of conflicts, including those between fantasy and reality, female and male, desire and death, the exterior and inner world, the south and the north. Conflicts are of great literary importance in this play. Firstly, they function to propel the plot and create an over-arching tension. Secondly, they are used to represent themes which are applied to greater contexts. Thirdly, conflicts go through the whole play and make it a united whole.

  12. Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2010-04-01

    The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety. Copyright 2010 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Redefining Female Desire: Angela Carter's Bloody Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Antonella Abeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the debate about the nature and representation of female sexual desire, on the trend to follow men patterns, who often would have been identified in pornography, involving Angela Carter’s work.This author has analyzed the issue of female desire in The Sadeian Woman, re-evaluating the use of pornography in "moral" sense, ie reversing the fundamentals and misogynistic stereotypes about the differences between the sexes.In contrast, scholars such as Andrea Dworkin believe pornography inextricably linked to the subjugation and humiliation of the female body, while Carter, starting from the work of De Sade, reconfigures the ideas at the base of the imaginary of erotic, putting pornography "in the service" of feminine instincts liberation.Among Carter’s works that gave rise to more debates and discussions is The Bloody Chamber, a collection of rewriting fairy tales in which some stories such as The Tiger's Wife and The Company of Wolves had provoked critical reactions.This article analyses some passages of those tales, combining them with the ideas expressed by the author in her famous essay, demonstrating the originality and unconventionality of her interpretation of female desire, subject to misunderstanding and disputes, but strongly appreciated in recent years .

  14. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  15. Response to Comment on "A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-10-24

    Lingham-Soliar questions our interpretation of integumentary structures in the Middle-Late Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur Kulindadromeus as feather-like appendages and alternatively proposes that the compound structures observed around the humerus and femur of Kulindadromeus are support fibers associated with badly degraded scales. We consider this hypothesis highly unlikely because of the taphonomy and morphology of the preserved structures.

  16. Feather meal : evaluation of the effect of processing conditions by chemical and chick assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Feather waste at poultry processing plants, has been of interest in nutritional studies because of its high protein content. This material must be hydrolyzed in order to be digested by the animal, because in its natural state it is of no nutritive value. However, this product will be of variable

  17. Feather growth rate and mass in nearctic passerines with variablemigratory behavior and molt pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; DeSante, D.F.; Mila, B.

    2012-01-01

    Bird species vary greatly in the duration of their annual complete feather molt. However, such variation is not well documented in birds from many biogeographic areas, which restricts our understanding of the diversification of molt strategies. Recent research has revealed that molt duration can be

  18. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez, Silvia [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Motas, Miguel, E-mail: motas@um.es [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: > We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. > Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. > Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. > Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. > Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  19. High refractive index of melanin in shiny occipital feathers of a bird of paradise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Heinrich; Osorio, Daniel C.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2015-01-01

    Male Lawes's Parotia, a bird of paradise, use the highly directional reflection of the structurally colored, brilliant-silvery occipital feathers in their courtship display. As in other birds, the structural coloration is produced by ordered melanin pigmentation. The barbules of the Parotia's occipi

  20. High refractive index of melanin in shiny occipital feathers of a bird of paradise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Heinrich; Osorio, Daniel C.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    Male Lawes's Parotia, a bird of paradise, use the highly directional reflection of the structurally colored, brilliant-silvery occipital feathers in their courtship display. As in other birds, the structural coloration is produced by ordered melanin pigmentation. The barbules of the Parotia's

  1. Production and characterization of keratinase of a feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S W; Hu, H M; Shen, S W; Takagi, H; Asano, M; Tsai, Y C

    1995-12-01

    The keratinase produced by Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1 was induced by feather powder. Maximal enzyme production could be achieved by culturing in a medium containing 1% hammer-milled feather powder (100 mesh) at 45 degrees C for 30 h. Maximal growth of PWD-1 was achieved at 50 degrees C, and maximal enzyme induction was at 45 degrees C. The molecular mass and isoelectric point of this enzyme were 31.4 kDa and 8.5, respectively. This enzyme was stable from pH 5 to 12. The optimal reaction pHs for feather powder and casein were 8.5 and 10.5 to 11.5, respectively. The optimal reaction temperature was 50 degrees C to 55 degrees C. The relative activity of this enzyme toward casein, feather powder, keratin, elastin, and collagen was 100:52:41:18:7, and 100:56:32:3 for Suc-AAPL-pNA, Suc-AAPF-pNA, Suc-AAPM-pNA, and Suc-AAVA-pNA (Suc, succinyl; pNA, p-nitrophenylanilide).

  2. 77 FR 12493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... River Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 3.22, ``Internal Combustion Engines,'' adopted on June... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  3. Physical and chemical properties of biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to (a) characterize bioplastic pellets containing feather fibers (pellets) by low temperature-scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction analysis, (b) evaluate growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis A. DC. ‘Bonfire’ when grown in medium amended with pellets, and...

  4. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: a review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Spruijt, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Buitenhuis, B.; van Hierden, Y.M.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects Yvonne R.A. van Zeelanda, , , Berry M. Spruitb, T. Bas Rodenburgc, Bernd Riedstrad, Yvonne M. van Hierdene, Bart Buitenhuisf, S. Mechiel Korteg, h and Johannes T. Lumeija aDivision of Zoological Medicine, Depar

  5. The feather damaging Grey parrot: an analysis of its behaviour and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 10-15%, feather damaging behaviour (FDB) is a common behavioural disorder in captive parrots (in particular Grey parrots, the species studied in this thesis) that may have aesthetic, medical and welfare consequences and often results in relinquishment or euthanasia. L

  6. Feather pecking in poultry: the application of science in a search for practical solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Jong, de I.C.; Keeling, L.J.; McAdie, T.M.; Preisinger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional battery cages for laying hens will soon be banned in the EU but the increased risk of feather pecking (FP) hampers the adoption of alternative housing systems. FP can cause injury and lead to cannibalism and the painful death of target birds. Current management practices (beak trimming,

  7. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.); Gwynn, J.; Zaborska, A.; Gaefvert, T. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Henricsson, F. (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  8. Feather meal: evaluation of the effect of processing conditions by chemical and chick assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Feather waste at poultry processing plants, has been of interest in nutritional studies because of its high protein content. This material must be hydrolyzed in order to be digested by the animal, because in its natural state it is of no nutritive value. However, this product will be of variable qua

  9. Directional reflectance and milli-scale feather morphology of the African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve

    2013-09-06

    Diverse plumages have evolved among birds through complex morphological modifications. We investigate how the interplay of light with surface and subsurface feather morphology determines the direction of light propagation, an understudied aspect of avian visual signalling. We hypothesize that milli-scale modifications of feathers produce anisotropic reflectance, the direction of which may be predicted by the orientation of the milli-scale structure. The subject of this study is the African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus, noted for its shimmering green iridescent appearance. Using a spherical gantry, we measured the change in the directional reflectance across the feather surface and over a hemisphere of incident lighting directions. Using a microCT scanner, we also studied the morphology of the structural branches of the barb. We tracked the changes in the directional reflectance to the orientation of the structural branches as observed in the CT data. We conclude that (i) the far-field signal of the feather consists of multiple specular components, each associated with a different structural branch and (ii) the direction of each specular component is correlated to the orientation of the corresponding structure.

  10. Variation in carotenoid-protein interaction in bird feathers produces novel plumage coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M; LaFountain, Amy M; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Prum, Richard O; Frank, Harry A; Robert, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Light absorption by carotenoids is known to vary substantially with the shape or conformation of the pigment molecule induced by the molecular environment, but the role of interactions between carotenoid pigments and the proteins to which they are bound, and the resulting impact on organismal coloration, remain unclear. Here, we present a spectroscopic investigation of feathers from the brilliant red scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber, Threskiornithidae), the orange-red summer tanager (Piranga rubra, Cardinalidae) and the violet-purple feathers of the white-browed purpletuft (Iodopleura isabellae, Tityridae). Despite their striking differences in colour, all three of these feathers contain canthaxanthin (β,β-carotene-4,4'-dione) as their primary pigment. Reflectance and resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the induced molecular structural changes and carotenoid-protein interactions responsible for the different coloration in these plumage samples. The results demonstrate a significant variation between species in the peak frequency of the strong ethylenic vibration (ν(1)) peak in the rR spectra, the most significant of which is found in I. isabellae feathers and is correlated with a red-shift in canthaxanthin absorption that results in violet reflectance. Neither polarizability of the protein environment nor planarization of the molecule upon binding can entirely account for the full extent of the colour shift. Therefore, we suggest that head-to-tail molecular alignment (i.e. J-aggregation) of the protein-bound carotenoid molecules is an additional factor.

  11. Current Status of Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo along the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, Mark D; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Howell, Christine A; Gardali, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of the western population of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) along the Sacramento and Feather rivers in California's Sacramento Valley, we conducted extensive call playback surveys in 2012 and 2013. We also quantified the amount and distribution of potential habitat. Our survey transects were randomly located and spatially balanced to sample representative areas of the potential habitat. We estimated that the total area of potential habitat was 8,134 ha along the Sacramento River and 2,052 ha along the Feather River, for a total of 10,186 ha. Large-scale restoration efforts have created potential habitat along both of these rivers. Despite this increase in the amount of habitat, the number of cuckoos we detected was extremely low. There were 8 detection occasions in 2012 and 10 occasions in 2013 on the Sacramento River, in both restored and remnant habitat. We had no detections on the Feather River in either year. We compared our results to 10 historic studies from as far back as 1972 and found that the Yellow-billed Cuckoo had unprecedentedly low numbers in 2010, 2012, and 2013. The current limiting factor for the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in the Sacramento Valley is likely not the amount of appropriate vegetation, as restoration has created more habitat over the last 30 years. Reasons for the cuckoo decline on the Sacramento and Feather rivers are unclear.

  12. Reaction to frustration in high and low feather pecking laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Zimmerman, P.H.; Koene, P.

    2002-01-01

    Reaction to frustration of high (HFP) and low feather pecking (LFP) laying hens was investigated. From a HFP- and a LFP-line five birds with a HFP- and five birds with a LFP-phenotype were selected. Birds from the HFP-line were expected to show more key pecking and covered feeder pecking during frus

  13. Environmental and genetic effects on pigment-based vs. structural component of yellow feather colouration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Matrková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoid plumage is of widespread use in bird communication. Carotenoid-based feather colouration has recently been shown to be dependent on both pigment concentration and feather structure. If these two components are determined differently, one plumage patch may potentially convey different aspects of individual quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on carotenoid-based yellow breast colouration of Great Tit (Parus major nestlings. By partial cross-fostering, we separated the genetic and pre-natal vs. post-natal parental effects on both the structural and the pigment-based component of carotenoid-based plumage colouration. We also simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching environment by brood size manipulation. The structural component of nestling colouration reflected features of female colouration. On the other hand, the pigment-based component was more affected by rearing conditions presumably representing food quality. While the structural component was related to both origin- and environment-related factors, the pigment-based component seemed to be environment-dependent only. These results support the notion that pigment-based and structural components of feather colouration are determined differently. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromatic and achromatic components of carotenoid-based feather colouration reflected different aspects of individual quality and history, and thus may potentially form a multicomponent signal.

  14. Optical feather and foil for shape and dynamic load sensing of critical flight surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad; Pakmehr, Mehrdad; Schlavin, Jon; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Zagrai, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    Future flight vehicles may comprise complex flight surfaces requiring coordinated in-situ sensing and actuation. Inspired by the complexity of the flight surfaces on the wings and tail of a bird, it is argued that increasing the number of interdependent flight surfaces from just a few, as is normal in an airplane, to many, as in the feathers of a bird, can significantly enlarge the flight envelope. To enable elements of an eco-inspired Dynamic Servo-Elastic (DSE) flight control system, IFOS is developing a multiple functionality-sensing element analogous to a feather, consisting of a very thin tube with optical fiber based strain sensors and algorithms for deducing the shape of the "feather" by measuring strain at multiple points. It is envisaged that the "feather" will act as a unit of sensing and/or actuation for establishing shape, position, static and dynamic loads on flight surfaces and in critical parts. Advanced sensing hardware and software control algorithms will enable the proposed DSE flight control concept. The hardware development involves an array of optical fiber based sensorized needle tubes for attachment to key parts for dynamic flight surface measurement. Once installed the optical fiber sensors, which can be interrogated over a wide frequency range, also allow damage detection and structural health monitoring.

  15. 76 FR 9495 - Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 1 RIN 2120-AJ81 Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders... propeller operation for powered gliders that qualify as light-sport aircraft. DATES: The effective date for... aircraft (LSA) had a fixed or autofeathering propeller system. The restriction to ``autofeathering''...

  16. Time trends of mercury in feathers of West Greenland birds of prey during 1851-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank Farsø; Boertmann, David

    2006-01-01

    Temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in West Greenland gyrfalcons, peregrine falcons, and white-tailed eagles were determined over 150 years from 1851 to 2003. Hg was measured in the fifth primary feather. Results showed that Hg increased in the order gyrfalcon (lowest)

  17. The effect of optimized lighting conditions on feather pecking and production of laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Verenpikken is één van de grootste problemen in de commerciële leghennenhouderij. Dit onderzoek bekijkt het effect van kunstlicht op het pikken van veren.Feather pecking is one of the major problems in commercially kept laying hens. The current research considers the relevance of colour of light in

  18. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Nielsen, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood,

  19. New Method for Confirming the Desired Safety Headway Distance and Desired Deceleration in ACC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-bo; LIU Zhao-du; SONG Ming; QI Zhi-quan

    2005-01-01

    A new method of confirming the desired safety headway distance and desired deceleration is put forward according to the detected static or moving target and its simulation results in Matlab are also presented.The validity of the algorithm to calculate the reference speeds of both the ACC vehicle and the targeted car according to the vector quadrangle composed of the relative distance, the relative azimuth angle, the relative speeds of the vehicles has also been demonstrated through numerical example in Matlab. New laws to obtain the desired deceleration by estimating the braking force according to the vehicle analyses force equation are established too.

  20. Biogas Production from Citrus Wastes and Chicken Feather: Pretreatment and Codigestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, Gergely

    2012-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and economically feasible waste management technology, which lowers the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), decreases the soil and water pollution, and reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. The present thesis investigates the anaerobic digestion of waste from food-processing industries, including citrus wastes (CWs) from juice processing and chicken feather from poultry slaughterhouses. Juice processing industries generate 15-25 million tons of citrus wastes every year. Utilization of CWs is not yet resolved, since drying or incineration processes are costly, due to the high moisture content; and biological processes are hindered by its peel oil content, primarily the D-limonene. Anaerobic digestion of untreated CWs consequently results in process failure because of the inhibiting effect of the produced and accumulated VFAs. The current thesis involves the development of a steam explosion pretreatment step. The methane yield increased by 426 % to 0.537 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS by employing the steam explosion treatment at 150 deg C for 20 min, which opened up the compact structure of the CWs and removed 94 % of the D-limonene. The developed process enables a production of 104 m{sup 3} methane and 8.4 L limonene from one ton of fresh CWs. Poultry slaughterhouses generate a significant amount of feather every year. Feathers are basically composed of keratin, an extremely strong and resistible structural protein. Methane yield from feather is low, around 0.18 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, which corresponds to only one third of the theoretical yield. In the present study, chemical, enzymatic and biological pretreatment methods were investigated to improve the biogas yield of feather waste. Chemical pretreatment with Ca(OH){sub 2} under relatively mild conditions (0.1 g Ca(OH){sub 2}/g TS{sub feather}, 100 deg C, 30 min) improved the methane yield to 0.40 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, corresponding to 80 % of the theoretical yield. However, prior to digestion, the

  1. Haste makes waste but condition matters: molt rate-feather quality trade-off in a sedentary songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trade-off between current and residual reproductive values is central to life history theory, although the possible mechanisms underlying this trade-off are largely unknown. The 'molt constraint' hypothesis suggests that molt and plumage functionality are compromised by the preceding breeding event, yet this candidate mechanism remains insufficiently explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The seasonal change in photoperiod was manipulated to accelerate the molt rate. This treatment simulates the case of naturally late-breeding birds. House sparrows Passer domesticus experiencing accelerated molt developed shorter flight feathers with more fault bars and body feathers with supposedly lower insulation capacity (i.e. shorter, smaller, with a higher barbule density and fewer plumulaceous barbs. However, the wing, tail and primary feather lengths were shorter in fast-molting birds if they had an inferior body condition, which has been largely overlooked in previous studies. The rachis width of flight feathers was not affected by the treatment, but it was still condition-dependent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that sedentary birds might face evolutionary costs because of the molt rate-feather quality conflict. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that (1 molt rate affects several aspects of body feathers as well as flight feathers and (2 the costly effects of rapid molt are condition-specific. We conclude that molt rate and its association with feather quality might be a major mediator of life history trade-offs. Our findings also suggest a novel advantage of early breeding, i.e. the facilitation of slower molt and the condition-dependent regulation of feather growth.

  2. Hydrogen isotope measurement of bird feather keratin, one laboratory's response to evolving methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Majie; Dettman, David L

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen in organic tissue resides in a complex mixture of molecular contexts. Some hydrogen, called non-exchangeable (H(non)), is strongly bound, and its isotopic ratio is fixed when the tissue is synthesized. Other pools of hydrogen, called exchangeable hydrogen (H(ex)), constantly exchange with ambient water vapor. The measurement of the δ(2)H(non) in organic tissues such as hair or feather therefore requires an analytical process that accounts for exchangeable hydrogen. In this study, swan feather and sheep wool keratin were used to test the effects of sample drying and capsule closure on the measurement of δ(2)H(non) values, and the rate of back-reaction with ambient water vapor. Homogenous feather or wool keratins were also calibrated at room temperature for use as control standards to correct for the effects of exchangeable hydrogen on feathers. Total δ(2)H values of both feather and wool samples showed large changes throughout the first ∼6 h of drying. Desiccant plus low vacuum seems to be more effective than room temperature vacuum pumping for drying samples. The degree of capsule closure affects exchangeable hydrogen equilibration and drying, with closed capsules responding more slowly. Using one control keratin standard to correct for the δ(2)H(ex) value for a batch of samples leads to internally consistent δ(2)H(non) values for other calibrated keratins run as unknowns. When placed in the context of other recent improvements in the measurement of keratin δ(2)H(non) values, we make recommendations for sample handing, data calibration and the reporting of results.

  3. Feather corticosterone reveals stress associated with dietary changes in a breeding seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Dale M; Sato, Nobuhiko; Ito, Motohiro; Callahan, Matt; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Hatch, Scott; Elliott, Kyle; Slater, Leslie; Takahashi, Akinori; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Changes in climate and anthropogenic pressures might affect the composition and abundance of forage fish in the world's oceans. The junk-food hypothesis posits that dietary shifts that affect the quality (e.g., energy content) of food available to marine predators may impact their physiological state and consequently affect their fitness. Previously, we experimentally validated that deposition of the adrenocortical hormone, corticosterone, in feathers is a sensitive measure of nutritional stress in seabirds. Here, we use this method to examine how changes in diet composition and prey quality affect the nutritional status of free-living rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata). Our study sites included the following: Teuri Is. Japan, Middleton Is. central Gulf of Alaska, and St. Lazaria Is. Southeast Alaska. In 2012 and 2013, we collected "bill loads" delivered by parents to feed their chicks (n = 758) to document dietary changes. We deployed time-depth-temperature recorders on breeding adults (n = 47) to evaluate whether changes in prey coincided with changes in foraging behavior. We measured concentrations of corticosterone in fledgling (n = 71) and adult breeders' (n = 82) feathers to determine how birds were affected by foraging conditions. We found that seasonal changes in diet composition occurred on each colony, adults dove deeper and engaged in longer foraging bouts when capturing larger prey and that chicks had higher concentrations of corticosterone in their feathers when adults brought back smaller and/or lower energy prey. Corticosterone levels in feathers of fledglings (grown during the breeding season) and those in feathers of adult breeders (grown during the postbreeding season) were positively correlated, indicating possible carryover effects. These results suggest that seabirds might experience increased levels of nutritional stress associated with moderate dietary changes and that physiological responses to changes in prey composition

  4. Acceptance: on 1956: Desire and the Unknowable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hajdú

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available 1956: desire and the unknowable is my first response to my father's photographs of the Hungarian Uprising of October 1956. The paper emerges from my position as a member of the Hungarian diaspora, whereby my very existence and identity as a member of a diaspora owes itself to a historical event that I am unable to lay claim to. The work traces tensions created by multiple desires - in diasporic longing, in positivist history-making, and in the demands put on the photograph as unmediated historical evidence. This paper is an adaptation from a chapter in my Masters dissertation - Little Histories. It opens with an outline of the context of production of the original images, as well my responses to these images. It then goes on to discuss issues that have had a significant impact on the creation of the work, whether arising from the original images or from critical theory. The overriding notion is that vernacular photographs can be used to contest and replace images and ideologies that have come to dominate our memories of the past, and that the past becomes meaningful through such acts of engagement. 1956: desire and the unknowable was first exhibited in a solo exhibition, Little Histories, at the Sydney College of the Arts in 2001. Later that year it was presented, together with 30 of my father’s original photographs, in a father-daughter collaborative exhibition at 62 Robertson, Brisbane. Between Ranke and the sublime: two approaches to Budapest 1956 presented opposing modernist and post-modern views about the ability of the photograph to provide knowledge of the past. The work was most recently shown again at a residency in CESTA, in the Czech Republic, as part of a site-specific installation. In the country where my father once walked I presented a selection of my father’s work at the Szabo Ervin Library, Budapest, in 2001.

  5. Desired skills and attributes for dietitian preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon; Grosjean, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    We examined the research literature to determine the skills and attributes that dietetic interns desire in clinical preceptors. A search of three databases produced little information specific to dietetics. Literature on preceptors in other health disciplines identified preceptor attributes that students in clinical placements value. We were able to cluster the data from these studies into four themes: knowledge and experience, personal characteristics, teaching skills and attitudes, and interpersonal relationships. This review suggests a need for further development of dietitian preceptor training, as well as for further research specific to dietetic interns' needs.

  6. The DESIR Facility at SPIRAL2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bertram Blank; Desir

    2010-08-01

    The DESIR Collaboration proposes the construction of an experimental facility to exploit the low-energy beams from SPIRAL1, SPIRAL2 and S3. The high degree of purity required to push experiments towards the limits of stability will be achieved by the implementation in the SPIRAL2 production building of a high-efficiency RFQ cooler coupled to a high-resolution mass separator. Beams from the low-energy branch of the separator spectrometer S3 and from SPIRAL1 will allow complementary studies of refractory elements produced by means of fusion reactions as well as of light and intense exotic beams, respectively.

  7. Exchangeability and sets of desirable gambles

    CERN Document Server

    de Cooman, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Sets of desirable gambles constitute a quite general type of uncertainty model with an interesting geometrical interpretation. We give a general discussion of such models and their rationality criteria. We study exchangeability assessments for them, and prove counterparts of de Finetti's finite and infinite representation theorems. We show that the finite representation in terms of count vectors has a very nice geometrical interpretation, and that the representation in terms of frequency vectors is tied up with multivariate Bernstein (basis) polynomials. We also lay bare the relationships between the representations of updated exchangeable models, and discuss conservative inference (natural extension) under exchangeability and the extension of exchangeable sequences.

  8. Tarantella-Nora’s Dance of Desire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Meng-lin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most well-known plays of Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House’s publishment and premiere in 1879 aroused great controversy on the ideas and beliefs reflected in this play. The female protagonist, Nora, is especially the center of dispute. In Act II, a scene of Nora’s dancing Tarantella is worth discussing. It can not only be understood as a way of relieving, but the two men who gives Nora much pressure as well. Tarantella is also a dance of desire which leads to her breakaway from the love-less marriage and her departure from the family.

  9. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janichek Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and

  10. DESIR high resolution separator at GANIL, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution separator for the SPIRAL2/DESIR project at GANIL has been designed. The extracted isotopes from SPIRAL2 will be transported to and cooled in a RFQ cooler yielding beams with very low transverse emittance and energy spread. These beams will then be accelerated to 60 keV and sent to a high-resolution mass separator where a specific isotope will be selected. The good beam properties extracted from the RFQ cooler will allow one to obtain a mass resolution of č26000 with the high-resolution mass separator.

  11. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    OpenAIRE

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P; French, C

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of ...

  12. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  13. Desirable Elements for a Particle System Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle systems have many applications, with the most popular being to produce special effects in video games and films. To permit particle systems to be created quickly and easily, Particle System Interfaces (PSIs have been developed. A PSI is a piece of software designed to perform common tasks related to particle systems for clients, while providing them with a set of parameters whose values can be adjusted to create different particle systems. Most PSIs are inflexible, and when clients require functionality that is not supported by the PSI they are using, they are forced to either find another PSI that meets their requirements or, more commonly, create their own particle system or PSI from scratch. This paper presents three original contributions. First, it identifies 18 features that a PSI should provide in order to be capable of creating diverse effects. If these features are implemented in a PSI, clients will be more likely to be able to accomplish all desired effects related to particle systems with one PSI. Secondly, it introduces a novel use of events to determine, at run time, which particle system code to execute in each frame. Thirdly, it describes a software architecture called the Dynamic Particle System Framework (DPSF. Simulation results show that DPSF possesses all 18 desirable features.

  14. [Dynamics of infection of Fringilla coelebs chaffinch nestlings with feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S V; Malyshev, L L

    2002-01-01

    A process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings Fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, Analges passerinus L., 1758, Monojoubertia microphylla (Robin, 1877), and Pteronyssoides striatus (Robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. Observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "Rybachy" (Russia, Kaliningrad Province) in June of 1982. Number of mites on alive nestlings taken temporarily from their nest was counted by means of binocular lens under the magnification x12.5 and x25. The nestlings receive the mites from the chaffinch female during the night time, when the female sits together with the young birds and heats them. In the condition of this prolonged direct contact the mites migrate from the female onto the nestlings. As it was shown in our study of seasonal dynamics of mites on the chaffinch (Mironov, 2000), the chaffinch female only gives its mites to young generation and looses about three quarter of its mite micropopulation during the nesting period (June), hile in the chaffinch males the number of mites continues to increase during all summer. The infections with three feather mite species happen in the second part of the nestling's stay in the nest. The starting time of this process, its intensity, and sex and age structure of mite micropopulations on the nestlings just before their leaving the nest are different in the mite species examined. These peculiarities of feather mite species are determined by the biology of examined species, and first of all by their morphological characteristic and specialisation to different microhabitats, i.e. certain structural zones of plumage. Pteronyssoides striatus (Pteronyssidae) is rather typical mite specialised to feathers with vanes. In adult birds with completely developed plumage this species occupies the ventral

  15. Contaminant Case Report: Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) eggs and feathers from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We collected spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) eggs and shed breast contour feathers from nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1992 to evaluate...

  16. Variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in flight feathers of a moulting White-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris talatala

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available the implications for interpreting avian diets using stable isotopes. However, by analysing feathers, dietary input may be interpreted at different levels if the moult process is well understood....

  17. Formulation of economical microbial feed using degraded chicken feathers by a novel Streptomyces sp: mitigation of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapradha Ramakrishnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new Streptomyces sp. IF 5 was isolated from the feather dumped soil and found to have a tremendous keratinase activity. The strain enabled the degradation of the chicken feathers very effectively in 60 h. The 16S rRNA sequence of 1474 bp long was submitted to the National centre for Biotechnological information. The keratinolytic activity in the culture medium was 1181 U/ml. The release and analyses of sulphydryl groups in the culture medium evident the degradation activity by the Streptomyces sp. IF 5. The idea of the present study was to use the degraded chicken feathers as the substrate for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms. We have designed a very economical culture medium that includes the usage of some basal salts alone and degraded chicken feathers (10 g/l. The results of the specific growth rate of the tested microbes confirm the usage of the new designed medium for microbial culturing.

  18. Formulation of economical microbial feed using degraded chicken feathers by a novel Streptomyces sp: mitigation of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayapradha; Balakrishnan, Hariram; Raja, Selvaraj Thirupathi Kumara; Sundararamakrishnan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Sadagoban; Radha, Venkatesh Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    A new Streptomyces sp. IF 5 was isolated from the feather dumped soil and found to have a tremendous keratinase activity. The strain enabled the degradation of the chicken feathers very effectively in 60 h. The 16S rRNA sequence of 1474 bp long was submitted to the National centre for Biotechnological information. The keratinolytic activity in the culture medium was 1181 U/ml. The release and analyses of sulphydryl groups in the culture medium evident the degradation activity by the Streptomyces sp. IF 5. The idea of the present study was to use the degraded chicken feathers as the substrate for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms. We have designed a very economical culture medium that includes the usage of some basal salts alone and degraded chicken feathers (10 g/l). The results of the specific growth rate of the tested microbes confirm the usage of the new designed medium for microbial culturing. PMID:24031698

  19. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  20. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  1. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B

  2. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis with unilateral subluxation of the spine and postoperative lumbar spondylolisthesis in Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon B; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2016-03-01

    Surgical correction for kyphoscoliosis is increasingly being performed for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Reported case series have predominantly included patients with Type I (Hurler) and Type IV (Morquio) MPS. To their knowledge, the authors describe the first case report of surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome (MPS Type II) and the rare occurrence of lumbar spondylolisthesis following surgical stabilization. A 12-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and no associated symptoms. Spinal radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of 48° (T11-L3) and scoliosis of 22° (T11-L3) with an anteriorly hypoplastic L-1 vertebra. The deformity progressed to kyphosis of 60° and scoliosis of 42° prior to surgical intervention. Spinal CT scans identified left T12-L1 facet subluxation, causing anterior rotatory displacement of the spine proximal to L-1 and bilateral L-5 isthmic spondylolysis with no spondylolisthesis. A combined single-stage anterior and posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis from T-9 to L-4 was performed. Kyphosis and scoliosis were corrected to 4° and 0°, respectively. Prolonged ventilator support and nasogastric feedings were required for 3 months postoperatively. At 2.5 years following surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, mobilizing independently, and had achieved a solid spinal fusion. However, he had also developed a Grade II spondylolisthesis at L4-5; this was managed nonoperatively in the absence of symptoms or further deterioration of the spondylolisthesis to the 3.5-year postoperative follow-up visit. Satisfactory correction of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome can be achieved by combined anterior/posterior instrumented arthrodesis. The risk of developing deformity or instability in motion segments adjacent to an instrumented fusion may be greater in patients with MPS related to the underlying connective tissue disorder.

  3. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  4. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  5. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative

  6. Wanted and desired: looks about Roman Polanski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Raphael Bertassi da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With this paper, we interpret, in the light of theoretical framework from French Discourse Analysis, discursive ruptures and regularities present in the controversial episode involving the sentencing, imprisonment and escape of the film director Roman Polanski and the effects of meaning inscribed in one of his films, Repulsion (1965. We are interested in understanding the meanings of patriarchy, violence against women, female sexual freedom and the memory that holds the words of/about the controversy about the filmmaker and his work. To enrich the analysis, we also mobilize blogs clippings and excerpts from the documentary Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired (2008, thus paving the range of possible interpretations of our corpus.

  7. Sister Carrie, an Adherent of Desires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴水妹

    2007-01-01

    Sister Carrie is one of the most controversial characters in American literature.Thought as a "fallen woman" firstly,she was defined as a "new woman" by some critics later. However, by digging into the motivaton behind the whole process of Carrie's "success", the relationship between Carrie and her creator (the author), the social conditions of then American, it can be found that Carrie has never been free-standing on her thought and she has never found her real-sdf even after becoming a famous actress. In a society dominated by mass consumerism Carrie is only an adherent of her own desires. She also is a representative of all those country girls flooded into cities, a symbol and a sacrifice of the urbanization of America in a time countryside was overcome by cities.

  8. The Desire for Social and Individual Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Lei

    2008-01-01

    Lady Chatterley' s lover is Lawrence's late work. Because of a lot of .sexual description, it was prohibited at one time. This novel brings us into a society of Industrial Revolution. The heroine, Constance Reid marries Clifford Chatterley, an heir to Wragby Hall, an estate in the industrial region of England. Returning from the war impotence and arrogance, Clifford adapts to his new condition. However, feeling progressively physical and psychological suppression, his wife Connie meets and falls in love with Mellors, a gamekeeper of her husband' s estate. After becoming pregnant by Mellors, Connie asks Clifford for a divorce and decides to live a new life with Mellors and their unborn child. It is tile setting and character that constitute the power-centers of the book, each being vitally connected to others. The final combination of Connie and Mellors and the divorce between Connie and Clifford show Lawrence' s view. -- hatred of industrial society and desire for renewal of society and individual.

  9. Adaptive Arrays for Multiple Simultaneous Desired Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    weights [Equation (4)]. Using Equation (6), the inverse of the covariance matrix is given by 5 4 i *ŕm * T ". -1 1 I d Z dij (7) L -I + UT U* 4 di x di...Equations (11) and (12) p k = A k Ik d (14) dk aki*~~* ( ~ dk LJk Udk) and 1 t IjI II di l() 27 x = (1 + t UT U*) Thus, the output SNR of the kth desired...signals are assumed to be of the same frequency. There is no jammer 9 0 dB SIGNAL 10 dB SIGNAL 90 % 90 180 Fiur .dptdpatrnofalier rayo tn strpc lmet

  10. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  11. A quantitative analysis of flight feather replacement in the Moustached Tree Swift Hemiprocne mystacea, a tropical aerial forager.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer

    Full Text Available The functional life span of feathers is always much less than the potential life span of birds, so feathers must be renewed regularly. But feather renewal entails important energetic, time and performance costs that must be integrated into the annual cycle. Across species the time required to replace flight feather increases disproportionately with body size, resulting in complex, multiple waves of feather replacement in the primaries of many large birds. We describe the rules of flight feather replacement for Hemiprocne mystacea, a small, 60 g tree swift from the New Guinea region. This species breeds and molts in all months of the year, and flight feather molt occurs during breeding in some individuals. H. mystacea is one to be the smallest species for which stepwise replacement of the primaries and secondaries has been documented; yet, primary replacement is extremely slow in this aerial forager, requiring more than 300 days if molt is not interrupted. We used growth bands to show that primaries grow at an average rate of 2.86 mm/d. The 10 primaries are a single molt series, while the 11 secondaries and five rectrices are each broken into two molt series. In large birds stepwise replacement of the primaries serves to increase the rate of primary replacement while minimizing gaps in the wing. But stepwise replacement of the wing quills in H. mystacea proceeds so slowly that it may be a consequence of the ontogeny of stepwise molting, rather than an adaptation, because the average number of growing primaries is probably lower than 1.14 feathers per wing.

  12. A quantitative analysis of flight feather replacement in the Moustached Tree Swift Hemiprocne mystacea, a tropical aerial forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Wang, Luan-Keng

    2010-07-14

    The functional life span of feathers is always much less than the potential life span of birds, so feathers must be renewed regularly. But feather renewal entails important energetic, time and performance costs that must be integrated into the annual cycle. Across species the time required to replace flight feather increases disproportionately with body size, resulting in complex, multiple waves of feather replacement in the primaries of many large birds. We describe the rules of flight feather replacement for Hemiprocne mystacea, a small, 60 g tree swift from the New Guinea region. This species breeds and molts in all months of the year, and flight feather molt occurs during breeding in some individuals. H. mystacea is one to be the smallest species for which stepwise replacement of the primaries and secondaries has been documented; yet, primary replacement is extremely slow in this aerial forager, requiring more than 300 days if molt is not interrupted. We used growth bands to show that primaries grow at an average rate of 2.86 mm/d. The 10 primaries are a single molt series, while the 11 secondaries and five rectrices are each broken into two molt series. In large birds stepwise replacement of the primaries serves to increase the rate of primary replacement while minimizing gaps in the wing. But stepwise replacement of the wing quills in H. mystacea proceeds so slowly that it may be a consequence of the ontogeny of stepwise molting, rather than an adaptation, because the average number of growing primaries is probably lower than 1.14 feathers per wing.

  13. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth.

  14. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Nick; Freeman, Sonia; Connor, Linda; Albrecht, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  15. Period Determination of Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May 2009 - September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for 27 asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) from 2009 May through 2010 September: 308 Polyxo, 326 Tamara, 369 Aeria, 504 Cora, 822 Lalage, 1164 Kobolda, 1619 Ueta, 1625 The NORC, 1685 Toro, 2189 Zaragoza, 2287 Kalmykia, 2639 Planman, 3695 Fiaia, 4786 Tatianina, 5333 Kanaya, (5452) 1937 NN, 6170 Levasseur, 7741 Fedoseev, 14815 Rutberg, 15724 Zille, 16525 Shumarinaiko, (21996) 1993 XP31, (29729) 1999 BY1, (35404) 1997 YV5, (39087) 2000 VN50, (66146) 1998 TU3, and (101769) 1999 FF52.

  16. 王邪斗争新体验之HUNTER THE RECKONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴龙

    2002-01-01

    《猎手(Hunter)》是High Voltage Software公司很早就推出的一款游戏,原作曾经赢得了很多玩者的赞赏,但是它的续作《猎手:测算(Hunter: The Reckoning)》的制作更加精细。在游戏中,当选择了4个“猎手”之一后,你会切身体会到在黑暗的宇宙中同邪恶进行斗争的艰辛。

  17. Consideration on the Survival and Loneliness in the Heart Is a Lonely Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LI

    2015-01-01

    "Loneliness" is the main melody in almost all the works of Carson McCullers, and it is particularly prominent in novel the Heart Is a Lonely Hunter. All characters in the works were confined by loneliness and could not extricate themselves. Why do human beings feel so lonely?In this paper, the root of the loneliness reflected by human survival itself is discussed, namely, the relationship between the inherent conflict and loneliness of human survival, so as to think about loneliness deeply.

  18. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbotham, N.; Freeman, S.; Connor, L.; Albrecht, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). School of Medicine & Public Health

    2010-03-15

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  19. Comparison of fattening performance, carcass characteristics, and egg quality characteristics of Japanese quails with different feather colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Inci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare fattening performance, carcass traits, and egg quality of Japanese quails with different feather colors (white, dark brown, golden, and wild-type. In the study, 360 one-day-old quail chicks with 4 different feather colors were used as animal material. Quails were fed ad libitum for 42 days to determine fattening performance and carcass traits. To determine egg traits, 48 hens from each group, in a total of 192, were selected and caged according to feather color. Eggs were collected for four consecutive weeks and egg quality characteristics were measured. Different feather colors had a significant effect on live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and carcass characteristics. Significant differences between the groups were detected for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, albumen index, and yolk index. Japanese quails with all four feather colors can be reared depending on the choice. However, due to lower feed conversion ratio, white-feathered quails may be preferred for meat production purposes. Color variations should be considered when selecting quails.

  20. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of years, so people in Indonesia claim, head-hunters – figures of dread and fascination that have haunted societies, politics, and the public imagination in Indonesia at least since colonial times – have begun to adopt a novel and troubling tactic. Instead of decapitating...... their victims and using the human heads in construction rituals as they used to do, head-hunters are now allegedly harvesting the victims’ organs for sale on the international organ market. Based on a comparison of ethnographic material from North Maluku, a province in the eastern part of Indonesia, and news...... reports I trace the shift from head-hunting to organ theft and suggest that this plasticity is not merely a symbolic representation of changing political and economic realities. Rather, I argue, the organ-stealing head-hunters are part of a global travelling package that includes and entangles organ...

  1. Diagnosis of Hunter's syndrome carriers; radioactive sulphate incorporation into fibroblasts in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toennesen, T.; Lykkelund, C.; Guettler, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mutual correction of co-cultivated fibroblasts from patients with Hunter's and Hurler's syndrome could be inhibited by either fructose 1-phosphate or mannose 6-phosphate. In the presence of fructose 1-phosphate a 50% mixture of fibroblasts from a patient with Hunter's syndrome and a normal homozygous individual showed an increased /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides. When fibroblast cultures from one obligate and two possible carriers of Hunter's syndrome were tested for /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation, the cultures showed either twice the normal /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate or an abnormally high incorporation in the presence as well as in the absence of the sugar phosphate.

  2. Hunter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Breathing difficulty Chromosome ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  3. A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fucheng; Zhou, Zhonghe; Xu, Xing; Wang, Xiaolin; Sullivan, Corwin

    2008-10-23

    Recent coelurosaurian discoveries have greatly enriched our knowledge of the transition from dinosaurs to birds, but all reported taxa close to this transition are from relatively well known coelurosaurian groups. Here we report a new basal avialan, Epidexipteryx hui gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle to Late Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. This new species is characterized by an unexpected combination of characters seen in several different theropod groups, particularly the Oviraptorosauria. Phylogenetic analysis shows it to be the sister taxon to Epidendrosaurus, forming a new clade at the base of Avialae. Epidexipteryx also possesses two pairs of elongate ribbon-like tail feathers, and its limbs lack contour feathers for flight. This finding shows that a member of the avialan lineage experimented with integumentary ornamentation as early as the Middle to Late Jurassic, and provides further evidence relating to this aspect of the transition from non-avian theropods to birds.

  4. Identification and localization of a novel zinc finger gene in developing chick skin and feather buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padanilam, B J; Solursh, M

    1996-03-07

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein (Fzf-1) containing two tandem repeats of zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type. The cDNA is 3.0 Kb long and has an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 789 amino acids. The expression pattern of the zinc finger gene was studied in chick embryonic skin and feathers by in situ hybridization. The expression of the gene is found to be temporally and spatially regulated. In stage 38 chick embryos, the transcripts are localized to the epidermis but in 10-day-old embryos, the signal is localized to the forming dermis. In 12-day-old chick, the transcripts are localized to the mesenchymal region of the elongated feather buds. Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) did not detect the transcripts in any other tissues.

  5. Light Like a Feather: A Fibrous Natural Composite with a Shape Changing from Round to Square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-03-01

    Only seldom are square/rectangular shapes found in nature. One notable exception is the bird feather rachis, which raises the question: why is the proximal base round but the distal end square? Herein, it is uncovered that, given the same area, square cross sections show higher bending rigidity and are superior in maintaining the original shape, whereas circular sections ovalize upon flexing. This circular-to-square shape change increases the ability of the flight feathers to resist flexure while minimizes the weight along the shaft length. The walls are themselves a heterogeneous composite with the fiber arrangements adjusted to the local stress requirements: the dorsal and ventral regions are composed of longitudinal and circumferential fibers, while lateral walls consist of crossed fibers. This natural avian design is ready to be reproduced, and it is anticipated that the knowledge gained from this work will inspire new materials and structures for, e.g., manned/unmanned aerial vehicles.

  6. Dissolution and characterization of biofunctional keratin particles extracted from chicken feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Arun; Chik, Syed Mohd Saufi Bin Tuan; Yeo Gek Kee, Chua; Poddar, Pradeep Kumar

    2017-04-01

    In the present study chicken feathers were hydrolyzed in alkaline environment. The pH value of feather hydrolyzed solution was adjusted according to the principle of isoelectric precipitation. Three kinds of precipitates of keratin polypeptide were collected at pH of 3.5, 5.5 and 7.5 respectively. The keratin solution were freeze dried and denoted as FKP1, FKP2, FKP3 respectively. All keratin particles possessed smooth, uniform and round surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM). FKP1, FKP2 and FKP3 had higher glass transition temperature examined by thermogravimetry (TG). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the extracted keratin retained the most of protein backbone, with the breakage of disulfide cross-links and hydrogen bonds.

  7. Locational differences in metal concentrations in feathers of Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Veitch, C R; Gochfeld, M

    1994-08-01

    Levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, manganese and chromium were examined in breast feathers of Australasian Gannets (Morus serrator) from New Zealand waters, where they breed on coastal rocky stacks, islands, and occasionally coastal headlands. There were significant differences in the concentrations of all metals except mercury, with gannets from Ninety Mile Beach having significantly lower levels of all metals than those from the other beaches. Ninety Mile Beach is on the northern tip of the North Island, away from urbanization and industrialization, whereas the other beaches are closer to Auckland, the largest city in New Zealand. The levels of most metals were similar or lower than those reported for feathers from elsewhere around the world. Mercury, however, was at the high end, being exceeded only by raptors and gulls from industrialized countries. Several metal levels were highly correlated, indicating that gannets were usually exposed to several metals at once.

  8. MetaboHunter: an automatic approach for identification of metabolites from 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culf Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy is widely used for high-throughput characterization of metabolites in complex biological mixtures. However, the accurate identification of individual compounds is still a challenging task, particularly in spectral regions with higher peak densities. The need for automatic tools to facilitate and further improve the accuracy of such tasks, while using increasingly larger reference spectral libraries becomes a priority of current metabolomics research. Results We introduce a web server application, called MetaboHunter, which can be used for automatic assignment of 1H-NMR spectra of metabolites. MetaboHunter provides methods for automatic metabolite identification based on spectra or peak lists with three different search methods and with possibility for peak drift in a user defined spectral range. The assignment is performed using as reference libraries manually curated data from two major publicly available databases of NMR metabolite standard measurements (HMDB and MMCD. Tests using a variety of synthetic and experimental spectra of single and multi metabolite mixtures show that MetaboHunter is able to identify, in average, more than 80% of detectable metabolites from spectra of synthetic mixtures and more than 50% from spectra corresponding to experimental mixtures. This work also suggests that better scoring functions improve by more than 30% the performance of MetaboHunter's metabolite identification methods. Conclusions MetaboHunter is a freely accessible, easy to use and user friendly 1H-NMR-based web server application that provides efficient data input and pre-processing, flexible parameter settings, fast and automatic metabolite fingerprinting and results visualization via intuitive plotting and compound peak hit maps. Compared to other published and freely accessible metabolomics tools, MetaboHunter implements three efficient methods to search for metabolites in manually curated

  9. An Evaluation of Otolith Thermal Marking at the Feather River Hatchery, California

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Michael; Kurth, Ryon

    2014-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss4art3 California’s Feather River Hatchery (FRH) propagates two runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): spring run and fall run. Loss of spawning habitat and historical hatchery practices have led to introgression of these runs. Recent efforts to reform hatchery operations at the FRH are focused on reducing introgression and increasing the proportion of natural-origin spawners in the broodstock. Implementing these re...

  10. Geophysical Surveys for Assessing Levee Foundation Conditions, Feather River Levees, Marysville/Yuba City, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    aggradation on nearby Yuba River at Marysville was delayed until 1905, where a total of nearly 6.5 m of aggradation was observed. By the late 1860s... aggradation was so extreme that the beds of the Yuba and Feather Rivers were higher than the city streets in Marysville. After mining ceased, the sediment...when the bed began to rest upon pre-hydraulic material that was more resistant to erosion. As a result of the rapid aggradation and subsequent incision

  11. Five new species of the feather mite genus Trouessartia Canestrini from South America (Acari: Trouessartiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi

    2014-08-21

    Five new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from South American birds: Trouessartia latiducta sp. nov. from Phylloscartes kronei (Tyrannidae), T. basileuteri sp. nov. from Basileuterus culicivorus (Parulidae), T. sicaliae sp. nov. from Sicalis flaveola (Emberizidae), T. savanae sp. nov. from Tyrannus savana (Tyrannidae), and T. picumni from Picumnus fulvescens (Picidae). The latter species is the first representative of the genus described from a bird of the order Piciformes. 

  12. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  13. High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmlund Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and culture are believed to interact, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence for the process. One candidate example that has been put forward is lactase persistence in adulthood, i.e. the ability to continue digesting the milk sugar lactose after childhood, facilitating the consumption of raw milk. This genetic trait is believed to have evolved within a short time period and to be related with the emergence of sedentary agriculture. Results Here we investigate the frequency of an allele (-13910*T associated with lactase persistence in a Neolithic Scandinavian population. From the 14 individuals originally examined, 10 yielded reliable results. We find that the T allele frequency was very low (5% in this Middle Neolithic hunter-gatherer population, and that the frequency is dramatically different from the extant Swedish population (74%. Conclusions We conclude that this difference in frequency could not have arisen by genetic drift and is either due to selection or, more likely, replacement of hunter-gatherer populations by sedentary agriculturalists.

  14. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marc; Estrada, Nereyda; Smith, Derek A

    2012-12-01

    The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is a popular game species throughout Central America, particularly among indigenous populations, and is currently endangered. Research on Miskitu hunting was conducted over 4 months in a remote region in northeastern Honduras that overlaps with the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The hunting zone was mapped together with hunters and interviews were conducted with elders and other community members about tapir hunting. Results show that tapir harvesting is targeted toward specific habitats at specific times of year. Harvest rates for one year suggest that tapir hunting in the area exceeds estimates of maximum sustainable production. Nevertheless, field surveys reveal the presence of tapir within 1 km of the community, and its harvest tends to be nearby, in both forested and agricultural landscapes, suggesting that the animal has not been depleted in the area. It appears that the existence of forest areas adjacent to the hunting zone that do not experience hunting, together with the anthropogenic habitats created through shifting cultivation, are factors that help explain the presence of tapirs in the area. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range.

  15. Síndrome de Hunter Mucopolisacaridosis (II:reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghunter Paz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Hunter, es una alteración genética que afecta principalmente a los varones, debido a la deficiencia o ausencia de la enzima iduronato-2-sulfatasa, que interfiere con lacapacidad del cuerpo de descomponer y reciclar los mucopolisacáridos. La incidencia es de 1:10.000 a 1:25.000 de recién nacidos vivos. Las manifestaciones físicas, incluyen rasgos faciales distintivos, cabeza grande, abdomen aumentado, engrosamiento de válvulas cardíacas, enfermedad respiratoria obstructiva, retraso del desarrollo mental y aumento de tamaño del hígado y del bazo.Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino de 7 años de edad, con diagnostico de síndrome de Hunter hace seis años, con antecedentes de crisis convulsivas en dos oportunidades y cuadros de bronconeumonía.Al examen físico presenta fascie tosca, contractura en musculo bíceps braquial, se logra la extensión de las manos, camina con la punta de los pies y presenta hepato y esplenomegalia. Al cual se le trató la sintomatología respiratoria con el uso de antibióticos.

  16. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  17. Dietary resilience among hunter-gatherers of Tierra del Fuego: Isotopic evidence in a diachronic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Mary Anne; Zangrando, Atilio Francisco Javier; Tessone, Augusto; Kochi, Sayuri; Moggi Cecchi, Jacopo; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Profico, Antonio; Manzi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations.

  18. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  19. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  20. Nameless desire: alexithymia and the anorexic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Regina

    2004-03-01

    In this article, the author attempts to provide a psychoanalytic understanding of the anorexic patient who is disconnected from her affective experience and is considered to be alexithymic. Through her restrictive food ritual, this type of patient may organize her internal states by repeatedly creating an illusion of what it is that she needs and desires. The author asserts that the task of the therapist working with the anorexic patient with alexithymia is to be aware of his own sensation-based reverie as lived within the intersubjective arena. This will enable the therapist to assist the patient in building an affective vocabulary to accurately identify, differentiate, and label the internal signals of her body. It is suggested that the subjective emotional experience of the patient will continue to be reorganized, expanded, and enriched as the therapist and patient mutually influence one another in this unique relational matrix. A clinical vignette is provided to illustrate intersubjective treatment interventions with a difficult-to-reach anorexic patient.