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Sample records for hunter outcome survey

  1. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with muco­polysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Link

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS. The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years. Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle. Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required.

  2. Sources of nonresponse to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Geissler, P.H.; Hoover, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Response rates to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey (WHQS) have declined since the 1950's, suggesting that harvest estimates may be biased. Consequently, we investigated reasons for WHQS nonresponse using surveys of waterfowl hunters in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Texas [USA]. Sampling frames were constructed using lists of buyers of state hunting licenses or state duck stamps. We mailed questionnaires to 16,452 randomly selected hunters, with 2 follow-up mailings at 3-week intervals. Questionnaires were completed by 8,812 respondents, and a further 587 interviews were conducted by telephone. Post offices accounted for between 53.7% (Minn.) and 92.8% (N.J.) of federal waterfowl duck stamp sales, and stores accounted for most other sales. Of hunters who bought a federal waterfowl stamp from sample post offices, between 16.7% (Minn.) and 40.0% (Ark.) reported receiving a WHQS contact card. Of those receiving contact cards, between 30.0% (N.J.) and 64.3% (La. and Tex.) reported returning them. Because survey coverage of the target population is poor, we recommend that a new sampling frame be developed for the WHQS.

  3. Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, P.M.; Gude, J.A.; Russell, R.E.; Ackerman, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  5. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  6. Wyoming Game and Fish Department : Jackson elk herd hunter survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a special survey for permit holders that hunt elk in the Jackson Hole area in 2001. This information will be used by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the...

  7. Chitah: Strong-gravitational-lens hunter in imaging surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, James H. H.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Chiueh, Tzihong; More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Philip J.; Coupon, Jean; Oguri, Masamune; Price, Paul

    2015-07-07

    Strong gravitationally lensed quasars provide powerful means to study galaxy evolution and cosmology. Current and upcoming imaging surveys will contain thousands of new lensed quasars, augmenting the existing sample by at least two orders of magnitude. To find such lens systems, we built a robot, Chitah, that hunts for lensed quasars by modeling the configuration of the multiple quasar images. Specifically, given an image of an object that might be a lensed quasar, Chitah first disentangles the light from the supposed lens galaxy and the light from the multiple quasar images based on color information. A simple rule is designed to categorize the given object as a potential four-image (quad) or two-image (double) lensed quasar system. The configuration of the identified quasar images is subsequently modeled to classify whether the object is a lensed quasar system. We test the performance of Chitah using simulated lens systems based on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. For bright quads with large image separations (with Einstein radius ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gt 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1$) simulated using Gaussian point-spread functions, a high true-positive rate (TPR) of $\\sim 90\\%$ and a low false-positive rate of $\\sim 3\\%$ show that this is a promising approach to search for new lens systems. We obtain high TPR for lens systems with ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gtrsim 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5$, so the performance of Chitah is set by the seeing. We further feed a known gravitational lens system, COSMOS 5921+0638, to Chitah, and demonstrate that Chitah is able to classify this real gravitational lens system successfully. Our newly built Chitah is omnivorous and can hunt in any ground-based imaging surveys.

  8. Chitah: Strong-gravitational-lens hunter in imaging surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, James H H; Chiueh, Tzihong; More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Philip J; Coupon, Jean; Oguri, Masamune; Price, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitationally lensed quasars provide powerful means to study galaxy evolution and cosmology. Current and upcoming imaging surveys will contain thousands of new lensed quasars, augmenting the existing sample by at least two orders of magnitudes. To find such lens systems, we built a robot, Chitah, that hunts for lensed quasars by modeling the configuration of the multiple quasar images. Specifically, given an image of an object that might be a lensed quasar, Chitah first disentangles the light from the supposed lens galaxy and the light from the multiple quasar images based on color information. A simple rule is designed to categorize the given object into a potential four-image (quad) or two-image (double) lensed quasar system. The configuration of the identified quasar images is subsequently modeled to classify whether the object is a lensed quasar system. We test the performance of Chitah using simulated lens systems based on the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Legacy Survey. For bright quads with l...

  9. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants among Dozo hunters: an ethnobotanical survey in Niamberla village, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibiri, André; Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Dao, Abou; Elkington, Bethany G; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2015-05-01

    This investigation aims to provide a database of Dozo traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of common diseases. The study was conducted through individual interviews using a survey form. Data were recorded in a database allowing statistical analysis. Each plant was recorded and documented with a herbarium specimen. Settings/Location & Subjects: The term Dozo refers to great hunters from Burkina Faso, highly renowned for their knowledge of medicinal plants. Niamberla village was founded by Dozo hunters and is currently the residence of many traditional healers. Unfortunately, their indigenous knowledge is not well recorded and may be lost between two generations. A total of 16 traditional healers were interviewed, giving 89 recipes for the treatment of 37 diseases. The most common diseases are malaria (13%), psychological/spiritual issues (12%), gastric disorders (11%), sexually transmitted diseases (10%), and wounds (8%). A total of 56 medicinal plants have been identified, consisting mostly of trees (44%), shrubs (34%), and herbs (16%). The results of this research provide a basis for pharmacological and toxicological investigations and are necessary to preserve the indigenous knowledge of traditional medicine among Dozo hunters.

  10. Brood surveys and hunter observations used to predict gobbling activity wild turkeys in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Matthew D.; Vilella, Francisco; Strickland, Bronson K.; Wang, Guiming; Godwin, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks utilize data from turkey hunter observations and brood surveys from across the state to manage wild turkey Meleagris gallopavo populations. Since 1995, hunters have collected gobbling and jake observation data, while the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks' personnel and cooperating wildlife managers of several natural resource agencies throughout the state have collected brood survey data. Both sources of data serve to forecast poult recruitment and gobbling activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate if these data can serve as a viable predictor of gobbling activity. We used three mixed models to investigate the relationship between the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior and the total number of poults per hens 2 y prior (model 1), number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior (model 2), the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the total number poults per total hens observed 2 y prior (model 3) using data from 1995 to 2008 among five wild turkey management regions encompassing the state. We incorporated region as a random effect to account for spatial variation. We found the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior correlated with the total number of poults per total hens observed 2 y prior. We also found the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting correlated with the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior. Additionally, we found that the total poults per total hens observed 2 y prior was correlated to the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting. Our results show promise for using indices of gobbling activity, jake observations, and brood surveys to estimate gobbling activity.

  11. Using the Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model to Improve Outcomes Assessments in Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Michelle D.; Martin, Gregory S.; Burns, Alvin C.; Bush, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces marketing educators to the Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model (HDIM) as an approach to significantly and substantially improve student learning through course-embedded assessment. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated in three different marketing courses taught by three different marketing professors. The…

  12. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Vulnerable Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Asha Begum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps contain more risk. But user may not know the effects that are caused by the app which is installed until the performance of mobile is reduced. With the prosperity of the Android app economy, many apps have been published and sold in various markets. However, short development applications and insufficient security development apps have led to many vulnerable apps. So to reduce these type of problems Vulnerable Hunter is proposed. Through the proposed application user can see which application is risky and then the user may uninstall that application. The main advantage of designing this app is without internet also the users will use this application. Users also feel more convenient to work with mobile apps.

  14. Hunters in the new millennium”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Peter

    of the modern world continue to practice hunting? What are the preferences of the modern hunter? How are the preferences and conduct of hunters related to the social and demographic factors? What are the social, political and economical impacts of hunting? What motivates people to hunt? - In spite of the fact...... that hunting is a common source of conflict between different interests, only very few studies has been made to produce knowledge about people hunting for leisure. The surveyHunters in the new millennium” is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of hunters and hunting in an increasing urbanized...

  15. Seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios from hunter-based surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Demographic monitoring is vital for tracking and modelling the population dynamics of highly mobile bird populations. However, different types of monitoring can sometimes lead to different outcomes, and understanding the causes of equivocal results is an important step to advance future monitoring...... dominated by adult males, and juvenile proportions were highest in November and significantly lower before and after this peak. Nationwide field assessments undertaken in January 2012 showed no significant differences from sex and age ratios in the wing survey data from that particular hunting season (2011...

  16. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  17. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  18. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  19. Utilizing hunter harvest effort to survey for wildlife disease: a case study of West Nile virus in greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Franson, J. Christian; Budeau, David A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) are highly susceptible to infection with West Nile virus (WNV), with substantial mortality reported in wild populations and in experimentally infected birds. Although sage-grouse are hunted throughout much of their range, they have also recently been considered for protection under the Endangered Species Act. We used blood samples collected on filter-paper strips during the 2006–2010 Oregon, USA, annual sage-grouse hunt to survey for specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that indicate a previous infection with WNV. During this period, hunters submitted 1,880 blood samples from sage-grouse they harvested. Samples obtained were proportional for all 12 Oregon sage-grouse hunting units. Laboratory testing of 1,839 samples by the WNV epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) followed by plaque reduction neutralization test on bELISA-positive samples yielded 19 (1%) and 1 (0.05%) positive samples, respectively. These data provided early baseline information for future comparisons regarding the prevalence of WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies in sage-grouse in Oregon. This methodology may provide other states where sage-grouse (or other species) populations are hunted and where WNV constitutes a species conservation concern with a viable option to track the relative prevalence of the virus in populations.

  20. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  1. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates.

  2. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  3. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  4. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  5. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  6. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  7. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  8. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  9. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  10. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  11. Attribute-based analysis of hunters' lease preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Munn, Ian A; Hudson, Darren; West, Ben

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of hunter preferences for hunting lease attributes is important to landowners because such knowledge provides key information for managing and marketing fee-hunting in order to maximize revenues. Premised on this insight, we used attribute based modeling to investigate how hunter preferences for potential leases were influenced by lease and hunter-specific attributes. A mail survey of Mississippi licensed hunters provided the necessary data. Estimation results based on McFadden conditional logit regression suggested that lease attributes including game diversity, lease location relative to hunter residence, lease size, lease duration and lease rate influenced willingness to pay for additional units of lease attributes. Depending on the specific levels of these attributes, WTP could vary as much as $5.70 per acre. Of the hunter-specific attributes, age and income significantly influenced hunter decision to buy a lease or opt for status quo. Results of this study should assist landowners in increasing financial returns from fee-hunting endeavors through appropriate changes to their hunting access policies and wildlife management activities in response to hunter preferences regarding lease attributes.

  12. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  13. The Infrared Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 This image composite compares infrared and visible views of the famous Orion nebula and its surrounding cloud, an industrious star-making region located near the hunter constellation's sword. The infrared picture is from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, and the visible image is from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, headquartered in Tucson, Ariz. In addition to Orion, two other nebulas can be seen in both pictures. The Orion nebula, or M42, is the largest and takes up the lower half of the images; the small nebula to the upper left of Orion is called M43; and the medium-sized nebula at the top is NGC 1977. Each nebula is marked by a ring of dust that stands out in the infrared view. These rings make up the walls of cavities that are being excavated by radiation and winds from massive stars. The visible view of the nebulas shows gas heated by ultraviolet radiation from the massive stars. Above the Orion nebula, where the massive stars have not yet ejected much of the obscuring dust, the visible image appears dark with only a faint glow. In contrast, the infrared view penetrates the dark lanes of dust, revealing bright swirling clouds and numerous developing stars that have shot out jets of gas (green). This is because infrared light can travel through dust, whereas visible light is stopped short by it. The infrared image shows light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Light with wavelengths of 8 and 5.8 microns (red and orange) comes mainly from dust that has been heated by starlight. Light of 4.5 microns (green) shows hot gas and dust; and light of 3.6 microns (blue) is from starlight.

  14. Planet Hunters: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

  15. Identification and specialization as a waterfowl hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Like specialization, identity offers a way for differentiating and understanding recreationists and for gaining insight into the question of participant progression in an activity. We examined how identity related to measures of specialization among lapsed and current waterfowl hunters. Lapsed hunters included those who had purchased a Minnesota waterfowl stamp between 2000 and 2004, but not since this time. Current hunters had purchased a 2010 stamp. Results suggested that some waterfowl hunters specialize and progress toward a waterfowl-hunter identity. Others, however, either hunt for years but never specialize and identify as waterfowl hunters, or move toward but do not attain a waterfowl hunter identity. Individuals who achieve a waterfowl hunter identity may also later relinquish this identity. Identification was associated with increased specialization and resistance to change from a preference for waterfowl hunting. Individuals who had relinquished their identity retained social and knowledge-based commitment to waterfowl hunting, whereas attraction and centrality declined.

  16. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  17. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  18. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  19. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  20. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  1. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  2. Hunter Valley的诚信%Hunter Valley's Honesty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 去年圣诞节假期,我和小T曾和大连狮子一家三口,到悉尼附近知名旅游地Hunter Valley(猎人谷)度过了快乐充实的三天. 我们一行五人在圣诞节那天乘坐提前预订好的马车,大约走访了八、九个大大小小的葡萄洒园.

  3. Measures of language outcomes using the Aboriginal Children's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Speech and language skills are an important developmental milestone for all children, and one of the most prevalent forms of developmental delay among Aboriginal children. However, population-based indicators of Aboriginal children's language outcomes are limited. Data from the Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS) were used to examine measures of language for Aboriginal children who were 2 to 5 years of age. Responses to ACS questions on ability in any language were examined in exploratory factor analyses to determine possible language indicators. Construct validity was examined by regressing language outcomes onto socio-demographic characteristics known to be associated with children's language. Four language outcomes were identified and labelled: expressive language, mutual understanding, story-telling, and speech and language difficulties. The conceptualization of items from the ACS into separate language indicators can be used by researchers examining young Aboriginal children's language outcomes.

  4. Influence of Age and Educational Level on the Behavior of Hunters in Vojvodina Province (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Marković

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as an important factor in the development of economy has a major impact on the development of hunting and hunting tourism. In this research, it has conducted a survey of hunters from the territory of Vojvodina Province regarding their attitude and motives for hunting, importance of education, importance of GIS in hunting, poaching as well as their level of hunting ethics. Using SPSS program, it was cross-referenced the individual responses in relation to age category and level of education. The results show that the youngest hunters (18 to 35 years compared to middle age hunters (35-59 years and old hunters (over 60 visit hunting events more, they are the most informed about GIS and they are most willing to learn about these technologies. The number of hunters that took part in the poaching is proportional with their level of education, so that most hunters that participate in poaching hold a university degree. However, hunters holding a university degree in the highest percentage believe that GIS can contribute to the development of hunting largely, and are willing to participate in training.

  5. Danes - The keen bargain hunters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2008-01-01

    New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product.......New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product....

  6. The hunter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th century: humankind has become a spacefaring civilization, colonizing the solar system and beyond. While no alien forms of life have yet been encountered in this expansion into space, colonists suddenly encounter machines of alien origin - huge robots able to reproduce themselves.  Called replicators by the colonists, they seem to have but a single goal: to destroy all organic life they come in contact with. Since the colonial governments have no means to fight this menace directly, they instead promise huge rewards to whoever destroys a replicator. As a result, the frontier attracts a new kind of adventurers, the Hunters, who work to find and destroy the replicators. Mike Edwards, a skilled young maintenance technician and robotics expert at a faraway outpost, will not only become one of them - but be the very first one to unlock the secret behind the replicators’ origin and mission.   The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular space travel, robotics and self-replica...

  7. Trophy hunters' willingness to pay for wildlife conservation and community benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Tibebe Weldesemaet, Yitbarek; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Tadie, Degu; Hanley, Nick

    2015-08-01

    In the face of fundamental land-use changes, the potential for trophy hunting to contribute to conservation is increasingly recognized. Trophy hunting can, for example, provide economic incentives to protect wildlife populations and their habitat, but empirical studies on these relationships are few and tend to focus on the effects of benefit-sharing schemes from an ex post perspective. We investigated the conditions under which trophy hunting could facilitate wildlife conservation in Ethiopia ex ante. We used a choice experiment approach to survey international trophy hunters' (n = 224) preferences for trips to Ethiopia, here operationalized as trade-offs between different attributes of a hunting package, as expressed through choices with an associated willingness to pay. Participants expressed strong preferences and, consequently, were willing to pay substantial premiums for hunting trips to areas with abundant nontarget wildlife where domestic livestock was absent and for arrangements that offered benefit sharing with local communities. For example, within the range of percentages considered in the survey, respondents were on average willing to pay an additional $3900 for every 10 percentage points of the revenue being given to local communities. By contrast, respondents were less supportive of hunting revenue being retained by governmental bodies: Willingness to pay decreased by $1900 for every 10 percentage points of the revenue given to government. Hunters' preferences for such attributes of hunting trips differed depending on the degree to which they declared an interest in Ethiopian culture, nature conservation, or believed Ethiopia to be politically unstable. Overall, respondents thus expressly valued the outcomes of nature conservation activities--the presence of wildlife in hunting areas--and they were willing to pay for them. Our findings highlight the usefulness of insights from choice modeling for the design of wildlife management and conservation

  8. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  9. Ethical acceptability of recreational hunting - does the motive of the hunter matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ,001) and hunters (n=1,130) in Denmark. In this survey just under half of the general public indicated that the hunters’ motives affected their attitude to the acceptability of hunting. A significant difference in wildlife value orientations was found between the two groups. Motives relating to nature, the social...... is to assess the extent to which the perceived motive for recreational hunting plays a role in its public acceptance. We also compare public perceptions of the importance of motive with those of hunters. We conducted a nationally representative survey (web-based questionnaires) of the general public (n=1......’, ‘the sport’, ‘the excitement’, and ‘to kill’ to recreational hunting to a much greater degree than the hunters themselves; and these motives were associated with lower assessments of the acceptability of recreational hunting among the public. The mismatch between presumed and professed motives among...

  10. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  11. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  12. Zoonotic disease risk and the bushmeat trade: assessing awareness among hunters and traders in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among both conservationists and public health officials for its influence on zoonotic disease transmission and animal conservation. While the association between infectious diseases and the bushmeat trade is well established in the research community, risk perception among bushmeat hunters and traders has not been well characterized. I conducted surveys of 123 bushmeat hunters and traders in rural Sierra Leone to investigate hunting practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risk associated with the bushmeat trade. Twenty-four percent of bushmeat hunters and traders reported knowledge of disease transmission from animals to humans. Formal education did not significantly affect awareness of zoonotic disease transmission. Individuals who engaged exclusively in preparation and trading of bushmeat were more likely to accidentally cut themselves compared to those who primarily engaged in bushmeat hunting (P zoonotic pathogens through accidental self-cutting compared to men (P zoonotic disease transmission risk among vulnerable communities.

  13. The Hunter pulmonary angiography catheter for a brachiocephalic vein approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Galia; Kowalik, Karen J; Ganguli, Suverano; Hunter, David W

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to describe our experience in performing pulmonary angiography using the Hunter pulmonary catheter, manufactured by Cook, Inc., which is a modified 6F pigtail catheter with a "C-shaped" curve, designed for a brachiocephalic vein approach. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent pulmonary angiograms using the Hunter catheter between August 1997 and January 2002. Operator comments were gathered in 86 (70%) of the cases. The operator was, if possible, the most junior resident on the service. Thirty-nine operators participated in the survey. Efficacy, safety, and ease of use of the catheter were determined by operators' comments and ECG observations during the procedure. Corroborating clinical data were gathered from medical records. In 68 (79%) of the procedures that were commented upon, the operator described insertion into the pulmonary artery (PA) as easy; only 2 (2%) indicated difficulty in accessing the PA. In 41 (63%) of the bilateral angiograms that were commented upon, the operator described accessing the left PA from the right PA as easy; only 6 (9%) rated it as difficult and all were with an older technique in which the catheter was withdrawn to the pulmonary bifurcation without a wire or with only the soft tip of the wire in the pigtail and then rotated to the left main pulmonary artery. Thirty-one of the 41 patients who demonstrated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had a previous history of heart disease. Nineteen of the 39 patients who did not have PVCs had a history of heart disease (p = 0.018). The maneuverability and shape of the Hunter catheter make pulmonary angiography an easy procedure, even for operators with minimal experience and limited technical proficiency. PVCs demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with a positive patient history for cardiac disease, rather than being a universal risk.

  14. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  15. 32 CFR 636.10 - Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration. 636.10... Stewart, Georgia § 636.10 Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration. Personnel assigned or employed at Hunter Army Airfield are required to register their privately owned vehicles within five days...

  16. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  17. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  18. Hunters Try to Capture Their Past

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Daily

    2012-01-01

    Mo Guizhen was 5 when she saw a real bed for the first time.She refused to sleep on it,accustomed as she was to deer furs laid on the ground of hunters' huts in the depths of the Greater Hinggan Mountains in northeastern China.

  19. Hunters syndrom og hørenedsaettelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Eva Kirkegaard; Møller, Troels Reinholdt; Wetke, Randi

    2010-01-01

    functions and language were delayed, and he made audible respiratory sounds and was obviously nasally congested. The boy was referred for further investigations at the Department of Paediatrics. The tests showed that the boy suffered from Hunter Syndrome (MPSII) and he underwent relevant treatment....

  20. Identification of preliminary core outcome domains for communication about childhood vaccination: An online Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jessica; Ryan, Rebecca; Lewin, Simon; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Cliff, Julie; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Oku, Afiong; Ames, Heather; Rada, Gabriel; Cartier, Yuri; Hill, Sophie

    2017-08-20

    Communication interventions for childhood vaccination are promising strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, but current research is limited by the outcomes measured. Most studies measure only vaccination-related outcomes, with minimal consideration of vaccine hesitancy-relevant intermediate outcomes. This impedes understanding of which interventions or elements are effective. It is also unknown which outcomes are important to the range of stakeholders affected by vaccine hesitancy. Outcome selection shapes the evidence base, informing future interventions and trials, and should reflect stakeholder priorities. Therefore, our aim was to identify which outcome domains (i.e. broad outcome categories) are most important to different stakeholders, identifying preliminary core outcome domains to inform evaluation of three common vaccination communication types: (i) communication to inform or educate, (ii) remind or recall, and (iii) enhance community ownership. We conducted a two-stage online Delphi survey, involving four stakeholder groups: parents or community members, healthcare providers, researchers, and government or non-governmental organisation representatives. Participants rated the importance of eight outcome domains for each of the three communication types. They also rated specific outcomes within one domain ("attitudes or beliefs") and provided feedback about the survey. Collectively, stakeholder groups prioritised outcome domains differently when considering the effects of different communication types. For communication that aims to (i) inform or educate, the most important outcome domain is "knowledge or understanding"; for (ii) reminder communication, "vaccination status and behaviours"; and for (iii) community engagement communication, "community participation". All stakeholder groups rated most outcome domains as very important or critical. The highest rated specific outcome within the "attitudes or beliefs" domain was "trust". This Delphi survey

  1. Assessing the Main-Belt Comet Population with Comet Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Hsieh, Henry H.; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ying-Tung; Lintott, Chris; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Mishra, Ishan

    2017-01-01

    Cometary activity in the asteroid belt is a recent discovery. Evidence suggests recent collisions play a role excavating subsurface water ice in these Main Belt Comets (MBCs). MBCs may be an alternative source of Earth’s water. The properties and origins of the MBCs remain elusive. To date ~15 MBCs are known, but only with many tens to 100s of MBCs can we fully explore this new reservoir and its implications for the early Earth.Automated routines identify cometary objects by comparing the point spread functions (PSFs) of moving objects to background stars. This approach may miss cometary activity with low-level dust comae or trails that are too weak or extended to affect an object's near-nucleus PSF profile. Direct visual inspection of moving objects by survey team members can often catch such unusual objects, but such an approach is impractical for the largest surveys to date, and will only become more intractable with the next generation wide-field surveys.With the Internet, tens of thousands of people can be engaged in the scientific process. With this citizen science approach, the combined assessment of many non-experts often equals or rivals that of a trained expert and in many cases outperforms automated algorithms. The Comet Hunters (http://www.comethunters.org) project enlists the public to search for MBCs in data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) wide survey. HSC is to date the largest field-of-view camera (covering a 1.5 degree diameter circle on sky) on a 8-10-m class telescope. The HSC wide survey provides the sensitivity to detect cometary activity at lower levels than have been possible for previous surveys.We will give an overview of the Comet Hunters project. We will present the results from the first ~10,000 HSC asteroids searched and provide an estimate on the frequency of cometary activity in the Main Asteroid beltAcknowledgements: This work uses data generated via the Zooniverse.org platform, development of which was supported by a Global

  2. Treatment of HAE Attacks in the Icatibant Outcome Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Ibañez, Ethel; Longhurst, Hilary;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Icatibant, a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist for the treatment of acute hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) attacks in adults, can be administered by health care professionals (HCPs) or self-administered. This analysis compared characteristics and outcomes of acute HAE attacks t...

  3. Development and Psychometric Validation of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Novak, Scott P.; Sam, Ann M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Guillen, Chelsea

    2011-01-01

    Few psychometrically valid scales exist to assess family outcomes and the helpfulness of early intervention. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised. The revision was prompted by the need to (a) create a new format that would be easier for parents to understand, (b) revise and expand…

  4. Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners and the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    . Significant differences in wildlife value orientations were found. Mutualists and distanced dominated in the public; most landowners and hunters were utilitarian followed by pluralist. Male hunters were more utilitarian than female. More active hunters were more utilitarian; hunters belonging to a hunting...... association were more utilitarian than those who did not belong to associations. Full-time farmers were more utilitarian than part-time farmers, and conventional farmers were more utilitarian than organic farmers. No significant difference with regard to residence for all three groups was found. Future...

  5. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  6. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  7. Radioactive caesium in hunters and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, G.; Bergman, R. [Natonal Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Center for Risk Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Enander, A. [National Defence Research Establishment, Karlstad (Sweden); Johansson, K.J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    We have measured the whole-body content of radiocesium in men and women in households, where at least one member is a hunter. Hunter families live to a great extent on forest products, such as mushrooms, berries and meat from game. Measurements were performed in two areas in northern Sweden and in three areas in the middle part of Sweden with deposition levels between 7 to 80 kBq/m{sup 2}. The average whole body content of {sup 137}Cs varied between 0.3 to 1.9 kBq for women and 0.6 to 4.7 kBq for men, depending on the deposition level. Each individual in the measured group was also asked to fill in questionnaire and a food diary to provide complementary information of, e.g., food intake and other life conditions. The single dietary factor most clearly related to whole-body content in these groups is the intake of meat from moose. The best regression model with variables from the questionnaire explained 60% of the variance in the whole-body content of {sup 137}Cs in the measurement group. Some of the variables in this model were deposition level, sex, rate of intake and estimated consumption of moose meat and estimated amount of bilberries in the fridge. 6 refs, 5 figs, 14 tabs.

  8. Quest for water in coastal Georgia: assessment of alternative water sources at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.

    2011-01-01

    To meet growing demands for water in the coastal Georgia area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted detailed site investigations and modeling studies at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the water-bearing potential of ponds and wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  9. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  10. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355608510

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  11. Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The author offers the thesis that hunter-gatherers promoted, through cultural means, the playful side of their human nature and this made possible their egalitarian, nonautocratic, intensely cooperative ways of living. Hunter-gatherer bands, with their fluid membership, are likened to social-play groups, which people could freely join or leave.…

  12. Wild boar hunters profile in Shimane prefecture, western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda, G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars have been expanding their range and seriously damage agricultural crops all over Japan. Such situation is obvious in Shimane Prefecture, western end of Honshu Island, where most of its territory is mountainous. Populaton control is strongly expected by farmers and administration. However, the number of hunters has been drastically decreasing since the 1970’s. To maintain and increase hunters, we must investigate their activities and attitudes to clarify the problems. Questionnaires were conducted in 2001 on 310 hunters who renewed their hunting license at local office. The response rate was 80.0%. Wild boar hunters accounted for 61.6%, and the others were mostly bird hunters (32.5%. The objective of wild boar hunting was predominantly nuisance control, and very few hunted for money despite of its high commercial value. Most of them were farmers (35.8% and/or farm village dwellers (53.6%, and used the leg snare (61.4%. Despite the stable number of hunters, the number of hunters using guns is decreasing. Hunters do not to appear to be interested in maintaining the local hunting society. Leisure is the most pursued objective rather nuisance control. Therefore, actions should be taken to stimulate hunting as a leisure activity thus maintaining an important tool for wild boar management.

  13. 78 FR 77113 - Bakken Hunter, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bakken Hunter, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 2, 2013 Bakken Hunter, LLC (Bakken), 410 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202, filed in Docket No....

  14. Why do good hunters have higher reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric Alden

    2004-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence from many hunter-gatherer societies suggests that successful hunters experience higher prestige and greater reproductive success. Detailed quantitative data on these patterns are now available for five widely dispersed cases (Ache, Hadza, !Kung, Lamalera, and Meriam) and indicate that better hunters exhibit higher age-corrected reproductive success than other men in their social group. Leading explanations to account for this pattern are: (1) direct provisioning of hunters' wives and offspring, (2) dyadic reciprocity, (3) indirect reciprocity, (4) costly signaling, and (5) phenotypic correlation. I examine the qualitative and quantitative evidence bearing on these explanations and conclude that although none can be definitively rejected, extensive and apparently unconditional sharing of large game somewhat weakens the first three explanations. The costly signaling explanation has support in some cases, although the exact nature of the benefits gained from mating or allying with or deferring to better hunters needs further study.

  15. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  16. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  17. Reticular dysgenesis: international survey on clinical presentation, transplantation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Manfred; Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Pannicke, Ulrich; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Porta, Fulvio; Gennery, Andrew R; Slatter, Mary; Cowan, Morton J; Stepensky, Polina; Al-Mousa, Hamoud; Al-Zahrani, Daifulah; Pai, Sung-Yun; Al Herz, Waleed; Gaspar, Hubert B; Veys, Paul; Oshima, Koichi; Imai, Kohsuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Noroski, Lenora M; Wulffraat, Nico M; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Soler-Palacin, Pere; Muramatsu, Hideki; Al Hilali, Mariam; Moshous, Despina; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Schuetz, Catharina; Jacobsen, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Ansgar S; Schwarz, Klaus; Fischer, Alain; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Cavazzana, Marina

    2017-05-25

    Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is a rare congenital disorder defined clinically by the combination of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), agranulocytosis, and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding adenylate kinase 2 were identified to cause the disorder. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only option to cure this otherwise fatal disease. Retrospective data on clinical presentation, genetics, and outcome of HSCT were collected from centers in Europe, Asia, and North America for a total of 32 patients born between 1982 and 2011. Age at presentation was <4 weeks in 30 of 32 patients (94%). Grafts originated from mismatched family donors in 17 patients (55%), from matched family donors in 6 patients (19%), and from unrelated marrow or umbilical cord blood donors in 8 patients (26%). Thirteen patients received secondary or tertiary transplants. After transplantation, 21 of 31 patients were reported alive at a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (range: 0.6-23.6 years). All patients who died beyond 6 months after HSCT had persistent or recurrent agranulocytosis due to failure of donor myeloid engraftment. In the absence of conditioning, HSCT was ineffective to overcome agranulocytosis, and inclusion of myeloablative components in the conditioning regimens was required to achieve stable lymphomyeloid engraftment. In comparison with other SCID entities, considerable differences were noted regarding age at presentation, onset, and type of infectious complications, as well as the requirement of conditioning prior to HSCT. Although long-term survival is possible in the presence of mixed chimerism, high-level donor myeloid engraftment should be targeted to avoid posttransplant neutropenia. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Implementation and outcomes of commercial disease management programs in the United States: the disease management outcomes consolidation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Karen; Fox, Kathe; Schmidt, Joseph; Roberts, Mark; Rindress, Donna; Hay, Joel

    2005-08-01

    Despite widespread adoption of disease management (DM) programs by US health plans, gaps remain in the evidence for their benefit. The Disease Management Outcomes Consolidation Survey was designed to gather data on DM programs for commercial health plans, to assess program success and DM effectiveness. The questionnaire was mailed to 292 appropriate health plan contacts; 26 plans covering more than 14 million commercial members completed and returned the survey. Respondents reported that DM plays a significant and increasing role in their organizations. Key reasons for adopting DM were improving clinical outcomes, reducing medical costs and utilization, and improving member satisfaction. More respondents were highly satisfied with clinical results than with utilization or cost outcomes of their programs (46%, 17%, and 13%, respectively). Detailed results were analyzed for 57 DM programs with over 230,000 enrollees. Most responding plans offered DM programs for diabetes and asthma, with return on investment (ROI) ranging from 0.16:1 to 4:1. Weighted by number of enrollees per DM program, average ROI was 2.56:1 for asthma (n = 1,136 enrollees) and 1.98:1 for diabetes (n = 25,364). Most (but not all) respondents reported reduced hospital admissions, increasing rates of preventive care, and improved clinical measures. Few respondents provided detailed information about DM programs for other medical conditions, but most that did reported positive outcomes. Lack of standardized methodology was identified as a major barrier to in-house program evaluation. Although low response rate precluded drawing many general conclusions, a clear need emerged for more rigorous evaluation methods and greater standardization of outcomes measurement.

  19. Child Poverty as a Determinant of Life Outcomes: Evidence from Nationwide Surveys in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Sano, Shinpei; Kobayashi, Miki

    2010-01-01

    We attempt to examine the extent to which poverty in childhood adversely affects success in adulthood, using micro data from nationwide surveys in Japan and taking into account the recursive structure of life outcomes. We use retrospective assessments of income class at the age of 15, because longitudinal data on household income are not…

  20. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  1. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  2. Career Preparedness Survey Outcomes of Food Science Graduates--A Follow-Up Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri; Clark, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-eight recent graduates (1998-2008) from the joint Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI) BiState School of Food Science program and 27 of their employers participated in a survey assessing learning outcomes based on the 2001 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) core competencies for undergraduate food science…

  3. Child Poverty as a Determinant of Life Outcomes: Evidence from Nationwide Surveys in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Sano, Shinpei; Kobayashi, Miki

    2010-01-01

    We attempt to examine the extent to which poverty in childhood adversely affects success in adulthood, using micro data from nationwide surveys in Japan and taking into account the recursive structure of life outcomes. We use retrospective assessments of income class at the age of 15, because longitudinal data on household income are not…

  4. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety; Final Rule #0;#0... Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and...

  5. The use of qualitative methods to inform Delphi surveys in core outcome set development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, T; Williamson, P; Callery, P; Jones, L L; Mathers, J; Jones, J; Young, B; Calvert, M

    2016-05-04

    Core outcome sets (COS) help to minimise bias in trials and facilitate evidence synthesis. Delphi surveys are increasingly being used as part of a wider process to reach consensus about what outcomes should be included in a COS. Qualitative research can be used to inform the development of Delphi surveys. This is an advance in the field of COS development and one which is potentially valuable; however, little guidance exists for COS developers on how best to use qualitative methods and what the challenges are. This paper aims to provide early guidance on the potential role and contribution of qualitative research in this area. We hope the ideas we present will be challenged, critiqued and built upon by others exploring the role of qualitative research in COS development. This paper draws upon the experiences of using qualitative methods in the pre-Delphi stage of the development of three different COS. Using these studies as examples, we identify some of the ways that qualitative research might contribute to COS development, the challenges in using such methods and areas where future research is required. Qualitative research can help to identify what outcomes are important to stakeholders; facilitate understanding of why some outcomes may be more important than others, determine the scope of outcomes; identify appropriate language for use in the Delphi survey and inform comparisons between stakeholder data and other sources, such as systematic reviews. Developers need to consider a number of methodological points when using qualitative research: specifically, which stakeholders to involve, how to sample participants, which data collection methods are most appropriate, how to consider outcomes with stakeholders and how to analyse these data. A number of areas for future research are identified. Qualitative research has the potential to increase the research community's confidence in COS, although this will be dependent upon using rigorous and appropriate

  6. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  7. The Hunter Drain Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Fallon, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines water quality concerns related to the operation of the Hunter Drain located in the vicinity of the Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  8. perceptions and adaptations of beekeepers and honey hunters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    honey sector (i.e. honey hunters) to climate change are, however, not adequately explored. The objective ... resort, beekeepers that are severely affected by climate change had no other choice than abandoned beekeeping for .... Trees, shrub.

  9. Morality and Gender: A Commentary on Pratt, Golding, and Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems in Pratt, Golding, and Hunter's investigation (in this issue) of two propositions central to Gilligan's (1982) thesis on the mismeasurement of women's moral orientation and development. Describes research addressing the problems and indicates directions for further research. (RH)

  10. Newborn screening for hunter disease: a small-scale feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, G J G; Goudriaan, D A; Boer, A M; Van den Bosch, J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Elvers, L H; Weinreich, S S; Reuser, A J

    2014-01-01

    Hunter disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Two main therapies have been reported for MPS II patients: enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Both treatment modalities have been shown to improve some symptoms, but the results with regard to cognitive functioning have been poor. Early initiation of therapy, i.e., before neurological symptoms have manifested, may alter cognitive outcome. The need for early identification makes Hunter disease a candidate for newborn screening (NBS). Our objective was to explore the use of a fluorometric assay that could be applicable for high-throughput analysis of IDS activity in dried blood spots (DBS). The median IDS activity in DBS samples from 1,426 newborns was 377 pmol/punch/17 h (range 78-1111). The IDS activity in one sample was repeatedly under the cutoff value (set at 20% of the median value), which would imply a recall rate of 0.07%. A sample from a clinically diagnosed MPS II individual, included in each 96-well test plate, had IDS activities well below the 20% cutoff value. Coefficients of variation in quality control samples with low, medium, and high IDS activities (190, 304, and 430 pmol/punch/17 h, respectively) were 12% to 16%. This small-scale pilot study shows that newborn screening for Hunter disease using a fluorometric assay in DBS is technically feasible with a fairly low recall rate. NBS may allow for identification of infants with Hunter disease before clinical symptoms become evident enabling early intervention.

  11. [A case of tularemia in a Danish hunter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edfors, Robert; Smith, Birgitte; Lillebaek, Troels

    2010-02-01

    "Rabbit fever" (Francisella Tularensis) is a rare infection in Denmark. It was first described in Denmark in 1987. It is most likely to affect people who come into close contact with infected animals or ticks, such as hunters, butchers and veterinarians. The diagnosis should be suspected in such persons presenting with fever, headache, lethargy, lymphadenitis and bite wounds. We present a Danish case describing the diagnosis and treatment of a hunter infected with T. tularensis.

  12. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-05

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey.

  13. Improvements to the Hunter Dose tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Aucott, T. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-01

    Since 1965, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted deer hunts which are open to the general public. SRS performs field monitoring for cesium-137 (Cs-137) of each harvested animal to determine whether the animal may be released to the hunter. A new field system for measuring Cs-137 in the harvested animals has been developed. The system incorporates numerous enhancements compared to the original system. The original system was composed of two Ludlum Measurements scalar-driven 2 inch x 2 inch sodium iodide counters, while the new system is based on a single Ametek Ortec Digibase-driven 2 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch sodium iodide gamma spectrometer. The new system includes a series of easy-to-assemble stainless steel encapsulated lead shields. The combination of the larger detector size and lead shielding improved the detection limit of the new system by a factor of approximately three compared to the original system. This lower detection limit allows for a larger number of measurements to be directly compared to the laboratory results, in cases where animal portions have been sampled. The results from developing and using this system are presented as well as recommendations on improvements to the overall field monitoring of the SRS hunts.

  14. Re-evaluating the resource potential of lomas fog oasis environments for Preceramic hunter-gatherers under past ENSO modes on the south coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford-Jones, David; Pullen, Alexander G.; Whaley, Oliver Q.; Moat, Justin; Chauca, George; Cadwallader, Lauren; Arce, Susana; Orellana, Alfonso; Alarcón, Carmela; Gorriti, Manuel; Maita, Patricia K.; Sturt, Fraser; Dupeyron, Agathe; Huaman, Oliver; Lane, Kevin J.; French, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Lomas - ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs - were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity's few independent hearths of agriculture and "pristine" civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been much debated. Here we reassess the resource potential of the poorly studied lomas of the south coast of Peru during the long Middle Pre-ceramic period (c. 8000-4500 BP): a period critical in the transition to agriculture, the onset of modern El Niño Southern Oscillation ('ENSO') conditions, and eustatic sea-level rise and stabilisation and beach progradation. Our method combines vegetation survey and herbarium collection with archaeological survey and excavation to make inferences about both Preceramic hunter-gatherer ecology and the changed palaeoenvironments in which it took place. Our analysis of newly discovered archaeological sites - and their resource context - show how lomas formations defined human ecology until the end of the Middle Preceramic Period, thereby corroborating recent reconstructions of ENSO history based on other data. Together, these suggest that a five millennia period of significantly colder seas on the south coast induced conditions of abundance and seasonal predictability in lomas and maritime ecosystems, that enabled Middle Preceramic hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility by settling in strategic locations at the confluence of multiple eco-zones at the river estuaries. Here the foundations of agriculture lay in a Broad Spectrum Revolution that unfolded, not through population pressure in deteriorating environments, but rather as an outcome of resource abundance.

  15. Survey report: moose surveys in lower Chignik Unit, May 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Subsistence Board requested that moose surveys be flown in the area of the lower Chignik Unit proposed for closure to non-qualified moose hunters by the...

  16. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  17. Results of the 2014 Kansas waterfowl hunter survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Individual states can select season dates for migratory game birds within the given frameworks derived by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). The manner in...

  18. Archaeological Survey and Testing at Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1978; DePratter 1975; DePratter and Howard 1977). Apparently at least some of these materials were deposited as terrestial sites during a low stand...DePratter, Chester B. and J. D. Howard 1977 History of Shoreline Changes Determined by Archaeological Dating: Georgia Coast, U.S.A. Transactions of the Gulf...relationships. Des Barres, J-F. W. 1780 The Coast, Rivers and Inlets of the Province of Georgi -. Map Collection (#61), Georgia Historical Society

  19. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohor...

  20. Risk of Negative Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffery P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the rates of negative outcomes associated with all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), treated in all settings or not treated at all, in comparison to the general population. Coloradoans without injury, with injury but no TBI, with mild TBI but no loss of consciousness (LOC), mild TBI with LOC, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Statewide population-based survey. Computer-assisted, modified Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey questions; Satisfaction with Life Scale; and postconcussive symptoms. Up to 42.5% of participants reported a lifetime history of at least 1 TBI. Multiple negative outcomes were found to increase in prevalence in a stepwise fashion in association with greater TBI severity, with the clearest patterns observed for disability, poor life satisfaction, and impaired memory. Traumatic brain injury was found to be associated with disability and other negative outcomes in a general population survey. This study does not allow us to examine the proximate causes of disability, but it suggests that TBI may serve to both cause disability directly and exacerbate the influence of other etiologies. These relations should be examined in subsequent studies.

  1. On a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We determine the solution of the geodesic equation associated with a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton system on a semidirect product obtained from the diffeomorphism group of the circle, modulo rigid rotations, and a space of scalar functions. In particular, we compute the time of breakdown of the geodesic flow. As a further goal, we establish a local well-posedness result for the two-component Hunter-Saxton system in the smooth category. The paper gets in line with some recent results for the generalized Hunter-Saxton equation provided by Escher, Wu and Wunsch in [J. Escher, Preprint 2010] and [H. Wu, M. Wunsch, arXiv:1009.1688v1 [math.AP

  2. Outcome survey of early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R D; Corley, M J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents findings from an outcome survey of the effects of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism in a community setting. Results from both individual case reviews and parent questionnaires are presented, with the data failing to support any instances of'recovery' while still yielding a high degree of parental satisfaction with the treatment. Moreover, a follow-up inquiry into the type of services each child was receiving in his or her post-EIBI setting documents continued dependence on extensive educational and related developmental services, suggesting that the promise of future treatment sparing did not materialize. Limitations of the survey in evaluating community-based EIBI services are discussed along with the need for further research designed to document the effectiveness of services provided to young children with ASD in the community.

  3. International Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Health Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D. Reilly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a major cause of disability and poor quality of life (QOL. Previous studies have shown differences in MS health outcomes between countries. This study aimed to examine the associations between international regions and health outcomes in people with MS. Self-reported data were taken from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple Sclerosis online survey collected in 2012. The 2,401 participants from 37 countries were categorized into three regions: Australasia, Europe, and North America. Differences were observed between regions in disability, physical and mental health QOL, fatigue, and depression, but most of these disappeared after adjusting for sociodemographic, disease, and lifestyle factors in multivariable regression models. However, adjusted odds for disability were higher in Europe [odds ratio (OR: 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28 to 3.67] and North America (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.51 compared to Australasia. There may be other unmeasured factors that vary between regions, including differences in access and quality of healthcare services, determining disability in MS. When assessing differences in MS health outcomes, lifestyle factors and medication use should be taken into consideration.

  4. Hunter-gatherer plant use in southwest Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Ibañez, Juan José; Zapata, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on plant use by the last hunter-gatherers in the Levant, from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the first experiments with plant cultivation at the beginning of the Holocene. This review of Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic plant use summarises available archaeobotanical and t...

  5. Planet Hunters 2 in the K2 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fischer, Debra; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Ishikawa, Sascha; Lintott, Chris; Lynn, Stuart; Schmitt, Joseph; Snyder, Chris; Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) is an online citizen science project enlisting hundreds of thousands of people to search for planet transits in the publicly released Kepler data. Volunteers mark the locations of visible transits in a web interface, with multiple independent classifiers reviewing a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment. In September 2014, Planet Hunters entered a new phase. The project was relaunched with a brand new online classification interface and discussion tool built using the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) latest technology and web platform. The website has been optimized for the rapid discovery and identification of planet candidates in the light curves from K2, the two-wheeled ecliptic plane Kepler mission. We will give an overview of the new Planet Hunters classification interface and Round 2 review system in context of the K2 data. We will present the first results from the Planet Hunters 2 search of K2 Campaigns 0 and 1 including a summary of new planet candidates.

  6. Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short Period Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwamb, Megan E; Fischer, Debra A; Giguere, Matthew J; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M; Brewer, John M; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of \\geq 2 R\\oplus planets on short period (< 15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, \\geq 4 R\\oplus Planet Hunters \\geq 85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Ke...

  7. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives.

  8. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Karla; Harper Tisha; Lans Cheryl; Bridgewater Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Pe...

  9. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A. [SRC for Ore Deposit Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Maillet, P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Geology; Maillet, P. [ORSTOM Centre de Brest, France, (France); Monzier, M. [ORSTOM Centre, Ecuador, (Ecuador)

    1997-12-31

    The Hunter `fracture zone` is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle. Extended abstract. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-01-01

    In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the...

  11. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  12. Librarians as Hunter-Gatherers: Lessons Learned from an Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by the pressing need for electronic resource usage statistics, librarians are finding themselves being thrust into the role of hunter-gatherer. This article discusses the work done at University Library at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis to provide usage statistics for all its paid subscriptions for a 3-year period. The…

  13. Hunter syndrome: Case report and review of literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are about thirteen different clinical syndromes of. MPS.2 We report a case of Hunter syndrome, as far as we know this is the .... egaly and cardiovascular complications after the transplant in children. ' .... Bone marrow trans- plantation in ...

  14. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marc; Estrada, Nereyda; Smith, Derek A

    2012-12-01

    The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is a popular game species throughout Central America, particularly among indigenous populations, and is currently endangered. Research on Miskitu hunting was conducted over 4 months in a remote region in northeastern Honduras that overlaps with the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The hunting zone was mapped together with hunters and interviews were conducted with elders and other community members about tapir hunting. Results show that tapir harvesting is targeted toward specific habitats at specific times of year. Harvest rates for one year suggest that tapir hunting in the area exceeds estimates of maximum sustainable production. Nevertheless, field surveys reveal the presence of tapir within 1 km of the community, and its harvest tends to be nearby, in both forested and agricultural landscapes, suggesting that the animal has not been depleted in the area. It appears that the existence of forest areas adjacent to the hunting zone that do not experience hunting, together with the anthropogenic habitats created through shifting cultivation, are factors that help explain the presence of tapirs in the area. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range.

  15. Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Erik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. Methods We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate. The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work Results Monotonous relations were found between duration of public transport commuting and the health outcomes. For the category commuting > 60 min odds ratios (ORs ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4, and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. Conclusions The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.

  16. A bivalent scale for measuring crowding among deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

    2014-01-01

    One factor that may influence satisfaction in outdoor recreation is crowding, which historically has been defined as a negative evaluation of the density of other participants. While this definition is suitable for most scenarios, there are circumstances where encounters with others in the area are evaluated positively and thus contribute to the satisfaction of the participant. To adequately describe this phenomenon we suggest a more inclusive measurement of crowding that allows for both positive and negative evaluations of participant density to more accurately explore the relationship between crowding and satisfaction. We identified a sub-group of deer hunters who negatively evaluated the low density of other hunters, which reduced their satisfaction with their overall hunting experience. The methodology for measuring crowding in recreation research may have an important effect in identifying the relationship crowding has with other relevant variables as well as management implications.

  17. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  18. Sacrificing Steve: How I Killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Carman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  19. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  20. Sacrificing Steve : how I killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  1. Hunter Fleming与Access合作开发oligotropin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆义(摘)

    2005-01-01

    英国Hunter Fleming公司已与美国的药物输送公司Access Pharmaceuticals签署合作协议,采用Access公司的维生素B12口服药物输送技术,开发治疗亨廷顿氏阿尔茨海默氏病的口服制剂oligotropin(HF0420)。

  2. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Hervey C; Duda, Pavel; Marlowe, Frank W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait "high gods" stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.

  3. Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. METHODOLOGY: Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. RESULTS: Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice. DISCUSSION: Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities.

  4. PhosphoHunter: An Efficient Software Tool for Phosphopeptide Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tiengo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation is a protein posttranslational modification. It is responsible of the activation/inactivation of disease-related pathways, thanks to its role of “molecular switch.” The study of phosphorylated proteins becomes a key point for the proteomic analyses focused on the identification of diagnostic/therapeutic targets. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is the most widely used analytical approach. Although unmodified peptides are automatically identified by consolidated algorithms, phosphopeptides still require automated tools to avoid time-consuming manual interpretation. To improve phosphopeptide identification efficiency, a novel procedure was developed and implemented in a Perl/C tool called PhosphoHunter, here proposed and evaluated. It includes a preliminary heuristic step for filtering out the MS/MS spectra produced by nonphosphorylated peptides before sequence identification. A method to assess the statistical significance of identified phosphopeptides was also formulated. PhosphoHunter performance was tested on a dataset of 1500 MS/MS spectra and it was compared with two other tools: Mascot and Inspect. Comparisons demonstrated that a strong point of PhosphoHunter is sensitivity, suggesting that it is able to identify real phosphopeptides with superior performance. Performance indexes depend on a single parameter (intensity threshold that users can tune according to the study aim. All the three tools localized >90% of phosphosites.

  5. Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire; Epps, Patience; Gray, Russell; Hill, Jane; Hunley, Keith; McConvell, Patrick; Zentz, Jason

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance) status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56), despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of borrowing were

  6. Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bowern

    Full Text Available In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56, despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of

  7. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the basis of irony, and revealing a simulation of the desire, violence, and despondency which have been expressed in myths of nymphs and Persephone. The protagonist never reaches this unity, but his narrative of erotic and romantic love reveals him as a pathetic addict engaged in mechanical reproduction related to the phenomena of desire, seduction, violence, and sex. His The Enchanted Hunters does not simulate what he expects of his childhood love with Annabel; rather, it simulates the erotic imagination suggested in Mary D. Sheriff’s term “nymphomania,” in which artists fall degenerately to a model of tragedy. Keywords: simulation, nymph, nymphomania, The Enchanted Hunters The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita refers to the name of a hotel and the title of a play. This seeming coincidence is actually not coincidental: Nabokov weaves a story concerning a pedophile’s seduction of a prepubescent child into a “story within a story,” in which the girl is imagined as a seducer who bewitches a number of hunters. Just as the girl in the play is a figment of a poet’s imagination, so Lolita in the novel Lolita is an imaginary production of a middle-aged pedophile. Yet Lolita is not so much a novel revealing guilt and mental disorder, but a mélange of art and reality, or more specifically, it is about a coinage in which the author fabricates art and myth in real life. Parallel to the protagonist who simulates what he expects of his childhood love, Annabel, in the form of the nymphet, Lolita, Nabokov replicates the beauty of butterflies in the pursuit of beauty and immortality, and develops the world of art with a pathetic tone whereby we gradually perceive a simulation of the desire, violence, and

  8. Enzymatic replacement therapy for Hunter disease: Up to 9 years experience with 17 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Parini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hunter disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and multi-organ impairment. The central nervous system (CNS is involved in at least 50% of cases. Since 2006, the enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT is available but with no effect on the cognitive impairment, as the present formulation does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Here we report the outcome of 17 Hunter patients treated in a single center. Most of them (11 started ERT in 2006, 3 had started it earlier in 2004, enrolled in the phase III trial, and 3 after 2006, as soon as the diagnosis was made. The liver and spleen sizes and urinary GAGs significantly decreased and normalized throughout the treatment. Heart parameters improved, in particular the left ventricular mass index/m2 decreased significantly. Amelioration of hearing was seen in many patients. Joint range of motion improved in all patients. However, no improvement on respiratory function, eye, skeletal and CNS disease was found. The developmental quotient of patients with a CNS involvement showed a fast decline. These patients were no more testable after 6 years of age and, albeit the benefits drawn from ERT, their quality of life worsened throughout the years. The whole group of patients showed a consistent residual disease burden mainly represented by persistent skeletal disease and frequent need of surgery. This study suggests that early diagnosis and treatment and other different therapies which are able to cross the blood–brain barrier, might in the future improve the MPS II outcome.

  9. The impact of seizures on epilepsy outcomes: A national, community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Colin B; Patten, Scott B; Bulloch, Andrew; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina; Fiest, Kirsten M; Secco, Mary; Jette, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of seizures on persons living with epilepsy in a national, community-based setting. The data source was the Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cohort derived from a national population-based survey of noninstitutionalized persons aged 15 or more years. Participants had to be on a seizure drug or to have had a seizure in the past 5 years to meet the definition of active epilepsy. The respondents were further stratified by seizure status: the seizure group experienced ≥1 seizure in the past 5 years versus the no seizure group who were seizure-free in the past ≥5 years regardless of medication status. Weighted overall and stratified prevalence estimates and odds ratios were used to estimate associations. The SLNCC included 713 persons with epilepsy with a mean age of 45.4 (standard deviation 18.0) years. Fewer people in the seizure group (42.7%) reported being much better than a year ago versus those in the no seizure group (70.1%). Of those with seizures, 32.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 18.8-45.3) had symptoms suggestive of major depression (as per the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) compared to 7.7% (95% CI 3.4-11.9) of those without seizures. Driving, educational, and work opportunities were also significantly limited, whereas stigma was significantly greater in those with seizures. This community-based study emphasizes the need for seizure freedom to improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in persons with epilepsy. Seizure freedom has an important influence on overall health, as those with at least one seizure over the prior 5 years had an increased risk of mood disorders, worse quality of life, and faced significantly more stigma. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  11. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  12. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility is deeply entangled with all aspects of hunter-gatherer life ways, and is therefore an issue of central importance in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility, and understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. Since mobility is, to a large extent, driven by the need for a continuous supply of food, a natural framework for addressing this question is provided by the metabolic theory of ecology. This provides a powerful framework for formulating formal testable hypotheses concerning evolutionary and ecological constraints on the scale and variation of hunter-gatherer residential mobility. We evaluate these predictions using extant data and show strong support for the hypotheses. We show that the overall scale of hunter-gatherer residential mobility is predicted by average human body size, and the limited capacity of mobile hunter-gatherers to store energy internally. We then s...

  13. Validation assessment of the Chinese version of the Snore Outcomes Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning-Hung; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Gliklich, Richard E; Chu, Chia-Chen; Liang, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use a parallel model to translate the Snore Outcomes Survey (SOS) into Mandarin Chinese language by comparing performing characteristics and statistical properties of the original and Chinese versions SOS. The Chinese version SOS (CSOS) was validated in a prospective, non-randomized manner. A total of 359 patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) aged 18 years and older diagnosed as having SDB participated in the study at entry. Reliability, validity, and longitudinal sensitivity data for CSOS were obtained. CSOS demonstrated good test-retest reliability (Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.751). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.86. The item-total correlation coefficients varied from 0.30 to 0.99. The CSOS correlated well with polysomnogram (PSG) parameters including respiratory distress index (RDI), lowest arterial O2 saturation (LAST). CSOS also yielded significant correlations with vitality subscale of Chinese Taiwan version SF-36 (r = 0.4, p = 0.0011). The standard response mean (SRM) for CSOS was 1.33. The validation demonstrated only minor effects of language; the statistical properties of the CSOS were equivalent to the English version. The CSOS is a valid tool to evaluate adults with SDB among Chinese-speaking population.

  14. The Fugue Pattern in The Heart is a Lonely Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭主美

    2013-01-01

    Carson McCullers The Heart is a Lonely Hunter is her representative work. McCullers deploys the skill of fugue pattern through the multi-voices reflected in the characters, tactfully unite the form and content into a whole. By adopting Bakhtin ’s theory of polyphony, this paper aims to analyze the fugue pattern together with its multi-voices in the three parts, namely, the exposition, the development and the return reflected in the novel, which highlights its theme of universal loneliness so impressive-ly.

  15. Management of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO Alerts in Clinical Trials: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Kyte

    Full Text Available Assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs provides valuable information to inform patient-centered care, but may also reveal 'PRO alerts': psychological distress or physical symptoms that may require an immediate response. Ad-hoc management of PRO alerts in clinical trials may result in suboptimal patient care or potentially bias trial results. To gain greater understanding of current practice in PRO alert management we conducted a national survey of personnel involved in clinical trials with a PRO endpoint.We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of 767 UK-based research nurses, data managers/coordinators, trial managers and chief/principal investigators involved in clinical trials using PROs. Respondents were self-selected volunteers from a non-randomised sample of eligible individuals recruited via 55 UK Clinical Research Collaboration Registered Clinical Trials Units and 19 Comprehensive Local Research Networks. Questions centred on the proportion of trial personnel encountering alerts, how staff responded to PRO alerts and whether current guidance was deemed sufficient to support research personnel. We undertook descriptive analyses of the quantitative data and directed thematic analysis of free-text comments. 20% of research nurses did not view completed PRO questionnaires and were not in a position to discover alerts, 39-50% of the remaining respondent group participants reported encountering PRO alerts. Of these, 83% of research nurses and 54% of data managers/trial coordinators reported taking action to assist the trial participant, but less than half were able to record the intervention in the trial documentation. Research personnel reported current PRO alert guidance/training was insufficient.Research personnel are intermittently exposed to PRO alerts. Some intervene to help trial participants, but are not able to record this intervention in the trial documentation, risking co-intervention bias. Other staff do not check PRO

  16. Questions About Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge, Practice, and Outcomes: A Review of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Laura; Perin, Doug; Senkomago, Virginia; Neri, Antonio; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-05-01

    United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner. We identified and evaluated the breadth of breast and cervical cancer screening information that was collected by the DHS from 1984 through 2015. Then, we determined if these surveys currently provide the specific and measurable data about both the quantity and quality of cancer screening needed to guide national efforts to reduce the overall effects of cervical and breast cancers. We searched the DHS website to identify surveys conducted between the start of the DHS Program in 1984 and November 2015 that included questions about breast and cervical cancer screening. The relevant questions were extracted from the questionnaire, translated into English, and grouped by themes. Of the 90 countries where DHS surveys have been implemented, cervical cancer screening questions were included in 22 countries (24.4%) and breast cancer screening questions in 18 countries (20.0%). The common themes identified were disease knowledge, screening knowledge, screening practice, and screening outcomes. Most countries with survey questionnaires available for review addressed at least one aspect of screening practice (88.9% of cervical and 87.5% of breast), although few countries queried knowledge and outcomes. Questions that assess varied aspects of breast and cervical cancer screening have been incorporated into relatively few DHS surveys. The themes identified could guide the design of a standard set of questions for use in future population-based surveys and enable evaluation

  17. Outcome measure for stress urinary incontinence treatment (OMIT): results of two society of urodynamics and female urology (SUFU) surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmern, Philippe; Kobashi, Kathleen; Lemack, Gary

    2010-06-01

    To reach some agreement on a minimum set of outcomes measures (OMs) for the post-operative evaluation of stress incontinent women, we applied the concept of "lower common denominator" to study which OM instruments are used amongst SUFU members. With SUFU approval, a short online, 11 items, email-based survey was prepared to assess what OMs current SUFU members are using in daily practice. The first survey administered after the annual SUFU meeting targeted recent SUFU meeting attendees. The same survey was redistributed later on to include all SUFU members. Each survey ran for a 10-day period. Response rate for the first survey was 50 (approximately 30%) and 106 (approximately 25%) for the second. Responders were geographically well distributed, had been in practice for 1-15 years (approximately 75%), performed 5-15 cases/month, and practiced in a university (56%) or group (30%) setting. Great consistency was noted between surveys for preferred questionnaires [UDI-6 (40-52%), UDI-6, and IIQ-7 (30-34%)], office tests [urinalysis and post-void residual (30-35%)], exam [Baden-Walker and/or POP-Q (38-55%), cough stress test (54-51%)], imaging (none), and urodynamics (none, unless complications). The most common "dislikes" in descending order were: 24 hr pad test, Q-tip test, bladder diary, long questionnaires, POP-Q. These two SUFU surveys did not explore what each physician thinks is the best OM but what members use regularly in their practices. Similar findings were noted in both surveys, supporting the concept that a minimum set of OM could be developed for reporting surgical outcomes of incontinence procedures in the future. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. Settings and Design: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Results: In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both. Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1–6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0 was 3.2 (1.4–6.7, P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9–1.8, P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Conclusion: Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  19. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC) weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both). Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1-6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0) was 3.2 (1.4-6.7), P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9-1.8), P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  20. Incidence and outcome of injury in Ghana: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, C. N.; Abantanga, F.; Cummings, P.; Koepsell, T. D.

    1999-01-01

    Injury is an increasingly significant health problem in most low-income countries. However, strategies for preventing injury have not been well addressed. The present study was carried out to measure the incidence and outcome of various mechanisms of injury in Ghana in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. For this purpose, using two-stage cluster sampling and household interviews, we surveyed 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites. During the preceding year, 1609 injuries resulting in one or more days of loss of normal activity were reported. Injury-related mortality was slightly higher in the urban (83 per 100,000) than in the rural area (53 per 100,000). However, the burden of disability from nonfatal injuries, as assessed by disability days, was higher in the rural (4697 disability days per 1000 person-years) than in the urban area (2671 days per 1000 person-years). Based on incidence rates and disability times, the major types of injury in the urban area were transport-related injury and falls. In the rural area, agricultural injuries predominated, followed by falls and transport-related injury. In rural and urban areas combined, 73% of motor vehicle-related injuries involved commercial vehicles. In this and other similar developing-country settings, injury prevention efforts should focus on falls and on transport safety in both urban and rural areas, with special attention being paid to commercial vehicles. In rural areas, agricultural injuries contributed the largest burden of morbidity, and should be a priority for prevention efforts. PMID:10680242

  1. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Outcome of ketogenic diets in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in Japan: A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Ito, Yasushi; Takahashi, Satoru; Shimono, Kuriko; Natsume, Jun; Yanagihara, Keiko; Oguni, Hirokazu

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the outcome of ketogenic diets (KDs) in patients with glucose transport type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) in Japan. A nationwide survey for GLUT1DS was conducted by sending questionnaires to board-certified pediatric neurologists nationwide to obtain clinical and laboratory data. Among 39 patients whose diagnosis was confirmed molecularly or by the 3-O-methylglucose uptake assay, 31 were treated with KDs for longer than 1month. Seventeen patients (55%) were on the modified Atkins diet, 11 (35%) were on the classic KD, and 3 were on the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet. The median values and ranges of serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels in patients on the modified Atkins diet, classic KD and MCT diet were 2.5mM (0.75-4.1), 1.7mM (0.23-3.5) and 2.6mM (1.5-3.0), respectively. The KDs were effective on seizures (80%), aggravation after fasting (80%) and ataxia (79%). Thus, ataxia was as responsive as seizures. Two patients on the classic KD with a ketogenic ratio as low as 1:1 showed improvement in neurological symptoms. The development or intelligence quotient measured using the same psychological scales before and after the KDs in 9 patients did not show a significant improvement; the median quotients before and after the diets were 40 (12-91) and 46 (12-67). The KDs were most effective on seizures, transient aggravation after fasting and ataxia. The efficacy on intellectual development was equivocal. The modified Atkins diet was more commonly used for GLUT1DS in this study, and its ketogenicity was equivalent to the classic KD. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Asthma outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple morbidities: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Leo, Harvey L; Baptist, Alan P; Cao, Yanyun; Brown, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    More Americans are managing multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and trends are particularly alarming in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of 9 chronic conditions in children and adolescents with and without asthma, and adverse asthma outcomes associated with having MCCs. Cross-sectional interview data from the National Health Interview Survey were analyzed (N = 66,790) between 2007 and 2012 in youth 0 to 17 years of age. Bivariate analysis methods and multivariate generalized linear regression were used to examine associations. Five percent of children with asthma had 1 or more coexisting health conditions. The prevalence of 1 or more comorbidities was greater among those with asthma than those without (5.07% [95% CI: 4.5-5.6] vs. 2.73% [95% CI: 2.6-2.9]). Those with asthma were twice as likely to have co-occurring hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5-3.2]) and arthritis (PR = 2.7 [95% CI: 1.8-4.0]) compared with those without asthma. Every additional chronic condition with asthma was associated with a greater likelihood of an asthma attack (PR = 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2]), all-cause emergency department visits (PR = 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.5]), and missed school days (PR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.7-3.2]). Children and adolescents with asthma in the US who suffer from MCCs have increased asthma symptoms, missed school days, and all-cause emergency department visits. Further research on optimal management strategies for this group is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  5. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  6. Avatar Web-Based Self-Report Survey System Technology for Public Health Research: Technical Outcome Results and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina M; Souidi, Samir; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Interventions, Aids

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific Web-based self-report data collection system that was developed for a public health research study in the United States. Our focus is on technical outcome results and lessons learned that may be useful to other projects requiring such a solution. The system was accessible from any device that had a browser that supported HTML5. Report findings include: which hardware devices, Web browsers, and operating systems were used; the rate of survey completion; and key considerations for employing Web-based surveys in a clinical trial setting.

  7. Avatar Web-Based Self-Report Survey System Technology for Public Health Research: Technical Outcome Results and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina M.; Souidi, Samir; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Interventions, AIDS

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific Web-based self-report data collection system that was developed for a public health research study in the United States. Our focus is on technical outcome results and lessons learned that may be useful to other projects requiring such a solution. The system was accessible from any device that had a browser that supported HTML5. Report findings include: which hardware devices, Web browsers, and operating systems were used; the rate of survey completion; and key considerations for employing Web-based surveys in a clinical trial setting. PMID:28149445

  8. Solar Energy Development Assistance for Fort Hunter Liggett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Chvala, William D.

    2011-03-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided assistance to Fort Hunter Liggett to determine the opportunities for solar energy development on the site. Increasing use of renewable energy is mandated by several executive orders and legislation. Fort Hunter Liggett has many attributes that enhance its suitability for renewable energy development. First, the site is located south of San Francisco in a remote portion of the costal foothills. Brush and forest fires are frequent and often result in power outages, which subsequently impacts the site’s training mission. In addition, the site’s blended electric rate during fiscal year (FY) 2010 was high at 12 ¢/kWh. Lastly, the solar resource is moderately high; the site receives nearly 5.7 kWh/m2/day on a south facing, latitude-tilted surface. In light of these factors, the site is a clear candidate for a solar photovoltaic array. Prior to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) involvement, the site secured funding for a 1 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) array that will also provide shading for site vehicles. To best implement this project, PNNL conducted a site visit and was tasked with providing the site technical guidance and support regarding module selection, array siting, and other ancillary issues.

  9. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  10. Metagenome Sequencing of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Consolandi, Clarissa; Turroni, Silvia; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Brigidi, Patrizia; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Henry, Amanda G; Candela, Marco

    2015-06-29

    Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, we present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle. We found that the Hadza GM is adapted for broad-spectrum carbohydrate metabolism, reflecting the complex polysaccharides in their diet. Furthermore, the Hadza GM is equipped for branched-chain amino acid degradation and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. Resistome functionality demonstrates the existence of antibiotic resistance genes in a population with little antibiotic exposure, indicating the ubiquitous presence of environmentally derived resistances. Our results demonstrate how the functional specificity of the GM correlates with certain environment and lifestyle factors and how complexity from the exogenous environment can be balanced by endogenous homeostasis. The Hadza gut metagenome structure allows us to appreciate the co-adaptive functional role of the GM in complementing the human physiology, providing a better understanding of the versatility of human life and subsistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  12. Moose Survey-Inventory Progress Report : Unit 15A Kenai

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 1972 moose surveys on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Game Management Unit 15(A). Harvest report returns indicate a hunter harvest of 193...

  13. Moose Survey-Inventory Progress Report : Unit 15B Soldotna

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 1972 moose surveys on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Game Management Unit 15(B). Harvest report returns indicate a hunter harvest of 73...

  14. Modern day relevance of William Hunter's approach to teaching "The organ of hearing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Helena; Smith, Robert A; Mackay, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    William Hunter, a pioneering teacher of Anatomy in the the eighteenth century, championed the use of dissected specimens as aids in the teaching of anatomy. Although Hunter promoted the Paris method of learning Anatomy, by student dissection, he also used prosected material as an adjunct to his lectures. We are fortunate that Hunter bequeathed his extensive collection of over 3,000 museum specimens to the University of Glasgow, many of which are housed in the Laboratory of Human Anatomy in the Thomson Building. Regions such as the temporal bone are frequently difficult for students, and indeed postgraduate trainees in ear nose and throat surgery, to visualize and understand. Hunter overcame this difficulty by producing elegant specimens highlighting the three-dimensional complexity of the area. The current vignette stresses the importance of Hunter in his contemporary setting, but also demonstrates the potential of his approach for current and future teaching programmes in this age of the Internet.

  15. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  16. Comet Hunters: A Citizen Science Project to Search for Comets in the Main Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Schwamb, Megan Elizabeth; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ying-Tung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lintott, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Fully automated detection of comets in wide-field surveys remains a challenge, as even highly successful comet-finding surveys like Pan-STARRS rely on a combination of both automated flagging algorithms and vetting by human eyes. To take advantage of the long-noted superiority of the human eye over computer algorithms in certain types of pattern recognition, particularly when dealing with a range of target morphologies of interest, we have created a citizen science website with the aim of allowing the general public to aid in the search for active asteroids, which are objects that occupy dynamically asteroidal orbits yet exhibit comet-like dust emission due to sublimation, impact disruption, rotational destabilization, or other effects. Located at comethunters.org, the Comet Hunters website was built using the Zooniverse Project Builder (https://www.zooniverse.org/lab), and displays images of known asteroids obtained either from archival data obtained between 1999 and 2014 by the Suprime-Cam wide-field imager mounted on the 8-m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, or more contemporary data obtained by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) wide-field imager also on the Subaru Telescope as part of the ongoing HSC Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) survey. By using observations from such a large-aperture telescope, most of which have never been searched for solar system objects, much less cometary ones, we expect that volunteers should be able to make genuinely scientifically significant discoveries, and also provide valuable insights into the potential and challenges of searching for comets in the LSST era. To date, over 13,000 registered volunteers have contributed 350,000 classifications. We will discuss the design and construction of the Comet Hunters website, and also discuss early results from the project.This work uses data generated via the Zooniverse.org platform, development of which was supported by a Global Impact Award from Google, and by the Alfred P. Sloan

  17. Do adult men with untreated hypospadias have adverse outcomes? A pilot study using a social media advertised survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary; Baskin, Laurence; DiSandro, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Hypospadias is usually treated in childhood. Therefore, the natural history of untreated mild hypospadias is unknown. We hypothesized that men with untreated hypospadias, especially mild, do not have adverse outcomes. Facebook was used to advertise an electronic survey to men older than 18 years. Men with untreated hypospadias identified themselves and indicated the severity of hypospadias with a series of questions. Outcomes included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), penile curvature and difficulty with intercourse, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Penile Perception Score (PPS), psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. 736 men completed self-anatomy questions and 52 (7.1%) self-identified with untreated hypospadias. Untreated hypospadias participants reported worse SHIM (p < 0.001) and IPSS scores (p = 0.05), more ventral penile curvature (p = 0.003) and resulting difficulty with intercourse (p < 0.001), worse satisfaction with meatus (p = 0.011) and penile curvature (p = 0.048), and more sitting to urinate (p = 0.07). When stratified by mild and severe hypospadias, severe hypospadias was associated with more adverse outcomes than mild hypospadias. Men with untreated hypospadias reported worse outcomes compared with non-hypospadiac men. Mild untreated hypospadias had fewer adverse outcomes than severe hypospadias. Research is needed to determine if treatment of childhood hypospadias improves outcomes in adults, especially for mild hypospadias. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service First, Menomonee Falls, WI; Amended Certification Regarding..., including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls... Maysteel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS,...

  19. Hunter standoff killer team (HSKT) ground and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Balinda; Ennis, Mark; Yeates, Robert; Condon, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Since the inception of powered flight, manned aerial vehicles have been a force multiplier on the battlefield. With the emergence of new technology, the structure of the military battlefield is changing. One such technology, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has emerged as a valuable asset for today's war fighter. UAVs have traditionally been operated by ground control stations, yet minimum research has been targeted towards UAV connectivity. Airborne Manned Unmanned System Technology Baseline (AMUST-Baseline) was a concept that demonstrated the battlefield synergy gained by Manned and Unmanned Vehicle teaming. AMUST-Baseline allowed an Apache Longbow's (AH-64D) co-pilot gunner (CPG) to have Level IV control of a Hunter fixed wing UAV. Level IV control of a UAV includes payload control, flight control and direct data receipt. With the success of AMUST-Baseline, AATD, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and the Boeing Company worked towards enhanced Manned and Unmanned connectivity through a technology investment agreement. This effort named Airborne Manned Unmanned System Technology Demonstration (AMUST-D) focused on the connectivity between two manned platforms, Apache Longbow (AH-64D) and Command and Control (C2) Blackhawk, and Hunter UAV. It allows robust communication from the UAV to each platform through the Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL). AMUST-D used decision aiding technology developed under the Rotorcraft Pilots Associate (RPA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) as to assist in control of the Hunter UAV, as well as assist the pilot in regularly performed duties. Through the use of decision aiding and UAV control, the pilot and commander were better informed of potential threats and targets, thus increasing his situational awareness. The potential benefits of improved situational awareness are increased pilot survivability, increased lethality, and increased operational effectiveness. Two products were developed under the AMUST-D program, the

  20. Benchmarking Work Practices and Outcomes in Australian Universities Using an Employee Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to benchmark a broad range of work practices and outcomes in Australian universities against other industries. Past research suggests occupational stress experienced by academic staff is worse than experienced by employees in other industries. However, no other practices or outcomes can be compared confidently.…

  1. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Zes, David A

    2015-01-01

    Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  2. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  3. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  4. Costs and benefits in hunter-gatherer punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Hunter-gatherer punishment involves costs and benefits to individuals and groups, but the costs do not necessarily fit with the assumptions made in models that consider punishment to be altruistic--which brings in the free-rider problem and the problem of second-order free-riders. In this commentary, I present foragers' capital punishment patterns ethnographically, in the interest of establishing whether such punishment is likely to be costly; and I suggest that in many cases abstentions from punishment that might be taken as defections by free-riders are actually caused by social-structural considerations rather than being an effect of free-rider genes. This presentation of data supplements the ethnographic analysis provided by Guala.

  5. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kolawole Oyedeji PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH, universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs. The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among

  6. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melissa; Henshall, Chris; Garrison, Louis P; Griffin, Adrian D; Coyle, Doug; Long, Stephen; Khayat, Zayna A; Anger, Dana L; Yu, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs) are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs) based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology assessment (HTA) key opinion leaders (38%), pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%), ex-payers (19%), and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%). The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of Canadian PLAs are financial-based rather than outcomes-based. They indicated that IPLAs offer important benefits to patients, payers, and manufacturers; however, several challenges limit their use (eg, administrative burden, lack of agreed-upon endpoint). They noted that IPLAs are useful in rapidly evolving therapeutic areas and those associated with high unmet need, a quantifiable endpoint, and/or robust data systems. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance, and other arms-length organizations could play important roles in identifying uncertainty and endpoints and brokering pan-Canadian PLAs. Industry should work collaboratively with payers to identify uncertainty and develop innovative mechanisms to address it. Conclusion The survey results indicated that while

  7. The Bayesian image retrieval system, PicHunter: theory, implementation, and psychophysical experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, I J; Miller, M L; Minka, T P; Papathomas, T V; Yianilos, P N

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the theory, design principles, implementation and performance results of PicHunter, a prototype content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system. In addition, this document presents the rationale, design and results of psychophysical experiments that were conducted to address some key issues that arose during PicHunter's development. The PicHunter project makes four primary contributions to research on CBIR. First, PicHunter represents a simple instance of a general Bayesian framework which we describe for using relevance feedback to direct a search. With an explicit model of what users would do, given the target image they want, PicHunter uses Bayes's rule to predict the target they want, given their actions. This is done via a probability distribution over possible image targets, rather than by refining a query. Second, an entropy-minimizing display algorithm is described that attempts to maximize the information obtained from a user at each iteration of the search. Third, PicHunter makes use of hidden annotation rather than a possibly inaccurate/inconsistent annotation structure that the user must learn and make queries in. Finally, PicHunter introduces two experimental paradigms to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the system, and psychophysical experiments are presented that support the theoretical claims.

  8. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  9. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on changes in height, bone mineral density, and body composition over 1-2 years in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Lynda E; Thomas, William; Orchard, Paul J; Whitley, Chester B; Miller, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Hurler or Hunter syndrome typically have moderate to severe growth deficiencies despite therapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy. It is unknown whether treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) can improve growth in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hGH on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome enrolled in a longitudinal observational study. The difference in annual change in outcomes between hGH treated and untreated subjects was estimated by longitudinal regression models that adjusted for age, Tanner stage, and sex where appropriate. We report on 23 participants who completed at least 2 annual study visits (10 [43%] treated with hGH): Hurler syndrome (n=13) average age of 9.8 ± 3.1 years (range 5.3-13.6 years; 54% female) and Hunter syndrome (n=10) average age of 12.0 ± 2.7 years (range 7.0-17.0 years; 0% female). As a group, children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome treated with hGH had no difference in annual change in height (growth velocity) compared to those untreated with hGH. Growth velocity in hGH treated individuals ranged from -0.4 to 8.1cm/year and from 0.3 to 6.6 cm/year in the untreated individuals. Among children with Hunter syndrome, 100% (N=4) of those treated but only 50% of those untreated with hGH had an annual increase in height standard deviation score (SDS). Of the individuals treated with hGH, those with GHD had a trend towards higher annualized growth velocity compared to those without GHD (6.5 ± 1.9 cm/year vs. 3.5 ± 2.1cm/year; p=.050). Children treated with hGH had greater annual gains in BMD and lean body mass. In conclusion, although as a group we found no significant difference in growth between individuals treated versus not treated with hGH, individual response was highly variable and we are unable to predict who will respond to treatment. Thus

  10. Sexual orientation, adult connectedness, substance use, and mental health outcomes among adolescents: findings from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seil, Kacie S; Desai, Mayur M; Smith, Megan V

    2014-01-01

    .... We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt...

  11. Intersectoral Mobilization in Child Development: An Outcome Assessment of the Survey of the School Readiness of Montreal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laurin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the department of public health in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, conducted the Survey of the School Readiness of Montreal Children. After unveiling the results in February 2008, it launched an appeal for intersectoral mobilization. This article documents the chain of events in the collective decision-making process that fostered ownership of the survey results and involvement in action. It also documents the impacts of those findings on intersectoral action and the organization of early childhood services four years later. The results show that the survey served as a catalyst for intersectoral action as reflected in the increased size and strength of the actor network and the formalization of the highly-anticipated collaboration between school and early childhood networks. Actors have made abundant use of survey results in planning and justifying the continuation of projects or implementation of new ones. A notable outcome, in all territories, has been the development of both transition-to-kindergarten tools and literacy activities. The portrait drawn by the research raises significant issues for public planning while serving as a reminder of the importance of intersectoral mobilization in providing support for multiple trajectories of child preschool development.

  12. Ranking hospitals for outcomes in total hip replacement - administrative data with or without patient surveys? - Part 2: Patient survey and administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many hospital rankings rely on the frequency of adverse outcomes and are based on administrative data. In the study presented here, we tried to find out, to what extent available administrative data of German Sickness Funds allow for an adequate hospital ranking and compared this with rankings based on additional information derived from a patient survey. Total hip replacement was chosen as an example procedure. In part II of the publication, we present the results of the approach based on administrative and patient-derived data. Methods: We used administrative data from a large health insurance (AOK-Lower Saxony of the year 2002 and from a patient survey. The study population comprised mainly beneficiaries, who received primary total hip replacement in the year 2002, were mailed a survey 6 month post-operatively and participated in the survey. Performance indicators used where “Revision”, “Complications” and “Change of functional impairment”. Hospitals were ranked if they performed at least 20 procedures on AOK-beneficiaries. Multivariate modelling (logistic regression and generalized linear models was used to estimate the performance indicators by case-mix variables (a.o. age, sex, co-morbidity, medical history and hospital characteristics (hospital size, surgical volume. The actual ranking was based on these multivariate models, excluding hospital variables and adding dummy-variables for each hospital. Hospitals were ranked by their case-mix adjusted odds ratio or Standardized Difference (SDR with respect to a pre-selected reference hospital. The resulting rankings were compared with each other and with regard to the impact of case-mix variables. Results: 4089 beneficiaries received primary total hip replacement in 2002. 3293 patients participated in the survey (80.5%. The ranking included 60 hospitals. The agreement of rankings based on different performance indicators in the same year was low to high (a correlation

  13. Symptoms and Association with Health Outcomes in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a US Patient Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A variety of symptoms have been reported, but the prevalence of specific symptoms in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, how they are related to one another, and their impact on patient reported outcomes is not well understood. Objective. To describe how symptoms of RRMS cooccur and their impact on patient-reported outcomes. Methods. Individuals who reported a physician diagnosis of RRMS in a large general health survey in the United States indicated the symptoms they experience because of RRMS and completed validated scales, including the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire and either the SF-12v2 or SF-36v2. Symptom clusters were identified through hierarchical cluster analysis, and the relationship between clusters and outcomes was assessed through regression. Results. Fatigue, difficulty walking, and numbness were the most commonly reported symptoms. Seven symptom clusters were identified, and several were significantly related to patient reported outcomes. Pain, muscle spasms, and stiffness formed a cluster strongly related to physical quality of life; depression was strongly related to mental quality of life and cognitive difficulty was associated with work impairment. Conclusions. Symptoms in RRMS show a strong relationship with quality of life and should be taken into consideration in treatment decisions and evaluation of treatment success.

  14. Risk factors and outcomes of macrosomia in China: a multicentric survey based on birth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hong, Yan; Zhu, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Lv, Qin; Zhou, Qin; Ruan, Miaohua; Chen, Chao

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors and outcomes of macrosomia in China. This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in China. 178 709 singletons weighing ≥ 2500 g with gestational ages of 37-44 weeks were included. We compared the macrosomia group (with birth weight (BW) ≥ 4000 g) with the nornosomic control group (weighting 2500-3999 g). The total prevalence of macrosomia was 8.70%. The strongest risk factors correlated with macrosomia were maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The risks of obstetric and neonatal complications increased when infants had a BW of ≥4000 g. Obesity and GDM are the most prominent risk factors for macrosomia, and macrosomia is associated with adverse maternal and neonate outcomes. Therefore, monitoring and controlling maternal weight and blood glucose could decrease the prevalence of macrosomia or improve its poor outcomes.

  15. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age.

  16. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Thompson,1 Chris Henshall,2 Louis P Garrison,3 Adrian D Griffin,4 Doug Coyle,2,5 Stephen Long,6 Zayna A Khayat,7 Dana L Anger,1 Rebecca Yu8 1Cornerstone Research Group Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada; 2Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University London, London UK; 3Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research and Policy Program, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Government Affairs & Policy, Johnson & Johnson, High Wycombe, UK; 5School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6Health and Life Sciences, Global Public Affairs, Calgary, AB, 7Health Systems Innovation at MaRS Discovery District, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8Strategic Health Technology Assessment, Government Affairs & Market Access, Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objectives: To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods: Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results: Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology ­assessment (HTA key opinion leaders (38%, pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%, ex-payers (19%, and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%. The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of

  17. Symmetry Reduction and Group Invariant Solutions of Hunter-Saxton Equations%Hunter-Saxton方程的对称约化与群不变解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀美英; 胡恒春

    2016-01-01

    借助符号计算软件Maple,根据微分方程单参数不变群和群不变解的概念,利用李群对称的待定系数法,得到Hunter-Saxton方程的包含5个任意常数和一个任意函数的一般形式的对称.通过该对称中任意的函数和常数的不同选取,将Hunter-Saxton方程约化为不同形式的常微分方程.最后对约化后的常微分方程进行变换求解,进一步得出Hunter-Saxton方程的一些群不变解和精确解.

  18. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations.

  19. Integrability and Solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-Liu; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation is proposed and studied. It is shown that the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation can be transformed to the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation by reciprocal transformations. Based on the Lax-pair of the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation, a non-isospectral Lax-pair of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation is derived. In addition, exact singular solutions with a finite number of corners are obtained. Furthermore, the (2 + 1)-dimensional μ-Hunter-Saxton equation is presented, and its exact peaked traveling wave solutions are derived. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11471174 and NSF of Ningbo under Grant No. 2014A610018

  20. Hunter Harvest and Effort North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2001-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reports contains summarized yearly harvest of game species on Coldwater River, Dahomey, and Tallahatchie NWRs and the total hunter effort based on daily use cards...

  1. 弱耗散μ-Hunter-Saxton 方程的爆破%Blow-up of a weakly dissipative μ-Hunter-Saxton equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红杰; 刘静静; 齐静; 刘硕

    2015-01-01

    研究了弱耗散μ-Hunter-Saxton 方程 Caucly 问题的爆破现象。给出了一个新的爆破结果,推导出爆破强解精确的爆破率。%We study the Cauchy problem of the weakly dissipative μ-Hunter-Saxton equation.The present work is main-ly concerned with blow-up phenomena of the equation.We first present a new blow-up result for strong solutions to the equation.Then,we drive the precise blow-up rate for strong solutions to the equation.

  2. The Psychosis Recent Onset GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S: defining dimensions and improving outcomes in early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith J Liemburg

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders are among the most complex medical conditions. Longitudinal cohort studies may offer further insight into determinants of functional outcome after a psychotic episode. This paper describes the Psychosis Recent Onset in GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S that currently contains data on 1076 early-episode patients with psychosis, including symptoms, personality, cognition, life events and other outcome determinants. Our goal in this report is to give an overview of PROGR-S, as a point of reference for future publications on the effect of cognition, personality and psychosocial functioning on outcomes. PROGR-S contains an extensive, diagnostic battery including anamnesis, biography, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, drug use, neuropsychological assessment, personality questionnaires, and physical status tests. Extensive follow-up data is available on psychopathology, physical condition, medication use, and care consumption. Sample characteristics were determined and related to existing literature. PROGR-S (period 1997-2009, n = 718 included the majority of the expected referrals in the catchment area. The average age was 27 (SD = 8.6 and two-thirds were male. The average IQ was lower than that in the healthy control group. The majority had been diagnosed with a psychotic spectrum disorder. A substantial number of the patients had depressive symptoms (479/718, 78% and current cannabis or alcohol use (465/718, 75%. The level of community functioning was moderate, i.e. most patients were not in a relationship and were unemployed. The PROGR-S database contains a valuable cohort to study a range of aspects related to symptomatic and functional outcomes of recent onset psychosis, which may play a role in the treatment of this complex and disabling disorder. Results reported here show interesting starting points for future research. Thus, we aim to investigate long-term outcomes on the basis of cognition, personality, negative

  3. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  4. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Crittenden

    Full Text Available Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  5. Genetic and cultural kinship among the Lamaleran whale hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvard, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The human ability to form large, coordinated groups is among our most impressive social adaptations. Larger groups facilitate synergistic economies of scale for cooperative breeding, such economic tasks as group hunting, and success in conflict with other groups. In many organisms, genetic relationships provide the structure for sociality to evolve via the process of kin selection, and this is the case, to a certain extent, for humans. But assortment by genetic affiliation is not the only mechanism that can bring people together. Affinity based on symbolically mediated and socially constructed identity, or cultural kinship, structures much of human ultrasociality. This paper examines how genetic kinship and two kinds of cultural kinship--affinal kinship and descent--structure the network of cooperating whale hunters in the village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Social network analyses show that each mechanism of assortment produces characteristic networks of different sizes, each more or less conducive to the task of hunting whales. Assortment via close genetic kin relationships (r = 0.5) produces a smaller, denser network. Assortment via less-close kin relations (r = 0.125) produces a larger but less dense network. Affinal networks are small and diffuse; lineage networks are larger, discrete, and very dense. The roles that genetic and cultural kinship play for structuring human sociality is discussed in the context of these results.

  6. Adaptive memory: fitness relevance and the hunter-gatherer mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Gregory, Karie J; Van Arsdall, Joshua E

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed in terms of its fitness value. When people are asked to rate the relevance of words to a survival scenario, performance on subsequent surprise memory tests exceeds that obtained after most other known encoding techniques. The present experiments explored this effect using survival scenarios designed to mimic the division of labor thought to characterize early hunter-gatherer societies. It has been suggested that males and females have different cognitive specializations due to the unique survival tasks (hunting and gathering, respectively) they typically performed during periods of human evolution; the present experiments tested whether such specializations might be apparent in memory for words rated for relevance to these activities. Males and females were asked to rate the relevance of random words to prototypical hunting and gathering scenarios or to matched, non-fitness-relevant control scenarios (gathering food on a scavenger hunt or in a hunting contest). Surprise retention tests revealed superior memory for the words when they were rated for relevance to hunting and gathering scenarios, compared with when they were rated for relevance to the control scenarios, but no sex differences were found in memory performance.

  7. Conservation laws and symmetries of Hunter-Saxton equation: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Liu, Q. P.

    2016-03-01

    Through a reciprocal transformation {{T}0} induced by the conservation law {{\\partial}t}≤ft(ux2\\right)={{\\partial}x}≤ft(2uux2\\right) , the Hunter-Saxton (HS) equation {{u}xt}=2u{{u}2x}+ux2 is shown to possess conserved densities involving arbitrary smooth functions, which have their roots in infinitesimal symmetries of {{w}t}={{w}2} , the counterpart of the HS equation under {{T}0} . Hierarchies of commuting symmetries of the HS equation are studied under appropriate changes of variables initiated by {{T}0} , and two of these are linearized while the other is identical to the hierarchy of commuting symmetries admitted by the potential modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. A fifth order symmetry of the HS equation is endowed with a sixth order hereditary recursion operator, which is proved to have a bi-Hamiltonian factorization, by its connection with the Fordy-Gibbons equation. These results reveal the origin for the rich and remarkable structures of the HS equation and partially answer the questions raised by Wang (2010 Nonlinearity 23 2009).

  8. Rabbit hunter uveitis: case report of tularemia uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrada, Céline; Azza, Said; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography showed a late hyperfluorescence with focal vascular leakage. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of a 3.8 mm parietal granuloma with a few calcifications in the left eye. While extensive work-up eliminated any other infectious and non-infectious etiology, tularemia was diagnosed by advanced serology consisting of two-dimensional Western-immunoblotting. The patient, a hunter, recalled having killed rabbits in the days before the symptoms appeared. Uveitis was rapidly controlled following treatment with doxycycline, yet three years after initiation of the treatment, the patient still complained of loss of vision in the left eye with a central scotoma. Posterior uveitis may be an infrequent manifestation of tularemia infection, and therefore this infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraocular inflammation in areas where F. tularensis is endemic.

  9. Racism, health status, and birth outcomes: results of a participatory community-based intervention and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Denise C; Kruger, Daniel J; Turner, Tonya M; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E Hill; Lewis, E Yvonne

    2011-02-01

    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and Saginaw Counties in Michigan to assess how a sustained community intervention to reduce racism and infant mortality influenced knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of racism and to explore how perceived racism is associated with self-rated health and birth outcomes. We used ANOVA and regression models to compare the responses of intervention participants and non-participants as well as African Americans and European Americans (N = 629). We found that intervention participants reported greater acknowledgment of the enduring and differential impact of racism in comparison to the non-intervention participants. Moreover, survey analyses revealed that racism was associated with health in the following ways: (1) experiences of racial discrimination predicted self-rated physical health, mental health, and smoking status; (2) perceived racism against one's racial group predicted lower self-rated physical health; and (3) emotional responses to racism-related experiences were marginally associated with lower birth-weight births in the study sample. Our study bolsters the published findings on perceived racism and health outcomes and highlights the usefulness of CBPR and community surveys to empirically investigate racism as a social determinant of health.

  10. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Selina K; Thomas, Kim S; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Leighton, Paul; Yong, Adrian Sw; Batchelor, Jonathan M

    2014-06-14

    Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world's population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

  11. A systematic survey on reporting and methods for handling missing participant data for continuous outcomes in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Flórez, Ivan D; Colunga Lozano, Luis E; Aloweni, Fazila Abu Bakar; Kennedy, Sean Alexander; Li, Aihua; Craigie, Samantha; Zhang, Shiyuan; Agarwal, Arnav; Lopes, Luciane C; Devji, Tahira; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Riva, John J; Wang, Mengxiao; Jin, Xuejing; Fei, Yutong; Alexander, Paul; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Zhang, Yuan; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Kahale, Lara A; Akl, Elie A; Schünemann, Holger J; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-08-01

    To assess analytic approaches randomized controlled trial (RCT) authors use to address missing participant data (MPD) for patient-important continuous outcomes. We conducted a systematic survey of RCTs published in 2014 in the core clinical journals that reported at least one patient-important outcome analyzed as a continuous variable. Among 200 studies, 187 (93.5%) trials explicitly reported whether MPD occurred. In the 163 (81.5%) trials that reported the occurrence of MPD, the median and interquartile ranges of the percentage of participants with MPD were 11.4% (2.5%-22.6%).Among the 147 trials in which authors made clear their analytical approach to MPD, the approaches chosen included available data only (109, 67%); mixed-effect models (10, 6.1%); multiple imputation (9, 4.5%); and last observation carried forward (9, 4.5). Of the 163 studies reporting MPD, 16 (9.8%) conducted sensitivity analyses examining the impact of the MPD and (18, 11.1%) discussed the risk of bias associated with MPD. RCTs reporting continuous outcomes typically have over 10% of participant data missing. Most RCTs failed to use optimal analytic methods, and very few conducted sensitivity analyses addressing the possible impact of MPD or commented on how MPD might influence risk of bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Education and severe maternal outcomes in developing countries: a multicountry cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçalp, Ö; Souza, J P; Hindin, M J; Santos, C A; Oliveira, T H; Vogel, J P; Togoobaatar, G; Ha, D Q; Say, L; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the relationship between education and severe maternal outcomes among women delivering in healthcare facilities. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-nine countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Pregnant women admitted to 359 facilities during a period of 2-4 months of data collection between 2010 and 2011. Data were obtained from hospital records. Stratification was based on the Human Development Index (HDI) values of the participating countries. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between maternal morbidity and education, categorised in quartiles based on the years of formal education by country. Coverage of key interventions was assessed. Severe maternal outcomes (near misses and death). A significant association between low education and severe maternal outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.46-2.95), maternal near miss (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.25-2.57), and maternal death (aOR 5.62; 95% CI 3.45-9.16) was observed. This relationship persisted in countries with medium HDIs (aOR 2.36; 95% CI 1.33-4.17) and low HDIs (aOR 2.65; 95% CI 1.54-2.57). Less educated women also had increased odds of presenting to the hospital in a severe condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction on arrival or within 24 hours: aOR 2.06; 95% CI 1.36-3.10). The probability that a woman received magnesium sulphate for eclampsia or had a caesarean section significantly increased as education level increased (P education are at greater risk for severe maternal outcomes, even after adjustment for key confounding factors. This is particularly true for women in countries that have poorer markers of social and economic development. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  13. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

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    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  14. Aerial survey of barren-ground caribou at Adak and Kagalaska Islands, Alaska in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Uncertainty surrounded the caribou population trend since the 2005 survey for several reasons. First, reported hunter harvest rates returned to or exceeded pre‐naval...

  15. Relatives' perception of stressors and psychological outcomes - Results from a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Bastian; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Reinhart, Konrad; König, Christian; Hartog, Christiane S

    2017-06-01

    To identify relevant stressors or resources of relatives of critically ill patients and explore their relationship with psychological outcomes. Prospective mixed-method study performed in 4 multidisciplinary ICUs of an urban academic hospital. Main relatives of consecutive patients with severe sepsis were questioned after 90days by structured interview. Quantitative data included demographic characteristics, ICU experience, Impact-of-Event Scale (posttraumatic stress) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); answers to open questions about stressors and resources were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. 143/205 (70%) relatives participated. Satisfaction with communication and care was high. Experiencing a stressor predicted posttraumatic stress (p=0.014) and anxiety (p=0.019) after 90days. Most common stressors were feelings of helplessness and uncertainty. The perception of being overburdened in the ICU predicted posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression (all p≤0.001); In addition, patient's death or survival with significant deterioration in quality of life compared to status before admission predicted depression (p=0.016). Our study confirmed a high prevalence of PICS-F among relatives of critically ill patients. Feeling overburdened and experiencing acute stressors may be related to negative psychological outcomes. In future, vulnerable relatives might be identified by a single-item screening tool on feeling overburdened. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The development of a clinical outcomes survey research application: Assessment CenterSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Nan E.; Hanrahan, Rachel T.; Jansky, Liz J.; Harniss, Mark; Riley, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The National Institutes of Health sponsored Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aimed to create item banks and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) across multiple domains for individuals with a range of chronic diseases. Purpose Web-based software was created to enable a researcher to create study-specific Websites that could administer PROMIS CATs and other instruments to research participants or clinical samples. This paper outlines the process used to develop a user-friendly, free, Web-based resource (Assessment CenterSM) for storage, retrieval, organization, sharing, and administration of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments. Methods Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions were conducted with representatives from numerous institutions in order to supply a general wish list of features. Use Cases were then written to ensure that end user expectations matched programmer specifications. Program development included daily programmer “scrum” sessions, weekly Usability Acceptability Testing (UAT) and continuous Quality Assurance (QA) activities pre- and post-release. Results Assessment Center includes features that promote instrument development including item histories, data management, and storage of statistical analysis results. Conclusions This case study of software development highlights the collection and incorporation of user input throughout the development process. Potential future applications of Assessment Center in clinical research are discussed. PMID:20306332

  17. The development of a clinical outcomes survey research application: Assessment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard; Rothrock, Nan E; Hanrahan, Rachel T; Jansky, Liz J; Harniss, Mark; Riley, William

    2010-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health sponsored Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aimed to create item banks and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) across multiple domains for individuals with a range of chronic diseases. Web-based software was created to enable a researcher to create study-specific Websites that could administer PROMIS CATs and other instruments to research participants or clinical samples. This paper outlines the process used to develop a user-friendly, free, Web-based resource (Assessment Center) for storage, retrieval, organization, sharing, and administration of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments. Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions were conducted with representatives from numerous institutions in order to supply a general wish list of features. Use Cases were then written to ensure that end user expectations matched programmer specifications. Program development included daily programmer "scrum" sessions, weekly Usability Acceptability Testing (UAT) and continuous Quality Assurance (QA) activities pre- and post-release. Assessment Center includes features that promote instrument development including item histories, data management, and storage of statistical analysis results. This case study of software development highlights the collection and incorporation of user input throughout the development process. Potential future applications of Assessment Center in clinical research are discussed.

  18. [Serological survey of feline leukemia virus infection and the outcome of antibody-positive cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, T; Tajima, M; Ishiguro, T; Tamura, H; Maejima, K

    1988-04-01

    A serological survey was carried out to examine the presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) in 208 cat sera collected at Teikyo University School of Medicine. Seven cats (3.4%) were positive for FeLV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay whereas no cat was positive for FOCMA antibody by indirect membrane immunofluorescent test. Anemia, leukemia and/or lymphoma formation were not observed in these FeLV antibody-positive cats. But among these seven cats, three were positive for toxoplasma antibodies. One of them was also positive for Chlamydia psittaci antibody and it died in pneumonia. Among the four toxoplasma antibody negative cats, one was died in eosinophilic granuloma. Furthermore, two of three cats, which were used for experiments, had cold and took therapy.

  19. Information literacy skills of occupational therapy graduates: a survey of learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Carol A.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess whether recent graduates of the Ohio State University's Occupational Therapy division are applying information-seeking skills they learned as undergraduates, and to seek their advice on ways to improve information-literacy instruction for current and future occupational therapy students. Method: A survey was sent to a sample of graduates from 1995–2000. The results were entered into an SPSS database, and descriptive and inferential results were calculated to determine the information-seeking patterns of these recent graduates. Results: A majority of the occupational therapy graduates who responded to the survey prefer to use information resources that are readily available to them, such as advice from their colleagues or supervisors (79%) and the Internet (69%), rather than the evidence available in the journal literature. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the graduates have searched MEDLINE or CINAHL at least once since they graduated. Formal library instruction sessions were considered useful by 42% of the graduates, and 22% of the graduates found informal contacts with librarians to be useful. Conclusions: Librarians and occupational therapy faculty must intensify their efforts to convey the importance of applying research information to patient care and inform students of ways to access this information after they graduate. In addition to teaching searching skills for MEDLINE and CINAHL, they must provide instruction on how to assess the quality of information they find on the Internet. Other findings suggest that occupational therapy practitioners need access to information systems in the clinical setting that synthesize the research in a way that is readily applicable to patient-care issues. PMID:14566378

  20. ESPRESSO: the ultimate rocky exoplanets hunter for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Denis; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Amate, Manuel; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.; Dekker, Hans; Abreu, Manuel; Affolter, Michael; Avila, Gerardo; Baldini, Veronica; Bristow, Paul; Broeg, Christopher; Carvas, Pedro; Cirami, Roberto; Coelho, João.; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cupani, Guido; D'Odorico, Valentina; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Delabre, Bernard; Figueira, Pedro; Fleury, Michel; Fragoso, Ana; Genolet, Ludovic; Gomes, Ricardo; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay; Hughes, Ian; Iwert, Olaf; Kerber, Florian; Landoni, Marco; Lima, Jorge; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Lovis, Christophe; Maire, Charles; Mannetta, Marco; Martins, Carlos; Moitinho, André; Molaro, Paolo; Monteiro, Manuel; Rasilla, José Luis; Riva, Marco; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Santin, Paolo; Sosnowska, Danuta; Sousa, Sergio; Spanò, Paolo; Tenegi, Fabio; Toso, Giorgio; Vanzella, Eros; Viel, Matteo; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO, the VLT rocky exoplanets hunter, will combine the efficiency of modern echelle spectrograph with extreme radial-velocity precision. It will be installed at Paranal on ESO's VLT in order to achieve a gain of two magnitudes with respect to its predecessor HARPS, and the instrumental radial-velocity precision will be improved to reach 10 cm/s level. We have constituted a Consortium of astronomical research institutes to fund, design and build ESPRESSO on behalf of and in collaboration with ESO, the European Southern Observatory. The project has passed the preliminary design review in November 2011. The spectrograph will be installed at the so-called "Combined Coudé Laboratory" of the VLT, it will be linked to the four 8.2 meters Unit Telescopes (UT) through four optical "Coudé trains" and will be operated either with a single telescope or with up to four UTs. In exchange of the major financial and human effort the building Consortium will be awarded with guaranteed observing time (GTO), which will be invested in a common scientific program. Thanks to its characteristics and the ability of combining incoherently the light of 4 large telescopes, ESPRESSO will offer new possibilities in many fields of astronomy. Our main scientific objectives are, however, the search and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of quiet, near-by G to M-dwarfs, and the analysis of the variability of fundamental physical constants. In this paper, we present the ambitious scientific objectives, the capabilities of ESPRESSO, the technical solutions for the system and its subsystems, enlightening the main differences between ESPRESSO and its predecessors. The project aspects of this facility are also described, from the consortium and partnership structure to the planning phases and milestones.

  1. Transsulfuration pathway thiols and methylated arginines: the Hunter Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arduino A Mangoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum homocysteine, when studied singly, has been reported to be positively associated both with the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA, via inhibition of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH activity] and with symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA. We investigated combined associations between transsulfuration pathway thiols, including homocysteine, and serum ADMA and SDMA concentrations at population level. METHODS: Data on clinical and demographic characteristics, medication exposure, C-reactive protein, serum ADMA and SDMA (LC-MS/MS, and thiols (homocysteine, cysteine, taurine, glutamylcysteine, total glutathione, and cysteinylglycine; capillary electrophoresis were collected from a sample of the Hunter Community Study on human ageing [n = 498, median age (IQR = 64 (60-70 years]. RESULTS: REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT: a age (P = 0.001, gender (P = 0.03, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = 0.08, body mass index (P = 0.008, treatment with beta-blockers (P = 0.03, homocysteine (P = 0.02, and glutamylcysteine (P = 0.003 were independently associated with higher ADMA concentrations; and b age (P = 0.001, absence of diabetes (P = 0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.01, lower eGFR (P<0.001, cysteine (P = 0.007, and glutamylcysteine (P < 0.001 were independently associated with higher SDMA concentrations. No significant associations were observed between methylated arginines and either glutathione or taurine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders the combined assessment of transsulfuration pathway thiols shows that glutamylcysteine has the strongest and positive independent associations with ADMA and SDMA. Whether this reflects a direct effect of glutamylcysteine on DDAH activity (for ADMA and/or cationic amino acid transport requires further investigations.

  2. The night of the hunter: children & adults in the secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry caesar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Night of the Hunter is  the 1956 Charles Laughton’s film considered  one of the best discussions about childhood. In this film, the story revolves around the fate of John and Pearl, two orphaned siblings whose father was hanged for stealing. The father had given the children the money, and they hid the money inside the girl’s doll. When the Preacher Powell enters their lives , both John and Pearl are in danger. The siblings have to keep a secret which is both where they put the money, and the fact that, for children, money is simply paper.

  3. The Effects of Changing Sea Ice on Marine Mammals and Their Hunters in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, H.; Quakenbush, L.; Nelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information and insight relevant to ecological understanding, conservation action, and the regulation of human activity. We interviewed hunters in villages from northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, focusing on bowhead whales, walrus, and ice seals. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice, with resulting effects on the timing of marine mammal migrations, the distribution and behavior of the animals, and the efficacy of certain hunting methods, for example the difficulty of finding ice thick enough to support a bowhead whale for butchering. At the same time, hunters acknowledged impacts and potential impacts from changing technology such as more powerful outboard engines and from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. Hunters have been able to adapt to some changes, for example by hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring on St. Lawrence Island, or by focusing their hunt in a shorter period in Nuiqsut to accommodate work schedules and worse weather. Other changes, such as reduced availability of ice seals due to rapid retreat of pack ice after spring break-up, continue to defy easy responses. Continued environmental changes, increased disturbance from human activity, and the introduction of new regulations for hunting may further challenge the ability of hunters to provide food as they have done to date, though innovation and flexibility may also provide new sources of adaptation.

  4. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-10-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource

  5. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  6. Likely health outcomes for untreated acute febrile illness in the tropics in decision and economic models; a Delphi survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Lubell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modelling is widely used to inform decisions about management of malaria and acute febrile illnesses. Most models depend on estimates of the probability that untreated patients with malaria or bacterial illnesses will progress to severe disease or death. However, data on these key parameters are lacking and assumptions are frequently made based on expert opinion. Widely diverse opinions can lead to conflicting outcomes in models they inform. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Delphi survey was conducted with malaria experts aiming to reach consensus on key parameters for public health and economic models, relating to the outcome of untreated febrile illnesses. Survey questions were stratified by malaria transmission intensity, patient age, and HIV prevalence. The impact of the variability in opinion on decision models is illustrated with a model previously used to assess the cost-effectiveness of malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Some consensus was reached around the probability that patients from higher transmission settings with untreated malaria would progress to severe disease (median 3%, inter-quartile range (IQR 1-5%, and the probability that a non-malaria illness required antibiotics in areas of low HIV prevalence (median 20%. Children living in low transmission areas were considered to be at higher risk of progressing to severe malaria (median 30%, IQR 10-58% than those from higher transmission areas (median 13%, IQR 7-30%. Estimates of the probability of dying from severe malaria were high in all settings (medians 60-73%. However, opinions varied widely for most parameters, and did not converge on resurveying. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the uncertainty around potential consequences of untreated malaria and bacterial illnesses. The lack of consensus on most parameters, the wide range of estimates, and the impact of variability in estimates on model outputs, demonstrate the importance of sensitivity analysis for decision models

  7. Medicine and music: a note on John Hunter (1728-93) and Joseph Haydn (1732-1809).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-05-01

    Joseph Haydn was a central figure in the development and growth of the European classical musical tradition in its transition from the Baroque period. John Hunter as the Founder of Scientific Surgery was a dominant figure in 18th-century British medical science. Anne Hunter née Home (1742-1821) was in her own right a figure of some eminence in the literary circles of 18th-century London. Attracted to the burgeoning medical and musical scenes of London, John Hunter married Anne Home and became a famous surgeon; Haydn became acquainted with the Hunters. The people, the opportunities and the circumstances had coincided.

  8. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  9. Current practice of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and patient-perceived health outcomes in adrenal insufficiency - a worldwide patient survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forss M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to survey current practice in glucocorticoid replacement therapy and self-perceived health outcomes in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Methods Participants were recruited via patient organizations to respond anonymously to a web-based survey developed by clinical experts. Unique entries were set up for each patient organization enabling geographical localization of the entries. Results 1245 participants responded (primary adrenal insufficiency: 84%; secondary adrenal insufficiency: 11%; unsure: 5%. Therapies included hydrocortisone (75%, prednisone/prednisolone (11%, cortisone acetate (6% and dexamethasone (4%. Dosing regimens were once daily (10%, twice daily (42%, thrice daily (32% or other (17%. Compromised subjective health necessitating changes to physical activity or social-, work- or family life was reported by 64% of the participants. 40% of the participants reported absence from work/school in the last 3 months. Irrespective of diagnosis, 76% were concerned about long-term side-effects of therapy, mainly osteoporosis (78%, obesity (64% and cardiovascular morbidity (46%. 38% of the participants had been hospitalized in the last year. Conclusions Glucocorticoid replacement therapy among the respondents consisted primarily of hydrocortisone administered twice or thrice daily. A majority reported impact of their disease or treatment on subjective health requiring alterations in e.g. physical activity or family life. Three quarters reported concerns about long-term side-effects of the treatment. These data demonstrate - from the patients' perspective - a need for improvement in the management of adrenal insufficiency.

  10. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Paola; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid) was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases. PMID:28018694

  11. Applications of resilience theory in management of a moose-hunter system in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wildfire-related effects on a slow ecological variable, i.e., forage production, and fast social-ecological variables, i.e., seasonal harvest rates, hunter access, and forage offtake, in a moose-hunter system in interior Alaska. In a 1994 burn, average forage production increased slightly (5% between 2007 and 2013; however, the proportional removal across all sites declined significantly (10%. This suggests that moose are not utilizing the burn as much as they have in the past and that, as the burn has aged, the apparent habitat quality has declined. Areas with a greater proportion of accessible burned area supported both high numbers of hunters and harvested moose. Our results suggest that evaluating ecological variables in conjunction with social variables can provide managers with information to forecast management scenarios. We recommend that wildlife managers monitor fast variables frequently, e.g., annually, to adapt and keep their management responsive as resources fluctuate; whereas slower variables, which require less frequent monitoring, should be actively incorporated into long-term management strategies. Climate-driven increases in wildfire extent and severity and economically driven demographic changes are likely to increase both moose density and hunting pressure. However, the future resilience of this moose-hunter system will depend on integrated management of wildfire, hunter access, and harvest opportunities.

  12. DBD-Hunter: a knowledge-based method for the prediction of DNA-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2008-07-01

    The structures of DNA-protein complexes have illuminated the diversity of DNA-protein binding mechanisms shown by different protein families. This lack of generality could pose a great challenge for predicting DNA-protein interactions. To address this issue, we have developed a knowledge-based method, DNA-binding Domain Hunter (DBD-Hunter), for identifying DNA-binding proteins and associated binding sites. The method combines structural comparison and the evaluation of a statistical potential, which we derive to describe interactions between DNA base pairs and protein residues. We demonstrate that DBD-Hunter is an accurate method for predicting DNA-binding function of proteins, and that DNA-binding protein residues can be reliably inferred from the corresponding templates if identified. In benchmark tests on approximately 4000 proteins, our method achieved an accuracy of 98% and a precision of 84%, which significantly outperforms three previous methods. We further validate the method on DNA-binding protein structures determined in DNA-free (apo) state. We show that the accuracy of our method is only slightly affected on apo-structures compared to the performance on holo-structures cocrystallized with DNA. Finally, we apply the method to approximately 1700 structural genomics targets and predict that 37 targets with previously unknown function are likely to be DNA-binding proteins. DBD-Hunter is freely available at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/skolnick/webservice/DBD-Hunter/.

  13. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  14. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  15. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  16. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munier A. Nour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases.

  17. Musical preferences and learning outcome of medical students in cadaver dissection laboratory: A Nigerian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G E; Nto, J N; Agu, A U; Ekezie, J; Esom, E A

    2016-11-01

    Background music has been reported to enhance learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory. This study was designed to determine the impact of various forms of musical genre and some of their characteristics on students' learning outcome in the dissection laboratory. Some selected musical genre in vocal and non-vocal forms and at different tempi and volume were played as background music (BM) to 253 Medical and Dental students during various sessions of cadaver dissection. Psychological Stress assessment was done using Psychological stress measure-9. Participants love for music, preferred musical genre and other musical characteristics were assessed. The impact of the various musical genre and their characteristics on learning was done via written examination on the region dissected during each musical session. A positive relationship was noted between students' preference for musical genre during leisure with their preference for BM during private study time (Pmusical genre on some selected learning factors. Country and Classical music gave the highest positive impact on the various learning factors in CDL followed by R&B. No significant difference was noted between the cognitive values of vocal and non-vocal music. Classical music most effectively reduced the stress induced by dissection in the CDL while Reggae and High life musical genre created a more stressful environment than regular background noise (Pmusical genre and their various characteristics. The inability to isolate the particular musical genre with these desired properties could account for the controversies in the reports of the role of music in academic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Process and outcomes of euthanasia requests under the belgian act on euthanasia: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wesemael, Yanna; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Smets, Tinne; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Deliens, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Since 2002, the administration of a lethal drug by a physician at the explicit request of the patient has been legal in Belgium. The incidence of euthanasia in Belgium has been studied, but the process and outcomes of euthanasia requests have not been investigated. To describe which euthanasia requests were granted, withdrawn, and rejected since the enactment of the euthanasia law in terms of the characteristics of the patient, treating physician, and aspects of the consultation with a second physician. A representative sample of 3006 Belgian physicians received a questionnaire investigating their most recent euthanasia request. The response rate was 34%. Since 2002, 39% of respondents had received a euthanasia request. Forty-eight percent of requests had been carried out, 5% had been refused, 10% had been withdrawn, and in 23%, the patient had died before euthanasia could be performed. Physicians' characteristics associated with receiving a request were not being religious, caring for a high number of terminally ill patients, and having experience in palliative care. Patient characteristics associated with granting a request were age, having cancer, loss of dignity, having no depression, and suffering without prospect of improvement as a reason for requesting euthanasia. A positive initial position toward the request from the attending physician and positive advice from the second physician also contributed to having a request granted. Under the Belgian Act on Euthanasia, about half of the requests are granted. Factors related to the reason for the request, position of the attending physician toward the request, and advice from the second physician influence whether a request is granted or not. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Cabri, Jan; Pinheiro, João Páscoa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS). This version was obtained with forward/backward translations, consensus panels and pre-testing. The Portuguese KOS-ADLS and Medical Outcomes Study, 36-item Short Form (SF-36) questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS) of pain, disability and discomfort, and a form for patient’s characteristics were administered to 168...

  20. Do associations between employee self-reported organizational assessments and attitudinal outcomes change over time? An analysis of four Veterans Health Administration surveys using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sonali; Chen, Ming-Hui; Warren, Nicholas; Hodgson, Michael

    2011-12-01

    This paper evaluates relationships between healthcare employees' perceptions of three hospital organizational constructs (Leadership, Support and Resources), and their assessment of two employee-related outcomes (employee satisfaction and retention) and two patient-related outcomes (patient satisfaction and quality of care). Using four all-employee surveys conducted by the Veterans Health Administration in the United States between 1997 and 2006, we examine the strength of these relationships and their changes over time. Exposure and outcome measures are employee-assessed in all the surveys. Because it can accommodate both latent and measured variables into the model, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is used to capture and quantify the relationship structure. The aim of the project is to identify possible intervention foci. The analyses revealed that employee-related outcomes are improved by increases in Leadership and Support, and, not surprisingly, the outcome variable of employee satisfaction reduced turnover intention. The employee assessed patient-related outcomes of satisfaction and quality of care were most improved by increases in Resources. Results also indicate that the three organizational constructs and the web of associations characterized by SEM underwent changes over the study period, perhaps in relation to changes in VHA policy emphases, changes in survey wording and other possible unmeasured factors.

  1. Global priorities for research and the relative importance of different research outcomes: an international Delphi survey of malaria research experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Conteh, Lesong

    2016-12-06

    As global research investment increases, attention inevitably turns to assessing and measuring the outcomes and impact from research programmes. Research can have many different outcomes such as producing advances in scientific knowledge, building research capacity and, ultimately, health and broader societal benefits. The aim of this study was to test the use of a Delphi methodology as a way of gathering views from malaria research experts on research priorities and eliciting relative valuations of the different types of health research impact. An international Delphi survey of 60 malaria research experts was used to understand views on research outcomes and priorities within malaria and across global health more widely. The study demonstrated the application of the Delphi technique to eliciting views on malaria specific research priorities, wider global health research priorities and the values assigned to different types of research impact. In terms of the most important past research successes, the development of new anti-malarial drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets were rated as the most important. When asked about research priorities for future funding, respondents ranked tackling emerging drug and insecticide resistance the highest. With respect to research impact, the panel valued research that focuses on health and health sector benefits and informing policy and product development. Contributions to scientific knowledge, although highly valued, came lower down the ranking, suggesting that efforts to move research discoveries to health products and services are valued more highly than pure advances in scientific knowledge. Although the Delphi technique has been used to elicit views on research questions in global health this was the first time it has been used to assess how a group of research experts value or rank different types of research impact. The results suggest it is feasible to inject the views of a key stakeholder group into the research

  2. Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short-period Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of >=2 R ⊕ planets on short-period (=4 R ⊕ Planet Hunters >=85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler >=4 R ⊕ planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of >=4 R ⊕ short-period planets is nearly complete.

  3. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-01-01

    The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique pla......]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations....... in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence...

  4. Use of and confidence in administering outcome measures among clinical prosthetists: Results from a national survey and mixed-methods training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Spaulding, Susan E; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Gailey, Robert; Morgan, Sara J; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    Outcome measures can be used in prosthetic practices to evaluate interventions, inform decision making, monitor progress, document outcomes, and justify services. Strategies to enhance prosthetists' ability to use outcome measures are needed to facilitate their adoption in routine practice. To assess prosthetists' use of outcome measures and evaluate the effects of training on their confidence in administering performance-based measures. Cross-sectional and single-group pretest-posttest survey. Seventy-nine certified prosthetists (mean of 16.0 years of clinical experience) were surveyed about their experiences with 20 standardized outcome measures. Prosthetists were formally trained by the investigators to administer the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor. Prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor was measured before and after training. The majority of prosthetists (62%) were classified as non-routine outcome measure users. Confidence administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor prior to training was low-to-moderate across the study sample. Training significantly (p confidence in administering both instruments. Prosthetists in this study reported limited use of and confidence with standardized outcome measures. Interactive training resulted in a statistically significant increase of prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor and may facilitate use of outcome measures in clinical practice. Frequency of outcome measure use in the care of persons with limb loss has not been studied. Study results suggest that prosthetists may not regularly use standardized outcome measures and report limited confidence in administering them. Training enhances confidence and may encourage use of outcome measures in clinical practice. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  5. Radioiodination and biodistribution of quantum dots using Bolton-Hunter reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Park, Jae [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sup Lee, Tae, E-mail: nobelcow@kirams.re.k [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun Kang, Joo [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rita [Nano/Bio Chemistry Group, Institut Pasteur Korea (IP-Korea), Seongnam 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong Cheon, Gi, E-mail: larry@kirams.re.k [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the radioiodination and biodistribution of quantum dots (QDs) using Bolton-Hunter reagent were investigated. Radioiodination yield was 33.4{+-}2.0%. Fluorescent intensity of radioiodinated QDs decreased to 75.4% of the maximum prior to radioiodination. In biodistribution and ex vivo fluorescence imaging, radioiodinated QDs were highly accumulated in reticuloendothelial system (liver and spleen) and had low level bone uptakes and slow clearance from body. These results suggest that the radioiodination method of nanoparticles using Bolton-Hunter reagent could be easily used in the biodistribution and quantification of nanoparticles in vivo.

  6. 利用Hunter-Lab色差仪测量彩涂板的色差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红军; 陈剑; 王文杰; 曹彦婷

    2006-01-01

    介绍了利用Hunter-Lab色差仪对彩涂板进行色差测量的方法和原理,并对该方法的准确度和精密度进行了分析.结果表明,利用Hunter-Lab色差仪可快速准确的测量彩涂板色差,对彩涂板的生产具有极强的指导意义.

  7. Generic regularity and Lipschitz metric for the Hunter-Saxton type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Chen, Geng; Shen, Yannan; Tan, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The Hunter-Saxton equation determines a flow of conservative solutions taking values in the space H1 (R+). However, the solution typically includes finite time gradient blowups, which make the solution flow not continuous w.r.t. the natural H1 distance. The aim of this paper is to first study the generic properties of conservative solutions of some initial boundary value problems to the Hunter-Saxton type equations. Then using these properties, we give a new way to construct a Finsler type metric which renders the flow uniformly Lipschitz continuous on bounded subsets of H1 (R+).

  8. Molecular characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum isolated from an outbreak in treasure hunters Histoplasma capsulatum in treasure hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Bertha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, primary pulmonary histoplasmosis is the most relevant clinical form of the disease. The geographical distribution of specific strains of Histoplasma capsulatum circulating in Mexico has not been fully established. Outbreaks must be reported in order to have current, updated information on this disease, identifying new endemic areas, manner of exposure to the fungi, and molecular characterization of the causative agents. We report a recent outbreak of histoplasmosis in treasure hunters and the molecular characterization of two isolates obtained from these patients. Methods Six patients admitted to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER in Mexico City presented severe respiratory symptoms suggestive of histoplasmosis. They acquired the infection in the Veracruz (VZ endemic zone. Diagnosis was made by X-ray and Computed tomography (CT, liver function, immunological techniques, and culture. Identification of H. capsulatum isolates was confirmed by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted with a probe from the M antigen, and the isolates were characterized by means of Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR employed the 1253 oligonucleotide and a mixture of oligonucleotides 1281 and 1283. These were compared to eight reference strain isolates from neighboring areas. Results X-ray and CT revealed disseminated micronodular images throughout lung parenchyma, as well as bilateral retrocaval, prevascular, subcarinal, and hilar adenopathies, hepatosplenomegaly, and altered liver function tests. Five of the six patients developed disseminated histoplasmosis. Two H. capsulatum strains were isolated. The same band profile was detected in both strains, indicating that both isolates corresponded to the sole H. capsulatum strain. Molecular characterization of the isolates was similar in 100% with the EH-53 Hidalgo human (HG strain (reference strain integrated into the LAm A clade described for

  9. Hunter-Schmidt Meta-Analysis Paradigm: Its Properties and Applications%Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式:特征和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王拥军; 俞国良

    2010-01-01

    Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式是一种以随机效应模型为基础的比较完备的元分析技术,可以校正效应值的抽样误差、测量误差和全距误差.Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式是应用心理学领域30年来最重要的进展之一,它拓展了心理学的研究方法,开创了校正各种测验误差的方法论研究,激励了心理学家对预测因子的效度概化研究,确认了预测因子和效标之间的水平关系特征和结构关系特征.

  10. Sunday Schools and English Teaching: Re-Reading Ian Hunter and the Emergence of "English" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    This article represents an "overdue encounter" with the ideas of Ian Hunter to reconsider the historical emergence and descent of English teaching in the United States. Influenced by Hunter's account of the "pastoral" and "bureaucratic" genealogy of English teaching in England, my historical study documented…

  11. Health hackathons: theatre or substance? A survey assessment of outcomes from healthcare-focused hackathons in three countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Madeline; Garg, Priya; Steel, Alexis; Mehta, Sahil; Data, Santorino; Petersen, Rebecca; Guarino, Anthony J; Bailey, Elizabeth; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-01-01

    Background Healthcare-focused hackathons are 48-hour platforms intended to accelerate novel medical technology. However, debate exists about how much they contribute to medical technology innovation. The Consortium for Affordable Medical Technologies (CAMTech) has developed a three-pronged model to maximise their effectiveness. To gauge the success of this model, we examined follow-up outcomes. Methods Outcomes of 12 hackathons from 2012 to 2015 in India, Uganda and the USA were measured using emailed surveys. To minimise response bias, non-responding teams were coded as having made no progress. Results 331 individuals provided information on 196 of 356 projects (55.1% response rate), with no difference in responses from teams participating in different countries (Cramer's V=0.09, p=0.17). 30.3% of projects had made progress after a mean of 12.2 months. 88 (24.7%) teams had initiated pilot testing, with 42 (11.8%) piloting with care providers and 24 (6.7%) with patients. Overall, 97 teams (8.1 per hackathon) drafted business plans, 22 (1.8 per hackathon) had filed patents on their innovations and 15 (1.3 per hackathon) had formed new companies. Teams raised US$64.08 million in funding (average US$5.34 million per hackathon; median award size of $1800). In addition, 108 teams (30.3%) reported at least one member working on additional technologies with people they met at a hackathon. Individual confidence to address medical technology challenges was significantly increased after attending (t(1282)=192.77, p 0.001). Conclusion CAMTech healthcare hackathons lead to consistent output with respect to medical technology innovation, including clinical trials, business plan development, securing investment capital/funding and new company formation. PMID:28250965

  12. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 11: The extent that waterfowl hunting space met the needs of waterfowl hunters in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the adequacy of waterfowl hunting space, it is necessary to compare the number of hunters that space available can support with the number of hunters...

  13. The Desired Learning Outcomes of School-Based Nutrition/Physical Activity Health Education: A Health Literacy Constructed Delphi Survey of Finnish Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…

  14. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of life

  15. The Desired Learning Outcomes of School-Based Nutrition/Physical Activity Health Education: A Health Literacy Constructed Delphi Survey of Finnish Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…

  16. Evaluating Curricular Influence on Preparation for Practice, Career Outcomes, and Job Satisfaction: Results from an Alumni Survey of a 40-Year Rehabilitation and Mental Health Counseling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tammy Jorgensen; Reid, Joan A.; Henry, Ryan G.; Dixon, Charlotte G.; Wright, Tennyson J.

    2013-01-01

    Alumni of a Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE)-accredited graduate rehabilitation counselor education (RCE) program were surveyed to evaluate career outcomes, job satisfaction, licensure and certification rates, client populations served, and RCE program satisfaction and effectiveness. Results indicate a high level of satisfaction with the…

  17. Evaluating Curricular Influence on Preparation for Practice, Career Outcomes, and Job Satisfaction: Results from an Alumni Survey of a 40-Year Rehabilitation and Mental Health Counseling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tammy Jorgensen; Reid, Joan A.; Henry, Ryan G.; Dixon, Charlotte G.; Wright, Tennyson J.

    2013-01-01

    Alumni of a Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE)-accredited graduate rehabilitation counselor education (RCE) program were surveyed to evaluate career outcomes, job satisfaction, licensure and certification rates, client populations served, and RCE program satisfaction and effectiveness. Results indicate a high level of satisfaction with the…

  18. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  19. Outcome measures in European patients with haemophilia: Survey of implementation in routine clinical practice, perception of relevance and recommendations by European treaters in the EHTSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; de Moerloose, P; Garrido, R P

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation of outcome measures in routine clinical haemophilia practice and to explore and appreciate the perception of the relevance of such measures by treaters. A survey was completed by 19 of the 26 physicians involved in the European Haemophilia Therapy Strategy Board (EHTSB). Employing an extensive inventory of outcome measures used in patients with haemophilia, information was collected about the frequency of data collection and the subjective appreciation of their importance during clinic review. The survey revealed that most treaters currently collect data that are mainly related to the haemostatic treatment (consumption of concentrates) and the bleeding symptoms (number and location of bleeds) in a non-uniform and non-standardized way. By contrast, functional, physical and quality of life scorings are rarely used and show considerable heterogeneity between treaters. Also, many disparities emerged between practice and perception, in particular quality of life data that are perceived as being important but for most of the time are not collected. This survey represents, in our view, the first attempt to evaluate the actual utilization of outcome measures in haemophilia care. While the value of outcome measures is appreciated, they are not assessed regularly. Therefore, there is a need to include appropriate performance indicators (outcome measures) of haemophilia care in routine clinical practice. Consensus recommendations to provide a framework for achieving this aim are provided. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development and measurement properties of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS): a comprehensive set of clinical outcome instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, A W; Bode, R K; O'Reilly, C

    2003-12-01

    The need to measure and evaluate orthotics and prosthetics (O&P) practice has received growing recognition in the past several years. Reliable and valid self-report instruments are needed that can help facilities evaluate patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to develop a set of self-report instruments that assess functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services that can be used in an orthotics and prosthetics clinic. Selecting items from a variety of existing instruments, the authors developed and revised four instruments that differentiate patients with varying levels of lower limb function, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services. Evidence of construct validity is provided by hierarchies of item difficulty that are consistent with clinical experience. For example, with the lower limb function instrument, running one block was much more difficult than walking indoors. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency (0.88 for lower limb function, 0.88 for quality of life, 0.74 for service satisfaction, 0.78 for device satisfaction). The next steps in their research programme are to evaluate sensitivity and construct validity. The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS) is a promising self-report instrument which may, with further development, allow orthotic and prosthetic practitioners to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their services as required by accreditation standards such as those of the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics that mandate quality assessment.

  1. Survey of Pregnancy Outcome in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes with Amniotic Fluid Index <5 and ≥5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Tavassoli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is among the most important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to survey the pregnancy outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes with an amniotic fluid index of 5.Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 137 pregnant women complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM with a gestational age of 28-34 weeks during October 2006 to October 2008. The patients were divided in two groups according to their amniotic fluid index; AFI<5 (77cases, AFI≥5 (60cases. The Chi-squared test for qualitative variables and T-student test for quantitative variables were used to analyze the results.Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in terms of the number of pregnancies, gestational age at rupture of membranes and birthweight between the two groups. However, the results demonstrated that the patients with AFI<5 exhibited a significantly shorter latency period (p=0.049, a higher rate of cesarean due to fetal distress (p=0.008, a lower neonatal Apgar score in the first minute (p=0.0127 and a higher rate of neonatal death during the first week (p=0.045.Conclusion: Overall, PPROM with oligohydroamnios is associated with shorter latency, higher rate of C/S, higher rate of early neonatal death and lower neonatal Apgar.

  2. Non-viral transfer approaches for the gene therapy of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanin, R; Friso, A; Alba, S; Piller Puicher, E; Mennuni, C; La Monica, N; Hortelano, G; Zacchello, F; Scarpa, M

    2002-01-01

    Hunter syndrome is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the housekeeping enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS). Deficiency of IDS causes accumulation of undegraded dermatan and heparan-sulphate in various tissues and organs. Approaches have been proposed for the symptomatic therapy of the disease, including bone marrow transplantation and, very recently, enzyme replacement. To date, gene therapy strategies have considered mainly retroviral and adenoviral transduction of the correct cDNA. In this paper, two non-viral somatic gene therapy approaches are proposed: encapsulated heterologous cells and muscle electro-gene transfer (EGT). Hunter primary fibroblasts were co-cultured with either cell clones over-expressing the lacking enzyme or with the same incorporated in alginate microcapsules. For EGT, plasmid vector was injected into mouse quadriceps muscle, which was then immediately electro-stimulated. Co-culturing Hunter primary fibroblasts with cells over-expressing IDS resulted in a three- to fourfold increase in fibroblast enzyme activity with respect to control cells. Fibroblast IDS activity was also increased after co-culture with encapsulated cells. EGT was able to transduce genes in mouse muscle, resulting in at least a tenfold increase in IDS activity 1-5 weeks after treatment. Although preliminary, results from encapsulated heterologous cell clones and muscle EGT encourage further evaluations for possible application to gene therapy for Hunter syndrome.

  3. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwamb, Megan E. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Parrish, Michael [Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: megan.schwamb@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of {>=}2 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets on short-period (<15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} Planet Hunters {>=}85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} short-period planets is nearly complete.

  4. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  5. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  6. Indice de Indices en la Biblioteca de Hunter College para el Estudiante Hispano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero Bielsa, Alberto; And Others

    Designed for Spanish-speaking students of Hunter College of the City University of New York, this guide explains the use of 70 English-language indexes found in the college library. The explanations are given in Spanish in order to simplify the process of library research for students who are not completely comfortable with English. Each index is…

  7. The seed hunter in het spoor van Vavilov (interview met C. Kik)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanderink, R.; Kik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Er moet voor een veredelaar een grote variatie aan plantmateriaal aanwezig zijn om uit te kunnen putten zodat onze gewassen, die vaak bestaan uit monoculturen, voor de toekomst veiliggesteld worden. Het vinden van die variatie is het werk van seed hunters of zadenverzamelaars. Eén van die seed

  8. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, Vicky; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gath

  9. Recent origin and cultural reversion of a hunter-gatherer group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oota

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary hunter-gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter-gatherer groups such as the Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term isolation and small population sizes. We report here genetic evidence concerning the origins of the Mlabri, an enigmatic hunter-gatherer group from northern Thailand. The Mlabri have no mtDNA diversity, and the genetic diversity at Y-chromosome and autosomal loci are also extraordinarily reduced in the Mlabri. Genetic, linguistic, and cultural data all suggest that the Mlabri were recently founded, 500-800 y ago, from a very small number of individuals. Moreover, the Mlabri appear to have originated from an agricultural group and then adopted a hunting-gathering subsistence mode. This example of cultural reversion from agriculture to a hunting-gathering lifestyle indicates that contemporary hunter-gatherer groups do not necessarily reflect a pre-agricultural lifestyle.

  10. Period Determination of Binary Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May-September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Oey, Julian; Pravec, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for seven confirmed or possible binary asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) and Leura Observatory from 2009 May through 2010 September: 1453 Fennia, 2501 Lohja, 3076 Garbor, 4029 Bridges, 5325 Silver, 6244 Okamoto, and (6265) 1985 TW3.

  11. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  12. Adaptation of Hunter Cynism Scale to Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Zafer; Bakioglu, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to carry out the adaptation of Hunter Cynicism Scale to Turkish. For this purpose, this study consists of two stages. 311 university students participated in for the first stage and 313 university students participated in for the second stage of this study. In the first stage, translation, exploratory factor analysis,…

  13. 76 FR 9345 - Brian Hunter; Third Supplemental Notice of Designation of Commission Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hunter; Third Supplemental Notice of Designation of Commission Staff On February 1, 2008, the Commission issued an order that, inter alia, designated the staff of...

  14. History and Development of the Schmidt-Hunter Meta-Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I provide answers to the questions posed by Will Shadish about the history and development of the Schmidt-Hunter methods of meta-analysis. In the 1970s, I headed a research program on personnel selection at the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM). After our research showed that validity studies have low statistical power, OPM…

  15. Geometric Integrability of Two-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Juu-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the two-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number o, conservation laws are directly constructed. In addition, a class of nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  16. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugal, Cherie; van Beest, Floris; Vander Wal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying hi...

  17. Serological surveillance of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases among hunters in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp., Francisella tularensis, Echinococcus spp., or hantaviruses. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of zoonotic agents, viz. A. phagocytophilum, hantaviruses, and Echinococcus spp., with special regard to B. burgdorferi s.l., among hunters in Lubelskie Voivodeship (eastern Poland. Methods: Serum samples collected from 134 hunters from Lubelskie Voivodeship were analyzed with the use of immunological techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, line immunoblot test, and indirect fluorescence assay for the presence of antibodies against the agents. Results: Specific antibodies were detected in 66% of the tested individuals. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. (39%, A. phagocytophilum (30%, hantaviruses (9%, and Echinococcus spp. (8% were detected individually or as mixed results. Interpretation & conclusion: The results confirm that there is a risk of exposure to different pathogens in the forested areas in eastern Poland and that hunters are highly vulnerable to infection with the examined zoonotic agents. A significant proportion of co-occurring antibodies against different pathogens was noticed. Thus, hunters have to take special care of their health status evaluation and mitigate the exposure risk by using adequate prophylaxis measures.

  18. Response of moose hunters to predation following wolf return in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Wikenros

    Full Text Available Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces, the main prey of wolves.We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25, and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43. There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827 during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2 compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2 wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas and to hunters (actual harvest. In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females.We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator-humans-that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves' main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds' habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey.

  19. Ranking hospitals for outcomes in total hip replacement - administrative data with or without additional patient surveys? - Part 1: Administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörning, Hans

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many hospital rankings rely on the frequency of adverse outcomes and are based on administrative data. In the study presented here, we tried to find out, to what extent available administrative data of German Sickness Funds allow for an adequate hospital ranking and compared this with rankings based on additional information derived from a patient survey. Total hip replacement was chosen as an example procedure. In part I of the publication, we present the results of the approach based on administrative data. Methods: We used administrative data from the AOK-Lower Saxony of the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The study population comprised all beneficiaries, who received total hip replacement in the years 2000 or 2001. Performance indicators used where “critical incident (Mortality or revision” and “number of revisions” within the first year. Hospitals were ranked if they performed at least 20 procedures on AOK-beneficiaries in each of the two years. Multivariate modelling (logistic and poisson regression was used to estimate the performance indicators by case-mix variables (age, sex, co-diagnoses and hospital characteristics (hospital size, surgical volume. The actual ranking was based on these multivariate models, excluding hospital variables and adding dummy-variables for each hospital. Hospitals were ranked by their case-mix adjusted odds ratio or SMR respectively with respect to a pre-selected reference hospital. The resulting rankings were compared with each other, with regard to temporal stability, and the impact of case-mix variables.Results: About 4500 beneficiaries received total hip replacement in each year (n2000: 4482; n2001: 4579. The ranking included 65 hospitals. Comparing the years 2000 and 2001, the temporal stability of the rankings based on a single performance indicator was low (Spearman rang correlation coefficients 0.158 and 0.191. The agreement of rankings based on different performance indicators in the

  20. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old.

  1. The 2011 survey on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP in China: prevalence, risk factors, complications, pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Ye

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP are a group of medical complications in pregnancy and also a risk factor for severe pregnancy outcomes, but it lacks a large-scale epidemiological investigation in recent years. This survey represents a multicenter cross-sectional retrospective study to estimate the prevalence and analyze the risk factors for HDP among the pregnant women who had referred for delivery between January 1st 2011 and December 31st 2011 in China Mainland. A total of 112,386 pregnant women were investigated from 38 secondary and tertiary specialized or general hospitals randomly selected across the country, of which 5,869 had HDP, accounting for 5.22% of all pregnancies. There were significant differences in the prevalence of HDP between geographical regions, in which the North China showed the highest (7.44% and Central China showed the lowest (1.23%. Of six subtypes of HDP, severe preeclampsia accounted for 39.96%, gestational hypertension for 31.40%, mild preeclampsia for 15.13%, chronic hypertension in pregnancy for 6.00%, preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension for 3.68% and eclampsia for 0.89%. A number of risk factors for HDP were identified, including twin pregnancy, age of >35 years, overweight and obesity, primipara, history of hypertension as well as family history of hypertension and diabetes. The prevalence of pre-term birth, placental abruption and postpartum hemorrhage were significantly higher in women with HDP than those without HDP. The possible risk factors confirmed in this study may be useful for the development of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of HDP.

  2. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  3. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L A; Schloetter, M; Mietus-Synder, M; Morris, R C; Sebastian, A

    2009-08-01

    The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases-'diseases of civilization'. We investigated in humans whether a diet similar to that consumed by our preagricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors (that is, a paleolithic type diet) confers health benefits. We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled study, in nine nonobese sedentary healthy volunteers, ensuring no weight loss by daily weight. We compared the findings when the participants consumed their usual diet with those when they consumed a paleolithic type diet. The participants consumed their usual diet for 3 days, three ramp-up diets of increasing potassium and fiber for 7 days, then a paleolithic type diet comprising lean meat, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and excluding nonpaleolithic type foods, such as cereal grains, dairy or legumes, for 10 days. Outcomes included arterial blood pressure (BP); 24-h urine sodium and potassium excretion; plasma glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC) during a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity; plasma lipid concentrations; and brachial artery reactivity in response to ischemia. Compared with the baseline (usual) diet, we observed (a) significant reductions in BP associated with improved arterial distensibility (-3.1+/-2.9, P=0.01 and +0.19+/-0.23, P=0.05);(b) significant reduction in plasma insulin vs time AUC, during the OGTT (P=0.006); and (c) large significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (-0.8+/-0.6 (P=0.007), -0.7+/-0.5 (P=0.003) and -0.3+/-0.3 (P=0.01) mmol/l respectively). In all these measured variables, either eight or all nine participants had identical directional responses when switched to paleolithic type diet, that is, near consistently improved status of circulatory, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism/physiology. Even short-term consumption of a paleolithic type diet improves BP and glucose tolerance, decreases insulin

  4. Fabry disease in Spain. Description of Spanish patients and a comparison with other European countries using data from the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Barba Romero, Miguel Angel; Rivera Gallego, Alberto; Pintos Morell, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Fabry disease (FD) is an X chromosome-linked transmitted lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficient activity of enzyme ?-galactosidase A. This leads to accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids associated with organ involvement and premature death. We report the clinical characteristics of Spanish patients enrolled on the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS; an international multicentre registry for the disease) and also compare these data with those from the rest of Eur...

  5. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  6. Fish species and other data from DERWENT HUNTER from 31 August 1959 to 16 June 1960 (NODC Accession 7300634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 1959 the cruise programme for F.R.V. DERWENT HUNTER was changed and cruises were planned to investigate tuna in South-East Australian waters in a much...

  7. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  9. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  10. Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephanie; Ambata, Philippe; Narat, Victor; Giles-Vernick, Tamara

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission. This initial host shift cannot explain the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Instead, we must understand the processes by which the virus became transmissible, possibly between Sangha basin inhabitants and ultimately reached Kinshasa. A historical epidemiology of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, provides a much-needed corrective to the major shortcomings of the cut hunter. Based on 62 oral historical interviews conducted in southeastern Cameroon and archival research, we show that HIV emerged from ecological, economic, and socio-political transformations of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The gradual imposition of colonial rule built on and reoriented ecologies and economies, and altered older patterns of mobility and sociality. Certain changes may have contributed to the initial viral host shift, but more importantly, facilitated the adaptation of HIV-1M to human-to-human transmission. Our evidence suggests that the most critical changes occurred after 1920. This argument has important implications for public health policy, underscoring recent work emphasizing alternative pathways for zoonotic spillovers into human beings.

  11. A Philatelic Excursion with Jeff Hunter in Probability and Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. H. Styan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an excursion with Jeff Hunter, visiting some of his research topics. Specifically, we will present some facts about certain people whose work seems to have influenced Jeff in his scientific career; we illustrate our presentation with postage stamps that have been issued in honour of these people. Our main guide is Hunter’s two-volume book entitled Mathematical Techniques of Applied Probability (Academic Press, 1983.

  12. Shell beads of the Last Hunter-Gatherers and Earliest Farmers in South-Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Fernández, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the suspended objects of adornment made from marine mollusc shells that have been recorded at Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in southwest Europe. Particular attention will be given to taxonomic determination, technological aspects and the strategies utilised to obtain the raw materials for these objects. The distribution of certain species and the types of ornamentation used by the last hunter-gatherers and first farming communities will also be discussed.

  13. 演奏八弦吉他的怪才Charlie Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石岩

    2002-01-01

      一看到这把怪琴,少见的8弦配置加上扇形的弦品指板,你就会知道使用这把吉他的吉他手一定是个怪才.他就是Charlie Hunter,一个富于创新的年轻爵士吉他手.……

  14. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C. Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase®, Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients’ responses. PMID:25071396

  15. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S, an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S (Elaprase®, Shire enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.

  16. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos García-Diez

    Full Text Available Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites. On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  17. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  18. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  19. Multimodal image analysis of the retina in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II): Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Isadora Darriba Macedo; Finzi, Simone; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Kim, Chong Ae; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2017-08-18

    We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation. There was hyperautofluorescence at the central fovea and perifovea, and a diffuse bilateral choroidal fluorescence in angiography. Macular SD-OCT showed a thinning of the external retina at the perifovea in both eyes. Visual field testing showed a bilateral ring scotoma. The full field ERG was subnormal, with a negative response in the scotopic phase. Visual Evoked Potencial test and cranial MRI were normal. Our multimodal analysis reported here attempted to contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of GAG deposition in the eye, focusing on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Defining this natural history is essential for a proper comparison with Hunter patients receiving systemic treatment, thus determining if it can or cannot improve retinal function in humans with this disorder.

  20. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience.

  1. Nonlocal Symmetries and Geometric Integrability of Multi-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lu; SONG Jun-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems. It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm, Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed. For the three-component Camo ssa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems, their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.%@@ We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems.It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm,Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable,namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces.As a consequence,their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed.For the three-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems,their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  2. Does Parental Health Mediate the Relationship between Parental Uninsurance and Insured Children's Health Outcomes? Evidence from a U.S. National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobirshoev, Ilhom; Bowser, Diana; Parish, Susan L; Thomas, Cindy; Bachman, Sara S

    2017-05-01

    Although the United States has made great strides in ensuring near universal health care access for children, the health insurance coverage gap between children and their parents remains high. This study analyzed aggregated data from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey to investigate the direct relationships between parental uninsurance and children's health outcomes. Authors explored how parental health mediates the relationship between parents' health and children's health outcomes. Results suggest that insured children of uninsured parents have worse health status and are at higher risk of asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental delays, learning disabilities, and mental disabilities compared with insured children of insured parents. Parental health mediated this relationship. These findings illuminate the pathway between parental uninsurance and child health outcomes and suggest that policies that provide health insurance coverage to both children and their parents may improve both parental health and children's health outcomes. This study fills an important gap in the literature related to how parental uninsurance affects children's health outcomes mediated by the impact of uninsurance on parental health. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  3. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Parent Households and Child Health Outcomes: Findings from the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Knox, Justin R; van Rijn-van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2016-04-01

    Using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child outcomes) in households of same-sex (female) versus different-sex continuously coupled parents with biological offspring. We assessed whether associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes were different in the 2 household types. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 95 female same-sex parent and 95 different-sex parent households with children 6 to 17 years old. One parent per household was interviewed by telephone. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted. No differences were observed between household types on family relationships or any child outcomes. Same-sex parent households scored higher on parenting stress (95% confidence interval = 2.03-2.30) than different-sex parent households (95% confidence interval = 1.76-2.03), p = .006. No significant interactions between household type and family relationships or household type and parenting stress were found for any child outcomes. Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress.

  4. AcroBel - the Belgian registry on acromegaly : a survey of the 'real-life' outcome in 418 acromegalic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bex, Marie; Abs, Roger; T'Sjoen, Guy; Mockel, Lean; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Muermans, Katja; Maiter, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To constitute a registry on acromegaly, AcroBel, to evaluate the epidemiology and quality of care of acromegaly in Belgium and Luxembourg. Design: A nationwide survey from June 2003 till September 2004 aiming to collect data from all patients with acromegaly who had visited the participating endocrine clinics after 1 January 2000. Methods: Retrospective data collection coupled to a visit within the survey period, allowing sampling of metabolic parameters and centralised dete...

  5. Patient-reported Quality of Life and Satisfaction With Cosmetic Outcomes After Breast Conservation and Mastectomy With and Without Reconstruction: Results of a Survey of Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Li, Yun; Morrow, Monica; Janz, Nancy; Alderman, Amy; Graff, John; Hamilton, Ann; Katz, Steven; Hawley, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Although breast conservation is therapeutically equivalent to mastectomy for most patients with early-stage breast cancer, an increasing number of patients are pursuing mastectomy, which may be followed by breast reconstruction. We sought to evaluate long-term quality of life and cosmetic outcomes after different locoregional management approaches, as perceived by patients themselves. We surveyed women with a diagnosis of nonmetastatic breast cancer from 2005 to 2007, as reported to the Los Angeles and Detroit population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. We received responses from 2290 women approximately 9 months after diagnosis (73% response rate) and from 1536 of these 4 years later. We evaluated quality of life and patterns and correlates of satisfaction with cosmetic outcomes overall and, more specifically, within the subgroup undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction, using multivariable linear regression. Of the 1450 patients who responded to both surveys and experienced no recurrence, 963 underwent breast-conserving surgery, 263 mastectomy without reconstruction, and 222 mastectomy with reconstruction. Cosmetic satisfaction was similar between those receiving breast conservation therapy and those receiving mastectomy with reconstruction. Among patients receiving mastectomy with reconstruction, reconstruction type and radiation receipt were associated with satisfaction (P mastectomy with reconstruction. In patients undergoing postmastectomy radiation, the use of autologous reconstruction may mitigate the deleterious impact of radiation on cosmetic outcomes.

  6. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    OpenAIRE

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P; French, C

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of ...

  7. A systematic survey of the methods literature on the reporting quality and optimal methods of handling participants with missing outcome data for continuous outcomes in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Alyass, Akram; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Flórez, Iván D; Pichika, Sathish Chandra; Kennedy, Sean Alexander; Abdulkarimova, Ulviya; Zhang, Yuan; Iljon, Tzvia; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Colunga Lozano, Luis E; Aloweni, Fazila Abu Bakar; Lopes, Luciane C; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan José; Fei, Yutong; Wang, Li; Kahale, Lara A; Meyre, David; Akl, Elie A; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-08-01

    To conduct (1) a systematic survey of the reporting quality of simulation studies dealing with how to handle missing participant data (MPD) in randomized control trials and (2) summarize the findings of these studies. We included simulation studies comparing statistical methods dealing with continuous MPD in randomized controlled trials addressing bias, precision, coverage, accuracy, power, type-I error, and overall ranking. For the reporting of simulation studies, we adapted previously developed criteria for reporting quality and applied them to eligible studies. Of 16,446 identified citations, the 60 eligible generally had important limitations in reporting, particularly in reporting simulation procedures. Of the 60 studies, 47 addressed ignorable and 32 addressed nonignorable data. For ignorable missing data, mixed model was most frequently the best on overall ranking (9 times best, 34.6% of times tested) and bias (10, 55.6%). Multiple imputation was also performed well. For nonignorable data, mixed model was most frequently the best on overall ranking (7, 46.7%) and bias (8, 57.1%). Mixed model performance varied on other criteria. Last observation carried forward (LOCF) was very seldom the best performing, and for nonignorable MPD frequently the worst. Simulation studies addressing methods to deal with MPD suffered from serious limitations. The mixed model approach was superior to other methods in terms of overall performance and bias. LOCF performed worst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships between patient activation, disease-specific knowledge and health outcomes among people with diabetes: a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, patients are expected to be involved in their health care, well-informed and able to adjust their behavior to maintain a good health. Investigating patient activation and its relationships with patient characteristics and health-related outcomes will provide further insight

  9. Does Combining School and Work Affect School and Post-School Outcomes? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlezark, Alison; Lim, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors seek to answer the question of whether combining school and work is detrimental or beneficial to a student's school educational performance and labour market outcomes. They find that young people who combine school and work are distributed right across the school population. Results show that individuals can combine…

  10. A core outcome set for neonatal abstinence syndrome: Study protocol for a systematic review, parent interviews and a Delphi survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, L.E. (Lauren E.); Jansson, L.M. (Lauren M.); Moulsdale, W. (Wendy); Pereira, J. (Jodi); Simpson, S. (Sarah); Guttman, A. (Astrid); Allegaert, K. (Karel); Askie, L. (Lisa); Roukema, H. (Henry); Lacaze, T. (Thierry); Davis, J.M. (Jonathan M.); Finnegan, L. (Loretta); Williamson, P. (Paula); M. Offringa (Martin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing globally resulting in an increased incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes and health system costs. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of NAS prevention and management strategies is very weak and further rese

  11. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  12. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  13. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B

  14. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis with unilateral subluxation of the spine and postoperative lumbar spondylolisthesis in Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon B; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2016-03-01

    Surgical correction for kyphoscoliosis is increasingly being performed for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Reported case series have predominantly included patients with Type I (Hurler) and Type IV (Morquio) MPS. To their knowledge, the authors describe the first case report of surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome (MPS Type II) and the rare occurrence of lumbar spondylolisthesis following surgical stabilization. A 12-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and no associated symptoms. Spinal radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of 48° (T11-L3) and scoliosis of 22° (T11-L3) with an anteriorly hypoplastic L-1 vertebra. The deformity progressed to kyphosis of 60° and scoliosis of 42° prior to surgical intervention. Spinal CT scans identified left T12-L1 facet subluxation, causing anterior rotatory displacement of the spine proximal to L-1 and bilateral L-5 isthmic spondylolysis with no spondylolisthesis. A combined single-stage anterior and posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis from T-9 to L-4 was performed. Kyphosis and scoliosis were corrected to 4° and 0°, respectively. Prolonged ventilator support and nasogastric feedings were required for 3 months postoperatively. At 2.5 years following surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, mobilizing independently, and had achieved a solid spinal fusion. However, he had also developed a Grade II spondylolisthesis at L4-5; this was managed nonoperatively in the absence of symptoms or further deterioration of the spondylolisthesis to the 3.5-year postoperative follow-up visit. Satisfactory correction of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome can be achieved by combined anterior/posterior instrumented arthrodesis. The risk of developing deformity or instability in motion segments adjacent to an instrumented fusion may be greater in patients with MPS related to the underlying connective tissue disorder.

  15. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  16. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  17. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth.

  18. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Nick; Freeman, Sonia; Connor, Linda; Albrecht, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  19. Period Determination of Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May 2009 - September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for 27 asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) from 2009 May through 2010 September: 308 Polyxo, 326 Tamara, 369 Aeria, 504 Cora, 822 Lalage, 1164 Kobolda, 1619 Ueta, 1625 The NORC, 1685 Toro, 2189 Zaragoza, 2287 Kalmykia, 2639 Planman, 3695 Fiaia, 4786 Tatianina, 5333 Kanaya, (5452) 1937 NN, 6170 Levasseur, 7741 Fedoseev, 14815 Rutberg, 15724 Zille, 16525 Shumarinaiko, (21996) 1993 XP31, (29729) 1999 BY1, (35404) 1997 YV5, (39087) 2000 VN50, (66146) 1998 TU3, and (101769) 1999 FF52.

  20. 王邪斗争新体验之HUNTER THE RECKONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴龙

    2002-01-01

    《猎手(Hunter)》是High Voltage Software公司很早就推出的一款游戏,原作曾经赢得了很多玩者的赞赏,但是它的续作《猎手:测算(Hunter: The Reckoning)》的制作更加精细。在游戏中,当选择了4个“猎手”之一后,你会切身体会到在黑暗的宇宙中同邪恶进行斗争的艰辛。

  1. Consideration on the Survival and Loneliness in the Heart Is a Lonely Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LI

    2015-01-01

    "Loneliness" is the main melody in almost all the works of Carson McCullers, and it is particularly prominent in novel the Heart Is a Lonely Hunter. All characters in the works were confined by loneliness and could not extricate themselves. Why do human beings feel so lonely?In this paper, the root of the loneliness reflected by human survival itself is discussed, namely, the relationship between the inherent conflict and loneliness of human survival, so as to think about loneliness deeply.

  2. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbotham, N.; Freeman, S.; Connor, L.; Albrecht, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). School of Medicine & Public Health

    2010-03-15

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  3. Racism, Health Status, and Birth Outcomes: Results of a Participatory Community-Based Intervention and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Denise C.; Kruger, Daniel J.; Turner, Tonya M.; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E. Hill; Lewis, E. Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and ...

  4. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharani, U; Sherchan, P; Schloetter, M; Stratford, S; Xiao, A; Sebastian, A; Nolte Kennedy, M; Frassetto, L

    2015-08-01

    The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases--'diseases of civilization'--such as obesity and diabetes. We investigated in type 2 diabetes whether a diet similar to that consumed by our pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors ('Paleolithic' type diet) confers health benefits. We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled diet study in type 2 diabetes patients. We compared the findings in 14 participants consuming a Paleo diet comprising lean meat, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and excluding added salt, and non-Paleolithic-type foods comprising cereal grains, dairy or legumes, with 10 participants on a diet based on recommendations by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) containing moderate salt intake, low-fat dairy, whole grains and legumes. There were three ramp-up diets for 7 days, then 14 days of the test diet. Outcomes included the following: mean arterial blood pressure; 24-h urine electrolytes; hemoglobin A1c and fructosamine levels; insulin resistance by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and lipid levels. Both groups had improvements in metabolic measures, but the Paleo diet group had greater benefits on glucose control and lipid profiles. Also, on the Paleo diet, the most insulin-resistant subjects had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (r = 0.40, P = 0.02), but no such effect was seen in the most insulin-resistant subjects on the ADA diet (r = 0.39, P = 0.3). Even short-term consumption of a Paleolithic-type diet improved glucose control and lipid profiles in people with type 2 diabetes compared with a conventional diet containing moderate salt intake, low-fat dairy, whole grains and legumes.

  5. The Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL): a new tool for estimating associations between health literacy and outcomes in national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh D; Ash, Arlene S; Gazmararian, Julie A; Wolf, Michael S; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a "reference standard" classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.

  6. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of years, so people in Indonesia claim, head-hunters – figures of dread and fascination that have haunted societies, politics, and the public imagination in Indonesia at least since colonial times – have begun to adopt a novel and troubling tactic. Instead of decapitating...... their victims and using the human heads in construction rituals as they used to do, head-hunters are now allegedly harvesting the victims’ organs for sale on the international organ market. Based on a comparison of ethnographic material from North Maluku, a province in the eastern part of Indonesia, and news...... reports I trace the shift from head-hunting to organ theft and suggest that this plasticity is not merely a symbolic representation of changing political and economic realities. Rather, I argue, the organ-stealing head-hunters are part of a global travelling package that includes and entangles organ...

  7. Diagnosis of Hunter's syndrome carriers; radioactive sulphate incorporation into fibroblasts in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toennesen, T.; Lykkelund, C.; Guettler, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mutual correction of co-cultivated fibroblasts from patients with Hunter's and Hurler's syndrome could be inhibited by either fructose 1-phosphate or mannose 6-phosphate. In the presence of fructose 1-phosphate a 50% mixture of fibroblasts from a patient with Hunter's syndrome and a normal homozygous individual showed an increased /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides. When fibroblast cultures from one obligate and two possible carriers of Hunter's syndrome were tested for /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation, the cultures showed either twice the normal /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate or an abnormally high incorporation in the presence as well as in the absence of the sugar phosphate.

  8. Hunter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Breathing difficulty Chromosome ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  9. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Dramane; Hilou, Adama; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guenne, Samson

    2016-04-26

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae

  11. MetaboHunter: an automatic approach for identification of metabolites from 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culf Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy is widely used for high-throughput characterization of metabolites in complex biological mixtures. However, the accurate identification of individual compounds is still a challenging task, particularly in spectral regions with higher peak densities. The need for automatic tools to facilitate and further improve the accuracy of such tasks, while using increasingly larger reference spectral libraries becomes a priority of current metabolomics research. Results We introduce a web server application, called MetaboHunter, which can be used for automatic assignment of 1H-NMR spectra of metabolites. MetaboHunter provides methods for automatic metabolite identification based on spectra or peak lists with three different search methods and with possibility for peak drift in a user defined spectral range. The assignment is performed using as reference libraries manually curated data from two major publicly available databases of NMR metabolite standard measurements (HMDB and MMCD. Tests using a variety of synthetic and experimental spectra of single and multi metabolite mixtures show that MetaboHunter is able to identify, in average, more than 80% of detectable metabolites from spectra of synthetic mixtures and more than 50% from spectra corresponding to experimental mixtures. This work also suggests that better scoring functions improve by more than 30% the performance of MetaboHunter's metabolite identification methods. Conclusions MetaboHunter is a freely accessible, easy to use and user friendly 1H-NMR-based web server application that provides efficient data input and pre-processing, flexible parameter settings, fast and automatic metabolite fingerprinting and results visualization via intuitive plotting and compound peak hit maps. Compared to other published and freely accessible metabolomics tools, MetaboHunter implements three efficient methods to search for metabolites in manually curated

  12. Twitter Social Media is an Effective Tool for Breast Cancer Patient Education and Support: Patient-Reported Outcomes by Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attai, Deanna J; Cowher, Michael S; Al-Hamadani, Mohammed; Schoger, Jody M; Staley, Alicia C; Landercasper, Jeffrey

    2015-07-30

    Despite reported benefits, many women do not attend breast cancer support groups. Abundant online resources for support exist, but information regarding the effectiveness of participation is lacking. We report the results of a Twitter breast cancer support community participant survey. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of social media as a tool for breast cancer patient education and decreasing anxiety. The Breast Cancer Social Media Twitter support community (#BCSM) began in July 2011. Institutional review board approval with a waiver of informed consent was obtained for a deidentified survey that was posted for 2 weeks on Twitter and on the #BCSM blog and Facebook page. There were 206 respondents to the survey. In all, 92.7% (191/206) were female. Respondents reported increased knowledge about breast cancer in the following domains: overall knowledge (80.9%, 153/189), survivorship (85.7%, 162/189), metastatic breast cancer (79.4%, 150/189), cancer types and biology (70.9%, 134/189), clinical trials and research (66.1%, 125/189), treatment options (55.6%, 105/189), breast imaging (56.6%, 107/189), genetic testing and risk assessment (53.9%, 102/189), and radiotherapy (43.4%, 82/189). Participation led 31.2% (59/189) to seek a second opinion or bring additional information to the attention of their treatment team and 71.9% (136/189) reported plans to increase their outreach and advocacy efforts as a result of participation. Levels of reported anxiety before and after participation were analyzed: 29 of 43 (67%) patients who initially reported "high or extreme" anxiety reported "low or no" anxiety after participation (Psocial media support group.

  13. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  14. High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmlund Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and culture are believed to interact, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence for the process. One candidate example that has been put forward is lactase persistence in adulthood, i.e. the ability to continue digesting the milk sugar lactose after childhood, facilitating the consumption of raw milk. This genetic trait is believed to have evolved within a short time period and to be related with the emergence of sedentary agriculture. Results Here we investigate the frequency of an allele (-13910*T associated with lactase persistence in a Neolithic Scandinavian population. From the 14 individuals originally examined, 10 yielded reliable results. We find that the T allele frequency was very low (5% in this Middle Neolithic hunter-gatherer population, and that the frequency is dramatically different from the extant Swedish population (74%. Conclusions We conclude that this difference in frequency could not have arisen by genetic drift and is either due to selection or, more likely, replacement of hunter-gatherer populations by sedentary agriculturalists.

  15. Síndrome de Hunter Mucopolisacaridosis (II:reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghunter Paz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Hunter, es una alteración genética que afecta principalmente a los varones, debido a la deficiencia o ausencia de la enzima iduronato-2-sulfatasa, que interfiere con lacapacidad del cuerpo de descomponer y reciclar los mucopolisacáridos. La incidencia es de 1:10.000 a 1:25.000 de recién nacidos vivos. Las manifestaciones físicas, incluyen rasgos faciales distintivos, cabeza grande, abdomen aumentado, engrosamiento de válvulas cardíacas, enfermedad respiratoria obstructiva, retraso del desarrollo mental y aumento de tamaño del hígado y del bazo.Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino de 7 años de edad, con diagnostico de síndrome de Hunter hace seis años, con antecedentes de crisis convulsivas en dos oportunidades y cuadros de bronconeumonía.Al examen físico presenta fascie tosca, contractura en musculo bíceps braquial, se logra la extensión de las manos, camina con la punta de los pies y presenta hepato y esplenomegalia. Al cual se le trató la sintomatología respiratoria con el uso de antibióticos.

  16. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  17. Dietary resilience among hunter-gatherers of Tierra del Fuego: Isotopic evidence in a diachronic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Mary Anne; Zangrando, Atilio Francisco Javier; Tessone, Augusto; Kochi, Sayuri; Moggi Cecchi, Jacopo; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Profico, Antonio; Manzi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations.

  18. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  19. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  20. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research – outcome of an expert survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shôn W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mental health research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. Methods The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Results Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Conclusion Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs. PMID:25061300

  1. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  2. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  3. Breastfeeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Haiti's national nutrition policy prioritises breastfeeding, but limited data are available to inform strategy. We examined national trends in early initiation of breastfeeding (ErIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) over a 10-year period using data from three Haitian Demographic and Health Surveys (1994-1995, 2000 and 2005-2006). We used multivariate regression methods to identify determinants of ErIBF and EBF in the 2005-2006 data set and to examine relationships to growth. There was no change in ErIBF across surveys [1994-1995: 36.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.9-43.9; 2000: 49.4%, 95% CI 44.1-54.8; 2005-2006: 43.8%, 95% CI 40.5-47.1]. EBF among 0-5-month-olds increased sharply (1994-18995: 1.1%, 95% CI 0.4-3.2; 2000: 22.4%, 95% CI 16.5-29.5; 2005-2006: 41.2%, 95% CI 35.4-47.2). The proportion of breastfeeding children 0-5 months who received soft, solid or semi-solid foods decreased (1994-1995: 68.5%, 95% CI 57.3-77.9; 2000: 46.3%, 95% CI 39.3-53.4; 2005-2006: 30.9%, 95% CI 25.9-36.5). Child age at time of survey [odds ratio (OR) 1.73; P = 0.027], lower maternal education (OR = 2.14, P = 0.004) and residence in the Artibonite Department (OR 0.31; P = 0.001) were associated with ErIBF among children 0-23 months. Age group and department were significant predictors of EBF among children 0-5 months. ErIBF was associated with higher weight-for-age z-scores [effect size (ES) 0.22; P = 0.033] and height-for-age z-scores (ES 0.20; P = 0.044). There was no statistically significant relationship between EBF and growth. The 10-year ErIBF and EBF trends in Haiti echo global and regional trends. ErIBF and EBF are related practices but with different determinants in the Haitian context. These differences have implications for intervention delivery.

  4. A prospective survey of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin; the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Euro Heart Survey ACS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasdai (David); S. Behar (Solomon); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); N. Danchin (Nicolas); A.K. Gitt (Anselm); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); A. Battler (Alexander); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To better delineate the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in representative countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and to examine adherence to current guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective

  5. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research – outcome of an expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis CM

    2014-06-01

    expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop.Results: Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required.Conclusion: Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs.Keywords: clinical research, mental health, randomized clinical trials, Horizon 2020, expert survey, challenge, research agenda, Europe

  6. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co

  7. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation.

  8. Under What Conditions Do Children Thrive in the Madeline Hunter Model? A Report of Project Follow Through, Napa, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jane; And Others

    This study evaluated the effect of a comprehensive training program for teachers based on Madeline Hunter's Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP). To examine the question of implementation, teachers in the first through fourth grades in Napa Valley elementary schools were observed teaching two reading and two mathematics classes before and…

  9. Arrowheads as indicators of interpersonal violence and group identity among the Neolithic Pitted Ware hunters of southwestern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The three main types of tanged flint arrowheads (A, B, and C) characteristic of the Neolithic Pitted Ware hunter, fisher and gatherers of southwestern Scandinavia are traditionally viewed as chronological conditioned. However, recent studies have shown their simultaneity during the early 3rd mill...

  10. The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College. A Partnership among Earth Science, Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmun, Haydee; Buonaiuto, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships to 40 academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics…

  11. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of years, so people in Indonesia claim, head-hunters – figures of dread and fascination that have haunted societies, politics, and the public imagination in Indonesia at least since colonial times – have begun to adopt a novel and troubling tactic. Instead of decapitating...

  12. Estimated incidence of cardiovascular complications related to type 2 diabetes in Mexico using the UKPDS outcome model and a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the incidence of complications, life expectancy and diabetes related mortality in the Mexican diabetic population over the next two decades using data from a nation-wide, population based survey and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS outcome model Methods The cohort included all patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated during the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut 2006. ENSANut is a probabilistic multistage stratified survey whose aim was to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases. A total of 47,152 households were visited. Results are shown stratified by gender, time since diagnosis (> or ≤ to 10 years and age at the time of diagnosis (> or ≤ 40 years. Results The prevalence of diabetes in our cohort was 14.4%. The predicted 20 year-incidence for chronic complications per 1000 individuals are: ischemic heart disease 112, myocardial infarction 260, heart failure 113, stroke 101, and amputation 62. Furthermore, 539 per 1000 patients will have a diabetes-related premature death. The average life expectancy for the diabetic population is 10.9 years (95%CI 10.7-11.2; this decreases to 8.3 years after adjusting for quality of life (CI95% 8.1-8.5. Male sex and cases diagnosed after age 40 have the highest risk for developing at least one major complication during the next 20 years. Conclusions Based on the current clinical profile of Mexican patients with diabetes, the burden of disease related complications will be tremendous over the next two decades.

  13. Patterns and Outcomes of Induction of Labour in Africa and Asia: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Neonatal Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Vogel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Labour induction should be performed where benefit outweighs potential harm, however epidemiology of induction in lower-income countries is not well described. We used the WHO Global Survey dataset to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of labour induction in 192,538 deliveries in 253 facilities across 16 countries in Africa and Asia. METHODS: Data was analyzed separately for Africa and Asia. Prevalence of indications, methods, success and characteristics associated with labour induction were determined. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between induction (with medical indication and elective and maternal/perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: Induction accounted for 4.4% (Africa and 12.1% (Asia of deliveries. Oxytocin alone was the most common method (45.9% and 37.5% and success rates were generally over 80%. Medically indicated inductions were associated with increased adjusted odds of Apgar <7 at 5 minutes, low birthweight, NICU admission and fresh stillbirth in both regions. The odds of caesarean section in Africa were reduced (Adj OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.42-0.88. Elective induction was associated with increased adjusted odds of NICU (Africa and ICU (Asia admissions. DISCUSSION: Induction was generally less common than in higher-income countries. Prostaglandin use was uncommon despite evidence supporting use. Induction for medical indications may be associated with poorer outcomes due to maternal baseline risks. Despite one-third of elective inductions occurring at <39 weeks, the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality was not elevated following elective inductions.

  14. Core Hunter II: fast core subset selection based on multiple genetic diversity measures using Mixed Replica search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beukelaer Herman De

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sampling core subsets from genetic resources while maintaining as much as possible the genetic diversity of the original collection is an important but computationally complex task for gene bank managers. The Core Hunter computer program was developed as a tool to generate such subsets based on multiple genetic measures, including both distance measures and allelic diversity indices. At first we investigate the effect of minimum (instead of the default mean distance measures on the performance of Core Hunter. Secondly, we try to gain more insight into the performance of the original Core Hunter search algorithm through comparison with several other heuristics working with several realistic datasets of varying size and allelic composition. Finally, we propose a new algorithm (Mixed Replica search for Core Hunter II with the aim of improving the diversity of the constructed core sets and their corresponding generation times. Results Our results show that the introduction of minimum distance measures leads to core sets in which all accessions are sufficiently distant from each other, which was not always obtained when optimizing mean distance alone. Comparison of the original Core Hunter algorithm, Replica Exchange Monte Carlo (REMC, with simpler heuristics shows that the simpler algorithms often give very good results but with lower runtimes than REMC. However, the performance of the simpler algorithms is slightly worse than REMC under lower sampling intensities and some heuristics clearly struggle with minimum distance measures. In comparison the new advanced Mixed Replica search algorithm (MixRep, which uses heterogeneous replicas, was able to sample core sets with equal or higher diversity scores than REMC and the simpler heuristics, often using less computation time than REMC. Conclusion The REMC search algorithm used in the original Core Hunter computer program performs well, sometimes leading to slightly better results

  15. Applications and outcomes of periodic epidemiological surveys for schistosomiasis and related economic evaluation in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Ellis, Magda; McManus, Donald P

    2005-01-01

    The great success in schistosomiasis control in China is attributable to a range of factors. Periodic epidemiological surveys (PES) used for monitoring and adapting control interventions over time are an integral feature of the national schistosomiasis control programme. PES have enabled the dynamic trends of schistosomiasis epidemics to be closely pursued and have assisted in analysing subtle changes in endemicity. The results can be summarised mathematically allowing the variation in efficacy of control measures to be readily determined and enabling control strategies to be adjusted and updated. PES have been used in both cross-sectional and longitudinal pilot studies selected by appropriate sampling methods. In the early 1990s, when the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control commenced, economic evaluations were initiated in parallel. Cost-effectiveness analysis became a necessary tool to identify the most financially feasible yet effective options among a range of alternative control strategies. There was, however, a lack of standardised approaches rendering study comparisons across sites difficult. The global burden of disease study established the disability adjusted life year (DALY) as a measure of population health, combining in a single indicator years lost from premature death and years of life lived with disability. However, a recent meta-analysis reveals that the burden of schistosomiasis is underestimated, and hence, needs to be revised. It is envisaged that after the revision of DALYs lost due to schistosomiasis japonica, they will become an essential measure in future schistosomiasis control assessments in China and in other schistosome-endemic areas of the world.

  16. Outcome of fetuses with short femur length detected at second-trimester anomaly scan: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, J M; Aksglaede, L; Skibsted, L; Petersen, O B; Tabor, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship between the finding of fetal femur diaphysis length (FL) below the 5(th) percentile at the second-trimester scan and pregnancy outcome, in a population in which more than 90% of women attend first-trimester screening. This was a retrospective study of all Danish singleton pregnancies with a 17-22-week anomaly scan between 1 January 2008 and 30 June 2011. Information on FL and gestational age (GA) at anomaly scan, on birth weight and GA at delivery and on chromosomal abnormalities was obtained from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. Short FL was identified in 2718 (1.8%) of 147,766 fetuses and was present in 11 (16.2%) of the 68 fetuses affected by trisomy 21 (positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 8.8 (95% CI, 5.1-15.2)). Trisomy 13/18 and unbalanced autosomal structural abnormalities were also associated with a short FL in three (12.0%, LR+ 6.5 (95% CI, 2.3-18.9)) and eight (32.0%, LR+ 17.4 (95% CI, 9.8-30.9)) of the cases, respectively. The risk of a fetus having trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 or an unbalanced autosomal structural abnormality was 1 : 123 (95% CI, 79-192), given a short FL. Pregnancies with a fetus with short FL were more often affected by early preterm delivery (before 34 weeks) (5.6%; odds ratio (OR) = 4.2 (95% CI, 3.5-4.9)) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (13.9%; OR = 4.3 (95% CI, 3.8-4.8)). Short FL at the second-trimester anomaly scan is associated with a significantly higher relative risk of chromosomal abnormalities, and a substantially higher absolute risk for SGA and early preterm delivery. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Una valigia caduta in mare: Jaume Serra Hunter e la "Scuola di Barcellona"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzareno Fioraso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nella storiografia filosofica spagnola non esiste, probabilmente, una definizione ambigua e problematica come quella che riguarda la cosiddetta "Scuola di Barcellona". La tesi principale di questo articolo è che tale scuola non giunse mai a nascere, ma ne esistette soltanto una forma embrionale che non poté maturare perché, in conseguenza della situazione politica venutasi a creare con la guerra civile (1936-1939, i suoi componenti si dispersero nell'esilio. Ciò nonostante, è possibile riconoscere alcuni tratti comuni, seppur labili e (forse non sostanziali, nella diaspora degli intellettuali catalani che rendono possibile definirla, con le dovute cautele, "Scuola di Barcellona". Tali caratteristiche comuni si possono far risalire a colui che, in un certo senso, fu il fondatore della scuola, essendo il principale maestro delle nuove leve filosofiche della Catalogna all'inizio del XX secolo: Jaume Serra Hunter.

  18. The curvature of semidirect product groups associated with two-component Hunter-Saxton systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we study two-component versions of the periodic Hunter-Saxton equation and its μ-variant. Considering both equations as a geodesic flow on the semidirect product of the circle diffeomorphism group Diff( S) with a space of scalar functions on S we show that both equations are locally well posed. The main result of this paper is that the sectional curvature associated with the 2HS is constant and positive and that 2µHS allows for a large subspace of positive sectional curvature. The issues of this paper are related to some of the results for 2CH and 2DP presented in Escher et al (2011 J. Geom. Phys. 61 436-52).

  19. Evolutionary or fragmented environmental policy making? coal, power, and agriculture in the Hunter Valley, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Diana G.

    1988-05-01

    Intensified surface mining, power generation, and smelting operations in the Hunter River lowlands, NSW, Australia have posed numerous new environmental management problems. Legislative controls over water, soils, and land use management have been clearly insufficient and remain so. The complex range of environmental changes is challenging government agencies as well as coal developers. While water demands are increasing in the region the proportionally greatest competitors are power generation and irrigation. Comprehensive regional water quality assessment is inadequate and divided between a number of agencies with fragmentary interests. Coal development inquiries signal further controversy over appropriate management solutions and are an ongoing phenomenon in the region. The early 1980s resource boom has been followed by lower rates of economic growth, which have resulted in disparate agency responses to major ongoing environmental questions. While issue attention cycles are often remarkably short in environmental management, matters of water, land, and air quality require intensive and ongoing monitoring and policy development.

  20. Symmetry Analysis and Conservation Laws for the Hunter-Saxton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Nadjafikhah; Fatemeh Ahangari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the problem of determining the most generalLie point symmetries group and conservation laws of a well known nonlinear hyperbolic PDE in mathematical physics called the Hunter-Saxton equation (HSE) is analyzed.By applying the basic Lie symmetry method for the HSE,the classical Lie point symmetry operators are obtained.Also,the algebraic structure of the Lie algebra of symmetries is discussed and an optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras of the HSE symmetry algebra which creates the preliminary classification of group invariant solutions is constructed.Particularly,the Lie invariants as well as similarity reduced equations corresponding to infinitesimal symmetries are obtained.Mainly,the conservation laws of the HSE are computed via three different methods including Boyer's generalization of Noether's theorem,first homotopy method and second homotopy method.

  1. Maximum likelihood methods for investigating reporting rates of rings on hunter-shot birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Morgan, B.J.T.; North, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that hunters do not report 100% of the rings that they find on shot birds. Reward studies can be used to estimate what this reporting rate is, by comparison of recoveries of rings offering a monetary reward, to ordinary rings. A reward study of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) is used to illustrate the design, and to motivate the development of statistical models for estimation and for testing hypotheses of temporal and geographic variation in reporting rates. The method involves indexing the data (recoveries) and parameters (reporting, harvest, and solicitation rates) by geographic and temporal strata. Estimates are obtained under unconstrained (e.g., allowing temporal variability in reporting rates) and constrained (e.g., constant reporting rates) models, and hypotheses are tested by likelihood ratio. A FORTRAN program, available from the author, is used to perform the computations.

  2. Planet Hunters: New Kepler planet candidates from analysis of quarter 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lintott, Chris; Sharzer, Charlie; Fisher, Debra A; Barclay, Thomas; Parrish, Michael; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Schawinski, Kevin; Gagliano, Rovert; Gilardi, Joe; Jek, Kian J; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Smits, Tjapko

    2012-01-01

    We present new planet candidates identified in NASA Kepler quarter two public release data by volunteers engaged in the Planet Hunters citizen science project. The two candidates presented here survive checks for false-positives, including examination of the pixel offset to constrain the possibility of a background eclipsing binary. The orbital periods of the planet candidates are 97.46 days (KIC 4552729) and 284.03 (KIC 10005758) days and the modeled planet radii are 5.3 and 3.790 R_Earth. The latter star has an additional known planet candidate with a radius of 5.05 R_Earth and a period of 134.49 which was detected by the Kepler pipeline. The discovery of these candidates illustrates the value of massively distributed volunteer review of the Kepler database to recover candidates which were otherwise uncatalogued.

  3. Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Pablo A; Santoro, Calogero M; Latorre, Claudio; Standen, Vivien G; Abades, Sebastián R; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Arriaza, Bernardo; Hochberg, Michael E

    2012-09-11

    The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices.

  4. The curvature of semidirect product groups associated with two-component Hunter-Saxton systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Martin, E-mail: kohlmann@ifam.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Applied Mathematics, University of Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-06-03

    In this paper, we study two-component versions of the periodic Hunter-Saxton equation and its {mu}-variant. Considering both equations as a geodesic flow on the semidirect product of the circle diffeomorphism group Diff(S) with a space of scalar functions on S we show that both equations are locally well posed. The main result of this paper is that the sectional curvature associated with the 2HS is constant and positive and that 2{mu}HS allows for a large subspace of positive sectional curvature. The issues of this paper are related to some of the results for 2CH and 2DP presented in Escher et al (2011 J. Geom. Phys. 61 436-52).

  5. General medicine advanced training: lessons from the John Hunter training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, D; Attia, J; Pickles, R

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number of advanced trainees pursuing general medicine as a specialty. This reflects an awareness of the need for broader training experiences to equip future consultant physicians with the skills to manage the healthcare challenges arising from the demographic trends of ageing and increasing comorbidity. The John Hunter Hospital training programme in general medicine has several characteristics that have led to the success in producing general physicians prepared for these challenges. These include support from a core group of committed general physicians, an appropriate and sustainable funding model, flexibility with a focus on genuine training and developing awareness of a systems approach, and strong links with rural practice.

  6. Bounty Hunter x Alpha Industries 暗黑军事结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    日本里原系品牌找来正宗军服品牌Alpha Industries合作已不算新鲜事,早在1999年里原文化的黄金时期,差不多每到冬季总见不同类型的合作军褛款式,直到今年也不例外,而且一直延伸到春夏季。向来以朋克摇滚作设计方针的Bounty Hunter,在最新单品中再次找来Alpha Industries合作,推出以MA-1作蓝本的暗黑款式,并在细节上经过特别加工。

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  8. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  9. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  10. Revisiting the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Registry and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) Linked Data Resource for Patient-Reported Outcomes Research in Older Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Malinoff, Rochelle; Rozjabek, Heather M; Ambs, Anita; Clauser, Steven B; Topor, Marie A; Yuan, Gigi; Burroughs, James; Rodgers, Anne B; DeMichele, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the value of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data to better characterize people's health and experiences with illness and care. Considering the rising prevalence of cancer in adults aged 65 and older, PRO data are particularly relevant for older adults with cancer, who often require complex cancer care and have additional comorbid conditions. A data linkage between the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) was created through a partnership between the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that created the opportunity to examine PROs in Medicare Advantage enrollees with and without cancer. The December 2013 linkage of SEER-MHOS data included the linked data for 12 cohorts, bringing the number of individuals in the linked data set to 95,723 with cancer and 1,510,127 without. This article reviews the features of the resource and provides information on some descriptive characteristics of the individuals in the data set (health-related quality of life, body mass index, fall risk management, number of unhealthy days in the past month). Individuals without (n=258,108) and with (n=3,440) cancer (1,311 men with prostate cancer, 982 women with breast cancer, 689 with colorectal cancer, 458 with lung cancer) were included in the current descriptive analysis. Given increasing longevity, advances in effective therapies and earlier detection, and population growth, the number of individuals aged 65 and older with cancer is expected to reach more than 12 million by 2020. SEER-MHOS provides population-level, self-reported, cancer registry-linked data for person-centered surveillance research on this growing population.

  11. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure’s (PROMs Conference Sheffield 2016: advances in patient reported outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Croudace

    2016-10-01

    longitudinal parameter shifts in epidemiological data: measurement invariance and response shifts in cohort and survey data describing the UK’s Quality of Life Jan R. Boehnke O12 Patient-reported outcomes within health technology decision making: current status and implications for future policy Andrew Trigg, Ruth Howells O13 Can social care needs and well-being be explained by the EQ-5D? Analysis of Health Survey for England dataset Jeshika Singh, Subhash Pokhrel, Louise Longworth O14 Where patients and policy meet: exploring individual-level use of the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ Caroline Potter, Cheryl Hunter, Laura Kelly, Elizabeth Gibbons, Julian Forder, Angela Coulter, Ray Fitzpatrick, Michele Peters

  12. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  13. Determining issues of importance for the evaluation of quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in breast cancer: results of a survey of 1072 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, Patricia J; Msaouel, Pavlos; Gralla, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Identifying key issues for patients is central to assessing treatment for cancer, especially when evaluating health-related quality of life (QL) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This study was conducted to provide enhanced content validity support by incorporating the views of a large number of patients with breast cancer. This methodological study used an anonymous, cross-sectional, electronic web-based survey of 1072 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Patients ranked the importance of 21 issues on a 5-point scale. Issues included general, physical, functional, psychosocial, and summative items. Analysis was also performed by four key factors (age group, time since diagnosis, adjuvant treatment or not, and tumor extent). All of the top five issues rated as either "very important" or "important" were global issues-rather than symptoms-such as maintaining quality of life (ranked in these two highest categories by 99 % of patients), maintaining independence (97 %), and ability to perform normal activities (97 %). The abilities to concentrate and to be able to sleep (97 and 96 %, respectively) were ranked above specific breast cancer symptoms. Specific symptoms included within the top ten highest ranked items were fatigue, depression, anxiety, shortness of breath, and pain. This is the largest analysis of evidence-based data determining support for content validity for QL and PROs provided by patients with breast cancer. While symptoms are important to patients, the survey also demonstrates that PRO measures that only evaluate symptoms are not fully responding to patient-expressed needs. These results provide confidence in the content of quality of life measures for large groups of patients with breast cancer, including the new Breast Cancer Symptom Scale (BCSS) questionnaire.

  14. Impact of different scoring algorithms applied to multiple-mark survey items on outcome assessment: an in-field study on health-related knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnich, A; Panatto, D; Arata, L; Bevilacqua, I; Apprato, L; Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D

    2015-01-01

    Health-related knowledge is often assessed through multiple-choice tests. Among the different types of formats, researchers may opt to use multiple-mark items, i.e. with more than one correct answer. Although multiple-mark items have long been used in the academic setting - sometimes with scant or inconclusive results - little is known about the implementation of this format in research on in-field health education and promotion. A study population of secondary school students completed a survey on nutrition-related knowledge, followed by a single- lecture intervention. Answers were scored by means of eight different scoring algorithms and analyzed from the perspective of classical test theory. The same survey was re-administered to a sample of the students in order to evaluate the short-term change in their knowledge. In all, 286 questionnaires were analyzed. Partial scoring algorithms displayed better psychometric characteristics than the dichotomous rule. In particular, the algorithm proposed by Ripkey and the balanced rule showed greater internal consistency and relative efficiency in scoring multiple-mark items. A penalizing algorithm in which the proportion of marked distracters was subtracted from that of marked correct answers was the only one that highlighted a significant difference in performance between natives and immigrants, probably owing to its slightly better discriminatory ability. This algorithm was also associated with the largest effect size in the pre-/post-intervention score change. The choice of an appropriate rule for scoring multiple- mark items in research on health education and promotion should consider not only the psychometric properties of single algorithms but also the study aims and outcomes, since scoring rules differ in terms of biasness, reliability, difficulty, sensitivity to guessing and discrimination.

  15. A nationwide survey of clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) - patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease have different prognoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Heng-Chih; Wu, Pei-Chen; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Ya-Fei; Huang, Tao-Min; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Chen, Te-Chuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yang, Wei-Shun; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Wu, Mai-Szu; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Chen, Yung-Chang; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients. The International Society of Nephrology implemented the "0 by 25" initiative aimed at preventing deaths from treatable AKI worldwide by 2025 and conducted a global snapshot survey in 2014. We joined in the project and conducted this study to compare the epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis between patients with pure AKI and those with acute-on-chronic kidney disease (ACKD). In this study, we prospectively collected demographic parameters and data on clinical characteristics, baseline comorbidities, management, and outcomes of 201 AKI patients in 18 hospitals in Taiwan from September 2014 to November 2014. The in-hospital mortality rate was 16%. AKI was mostly attributed to sepsis (52%). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that oliguria was a positive independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, whereas preexisting CKD and exposure to nephrotoxic agents were negative independent predictors. The prevalence of vasopressor use, intensive care unit care, and mortality were significantly higher in pure AKI patients than in ACKD patients. Moreover, serum creatinine (SCr) levels significantly increased within 7 days after AKI diagnosis in nonsurvivors but not in survivors in the pure AKI group. By contrast, SCr levels were persistently lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the ACKD group during the same period. We thus determined that the prognosis of ACKD patients differed from that of pure AKI patients. Considering the CKD history in the future AKI staging system may improve prognosis prediction.

  16. Previous Adverse Infant Outcomes as Predictors of Preconception Care Use: An Analysis of the 2010 and 2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Higgins, Chandra; Chao, Shin M

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aimed to understand the impact of a previous adverse infant outcome (AIO) on use of preconception care prior to a subsequent pregnancy. Methods Responses from the 2010 and 2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys were analyzed. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was employed to identify significant associations between having had a previous AIO (preterm delivery, low birth weight infant, stillbirth, or major birth defect) and receipt of preconception care prior to the most recent pregnancy. Select patient-level covariates were included: chronic disease, age, education level, race/ethnicity, country of birth, insurance status prior to pregnancy and pregnancy intent. Adjustment for missing responses was performed using multiple chained imputation. Results After controlling for covariates, having had a previous AIO was associated with an increased odds of having utilized preconception care in the most recent pregnancy (OR 1.237, p = 0.040). Per the final regression model, a woman reporting a previous AIO and an intended subsequent pregnancy had a 42.4 % likelihood of having used preconception care. Of these women, only 28.8 % reported doing so because of concern regarding a previous birth complication. Discussion Women reporting a previous AIO were more likely to have used preconception care in a subsequent pregnancy. The prevalence of preconception care utilization remained low overall. Pregnancy intent emerged as a strong secondary predictor; any concerted strategy to improve access to preconception care must include initiatives to help ensure that pregnancies are planned.

  17. The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2: a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvari Sepideh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-12v2 is the improved version of the SF-12v1. This study aimed to validate the SF-12v2 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 18 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the instrument. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA. Results In all, 3685 individuals were studied (1887male and 1798 female. Internal consistency for both summary measures was satisfactory. Cronbach's α for the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12 was 0.87 and for the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12 it was 0.82. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12v2 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion Although the findings could not be generalized to the Iranian population, overall the findings suggest that the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranians and now could be used in future health outcome studies. However, further studies are recommended to establish its stability, responsiveness to change, and concurrent validity for this health survey in Iran.

  18. Mount Pinatubo, inflammatory cytokines, and the immunological ecology of Aeta hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robin M; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    Early growth cessation and reproduction are predicted to maximize fitness under conditions of high adult mortality, factors that could explain the pygmy phenotype of many rainforest hunter-gatherers. This life-history hypothesis is elegant but contentious in part because it lacks a clear biological mechanism. One mechanism stems from the field of human immunological ecology and the concept of inflammation "memory" across the life cycle and into subsequent generations. Maternal exposures to disease can influence immunological cues present in breast milk; because maternal provisioning via lactation occurs during critical periods of development, it is plausible that these cues can also mediate early growth cessation and small body size. Such epigenetic hypotheses are difficult to test, but the concept of developmental programming is attractive because it could explain how the stature of a population can change over time, in terms of both secular increases and rapid intergenerational decreases. Here we explore this concept by focusing on the Aeta, a population of former hunter-gatherers, and the Ilocano, a population of rice farmers. We predicted that Aeta mothers would produce breast milk with higher concentrations of four bioactive factors due to high infectious burdens. Further, we predicted that the concentrations of these factors would be highest in the cohort of women born in the early 1990s, when exposure to infectious disease was acute following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. We analyzed levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and epidermal growth factor in the milk of 24 Aeta and 31 Ilocano women and found no detectable differences, whereas levels of transforming growth factor-?2 were elevated among the Aeta, particularly as a function of maternal age. We found no difference between cohorts divided by the volcanic eruption (n = 43 born before, n = 12 born after). We discuss the implications of our findings for the terminal investment

  19. Macrophysical climate models and Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence shifts in Central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We use stable carbon isotopic values from bone collagen, as well as carbon values from carbonate extracted from bone apatite from 69 prehistoric human skeletal samples to investigate past resource use and climate relationships over the Middle and Late Holocene in Central Texas. Bone samples come from seven archaeological sites and samples date from 6,900 BP to the close of the prehistoric sequence at about 350 BP. Carbon isotopes from these samples suggest four broad dietary trends. From 6,900 through about 3,800 BP, carbon isotopes suggest a gradual increase in the consumption of resources that ultimately use a C3 photosynthetic pathway. A decline in δ13C in both collagen and carbonate values follows, suggesting a decrease in C3 resource use through roughly 2,900 BP. A variable, but once again increasing pattern on C3 resource use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is indicated in bone isotopes through about 1,000 BP. After that date, a decrease in C3 resource dependence, with hints at greater subsistence diversity, is suggested through the close of the sequence at 350 BP. To assess the impact of climate shifts on this isotopic pattern, we developed a series of macrophysical climate models (MCM) for several locations in Central Texas focusing on fall, winter, and early spring precipitation. This fall-spring rainfall should closely determine C3 production. If subsistence shifts are responding to climate-induced changes in resource availability, then the measured hunter-gatherer carbon isotope trends summarized above should pattern with C3 production as monitored by the modeled fall-spring precipitation values. For the Middle Holocene portion of the sequence, the precipitation models suggest increasing C3 production, consistent with increasing C3 dependence shown in the isotopic data. A decline in C3 production between 3,900 and 3,000 BP in the models is also consistent with the isotopic decline at that point. After 3,000 BP, however, the coupling between fall

  20. Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-06-14

    Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner's dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player's cooperation choices in prisoner's dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were 'moral bargain hunters' who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a 'price list' of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game.

  1. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muh, Hon Cheng; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tammi, Martti T

    2009-06-10

    Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738), performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter).

  2. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Cheng Muh

    Full Text Available Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738, performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter.

  3. Inferring the demographic history of African farmers and pygmy hunter-gatherers using a multilocus resequencing data set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Patin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.

  4. Murine neural stem cells model Hunter disease in vitro: glial cell-mediated neurodegeneration as a possible mechanism involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar Poli, E; Zalfa, C; D'Avanzo, F; Tomanin, R; Carlessi, L; Bossi, M; Nodari, L Rota; Binda, E; Marmiroli, P; Scarpa, M; Delia, D; Vescovi, A L; De Filippis, L

    2013-11-07

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII or Hunter Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficit of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) activity and characterized by progressive systemic and neurological impairment. As the early mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration remain elusive, we chose to examine the properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from an animal model of the disease in order to evaluate whether their neurogenic potential could be used to recapitulate the early phases of neurogenesis in the brain of Hunter disease patients. Experiments here reported show that NSCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of early symptomatic IDS-knockout (IDS-ko) mouse retained self-renewal capacity in vitro, but differentiated earlier than wild-type (wt) cells, displaying an evident lysosomal aggregation in oligodendroglial and astroglial cells. Consistently, the SVZ of IDS-ko mice appeared similar to the wt SVZ, whereas the cortex and striatum presented a disorganized neuronal pattern together with a significant increase of glial apoptotic cells, suggesting that glial degeneration likely precedes neuronal demise. Interestingly, a very similar pattern was observed in the brain cortex of a Hunter patient. These observations both in vitro, in our model, and in vivo suggest that IDS deficit seems to affect the late phases of neurogenesis and/or the survival of mature cells rather than NSC self-renewal. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFR-α+) glial progenitors appeared reduced in both the IDS-ko NSCs and in the IDS-ko mouse and human Hunter brains, compared with the respective healthy controls. Treatment of mutant NSCs with IDS or PDGF throughout differentiation was able to increase the number of PDGFR-α+ cells and to reduce that of apoptotic cells to levels comparable to wt. This evidence supports IDS-ko NSCs as a reliable in vitro model of the disease, and suggests the rescue of PDGFR-α+ glial cells as a

  5. Origin and diet of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the mediterranean island of Favignana (Egadi Islands, Sicily.

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    Marcello A Mannino

    Full Text Available Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d'Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP. Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d'Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d'Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of

  6. Planet Hunters: the first two planet candidates identified by the public using the Kepler public archive data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra A.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Lynn, Stuart; Parrish, Michael; Sartori, Thibault; Simpson, Robert; Smith, Arfon; Spronck, Julien; Batalha, Natalie; Rowe, Jason; Jenkins, Jon; Bryson, Steve; Prsa, Andrej; Tenenbaum, Peter; Crepp, Justin; Morton, Tim; Howard, Andrew; Beleu, Michele; Kaplan, Zachary; Vannispen, Nick; Sharzer, Charlie; Defouw, Justin; Hajduk, Agnieszka; Neal, Joe P.; Nemec, Adam; Schuepbach, Nadine; Zimmermann, Valerij

    2012-02-01

    Planet Hunters is a new citizen science project designed to engage the public in an exoplanet search using NASA Kepler public release data. In the first month after launch, users identified two new planet candidates which survived our checks for false positives. The follow-up effort included analysis of Keck HIRES spectra of the host stars, analysis of pixel centroid offsets in the Kepler data and adaptive optics imaging at Keck using NIRC2. Spectral synthesis modelling coupled with stellar evolutionary models yields a stellar density distribution, which is used to model the transit orbit. The orbital periods of the planet candidates are 9.8844 ± 0.0087 d (KIC 10905746) and 49.7696 ± 0.000 39 d (KIC 6185331), and the modelled planet radii are 2.65 and 8.05 R⊕. The involvement of citizen scientists as part of Planet Hunters is therefore shown to be a valuable and reliable tool in exoplanet detection. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 40 000 volunteers in the Planet Hunters project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at .

  7. The impact of agricultural emergence on the genetic history of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Etienne; Siddle, Katherine J; Laval, Guillaume; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; Becker, Noémie; Froment, Alain; Régnault, Béatrice; Lemée, Laure; Gravel, Simon; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Perry, George H; Barreiro, Luis B; Verdu, Paul; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of agriculture in West-Central Africa approximately 5,000 years ago, profoundly modified the cultural landscape and mode of subsistence of most sub-Saharan populations. How this major innovation has had an impact on the genetic history of rainforest hunter-gatherers-historically referred to as 'pygmies'-and agriculturalists, however, remains poorly understood. Here we report genome-wide SNP data from these populations located west-to-east of the equatorial rainforest. We find that hunter-gathering populations present up to 50% of farmer genomic ancestry, and that substantial admixture began only within the last 1,000 years. Furthermore, we show that the historical population sizes characterizing these communities already differed before the introduction of agriculture. Our results suggest that the first socio-economic interactions between rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers introduced by the spread of farming were not accompanied by immediate, extensive genetic exchanges and occurred on a backdrop of two groups already differentiated by their specialization in two ecotopes with differing carrying capacities.

  8. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  9. Detection of a new mutation (T1140C) in a patient with Hunter syndrome from Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yibin; DU Chuanshu; WANG Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    This study identified mutations of the idumate-2-suffatase (IDS) gene in a patient with Hunter syndrome,and established a basis for the diagnosis of the prenatal gene of Hunter syndrome.Urine glyeosaminoglycan (GAG) assay was used to make the preliminary diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type H.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from dried blood spots and DNA sequencing were applied to analyze hotspot mutations in exons 9,3 and 8 of the IDS gene in the proband and his parents.A new missense mutation (T1140C) in exon 8 of the IDS gene was found by using DNA sequencing.This mutation caused a substitution of codon 339 from CTA (leucine) to CCA (praline).The patient is a hemizygote,and his mother is a heterozygote.The new missense mutation results in a change in the primary and tertiary structure of the IDS protein.It is possible that this mutation severely impairs enzymatic activity and is the underlying basis for the pathology seen in this patient with Hunter syndrome.

  10. Voice pitch alters mate-choice-relevant perception in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Feinberg, David R

    2009-03-22

    In humans, voice pitch is thought to be a cue of underlying quality and an important criterion for mate choice, but data from non-Western cultures have not been provided. Here we test attributions to and preferences for voices with raised and lowered pitch in hunter-gatherers. Using a forced-choice playback experiment, we found that both men and women viewed lower pitched voices in the opposite sex as being better at acquiring resources (e.g. hunting and gathering). While men preferred higher pitched women's voices as marriage partners, women showed no overall preference for voice pitch in men. However, women who were currently breastfeeding had stronger preferences for higher pitched male voices whereas women not currently breastfeeding preferred lower pitched voices. As testosterone is considered a costly signal associated with dominance, heritable immunity to infection and low paternal investment, women's preferences potentially reflect a trade-off between securing good genes and paternal investment. Men's preferences for higher pitched female voices are probably due to an evolved preference for markers of fecundity, reflected in voice pitch.

  11. Planet Hunters. VIII. Characterization of 41 Long-Period Exoplanet Candidates from Kepler Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas; Picard, Alyssa; Ma, Bo; Bowler, Brendan P; Schmitt, Joseph R; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Jek, Kian J; LaCourse, Daryll; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Simister, Dean Joseph; Gregoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Jebson, Tony; Omohundro, Mark R; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Sejpka, Johann; Terentev, Ivan A; Gagliano, Robert; Paakkonen, Jari-Pekka; Berge, Hans Kristian Otnes; Winarski, Troy; Green, Gerald R; Schmitt, Allan R

    2015-01-01

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0-Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1-3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4". We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive a...

  12. Securing a Future: Cree Hunters' Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Sayles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the adaptive responses of northern aboriginal peoples include examples of purposive modification and management of ecologically favorable areas to increase resource productivity. Practices include clearing of trees, burning of berry patches and construction of fish weirs. This paper examines the adaptive capacity of the northern aboriginal community of Wemindji, east coast James Bay, in relation to long term landscape changes induced by coastal uplift processes. Associated changes are noticeable within a human lifetime and include the infilling of bays, the merger of islands with the mainland, as well as shifts in vegetative and wildlife communities. In response, generations of Cree hunters have actively modified the landscape using a variety of practices that include the construction of mud dykes and the cutting of tuuhiikaan, which are corridors in the coastal forest, to retain and enhance desirable conditions for goose hunting. We provide an account of the history, construction, and design of these features as well as the motivations and social learning that inform them. We reveal a complex and underappreciated dynamic between human resistance and adaptation to environmental change. While landscape modifications are motivated by a desire to increase resource productivity and predictability, they also reflect an intergenerational commitment to the maintenance of established hunting places as important connections with the past. Our findings support a revised perspective on aboriginal human agency in northern landscape modification and an enhanced role for aboriginal communities in adaptive planning for environmental change.

  13. Planet Hunters: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet in a Quadruple Star System

    CERN Document Server

    Schwamb, Megan E; Carter, Joshua A; Welsh, William F; Fischer, Debra A; Torres, Guillermo; Howard, Andrew W; Crepp, Justin R; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris J; Kaib, Nathan A; Terrell, Dirk; Gagliano, Robert; Jek, Kian J; Parrish, Michael; Smith, Arfon M; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert J; Giguere, Matthew J; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of a transiting circumbinary planet (PH1) around KIC 4862625, an eclipsing binary in the Kepler field. The planet was discovered by volunteers searching the first six Quarters of publicly available Kepler data as part of the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Transits of the planet across the larger and brighter of the eclipsing stars are detectable by visual inspection every ~137 days, with seven transits identified in Quarters 1-11. The physical and orbital parameters of both the host stars and planet were obtained via a photometric-dynamical model, simultaneously fitting both the measured radial velocities and the Kepler light curve of KIC 4862625.The 6.18 $\\pm$ 0.17 Earth radii planet orbits outside the 20-day orbit of an eclipsing binary consisting of an F dwarf (1.734 +/- 0.044 Solar radii, 1.528 +/- 0.087 Solar masses) and M dwarf (0.378 +/0 0.023 Solar radii, 0.408 +/- 0.024 solar masses). For the planet, we find an upper mass limit of 169 Earth masses(0.5...

  14. Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Rey, Aude; Gerbault, Pascale; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Dyble, Mark; E Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-07-12

    Many defining human characteristics including theory of mind, culture and language relate to our sociality, and facilitate the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships. Therefore, deciphering the context in which our sociality evolved is invaluable in understanding what makes us unique as a species. Much work has emphasised group-level competition, such as warfare, in moulding human cooperation and sociality. However, competition and cooperation also occur within groups; and inter-individual differences in sociality have reported fitness implications in numerous non-human taxa. Here we investigate whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Using economic gift games we find that relational wealth: a) displays individual-level variation; b) provides advantages in buffering food risk, and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and female fertility; c) is partially heritable. These results highlight that individual-level processes may have been fundamental in the extension of human cooperation beyond small units of related individuals, and in shaping our sociality. Additionally, the findings offer insight in to trends related to human sociality found from research in other fields such as psychology and epidemiology.

  15. Jaguar conservation in southern Belize: Conflicts, perceptions, and prospects among mayan hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Belize has emerged as an international leader in jaguar conservation through the creation of numerous protected areas that contain prime cat habitat and by strengthening conservation laws. For example, in 1984, Belize created the Cockscomb Basin Jaguar Preserve, the first special jaguar protection area in the Americas. In 1995, the government expanded Cockscomb by creating the adjacent Chiquibul National Park. In 2010, the government continued this commitment to jaguar conservation by creating the Labouring Creek Jaguar Corridor Wildlife Sanctuary in central Belize. As a result of these protected areas, Belize has been rightfully lauded as a leader in nature-based tourism and protected areas creation in Central America. However, outside national parks and communities that directly benefit from ecotourism, it is less clear how supportive rural residents are of cat conservation. It is also not clear if jaguars persist outside protected areas in locations such as southern Belize, where the environment has been significantly altered by human activities. Through interviews with Mayan hunters, this paper investigates the attitudes towards jaguars, human-jaguar conflicts, and potential community-based jaguar conservation in two Mayan villages in the Toledo District in southern Belize. Also, using indirect methods, the paper documents the presence/absence and other temporal/spatial aspects of jaguars in a heavily altered landscape in southern Belize.

  16. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  17. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Reyes-García

    Full Text Available Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i schooling and ii local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane' from whom we collected information on 1 schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy, 2 local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3 working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  18. Planet Hunters, Undergraduate Research, and Detection of Extrasolar Planet Kepler-818 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Crannell, Graham; Duncan, James; Hays, Aryn; Hendrix, Landon

    2017-01-01

    Detection of extrasolar planets provides an excellent research opportunity for undergraduate students. In Spring 2012, we searched for transiting extrasolar planets using Kepler spacecraft data in our Research Experience in Physics course at Austin College. Offered during the regular academic year, these Research Experience courses engage students in the scientific process, including proposal writing, paper submission, peer review, and oral presentations. Since 2004, over 190 undergraduate students have conducted authentic scientific research through Research Experience courses at Austin College.Zooniverse’s citizen science Planet Hunters web site offered an efficient method for rapid analysis of Kepler data. Light curves from over 5000 stars were analyzed, of which 2.3% showed planetary candidates already tagged by the Kepler team. Another 1.5% of the light curves suggested eclipsing binary stars, and 1.6% of the light curves had simulated planets for training purposes.One of the stars with possible planetary transits had not yet been listed as a planetary candidate. We reported possible transits for Kepler ID 4282872, which later was promoted to planetary candidate KOI-1325 in 2012 and confirmed to host extrasolar planet Kepler-818 b in 2016 (Morton et al. 2016). Kepler-818 b is a “hot Neptune” with period 10.04 days, flux decrease during transit ~0.4%, planetary radius 4.69 Earth radii, and semi-major axis 0.089 au.

  19. The neutrino hunters the chase for the ghost particle and the secrets of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In Neutrino Hunters, the renowned astrophysicist and award-winning writer Ray Jayawardhana takes us on a thrilling journey into the shadowy world of neutrinos and the colorful lives of those who seek them. Demystifying particle science along the way, Jayawardhana tells a detective story with cosmic implications—interweaving tales of the sharp-witted theorist Wolfgang Pauli; the troubled genius Ettore Majorana; the harbinger of the atomic age Enrico Fermi; the notorious Cold War defector Bruno Pontecorvo; and the dynamic dream team of Marie and Pierre Curie. Then there are the scientists of today who have caught the neutrino bug, and whose experimental investigations stretch from a working nickel mine in Ontario to a long tunnel through a mountain in central Italy, from a nuclear waste site in New Mexico to a bay on the South China Sea, and from Olympic-size pools deep underground to a gigantic cube of Antarctic ice—called, naturally, IceCube. As Jayawardhana recounts a captivating saga of scientific disc...

  20. The Implications of Victimhood Identity: The Case of ‘Persecution’ of Swedish Hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica von Essen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographically based study examines Swedish hunters’ claims to victimhood through appeal to the term ‘persecution’. Perceiving disenfranchisement, injustice and discrimination on the basis of wolf conservation policy, we present hunters’ self-styled predicament as victimhood-claimants of persecution at the hands of a state that has been co-opted by a conservationist, pro-wolf agenda that systematically disenfranchises rural and hunting interests and lifestyles. Through the phenomenological accounts of hunter respondents, our paper takes seriously the hunters’ perception of persecution and, likewise, considers the opposite case made by conservationists: that wolves have been, and continue to be, the real victims of persecution in the conflict. Nonetheless, we show that the persecution language as it is applied from opposing parties in the conflict is problematic inasmuch as it is focused around creating a moral panic and confusion among the Swedish public who are ultimately responsible, as a democratic body-politic, for assessing the legitimacy of claims to moral wrong-doing and legal redress for the wronged. Our case study joins scholarship that explores the pathologies of claims to victimization

  1. Robert Plant (1818–1858: A Victorian plant hunter in Natal, Zululand, Mauritius and the Seychelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal P. McCracken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s Robert William Plant collected plants and other natural specimens in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. This one-time Englishman compiled a dictionary for gardeners before emigrating to Natal in 1850. There he worked as the agent for Samuel Stevens, the London dealer in ‘curiosities of natural history’. Though Plant collected mainly plants, he also sent consignments of beetles, butterflies, bird skins and shells back to Britain. He published the first scientific paper on Zululand and was requested by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to write the first Flora natalensis. It was while collecting for this never-to-be-completed treatise that Plant contracted malaria in Maputaland. He died in St Lucia in 1858 and in doing so became South Africa’s martyr to botany. What emerges from this study is a picture of the difficulties faced by plant hunters in mid-19th-century South Africa, the sort of plants they collected and the necessity for them sometimes to diversify into other natural history products to survive.

  2. Hunter-gatherer mobility and embedded raw-material procurement strategies in the mediterranean upper paleolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasso, Antonin; Porraz, Guillaume

    2016-05-06

    Since the early 1980s, the sourcing of lithic raw materials has become central to studies of the territorial range and mobility strategies of Pleistocene foraging societies. Results have been fruitful but somehow repetitive. We will discuss the embedded procurement strategy, which presumes that raw material acquisition was part of other subsistence activities rather than an autonomous technological task. We argue that this theoretical assumption, when taken as dogma, restricts the role of technology in human history and also underestimates the way some lithic resources may have affected the organization of past hunter-gatherers. We base our discussion on the Upper Paleolithic (UP) from the Liguro-Provençal arc, with examples from the Proto-Aurignacian and the Epigravettian. Our regional record shows that in this context the movement of rocks over distances greater than 100 km was the norm rather than the exception. We argue that these long-distance procurements mirror technical needs that were oriented toward the selection of high-quality flints. We support the hypothesis that indirect procurement was an important component of regional socio-economic networks.

  3. Atypical clinical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Subodh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a very rare case of mucopolysaccharidosis with atypical presentation such as mild mental retardation, an acrocephalic head and no corneal clouding. The purpose of presenting this case is to highlight the distinctive manifestation of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome. Case presentation A 10-year-old East Asian boy presented with abdominal distension of five years' duration and complained of shortness of breath on and off for the same period. On examination his head was large and his head circumference was 54.5 cm. His neck was short, he had coarse facial features, a depressed nasal bridge and small stubby fingers with flexion of distal interphalangeal joints, and a low arched palate was observed. There was mild mental retardation. Conclusion Based on clinical findings and radiological features it is possible to diagnose a case of mucopolysaccharidosis. Careful and systemic approach is needed to accurately diagnose the exact type as enzymatic studies are not available in most centers.

  4. The Hunters Point cogeneration project: Environmental justice in power plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosloff, L.H. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Varanini, E.E. III [Marron, Reid and Sheehy, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The recent Hunters Point, San Francisco power plant siting process in California represents the first time that environmental justice has arisen as a major power plant siting issue. Intervenors argued that the siting process was racially and economically biased and were supported by leading environmental justice activists at the Golden Gate Law School`s Environmental Justice Clinic, a leading thinker in this field. The applicant argued that environmental justice charges cannot realistically be made against a modern natural-gas energy facility with state-of-the-art environmental controls. The applicant also argued that environmental justice concerns were fully addressed through the extensive environmental and socioeconomic review carried out by California Energy Commission staff. After extensive testimony and cross-examination, the Commission agreed with the applicant. This case has important lessons for companies that could be charged with environmental justice violations and environmental justice activists who must decide where to most effectively target their efforts. This paper reviews the proceeding and its lessons and makes recommendations regarding future applicability of environmental justice issues to the power generation sector. The authors represented the applicant in the facility siting proceeding.

  5. Trace elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the Upper Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhana, Biswas Karabi [Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endcrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Research Division, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bridgman, Howard [University of Newcastle, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science (Australia); McOrist, Gordon [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division, Menai (Australia)

    2002-05-01

    Airbone particulate matter, both total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM{sub 10}, and soil samples from four sampling sites were collected in the Upper Hunter Valley in NSW, Australia in early 1999. This study aimed to measure relative amounts of particulates during this period, and identify associated trace elements and their potential sources. Particulates were analyzed for trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Total concentrations ({mu}g m{sup -3}) of TSP and PM{sub 10} varied within 7-135 and 4-19, respectively, among sampling sites. Mean concentrations (ng m{sup -3}) of iron, barium, zinc, lanthanum, bromine, chromium, rubidium, neodymium, cobalt, hafnium, cerium, thorium, uranium, scandium and cesium varied within 2042-2867, 529-1500, 28-40, 5.45-11.44, 5.3-20.6, 10.4-12.7, 4.14-11.56, 5.4-8.1, 1.16-1.98, 1.76-2.17, 0.71-3.9, 0.21-0.50, 0.29-0.84, 0.28-1.23, and 0.18-0.30, respectively. Significant correlation between sites for many elements suggested some common source(s) of some elements. The enrichment levels of the trace elements identified some crustal materials as a predominant source of particulate matter. (author)

  6. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R Hill

    Full Text Available Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  7. Potential Roles of Essential Oil and Extracts of Piper chaba Hunter to Inhibit Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro anti-listerial potential of essential oil and various organic extracts of Piper chaba Hunter (Piperaceae were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by the GC-MS. Fifty four compounds representing 95.4% of the total oil w ere identified, of which α-humulene (16.4%, caryophyllene oxide (12.2%, veridiflorol (8.1%, globulol (7.4%, β-selinene (7.1%, spathulenol (6.2%, trans-nerolidol (5.1%, linalool (4.5%, 3-pentanol (3.5%, tricyclene (2.2% and p-cymene (1.6% were the major compounds. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential anti-listerial effect against all five strains of Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on the viable cell count of the tested Listeria spp. Our findings demonstrate that the essential oil and extracts derived from the leaf of P. chaba might be a potential source of natural preservatives used in food industries.

  8. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  9. Tumour Angiogenesis: A Growth Area—From John Hunter to Judah Folkman and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Stephenson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels in the body. Abnormal angiogenesis is recognised as a “common denominator” in many disease processes, and the development of angiogenesis inhibitors holds great hope in the ongoing battle against cancer. The field of angiogenesis has roots in the Hunterian era of the late eighteenth century but did not begin to blossom until the early 1970s when the then controversial findings and conclusions of Judah Folkman, the “father of angiogenesis,” were first published. There were only 65 publications with angiogenesis in the title in the 10 years after Folkman first proposed the idea of tumour angiogenesis, compared to over 9,000 publications from the year 2000 to 2010. In this review we will explore the voyage of discovery from the first observations of John Hunter in the eighteenth century, via the struggle faced by Folkman to prove the importance of angiogenesis, and finally how his determination has led to modern angiogenesis inhibitors being used in everyday clinical practice.

  10. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in squamous cell carcinoma: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Chiren, Sarah G; Godinez-Puig, Victoria; Chen, Brian R; Kurta, Anastasia O; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Cartee, Todd V; Maher, Ian A; Alam, Murad; Sobanko, Joseph F

    2017-07-12

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer that poses a risk of metastasis. Clinical investigations into SCC treatment are common, but the outcomes reported are highly variable, omitted, or clinically irrelevant. The outcome heterogeneity and reporting bias of these studies leave clinicians unable to accurately compare studies. Core outcome sets (COSs) are an agreed minimum set of outcomes recommended to be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a given condition or disease. Although COSs are under development for several dermatologic conditions, work has yet to be done to identify core outcomes specific for SCC. Outcome extraction for COS generation will occur via four methods: (1) systematic literature review; (2) patient interviews; (3) other published sources; and (4) input from stakeholders in medicine, pharmacy, and other relevant industries. The list of outcomes will be revaluated by the Measuring PRiority Outcome Variables via Excellence in Dermatologic surgery (IMPROVED) Steering Committee. Delphi processes will be performed separately by expert clinicians and patients to condense the list of outcomes generated. A consensus meeting with relevant stakeholders will be conducted after the Delphi exercise to further select outcomes, taking into account participant scores. At the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. The Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) organization and the Cochrane Skin Group - Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN) will serve as advisers throughout the COS generation process. Comparison of clinical trials via systematic reviews and meta-analyses is facilitated when investigators study outcomes that are relevant and similar. The aim of this project is to develop a COS to guide use for future clinical trials.

  11. Reporting of loss to follow-up information in randomised controlled trials with time-to-event outcomes: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the reporting of loss to follow-up (LTFU information in articles on randomised controlled trials (RCTs with time-to-event outcomes, and to assess whether discrepancies affect the validity of study results. Methods Literature survey of all issues of the BMJ, Lancet, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine published between 2003 and 2005. Eligible articles were reports of RCTs including at least one Kaplan-Meier plot. Articles were classified as "assessable" if sufficient information was available to assess LTFU. In these articles, LTFU information was derived from Kaplan-Meier plots, extracted from the text, and compared. Articles were then classified as "consistent" or "not consistent". Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the validity of study results. Results 319 eligible articles were identified. 187 (59% were classified as "assessable", as they included sufficient information for evaluation; 140 of 319 (44% presented consistent LTFU information between the Kaplan-Meier plot and text. 47 of 319 (15% were classified as "not consistent". These 47 articles were included in sensitivity analyses. When various imputation methods were used, the results of a chi2-test applied to the corresponding 2 × 2 table changed and hence were not robust in about half of the studies. Conclusions Less than half of the articles on RCTs using Kaplan-Meier plots provide assessable and consistent LTFU information, thus questioning the validity of the results and conclusions of many studies presenting survival analyses. Authors should improve the presentation of both Kaplan-Meier plots and LTFU information, and reviewers of study publications and journal editors should critically appraise the validity of the information provided.

  12. Correlations between Endomyocardial Biopsies and Cardiac Manifestations in Taiwanese Patients with the Chinese Hotspot IVS4+919G>A Mutation: Data from the Fabry Outcome Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Rong Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively evaluated correlations between cardiac manifestations and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 accumulation in cardiomyocytes from Taiwanese patients with Fabry disease and the IVS4+919G>A (IVS4 mutation who underwent endomyocardial biopsy (Shire; Fabry Outcome Survey data; extracted January 2015. Of 24 males and six females (median age [Q1; Q3] at biopsy 60.4 [57.4; 64.1] and 61.3 [60.4; 65.1] years, respectively, 13 males (54.2% and five females (83.3% received agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT before biopsy. Median left ventricular mass indexed to height (LVMI within ±6 months of biopsy was 65.3 (52.7; 93.1 in males and 53.2 (42.0; 55.0 g/m2.7 in females. A moderate, positive, statistically significant correlation was found between the percentage area Gb3 accumulation in cardiomyocytes and LVMI (Spearman’s ρ, 0.45; p = 0.014; a smaller, positive, non-statistically significant correlation was observed between cardiomyocyte diameter and LVMI (Spearman’s ρ 0.16, p = 0.394. Moderate, statistically significant, negative correlations were found between Gb3 accumulation and ERT duration (Spearman’s ρ, −0.49, p = 0.007 and between cardiomyocyte size and ERT duration (Spearman’s ρ, −0.37, p = 0.048. Longer ERT duration was associated with smaller amounts of Gb3 accumulation and smaller cardiomyocyte size. Further follow-up is recommended to confirm these trends in a larger sample size.

  13. Impact of Undertreatment of Cancer Pain With Analgesic Drugs on Patient Outcomes: A Nationwide Survey of Outpatient Cancer Patient Care in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Chi; Chen, Jen-Shi; Shao, Yu-Yun; Lee, Kuan-Der; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Sung, Yung-Chuan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Yen, Chia-Jui; Liao, Yu-Min; Liu, Ta-Chih; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lee, Ming-Yang; Yu, Ming-Sun; Hwang, Wen-Li; Lai, Pang-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chou, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Ruey-Kuen

    2017-07-01

    Undertreatment of cancer pain among outpatient cancer patients needs to be addressed to enhance care and improve patients' quality of life (QoL). This prospective, cross-sectional, patient-focused study aimed to explore the prevalence of pain and undertreatment of cancer pain in outpatients in Taiwan. A total of 2652 non-selected outpatients with cancer and aged 20 years or older from 16 medical centers across Taiwan were included in this survey. All patients completed a questionnaire based on the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain management index (PMI) was used to evaluate the adequacy of pain management. Possible clinical variables of patients with positive PMI were examined by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 1659 (62.6%) outpatients had experienced some degree of pain; among these, 32.4% had negative PMI. Patients with a negative PMI score had significantly poor outcomes of QoL and a significantly higher tendency toward dissatisfaction with pain control by the physician and with the prescribed analgesic drugs. Female gender, primary tumor from breast, non-cancer-related cause of pain, and hospital locations from north Taiwan were independent variables that predicated patients with undertreatment of cancer pain. Most importantly, a forward trend of undertreatment of pain among patients who presented with lower prevalent rate of pain was observed. One-third of Taiwanese outpatients experienced pain because of undertreatment. Awareness of the prevalence of undertreatment of cancer pain and identification of the vulnerable subjects may assist in enhancing patient care and improving patient's QoL. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  15. Results of the 1982 survey of spring waterfowl hunter by eskimos on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta is an essentially flat, tundra-covered plain across which the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers flow on their way to the Bering Sea. The Delta's...

  16. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in facial aging: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Henley, Jill K; Ashchyan, Hovik J; Kurta, Anastasia O; Patel, Payal M; Sheikh, Umar A; Franklin, Matthew J; Hanna, Courtney C; Chen, Brian R; Chiren, Sarah G; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Maher, Ian A; Cartee, Todd V; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Facial aging is a concern for many patients. Wrinkles, loss of volume, and discoloration are common physical manifestations of aging skin. Genetic heritage, prior ultraviolet light exposure, and Fitzpatrick skin type may be associated with the rate and type of facial aging. Although many clinical trials assess the correlates of skin aging, there is heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed, which limits the quality of evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities. To address the inconsistency in outcomes, in this project we will develop a core set of outcomes that are to be evaluated in all clinical trials relevant to facial aging. A long list of measureable outcomes will be created from four sources: (1) systematic medical literature review, (2) patient interviews, (3) other published sources, and (4) stakeholder involvement. Two rounds of Delphi processes with homogeneous groups of physicians and patients will be performed to prioritize and condense the list. At a consensus meeting attended by physicians, patients, and stakeholders, outcomes will be further condensed on the basis of participant scores. By the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. Subsequent to this, specific measures will be selected or created to assess these outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop a core outcome set and relevant measures for clinical trials relevant to facial aging. We hope to improve the reliability and consistency of outcome reporting of skin aging, thereby enabling improved evaluation of treatment efficacy and patient satisfaction. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) Initiative, accessible at http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/737 . Core Outcomes Set Initiative, (CSG-COUSIN) accessible at https://www.uniklinikum-dresden.de/de/das-klinikum/universitaetscentren/zegv/cousin/meet-the-teams/project-groups/core-outcome-set-for-the-appearance-of-facial-aging . Protocol version date is 28

  17. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PLANET HUNTERS. VIII. CHARACTERIZATION OF 41 LONG-PERIOD EXOPLANET CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER ARCHIVAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Picard, Alyssa; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ma, Bo [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Simister, Dean Joseph; Grégoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P.; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-12-20

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0–Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits, and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1–3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4″. We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Kepler Stellar Catalog by Huber et al. We validate 7 planet candidates that have planet confidence over 0.997 (3σ level). These validated planets include 3 single-transit planets (KIC-3558849b, KIC-5951458b, and KIC-8540376c), 3 planets with double transits (KIC-8540376b, KIC-9663113b, and KIC-10525077b), and 1 planet with four transits (KIC-5437945b). This work provides assessment regarding the existence of planets at wide separations and the associated false positive rate for transiting observation (17%–33%). More than half of the long-period planets with at least three transits in this paper exhibit transit timing variations up to 41 hr, which suggest additional components that dynamically interact with the transiting planet candidates. The nature of these components can be determined by follow-up radial velocity and transit observations.

  19. Planet Hunters: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet in a Quadruple Star System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Welsh, William F.; Fischer, Debra A.; Torres, Guillermo; Howard, Andrew W.; Crepp, Justin R.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Kaib, Nathan A.; Terrell, Dirk; Gagliano, Robert; Jek, Kian J.; Parrish, Michael; Smith, Arfon M.; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert J.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of a transiting circumbinary planet (PH1b) around KIC 4862625, an eclipsing binary in the Kepler field. The planet was discovered by volunteers searching the first six Quarters of publicly available Kepler data as part of the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Transits of the planet across the larger and brighter of the eclipsing stars are detectable by visual inspection every ~137 days, with seven transits identified in Quarters 1-11. The physical and orbital parameters of both the host stars and planet were obtained via a photometric-dynamical model, simultaneously fitting both the measured radial velocities and the Kepler light curve of KIC 4862625. The 6.18 ± 0.17 R ⊕ planet orbits outside the 20 day orbit of an eclipsing binary consisting of an F dwarf (1.734 ± 0.044 R ⊙, 1.528 ± 0.087 M ⊙) and M dwarf (0.378 ± 0.023 R ⊙, 0.408 ± 0.024 M ⊙). For the planet, we find an upper mass limit of 169 M ⊕ (0.531 Jupiter masses) at the 99.7% confidence level. With a radius and mass less than that of Jupiter, PH1b is well within the planetary regime. Outside the planet's orbit, at ~1000 AU, a previously unknown visual binary has been identified that is likely bound to the planetary system, making this the first known case of a quadruple star system with a transiting planet.

  20. Knowledge-Sharing Networks in Hunter-Gatherers and the Evolution of Cumulative Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Thompson, James; Grace, Olwen Megan; van der Burgt, Xander M; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Smith, Daniel; Lewis, Jerome; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-09-26

    Humans possess the unique ability for cumulative culture [1, 2]. It has been argued that hunter-gatherer's complex social structure [3-9] has facilitated the evolution of cumulative culture by allowing information exchange among large pools of individuals [10-13]. However, empirical evidence for the interaction between social structure and cultural transmission is scant [14]. Here we examine the reported co-occurrence of plant uses between individuals in dyads (which we define as their "shared knowledge" of plant uses) in BaYaka Pygmies from Congo. We studied reported uses of 33 plants of 219 individuals from four camps. We show that (1) plant uses by BaYaka fall into three main domains: medicinal, foraging, and social norms/beliefs; (2) most medicinal plants have known bioactive properties, and some are positively associated with children's BMI, suggesting that their use is adaptive; (3) knowledge of medicinal plants is mainly shared between spouses and biological and affinal kin; and (4) knowledge of plant uses associated with foraging and social norms is shared more widely among campmates, regardless of relatedness, and is important for camp-wide activities that require cooperation. Our results show the interdependence between social structure and knowledge sharing. We propose that long-term pair bonds, affinal kin recognition, exogamy, and multi-locality create ties between unrelated families, facilitating the transmission of medicinal knowledge and its fitness implications. Additionally, multi-family camps with low inter-relatedness between camp members provide a framework for the exchange of functional information related to cooperative activities beyond the family unit, such as foraging and regulation of social life.

  1. The spatial structure of hunter access determines the local abundance of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Blake, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In many previously remote regions in the world, increasing and often unregulated access is leading to dramatic increases in hunting pressure and declines in the densities of prey species, sometimes to the point of local extinction. Not surprisingly, numerous studies have found a correlation between the distance to the closest access point and prey densities. Here we hypothesized that, for many wide-ranging species, local abundances are reduced by hunting associated with multiple access points as opposed to just the closest access points. We also hypothesized that the distribution of hunter access determines both patterns of occupancy and abundance in occupied areas and that these two patterns (occupancy and abundance) respond to access at different spatial scales. Using data on the distribution of abundances of African forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in and around five national parks in Central Africa, we tested these hypotheses using a model comparison framework. We found that models including an index based on the distance to multiple roads outperformed models including other access-based covariates, including a model based on distance to the closest road only. We also found that models that allowed us to model occupancy and abundance separately outperformed simpler models. Occupancy responds to access at the same scale as previous estimates of average maximum displacement in the subspecies, while the scale of the response of abundance is more ambiguous, but appears to be greater. Lastly, we show that incorporating indices based on multiple access points and modeling abundance and occupancy has important practical consequences for our understanding of overall regional abundances and the distribution of abundances within regions.

  2. European multicentre pilot survey to assess vitamin D status in rheumatoid arthritis patients and early development of a new Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire (D-PRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Pasalic, Katarina Simic; Balcune, Inete; Ferraz-Amaro, Ivan; Tlustochowicz, Małgorzata; Butrimiene, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morovic-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Salaffi, Fausto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-01

    To collect data on vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels in a large number of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from different European countries, to investigate their relation with disease activity, disability, quality of life, and possibly to construct a new Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaire in order to self-estimate if they are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency-related clinical implications (D-PRO). This was a European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) supported cross-sectional study (project No CLI064) which involved 625 RA patients (mean age 55±11years, mean disease duration 11±9years), 276 age and sex matched healthy subjects, and rheumatologists working in academic institutions or hospital centres, as well as PARE organizations (patient representatives) from 13 European countries. Serum samples for 25(OH)D level measurement were collected during winter time and analyzed in a central laboratory using chemiluminescence immunoassay (DiaSorin). Patient past medical history was recorded. RA patients were provided with three questionnaires: the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact Diseases score (RAID), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the new D-PRO questionnaire at the time of 25(OH)D serum sampling. D-PRO questionnaire consisted of three domains, Symptom Risk Score (SRS), Habitus Risk Score (HRS) and Global Risk Score (SRS+HRS=GRS), constructed with items possibly related to vitamin D deficiency. D-PRO was correlated with both clinical and PRO scores. DAS28-CRP was also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by non parametric tests. Mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D in RA patients (17.62±9.76ng/ml) was found significantly lower if compared to the levels obtained in matched controls (18.95±9.45ng/ml) (p=0.01), with statistically significant differences among several European countries. Negative correlations were found between 25(OH)D serum levels and DAS28-CRP (pPRO questionnaire. This first multicentre European survey add

  3. A review: dietary restrictions on hunter-gatherer women and the implications for fertility and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, K A

    1989-09-01

    In many hunter gatherer societies, food taboos dictate the diets of females. These taboos often happen during their most critical reproductive times in their life, e.g., pregnancy. Among some subarctic Athapaskan societies, females at menarche cannot eat fresh meat. They, like other hunter gatherer societies, also restrict fresh meat consumption for menstruating women. Young women of the Aranda society in Australia cannot eat protein rich foods, e.g., lizards, until they have a child. Australian aboriginal societies restrict protein and fat foods for pregnant and lactating women. Even though the literature shows that the undernourished are inclined to reach menarche at a later age than those who eat a well balanced diet, it does not clearly establish whether differences in age at menarche significantly affect overall fertility. Research done on many different under or marginally nourished populations indicates that maternal nutritional health influences birth spacing significantly. Specifically, undernutrition causes longer postpartum amenorrhea. Therefore, lower fertility rates follow longer birth intervals. Research shows that poor maternal nutritional health does not prevent the fetus from surviving and growing. Yet mothers who do not consume many calories often have low birth weight infants. These infants are at high risk of dying because they have little to no fat reserves and they consume inadequate amounts of nutrition since the mothers cannot make insufficient amounts of milk. Since contemporary research shows that maternal nutritional health does effect fertility and infant mortality, food taboos do have the ability to influence population size. More research is needed to understand the factors that influenced the reproductive rates of past hunter-gatherer societies, so anthropologists can identify the demographically significant changes which sedentism and agriculture caused 10,000 years ago.

  4. Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

  5. Groundwater modeling to evaluate interaquifer leakage in the Floridan aquifer system near Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations using a modified regional groundwater- flow model were used to determine the amount of leakage from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) through the Lower Floridan confining unit (LFC) into the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) resulting from pumping about 1 million gallons per day at newly constructed LFA production wells at Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart in coastal Georgia. Simulated steadystate drawdown at each of the LFA production wells closely matched observed drawdown during a 72-hour aquifer test with the observed water levels reaching steady-state by the end of the test period. However, simulated drawdown was greater than observed drawdown in the UFA because of the short duration of the aquifer test and the time required for groundwater movement through the LFC into the LFA. Steadystate simulations provide an estimate of leakage based on the long-term continuous operation of each production well. Results of model simulations indicate that interaquifer leakage accounts for 48 percent of the flow to the well at Hunter Army Airfield, and 98 percent of the flow to the well at Fort Stewart. Simulated results near the Hunter Army Airfield production well indicated that 65 percent of the leakage from the UFA to the LFA occurs within a 1-mile radius, whereas simulated results near the Fort Stewart production well indicated 80-percent leakage from the UFA to the LFA within the same radius. The greater amount of leakage to the production well near Fort Stewart can be attributed to the higher transmissivity of the UFA and higher vertical hydraulic conductivity in the LFC near the well.

  6. The formation of fire residues associated with hunter-gatherers in humid tropical environments: A geo-ethnoarchaeological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Ajithparsad, P.; French, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Tropical forests have been an important human habitat and played a significant role in early human dispersal and evolution. Likewise, the use of fire, besides being one of the exceptional characteristics of humans, serves as a marker for human evolution. While the use of fire by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is relatively well documented in arid and temperate environments, the archaeological evidence in humid tropical environment is to date very limited. We first review the archaeological evidence for hunter-gatherer use of fire in humid tropical environments and suggest that better understanding of formation processes is required. We present a geo-ethnoarchaeological study from South India, involving ethnography, excavations and laboratory-based analyses in order to build a new framework to study fire residues in humid tropical forests associated with hunter-gatherer's use of fire. Ethnographic observations point to a dynamic and ephemeral use of hearths. Hearths location were dictated by the social and ever-changing social dynamics of the site. The hearths deposited small amount of residues which were later swept on a daily basis, re-depositing ash and charcoal in waste areas and leaving only a microscopic signal in the original location. Particular acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within tropical sediments result in the complete dissolution of ash and bones while favouring the preservation of charcoal and phytoliths. Consequently, the identification of fire residues in humid tropical forests and the reconstruction of the human use of fire must involve multi-proxy microscopic analysis to detect its micro-signatures.

  7. The Bayview Hunters Point Foundation for Community Improvement: a pioneering multi-ethnic human service organization (1971-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Ellen; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Bayview Hunters Point Foundation for Community Improvement is a nonprofit organization established in 1971 to defend the legal rights of African-Americans living in its community. Over the years, the agency diversified its services to include mental health and substance abuse treatment, violence prevention, youth programming, and HIV services. The organization has overcome multiple challenges during its 37-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have influenced the way the organization has financed and delivered its services. The history of the organization presents a collaborative approach to community problem-solving and exemplifies the important role that external relationships play in relationship to nonprofit growth and survival.

  8. Functional responses of human hunters to their prey - why harvest statistics may not always reflect changes in prey population abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard; Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    functional response to the point count indices, with similar auto-correlative structures in the two variables. Other species showed different functional responses, the result of hunter behaviour, such as voluntary hunting restraint on species of concern and saturation effects from rapidly expanding abundant...... are used as an index for population size. It is essential that detectability/accessibility of a species does not change systematically over time. Such bias may derive from habitat shifts, difference in timing of counts and hunting harvest, changes in migration patterns and annual reproduction and mortality...

  9. Plan de mejoramiento para la gestión del direccionamiento estratégico en Market Hunters Ltda

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Para el presente proyecto de grado, se realizó un análisis situacional de Market Hunters Ltda, empresa dedicada a la comercialización de aceites y aditivo que a su vez presta servicios de asistencia automotriz. Basado en el ambiente percibido en el técnicentro, la entrevista con el gerente y los resultados encontrados en la matriz integral, se llego a concluir que dicha información representaría para dicha investigación un punto de partida en la búsqueda de la raíz del problema; las falencias...

  10. OPERATION ODESSA: THE FLIGHT OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS TO LATIN AMERICA AFTER WORLD WAR II AND THE NAZI HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  11. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  12. Outcome measures in physiotherapy management of patients with stroke: A survey into self-reported use, and barriers to and facilitators for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppen, R.P.S. van; Maissan, F.J.F.; Genderen, F.R. van; Dolder, R. van; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To investigate physiotherapists' self-reported use of outcome measures as recommended in the Dutch Clinical Practice Guideline on Physiotherapy Management of Patients with Stroke (CPGPS) and to assess perceived barriers to and facilitators for the use of outcome measures in everyday pract

  13. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality of a confined sand unit in the surficial aquifer system, Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2012-01-01

    An 80-foot-deep well (36Q397, U.S. Geological Survey site identification 320146081073701) was constructed at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the potential of using the surficial aquifer system as a water source to irrigate a ballfield complex. A 300-foot-deep test hole was drilled beneath the ballfield complex to characterize the lithology and water-bearing characteristics of sediments above the Upper Floridan aquifer. The test hole was then completed as well 36Q397 open to a 19-foot-thick shallow, confined sand unit contained within the surficial aquifer system. A single-well, 24-hour aquifer test was performed by pumping well 36Q397 at a rate of 50 gallons per minute during July 13-14, 2011, to characterize the hydrologic properties of the shallow, confined sand unit. Two pumping events prior to the aquifer test affected water levels. Drawdown during all three pumping events and residual drawdown during recovery periods were simulated using the Theis formula on multiple changes in discharge rate. Simulated drawdown and residual drawdown match well with measured drawdown and residual drawdown using values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and specific storage, which are typical for a confined sand aquifer. Based on the hydrologic parameters used to match simulated drawdown and residual drawdown to measured drawdown and residual drawdown, the transmissivity of the sand was determined to be about 400 feet squared per day. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand was determined to be about 20 feet per day. Analysis of a water-quality sample indicated that the water is suitable for irrigation. Sample analysis indicated a calcium-carbonate type water having a total dissolved solids concentration of 39 milligrams per liter. Specific conductance and concentrations of all analyzed constituents were below those that would be a concern for irrigation, and were below primary and secondary water-quality criteria levels.

  14. Hunters of the Ice Age: The biology of Upper Paleolithic people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brigitte M; Formicola, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Paleolithic represents both the phase during which anatomically modern humans appeared and the climax of hunter-gatherer cultures. Demographic expansion into new areas that took place during this period and the diffusion of burial practices resulted in an unprecedented number of well-preserved human remains. This skeletal record, dovetailed with archeological, environmental, and chronological contexts, allows testing of hypotheses regarding biological processes at the population level. In this article, we review key studies about the biology of Upper Paleolithic populations based primarily on European samples, but integrating information from other areas of the Old World whenever possible. Data about cranial morphology, skeletal robusticity, stature, body proportions, health status, diet, physical activity, and genetics are evaluated in Late Pleistocene climatic and cultural contexts. Various lines of evidence delineate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a critical phase in the biological and cultural evolution of Upper Paleolithic populations. The LGM, a long phase of climatic deterioration culminating around 20,000 BP, had a profound impact on the environment, lifestyle, and behavior of human groups. Some of these effects are recorded in aspects of skeletal biology of these populations. Groups living before and after the LGM, Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) and Late Upper Paleolithic (LUP), respectively, differ significantly in craniofacial dimensions, stature, robusticity, and body proportions. While paleopathological and stable isotope data suggest good health status throughout the Upper Paleolithic, some stress indicators point to a slight decline in quality of life in LUP populations. The intriguing and unexpected incidence of individuals affected by congenital disorders probably indicates selective burial practices for these abnormal individuals. While some of the changes observed can be explained through models of biocultural or environmental

  15. Trends in North Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere Variability During the Common Era Inferred From a New Mt. Hunter (Denali, Alaska) 1200-Year Ice Core Stable Isotope Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.; Introne, D.; Ferris, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms and outcomes of teleconnections between the tropical and North Pacific regions over the past 2000 years remain elusive. Correctly assessing the impact on the Aluetian Low, storm tracks, and general hydroclimate during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA), and then into the 20th century likely requires a suite of high resolution paleoclimate data from the region. Here we present an ice core stable water isotope developed from two surface to bedrock ice cores recovered in 2013 from the high elevation Mt. Hunter plateau in Denali National Park, Alaska. The cores were processed using a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system, and dated using a combination of annual chemical and dust signals, and radioactive and volcanic horizons. The resulting annually-resolved timescale currently spans 2013-810AD. We analyzed 6000 stable water isotope samples for d18O, dD, and the derived deuterium excess (dxs) parameter, yielding a subannually resolved isotope record from 2013-1234AD, and 1-3 year resolution from 1233-810AD. We initially focus on the dxs record, as there are trends in the data that correspond to the large scale climate features of the Common Era. The dxs record shows decreased values during the MCA and a rise into the LIA, consistent with several other regional paleoclimate records. The most obvious feature of the dxs record is a pronounced decrease beginning in the mid 19th century and continuing to present. We note that this trend mirrors a rise in snow accumulation rate in the Denali ice core record, suggesting coherent changes in North Pacific climate dynamics over the past 150 years. Understanding the dxs record in terms of ocean source region temperature and/or relative humidity remains a challenge, and we discuss progress on interpreting the Denali isotope record and fitting these data into a broader paleoclimate context.

  16. The relationship between interventionists' experience and clinical and radiological outcome in intra-arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. A MR CLEAN pretrial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Debbie; van Boxtel, Tiemen H; Schipperen, Stefanie; van Zwam, Wim H; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J; Brouwer, Patrick A; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Schonewille, Wouter J; Vos, Jan Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Roos, Yvo B; Majoie, Charles B; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2017-06-15

    Intra-arterial treatment in acute ischemic stroke is safe and effective as recently shown in several randomized clinical trials. The level of experience of the interventionist performing the IAT procedure has not been studied. The present study investigates effects of interventionists' experience on technical aspects of the procedure and clinical outcome of the patient. In this study of 313 patients with a proximal intracranial arterial anterior circulation occlusion, treated in the Netherlands from 2002 until participation in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical trial of Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke (MR CLEAN), data were collected retrospectively. The association of the senior interventionists' experience with duration of the procedure, adverse events, recanalization, neurological outcome, and functional outcome at discharge was analyzed. Multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, stroke severity, carotid terminus occlusion, use of a retrievable stent and onset to door time were used. No association between interventionists' experience and recanalization, neurological outcome, or functional outcome was observed in a strict selection of patients. This strict selection include a start of intra-arterial treatment within 6h, no coagulation disturbances, systolic blood pressureexperience and either serious neurologic adverse events or poor outcomes was observed in this study of treatments by interventionists with experience of experience with procedure times, results and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nursing unit teams matter: Impact of unit-level nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, and quality of care, and patient adverse events--a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Timmermans, Olaf; Weeks, Susan Mace; van Heusden, Danny; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the impact of nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events variables at the nursing unit level. Nurse practice environment studies show growing insights and knowledge about determining factors for nurse workforce stability, quality of care, and patient safety. Until now, international studies have primarily focused on variability at the hospital level; however, insights at the nursing unit level can reveal key factors in the nurse practice environment. A cross-sectional design with a survey. In a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 1108 nurses assigned to 96 nursing units completed a structured questionnaire composed of various validated instruments measuring nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout, nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events. Associations between the variables were examined using multilevel modelling techniques. Various unit-level associations (simple models) were identified between nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout dimensions, and nurse reported outcome variables. Multiple multilevel models showed various independent variables such as nursing management at the unit level, social capital, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as important predictors of nurse reported outcome variables such job satisfaction, turnover intentions, quality of care (at the unit, the last shift, and in the hospital within the last year), patient and family complaints, patient and family verbal abuse, patient falls, nosocomial infections, and medications errors. Results suggested a stable nurse work force, with the capability to achieve superior quality and patient safety outcomes, is associated with unit-level favourable perceptions of nurse work environment factors, workload, decision latitude, and social capital, as well low levels of burnout

  18. Same-sex and different-sex parent households and child health outcomes : Findings from the national survey of children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.

    Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child

  19. Cannabis use in people with severe mental illness: The association with physical and mental health - a cohort study : A Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Jojanneke; Pijnenborg, Marieke Gh; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Visser, Ellen; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Bruggeman, Richard; Jörg, Frederike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the general population cannabis use is associated with better cardiometabolic outcomes. Patients with severe mental illness frequently use cannabis, but also present increased cardiometabolic risk factors. We explore the association between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors

  20. Planet Hunters: The First Two Planet Candidates Identified by the Public using the Kepler Public Archive Data

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Debra; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Lynn, Stuart; Parrish, Michael; Sartori, Thibault; Simpson, Robert; Smith, Arfon; Spronck, Julien; Batalha, Natalie; Rowe, Jason; Jenkins, Jon; Bryson, Steve; Prsa, Andrej; Tenenbaum, Peter; Crepp, Justin; Morton, Tim; Howard, Andrew; Beleu, Michele; Kaplan, Zachary; vanNispen, Nick; Sharzer, Charlie; DeFouw, Justin; Hajduk, Agnieszka; Neal, Joe; Nemec, Adam; Schuepbach, Nadine; Zimmermann, Valerij

    2011-01-01

    Planet Hunters is a new citizen science project, designed to engage the public in an exoplanet search using NASA Kepler public release data. In the first month after launch, users identified two new planet candidates which survived our checks for false- positives. The follow-up effort included analysis of Keck HIRES spectra of the host stars, analysis of pixel centroid offsets in the Kepler data and adaptive optics imaging at Keck using NIRC2. Spectral synthesis modeling coupled with stellar evolutionary models yields a stellar density distribution, which is used to model the transit orbit. The orbital periods of the planet candidates are 9.8844 ±0.0087 days (KIC 10905746) and 49.7696 ±0.00039 (KIC 6185331) days and the modeled planet radii are 2.65 and 8.05 R⊕. The involvement of citizen scientists as part of Planet Hunters is therefore shown to be a valuable and reliable tool in exoplanet detection.

  1. Speculation on the timing and nature of Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer colonization of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. Brantingham; MA Haizhou; J. W. Olsen; GAO Xing; D. B. Madsen; D. E. Rhode

    2003-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer populations in greater northeast Asia experienced dramatic range expansions during the early Upper Paleolithic (45-22 ka) and the late Upper Paleolithic (18-10 ka), both of which led to intensive occupations of cold desert environments including the Mongolian Gobi and northwest China. Range contractions under the cold, arid extremes of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 22-18 ka) may have entailed widespread population extirpations. The high elevation Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is significantly more extreme in both climate and environment than either the Gobi or the Siberian taiga forests, and provides an ideal setting to test fundamental models of human biogeog-raphy in the context of regional population fluctuations. The area is presently occupied primarily by nomadic pastoralists, but it is clear that these complex middle Holocene (<6 ka) economic adaptations were not a necessary prerequisite for successful colonization of the high elevation Plateau. Exploratory field-work in 2000-2001 has established that Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers were present on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by at least 12 ka and possibly much earlier. Aspeculative model for the colonization process is developed and preliminary archaeological data in support of the model are presented.

  2. The issue of socioeconomic complexity in the mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the middle and upper Ebro valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Martínez de Lagrán, Íñigo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades several hunter-gatherer groups have been defined, from ethnography and archaeology, as complex socioeconomic communities. This article reviews the main definitions of complexity and its principal feature contrasting them with the archaeological record of the Mesolithic in the Ebro valley. The main goal of this paper is to find out if these hunter-gatherer communities show indications of a certain socioeconomic complexity.

    En las últimas décadas se han definido en el ámbito etnográfico y arqueológico diferentes comunidades de cazadores-recolectores que presentan una organización socioeconómica compleja. En el presente trabajo se hace un repaso a las principales definiciones de esta complejidad y a sus rasgos fundamentales aplicándolos al registro actual del Mesolítico en la Alta y Media Cuenca del Ebro. El objetivo principal es determinar si estas comunidades de cazadores-recolectores presentan rasgos definitorios de una cierta complejidad socioeconómica.

  3. Ethnotaxonomy of mastofauna as practised by hunters of the municipality of Paulista, state of Paraíba-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, José S; Araujo, Helder FP; Almeida, Fabiana S

    2006-01-01

    It was aimed in the present work to report aspects related to identification, naming and categorization of the mastofauna species of the caatinga biome, according to hunters' knowledge of Northeast Brazil. The methods of free and semi-structured interviews and guided tours were applied here. The data obtained were analyzed under the emic/etic point of view by comparing the local people's knowledge to those reported in the literature. The inland hunters use some classification models of mammals living around them as for example the folk taxonomy, and a categorization based on the animal utility. Some species are preferably hunted for providing food while others are hunted for therapeutic ends. Hunt techniques were made evident by the informers. The retrieval and comprehension of the whole process related to such knowledge is very important to evaluate the human culture and the protection that people exert on local biodiversity, since these aspects have implications for the conservation and management of faunistic resources. PMID:16603080

  4. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  5. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in rosacea: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, Sanjana; Paula R Williamson; Schmitt, Jochen; Johannsen, Lena; Maher, Ian A.; Sobanko, Joseph F.; Cartee, Todd V.; Schlessinger, Daniel; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2016-01-01

    Background Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms with management and treatment aimed to suppress inflammatory lesions, erythema, and telangiectasia. While many clinical trials of rosacea exist, the lack of consensus in outcome reporting across all trials poses a concern. Proper evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities is challenging. In order to address the inconsistencies present, this project...

  6. A survey of the outcome of prophylaxis, on-demand treatment or combined treatment in 18-35-year old men with severe haemophilia in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noone, D.; O'Mahony, B.; van Dijk, J. P.; Prihodova, L.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have been published on the benefits of prophylactic treatment in adults with haemophilia. However, in many countries, it is considered as optional due to financial constraints. This survey was carried out to examine the long-term effects of prophylaxis and the continuing benefit

  7. The impact of guideline compliant medical therapy on clinical outcome in patients with stable angina: findings from the Euro Heart Survey of stable angina.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daly, C.A.; Clemens, F.; Lopez-Sendon, J.L.; Tavazzi, L.; Boersma, E.; Danchin, N.; Delahaye, F.; Gitt, A.; Julian, D.; Mulcahy, D.; Ruzyllo, W.; Thygesen, K.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Fox, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The European Society of Cardiology published guidelines for the management of stable angina in 1997, with the objective of promoting an evidence-based approach to the condition. This study focuses on the impact of guideline compliant medical treatment on clinical outcome in patients with stabl

  8. Patient-reported outcomes at hospital discharge from Heart Centres, a national cross-sectional survey with a register-based follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Svanholm, Jette; Lauberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    as the time scale will be used to investigate associations between patient reported outcomes at baseline and morbidity/mortality, labour market affiliation and healthcare utilisation after 1 year. Ethics and dissemination: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study has been approved...

  9. Examining the Link between Education Related Outcomes and Student Health Risk Behaviours among Canadian Youth: Data from the 2006 National Youth Smoking Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathammavong, Ratsamy; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid; Griffith, Jane; Nowatzki, Janet; Manske, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether student tobacco, alcohol, marijuana use, and sedentary behaviour were associated with the educational outcomes of health-related absenteeism, truancy, and academic motivation in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analyses indicate a high proportion of students missed school due to health,…

  10. Biological and social outcomes of antler point restriction harvest regulations for white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Bret D.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Long, Eric S.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Alt, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Selective harvest criteria, such as antler point restrictions (APRs), have been used to regulate harvest of male ungulates; however, comprehensive evaluation of the biological and social responses to this management strategy is lacking. In 2002, Pennsylvania adopted new APRs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that required, depending on wildlife management unit, ≥3 or ≥4 points on 1 antler for legal harvest. Historically, harvest rates of subadult (1.5 yr old) and adult (≥2.5 yr old) antlered males averaged 0.80. Antler point restrictions were designed to protect ≥50% of subadult males from harvest. Most adult males remained legal for harvest. We estimated harvest rates, survival rates, and cause-specific mortality of radio-collared male deer (453 subadults, 103 adults) in 2 wildlife management units (Armstrong and Centre counties) to evaluate biological efficacy of APRs to increase recruitment of adult males during 2002–2005. We administered statewide deer hunter surveys before and after each hunting season over the same 3 years to evaluate hunter attitudes toward APRs. We conducted 2 types of surveys: a simple random sample of all license buyers for each survey and a longitudinal panel of hunters who completed all 6 surveys. At the same time APRs were implemented, the Pennsylvania Game Commission (PGC) increased antlerless harvests to reduce deer density to meet deer management goals.Survival rates varied by month and age but not between study areas or among years after implementation of APRs. Monthly survival rates for subadults ranged from 0.64 to 0.97 during hunting seasons and 0.95 to 0.99 during the non-hunting period. Annual survival of subadults was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.41–0.52). Adult monthly survival rates ranged from 0.36 to 0.95 during hunting seasons and we had no mortalities during the non-hunting period. Annual survival of adults was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.22–0.35). Antler point restrictions successfully reduced harvest

  11. Reliability and validity of the medical outcomes study, a 36-item short-form health survey, (MOS SF-36 after one-year hospital discharge of hip fracture patient in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Udombhornprabha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is scarce of data in terms of health-related quality of life for hip fracture patients in Thailand due to the following: (i lack of epidemiological aspects of hip fracture (eg. the relative incidence of osteoporosis, falls fractures and repeat fractures in particular subgroups, (ii lack of health status and quality of life aspects of both illness itself and the availability of different treatment options especially for elderly people. (iii a substantial variation in terms of outcomes of care for patients and service for hip fractures. Objective: Hip fracture is a major healthcare burden in Thailand. This study explores quality of life for hip fracture patients from perspective of (i Reliability of patient-reported outcomes (ii Some clinical and demographic characteristics related to patient-reported outcomes Method: Pre-hospital discharge 201 hip fracture patients were screened and follow-up over one year. Mail survey by a self-rated Medical Outcomes Study, a 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (Thai dispatched for follow-up, other clinical and demographic characteristics were collected through direct interviews from patients or caregivers during recruitment with simultaneous crosschecking from medical records. A descriptive cross-sectional analysis was performed.Result: Mails responder represented by 59.2% (N=119, with 36.1% (N=43 and 63.8% (N=76 for patient and caregiver rated outcomes. Mean(SD, [95% CI] score for physical, mental and global health of patient and care-giver rated outcomes of 36.2(10.6[32.9-39.4], 54.5(10.0[51.4-57.5],43.9(9.3[41.0-46.7], and 34.6(12.3[31.7-37.4], 52.5(12.3[49.6-55.3],42.7(11.1[40.1-45.2] were not statistically difference with p-value at 0.630,0.330 and 0.788 respectively. Respecting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient by patients versus caregivers rated of the MOS SF-36 were 0.90 vs 0.91, 0.78 vs 0.84 and 0.90 vs 0.92. The presence of comorbidity significantly explains differences for

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, J A; Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P; Riggs, M R; Stromberg, B E

    1996-02-01

    Sera from 1,367 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 geographic regions in Minnesota collected during 4 hunting seasons (1990-1993) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol. Sera from 30% of the deer had antibody titers > or = 25; 8.6% were positive at a titer of 25, 11% at a titer of 50, and 10% at a titer > or = 500. There was a significant increase in seropositivity with age (P oak suburban park land. There were no statistically significant differences by year of collection. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer remains high and deer hunters and consumers should ensure that venison is well-cooked or frozen prior to consumption.

  13. Effect of Resource Spatial Correlation and Hunter-Fisher-Gatherer Mobility on Social Cooperation in Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Ignacio; Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José Manuel; Briz i Godino, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents’ movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly. PMID:25853728

  14. A new mutation (1062 del 16) of iduronate-2-sulfatase gene from a Chinese patient with Hunter syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To identify the mutations of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene, to reveal its mutation features, and to establish a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal gene diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Methods: Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) assay, PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to detect mutation of IDS gene of the patient and his parents. Results:The result showed that the patient was: DS(++), HS(++), KS(-), CS(-), and that both of his parents were negative. A frame-shift deletion mutation (1062 del 16) was identified in exon 7 of the patient's IDS gene. His parents'genotypes were normal. Conclusion: The patient's mutation was not inherited by his parents but a novel one. The mutation probably altered the primary structure and tertiary structure of IDS enzyme protein remarkably and lowered the activity of IDS enzyme greatly. Therefore it is supposed to be the direct cause of the disorder.

  15. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Ignacio; Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José Manuel; Briz i Godino, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  16. The association of patient safety climate and nurse-related organizational factors with selected patient outcomes: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Schubert, Maria; Desmedt, Mario; Blegen, Mary A; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, René

    2013-02-01

    Patient safety climate (PSC) is an important work environment factor determining patient safety and quality of care in healthcare organizations. Few studies have investigated the relationship between PSC and patient outcomes, considering possible confounding effects of other nurse-related organizational factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between PSC and patient outcomes in Swiss acute care hospitals, adjusting for major organizational variables. This is a sub-study of the Swiss arm of the multicenter-cross sectional RN4CAST (Nurse Forecasting: Human Resources Planning in Nursing) study. We utilized data from 1630 registered nurses (RNs) working in 132 surgical, medical and mixed surgical-medical units within 35 Swiss acute care hospitals. PSC was measured with the 9-item Safety Organizing Scale. Other organizational variables measured with established instruments included the quality of the nurse practice environment, implicit rationing of nursing care, nurse staffing, and skill mix levels. We performed multilevel multivariate logistic regression to explore relationships between seven patient outcomes (nurse-reported medication errors, pressure ulcers, patient falls, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, pneumonia; and patient satisfaction) and PSC. In none of our regression models was PSC a significant predictor for any of the seven patient outcomes. From our nurse-related organizational variables, the most robust predictor was implicit rationing of nursing care. After controlling for major organizational variables and hierarchical data structure, higher levels of implicit rationing of nursing care resulted in significant decrease in the odds of patient satisfaction (OR=0.276, 95%CI=0.113-0.675) and significant increase in the odds of nurse reported medication errors (OR=2.513, 95%CI=1.118-5.653), bloodstream infections (OR=3.011, 95%CI=1.429-6.347), and pneumonia (OR=2.672, 95%CI=1.117-6.395). We failed to confirm our

  17. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-01

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging.

  18. Establishment of native and exotic grasses on mine overburden and topsoil in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C.H.A.; Koen, T.B.; Waterhouse, D. [DNR, Dangar, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Current recommendations for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley involve the sowing of exotic pasture species to reinstate mined land to Class IV and V under the Rural Land Capability System. Despite the importance of native grasses in the pre-mined landscape, they are currently not widely included in mine rehabilitation. To address this issue a project was conducted between 1994 and 2000 to research the use of native grasses for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley. This paper reports on 2 mine site experiments that aimed to assess establishment and persistence of a broad range of native and exotic grass species from an autumn sowing in both topsoil and raw spoil over a period of 61 months. The most promising natives in terms of early establishment, persistence and spread over time, included six C-3 accessions (five Austrodanthonia spp. and Austrostipa bigeniculata) and one C-4 accession (Cynodon dactylon). Persistence of these accessions was better in raw spoil than topsoil, despite initial low numbers, due to a lack of weed competition and their ability to spread by self-seeding. In topsoil, and in the absence of any biomass reduction, native species were mostly out-competed by vigorous exotic perennial grasses which were sown in these experiments and from seed influx from adjacent rehabilitation areas or from the soil seed bank. The effects of climatic conditions and differences in soil physical, chemical and seed bank characteristics at the 2 mine sites are also discussed.

  19. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials.

  20. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  1. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P.; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials. PMID:27783683

  2. Do associations between employee self-reported organisational assessments and attitudinal outcomes change over time? An analysis of four Veterans Health Administration surveys using structural equation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available maintaining the strongest loading. By contrast, the strongest loadings on the Support construct were related to discrimination in 1997 and 2001, but this loading shifted to relationship- related variables (?respect? and ?teamwork?) in the last 2 survey... discrimination to teamwork and respect, may reflect a changed respondent focus from overall hospital culture to immediate workgroup culture, characterized by this increased primacy of teamwork and respect. . Complementing this interpretation, and suggesting a...

  3. Improved pregnancy outcome in refugees and migrants despite low literacy on the Thai-Burmese border: results of three cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pree Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and infant health has been associated with maternal education level, which is highly associated with literacy. We aimed at estimating literacy rates among reproductive age women attending antenatal clinics in camps for refugees and in migrant clinics in Tak province, north-western Thailand, to determine whether illiteracy had an impact on birth outcomes. Methods Three reading assessments were conducted using an identical method each time, in 1995-97, 2003 and 2008. Midwives chose at random one of four pre-set sentences. Each woman was asked to read aloud and scoring was based on a "pass/fail" system. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with maternal literacy rate. Results Overall, 47% (1149/2424 of women were able to read. A significant improvement was observed among migrant (34% in 2003 vs. 46% in 2008, p = 0.01, but not refugee (47% in 1995-97, 49% in 2003, and 51% in 2008 women. Literate women were significantly more likely to be of non-Karen ethnicity, primigravidae, non-smokers, to remain free from malaria during pregnancy and to deliver in a health clinic. Significant improvements in pregnancy outcome (reductions in premature births, low birth weight newborns and neonatal death between 1995-97 and 2003 were unrelated to literacy. Conclusions Significant reductions in poor pregnancy outcome over time have not been driven by changes in literacy rates, which have remained low. Access to early diagnosis and treatment of malaria in this population, and delivery with skilled birth attendants, despite ongoing low literacy, appears to have played a significant role.

  4. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment. Mental illness was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Apgar scores of newborns were estimated and their weight measured. Results 21.9% of mothers reported lifetime violence (2% during pregnancy and 24.3% had a common mental disorder in the past 12 months. The exposures were correlated and each was associated with low education. Lifetime violence was strongly associated with Common Mental Disorders. Violence during pregnancy (PR = 2.59(1.05–6.40 and threat of physical violence (PR = 1.86(1.03–3.35 and any common mental disorders (PR = 2.09 (1.21–3.63 (as well as depression, anxiety and PTSD separately were independently associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Efforts to improve neonatal outcomes in low income countries may be neglecting two important independent, but correlated risk factors: maternal experience of violence and common mental disorder.

  5. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  6. The effect of additional training on motor outcomes at discharge from recovery phase rehabilitation wards: a survey from multi-center stroke data bank in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariaki Shiraishi

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential benefits of additional training in patients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation ward using the data bank of post-stroke patient registry.Subjects were 2507 inpatients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation wards between November 2004 and November 2010. Participants were retrospectively divided into four groups based upon chart review; patients who received no additional rehabilitation, patients who were added with self-initiated off hours training, patients who were added with off hours training by ward staff, patients who received both self-initiated training and training by ward staff. Parameters for assessing outcomes included length of stay, motor/cognitive subscales of functional independent measures (FIM and motor benefit of FIM calculated by subtracting the score at admission from that at discharge.Participants were stratified into three groups depending on the motor FIM at admission (≦28, 29∼56, 57≦ for comparison. Regarding outcome variables, significant inter-group differences were observed in all items examined within the subgroup who scored 28 or less and between 29 and 56. Meanwhile no such trends were observed in the group who scored 57 or more compared with those who scored less. In a decision tree created based upon Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method, variables chosen were the motor FIM at admission (the first node additional training (the second node, the cognitive FIM at admission(the third node.Overall the results suggest that additional training can compensate for the shortage of regular rehabilitation implemented in recovery phase rehabilitation ward, thus may contribute to improved outcomes assessed by motor FIM at discharge.

  7. A survey on the consumption, knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward the efects of folic acid on pregnancy outcome in Tabriz

    OpenAIRE

    MASHAYEKHI, Simin Ozar; Maryam DILMAGHANIZADEH; Mohammad Reza SATTARI

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveWhile the effects of folic acid are well established in prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs), these diseases have a high prevalence in Iran. In order to encourage folic acid supplement use in pregnancy, it is important to promote the awareness of women of childbearing age regarding folic acid importance in preventing NTDs. The aim of the present study was to study the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women on the effect of folic acid on pregnancy outcome and its use during preg...

  8. Estimating the Disease Burden of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Fatimah S.; Hope, Kirsty G.; Durrheim, David N.; Givney, Rodney; Fry, Alicia M.; Dalton, Craig B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction On May 26, 2009, the first confirmed case of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (pH1N1) infection in Hunter New England (HNE), New South Wales (NSW), Australia (population 866,000) was identified. We used local surveillance data to estimate pH1N1-associated disease burden during the first wave of pH1N1 circulation in HNE. Methods Surveillance was established during June 1-August 30, 2009, for: 1) laboratory detection of pH1N1 at HNE and NSW laboratories, 2) pH1N1 community influenza-like illness (ILI) using an internet survey of HNE residents, and 3) pH1N1-associated hospitalizations and deaths using respiratory illness International Classification of Diseases 10 codes at 35 HNE hospitals and mandatory reporting of confirmed pH1N1-associated hospitalizations and deaths to the public health service. The proportion of pH1N1 positive specimens was applied to estimates of ILI, hospitalizations, and deaths to estimate disease burden. Results Of 34,177 specimens tested at NSW laboratories, 4,094 (12%) were pH1N1 positive. Of 1,881 specimens from patients evaluated in emergency departments and/or hospitalized, 524 (26%) were pH1N1 positive. The estimated number of persons with pH1N1-associated ILI in the HNE region was 53,383 (range 37,828–70,597) suggesting a 6.2% attack rate (range 4.4–8.2%). An estimated 509 pH1N1-associated hospitalizations (range 388–630) occurred (reported: 184), and up to 10 pH1N1-associated deaths (range 8–13) occurred (reported: 5). The estimated case hospitalization ratio was 1% and case fatality ratio was 0.02%. Discussion The first wave of pH1N1 activity in HNE resulted in symptomatic infection in a small proportion of the population, and the number of HNE pH1N1-associated hospitalizations and deaths is likely higher than officially reported. PMID:20360868

  9. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...

  10. Legal risk management and injury in the fitness industry: the outcomes of focus group research and a national survey of fitness professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, Patrick; Coyle, Ian R; Dietrich, Joachim; Norton, Kevin; Sekendiz, Betul; Jones, Veronica; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-06-01

    The Australian Fitness Industry Risk Management (AFIRM) Project was set up to explore the operation of rules and regulations for the delivery of safe fitness services. This article summarises the results of recent focus group research and a national survey of risk management practices by the AFIRM Project. Our focus group research in four States identified the following most important concerns: (1) the competency of fitness professionals; (2) the effectiveness of pre-exercise screening and the management of de-conditioned clients; (3) poor supervision of fitness service users and incorrect use of equipment; (4) fitness trainers failing to remain within their scope of practice; (5) equipment misuse (as distinct from incorrect use); and (6) poor fitness training environments. This information was then used to develop 45 specific items for a questionnaire that was disseminated throughout the fitness industry. The survey, which is the largest ever conducted in the Australian fitness industry (n = 1,178), identified similar concerns. Our research indicates that efforts to improve risk management in the fitness industry should focus, first and foremost, on the development and monitoring of safety policy, and improvements in the education and training of fitness instructors to ensure that they can incorporate risk management practices.

  11. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease

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    Moldovan Laura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based teaching (CBT is a well-known educational device, but it has never been applied systematically to the teaching of a complex, rare, genetic disease, such as Hunter disease (MPS II. Aim To develop interactive teaching software functioning as a virtual clinic for the management of MPS II. Implementation and Results The Hunter disease eClinic, a self-training, user-friendly educational software program, available at the Lysosomal Storage Research Group (http://www.lysosomalstorageresearch.ca, was developed using the Adobe Flash multimedia platform. It was designed to function both to provide a realistic, interactive virtual clinic and instantaneous access to supporting literature on Hunter disease. The Hunter disease eClinic consists of an eBook and an eClinic. The eClinic is the interactive virtual clinic component of the software. Within an environment resembling a real clinic, the trainee is instructed to perform a medical history, to examine the patient, and to order appropriate investigation. The program provides clinical data derived from the management of actual patients with Hunter disease. The eBook provides instantaneous, electronic access to a vast collection of reference information to provide detailed background clinical and basic science, including relevant biochemistry, physiology, and genetics. In the eClinic, the trainee is presented with quizzes designed to provide immediate feedback on both trainee effectiveness and efficiency. User feedback on the merits of the program was collected at several seminars and formal clinical rounds at several medical centres, primarily in Canada. In addition, online usage statistics were documented for a 2-year period. Feedback was consistently positive and confirmed the practical benefit of the program. The online English-language version is accessed daily by users from all over the world; a Japanese translation of the program is also available. Conclusions The

  12. Outcome of non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to the time of endoscopy and the experience of the endoscopist: A two-year survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrizio Parente; Andrea Anderloni; Stefano Bargiggia; Venerina Imbesi; Emilio Trabucchi; Cinzia Baratti; Silvano Gallus; Gabriele Bianchi Porro

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the impact of time of endoscopy and endoscopist's experience on the outcome of non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding patients in a large teaching hospital.METHODS: All patients admitted for non-variceal acute upper GI bleeding for over a 2-year period were potentially eligible for this study. They were managed by a team of seven endoscopists on 24-h call whose experience was categorized into two levels (high and low) according to the number of endoscopic hemostatic procedures undertaken before the study. Endoscopic treatment was standardized according to Forrest classification of lesions as well as the subsequent medical therapy. Time of endoscopy was subdivided into two time periods: routine (8 a.m.-5 p.m.) and on-call (5 p.m.-8 a.m.). For each category of experience and time periods rebleeding rate, transfusion requirement, need for surgery, length of hospital stay and mortality we compared. Multivariate analysis was used to discriminate the impact of different variables on the outcomes that were considered.RESULTS: Study population consisted of 272 patients (mean age 67.3 years) with endoscopic stigmata of hemorrhage. The patients were equally distributed among the endoscopists, whereas only 19% of procedures were done out of working hours. Rockall score and Forrest classification at admission did not differ between time periods and degree of experience.Univariate analysis showed that higher endoscopist's experience was associated with significant reduction in rebleeding rate (14% vs 37%), transfusion requirements (1.8±0.6 vs 3.0±1.7 units) as well as surgery (4% vs 10%), but not associated with the length of hospital stay nor mortality. By contrast, outcomes did not significantly differ between the two time periods of endoscopy.On multivariate analysis, endoscopist's experience was independently associated with rebleeding rate and transfusion requirements. Odds ratios for low experienced endoscopist were 4.47 for

  13. Genome-wide survey of yeast mutations leading to activation of the yeast cell integrity MAPK pathway: Novel insights into diverse MAPK outcomes

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    Arias Patricia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (CWI-MAPK pathway is the main regulator of adaptation responses to cell wall stress in yeast. Here, we adopt a genomic approach to shed light on two aspects that are only partially understood, namely, the characterization of the gene functional catalog associated with CWI pathway activation and the extent to which MAPK activation correlates with transcriptional outcomes. Results A systematic yeast mutant deletion library was screened for constitutive transcriptional activation of the CWI-related reporter gene MLP1. Monitoring phospho-Slt2/Mpk1 levels in the identified mutants revealed sixty-four deletants with high levels of phosphorylation of this MAPK, including mainly genes related to cell wall construction and morphogenesis, signaling, and those with unknown function. Phenotypic analysis of the last group of mutants suggests their involvement in cell wall homeostasis. A good correlation between levels of Slt2 phosphorylation and the magnitude of the transcriptional response was found in most cases. However, the expression of CWI pathway-related genes was enhanced in some mutants in the absence of significant Slt2 phosphorylation, despite the fact that functional MAPK signaling through the pathway was required. CWI pathway activation was associated to increased deposition of chitin in the cell wall - a known survival compensatory mechanism - in about 30% of the mutants identified. Conclusion We provide new insights into yeast genes related to the CWI pathway and into how the state of activation of the Slt2 MAPK leads to different outcomes, discovering the versatility of this kind of signaling pathways. These findings potentially have broad implications for understanding the functioning of other eukaryotic MAPKs.

  14. Gaia and WEAVE/WxES: Supporting the PLATO Exoplanet Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper briefly describes the powerful linkages between the Gaia and PLATO missions and the potential for WEAVE in the study of exoplanet populations, for instance through the proposed WxES survey. Gaia successfully launched in December 2013, and over the course of its nominal five year mission will discover, via their astrometric signatures, upwards of 20 000 massive Jupiter sized long period planets at distances out to several hundred parsecs around all star types. In addition Gaia will discover up to a thousand short period hot Jupiters around M stars. PLATO, to launch in 2024, will through precision photometry, observe in detail some million host stars, and will detect, via the transit technique, planets down to Earth masses. PLATO will observe two fields of over 2 000 square degrees for 2-3 years each. At least one of these will be in the northern hemisphere. WEAVE has the potential to provide detailed chemical characterization of the host stars of the Gaia and PLATO exoplanet systems. This will enable insights into, for instance, metallicity of the host star correlations against both massive exoplanets (perhaps confirming current relationships), and lower mass exoplanets. We note how the rapid exploitation of such a potential WEAVE survey could be achieved, utilizing the WEAVE processing systems being developed at the IoA, Cambridge, coupled with efficient interfaces to both Gaia and PLATO data products, that are also being generated at the IoA.

  15. City Life in the Midst of the Forest: a Punan Hunter-Gatherer's Vision of Conservation and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Levang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Punan Tubu, a group of hunter-gatherers in East-Kalimantan, Indonesia, are used to illustrate the very real trade-offs that are made between conservation and development. This group has undergone various forms of resettlement in the 20th century, to the point that some are now settled close to the city of Malinau whereas others remain in remote locations in the upper Tubu catchment. This study is based on several years of ethnographic and household analysis. The Punan clearly favor both conservation and development. In the city, the Punan benefit from all positive effects of development. Child and infant mortality rates are very low, and illiteracy has been eradicated among the younger generation. However, the Punan complain that nothing in town is free. The older generation, in particular, resents the loss of Punan culture. Because of frustration and unemployment, young people often succumb to alcoholism and drug addiction. The Punan do not want to choose between conservation and development, between forest life and city life. They want to benefit from the advantages of both locations, to enjoy both free forest products and the positive aspects of modern life, to go wild boar hunting in the morning and watch television in the evening. In short, they want to enjoy city life in the midst of the forest. The same kind of contradiction has led to identity problems. They want to uphold the traditional life of the hunter-gatherer, but at the same time they reject marginalization and seek integration into the larger society. In short, they want integration without loss of identity. The settlement of Sule-Pipa illustrates how some groups have dealt with the contradiction more successfully. Thanks to good organization and charitable donations, they have secured educational facilities and basic health care, and marketing costs are reduced by collectively organized road and river transportation. The economy of the village is thriving, mainly because of

  16. INSPEC光盘数据库HEADFAST/Hunter检索系统分析评价%Evaluation of the HEADFAST/Hunter Retrieval Sy6stem in Use for INSPEC Ondisc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩碧; 王琛

    2002-01-01

    The Windows-based HEADFAST/Hunter retrieval system in use for INSPEC Ondisc is analyzed. Its advantages in user interface,search ways,search techniques and hyperlink search methods are evaluated in an objective way.

  17. Outcome of aplastic anemia in adolescence: a survey of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Carlo; Pillon, Marta; Passweg, Jakob; Socié, Gerard; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Franceschetto, Genny; Carraro, Elisa; Oneto, Rosi; Risitano, Antonio Maria; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Tichelli, André; Rovo, Alicia; Peters, Christina; Hoechsmann, Britta; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Marsh, Judith

    2014-10-01

    We analyzed the outcome of 537 adolescents (age 12-18 years) with idiopathic aplastic anemia included in the database of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation comparing: i) matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed as first-line treatment with ii) front-line immunosuppressive therapy not followed by subsequent transplant given for failure and with iii) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed after failed front-line immunosuppressive therapy. Overall survival was 86% in the matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group, 90% in patients given front-line immunosuppressive alone (those who did not fail this treatment and who did not receive subsequent rescue with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and 78% in subjects who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation post failed front-line immunosuppressive therapy (P=0.14). Event-free survival in the same groups was respectively 83%, 64% and 71% (P=0.04). Cumulative incidence of rejection was 8% in matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 9% in transplants post failed front-line immunosuppression (P=0.62). Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease was 12% in matched family donor transplants and 18% in transplants post failed immunosuppression (P=0.18). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher in matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (8%) than in transplants post failed immunosuppressive therapy (20%) (P=0.0009). Cumulative incidence of post-therapy malignancies was 0.7% in matched family donor transplantations, 7% in transplantations post failed immunosuppression and 21% after front-line immunosuppression (P=0.0017). In the whole cohort, under multivariate analysis, the diagnosis to treatment interval of two months or under positively affected overall survival whereas up-front immunosuppression alone (with no subsequent

  18. Selectivity of harvesting differs between local and foreign roe deer hunters: trophy stalkers have the first shot at the right place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Panek, Marek

    2006-12-22

    Harvesting represents a major source of mortality in many deer populations. The extent to which harvesting is selective for specific traits is important in order to understand contemporary evolutionary processes. In addition, since such data are frequently used in life-history studies, it is important to know the pattern of selectivity as a source of bias. Recently, it was demonstrated that different hunting methods were selected for different weights in red deer (Cervus elaphus), but little insight was offered into why this occurs. In this study, we show that foreign trophy stalkers select for larger antlers when hunting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) than local hunters, but that close to half of the difference in selectivity was due to foreigners hunting earlier in the season and in locations with larger males. The relationship between antler size and age was nevertheless fairly similar based on whether deer was shot by foreign or local hunters.

  19. Treatment for Osteoporosis among Women in Japan: Associations with Patient Characteristics and Patient-Reported Outcomes in the 2008–2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify characteristics associated with treatment for osteoporosis among women aged 50 years and older in Japan and to explore differences among patients according to treatment regimen. Data were provided by a large annual survey representative of Japanese aged 18 and older; all measures were by self-report. Women aged 50 and older who reported diagnosed osteoporosis (N=900 were compared based on current treatment status using bivariate statistics and logistic regression. Approximately 1 in 3 women in this study reporting diagnosed osteoporosis were currently untreated. Factors associated with current treatment for osteoporosis included having ≥1 physician visit in the prior 6 months (OR = 5.4, P<0.001, self-rated moderate or severe osteoporosis (OR = 2.8, P<0.001, completion of menopause (OR = 1.6, P<0.05, and family history of osteoporosis (OR = 1.5, P<0.05, while longer duration of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR = 0.9, P<0.05 and arthritis (OR = 0.7, P<0.05 were associated with lower odds of treatment. These findings suggest that diagnosed patients are not being actively managed in the longer term, and efforts need to be made to ensure that patients stay engaged with their healthcare providers.

  20. Safety and efficacy of excision and direct closure in acute burns surgery: outcome analysis in a prospective series of 100 patients and a survey of UK burns surgeons' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Charles J; Wang, Tim; McArthur, Gordon; Williams, Greg; Atkins, Joanne; Jones, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Many burns surgeons avoid excision and direct closure of acute burns owing to concerns over wound dehiscence, scarring and infection. There is no evidence in the literature to support this practice. We present outcomes of a prospective series of 100 patients who underwent excision and direct closure of 138 burns over a 2-year period, along with results from a survey sent to 33 senior burns surgeons to gauge attitudes towards direct closure in burns surgery. 47% of survey respondents never perform direct closure. Dehiscence was cited as the most common concern, followed by hypertrophic scarring (HTS). In our cohort, the superficial dehiscence rate was 12% and the HTS rate was 16%, with no scarring contractures. Patients with healing time greater than 14 days were more likely to develop HTS (p=0.008), as were those with wound dehiscence (p=0.014). Patients undergoing part-grafting in addition to direct closure took significantly longer to heal than those undergoing direct closure alone (p=0.0002), with the donor site or graft delaying healing in the majority. Excision and direct closure of acute burn wounds avoids donor site morbidity and has an acceptable complication rate. It is a safe and effective treatment for full thickness burns in selected cases.

  1. A Hierarchy of Patient-Reported Outcomes for Meta-Analysis of Knee Osteoarthritis Trials: Empirical Evidence from a Survey of High Impact Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Juhl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop a prioritised list based on responsiveness for extracting patient-reported outcomes (PROs measuring pain and disability for performing meta-analyses in knee osteoarthritis (OA. Methods. A systematic search was conducted in 20 highest impact factor general and rheumatology journals chosen a priori. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials, using two or more PROs measuring pain and/or disability. Results. A literature search identified 402 publications and 38 trials were included, resulting in 54 randomised comparisons. Thirty-five trials had sufficient data on pain and 15 trials on disability. The WOMAC “pain” and “function” subscales were the most responsive composite scores. The following list was developed. Pain: (1 WOMAC “pain” subscale, (2 pain during activity (VAS, (3 pain during walking (VAS, (4 general knee pain (VAS, (5 pain at rest (VAS, (6 other composite pain scales, and (7 other single item measures. Disability: (1 WOMAC “function” subscale, (2 SF-36 “physical function” subscale, (3 SF-36 (Physical composite score, and (4 Other composite disability scores. Conclusions. As choosing the PRO most favourable for the intervention from individual trials can lead to biased estimates, using a prioritised list as developed in this study is recommended to reduce risk of biased selection of PROs in meta-analyses.

  2. The relationship between general practice characteristics and quality of care: a national survey of quality indicators used in the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework, 2004–5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The descriptive information now available for primary care in the UK is unique in international terms. Under the 'Quality and Outcomes Framework' (QOF, data for 147 performance indicators are available for each general practice. We aimed to determine the relationship between the quality of primary care, as judged by the total QOF score, social deprivation and practice characteristics. Methods We obtained QOF data for each practice in England and linked these with census derived data (deprivation indices and proportion of patients born in a developing country. Characteristics of practices were also obtained. QOF and census data were available for 8480 practices. Results The median QOF score was 999.7 out of a possible maximum of 1050 points. Three characteristics were independently associated with higher QOF scores: training practices, group practices and practices in less socially deprived areas. In a regression model, these three factors explained 14.6% of the variation in QOF score. Higher list sizes per GP, turnover of registered patients, chronic disease prevalence, proportions of elderly patients or patients born in a developing country did not contribute to lower QOF scores in the final model. Conclusion Socially deprived areas experience a lower quality of primary care, as judged by QOF scores. Social deprivation itself is an independent predictor of lower quality. Training and group practices are independent predictors of higher quality but these types of practices are less well represented in socially deprived areas.

  3. Are There Differences in the Health Outcomes of Mothers in Europe and East-Asia? A Cross-Cultural Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mautner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in quality of life outcomes and depression of mothers in East-Asia and Central Europe. 170 women in Japan and 226 women in Austria with children between 3 and 5 answered the same cross-culturally validated questionnaires. The Quality of Life Questionnaire from the WHO (WHOQOL-Bref, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2, the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, a Social Support Scale (MSPSS, and questions on gender orientation were used. In all dimensions of QOL (physical, psychological, social, and environmental Japanese women had lower QOL scores compared to Austrian mothers (P<001. Seven percent of women in both countries experienced major depression. In both countries sense of coherence, experienced stress level, satisfaction with income, social support, and gender roles had an influence on QOL and depressive symptoms. Mothers in Japan consider life events less comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful and experience less support. Consequently, creating an environment where fathers could be more involved in child rearing and mothers have more opportunities to choose between life styles and working and social environments would improve QOL not only in Japanese mothers but also in other countries all over the world.

  4. Cannabis use in people with severe mental illness: The association with physical and mental health--a cohort study. A Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, Jojanneke; Pijnenborg, Marieke G H M; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Visser, Ellen; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Bruggeman, Richard; Jörg, Frederike

    2016-04-01

    In the general population cannabis use is associated with better cardiometabolic outcomes. Patients with severe mental illness frequently use cannabis, but also present increased cardiometabolic risk factors. We explore the association between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with severe mental illness. A total of 3169 patients with severe mental illness from a Dutch cohort were included in the study. The association of cannabis use with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, glycated hemoglobin and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was examined with separate univariate AN(C)OVA. Changes in metabolic risk factors and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were examined after a follow-up interval of 9-24 months, for patients who continued, discontinued, started or were never using cannabis between the two assessments. Cannabis users at baseline had lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower diastolic blood pressure, and more severe psychotic symptoms than non-users. Patients who discontinued their cannabis use after the first assessment had a greater increase in body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride concentrations than other patients, and the severity of their psychotic symptoms had decreased more compared to continued users and non-users. Extra attention should be paid to the monitoring and treatment of metabolic parameters in patients who discontinue their cannabis use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics.

  6. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters′ Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years, and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%, while 23/202 (11% exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19% had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%, had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  7. Viral and Antibody Prevalence of Hepatitis E in European Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Hunters at Zoonotic Risk in the Latium Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnaro, S; De Martinis, C; Sasso, S; Ciarcia, R; Damiano, S; Auletta, L; Iovane, V; Zottola, T; Pagnini, U

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a member of the genus Hepevirus within the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine and wild boars (Sus scrofa) are known reservoirs of HEV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HEV in wild boars and hunters exposed to infection in central Italy (Latium region). During the hunting season, blood samples were collected from 228 wild boars and 20 hunters. The seroprevalence of HEV infection was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, previously validated for use in man, pigs and wild boars. The estimated HEV seroprevalence in wild boars and in hunters was 40.7% (93/228; 95% confidence interval [CI] 34.4-47.1%) and 25% (5/20; 95% CI 6.1-43.9%), respectively. Liver samples were collected from the boars and HEV RNA was detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-five of 164 tested wild boar liver samples (33.5%; 95% CI 26.2-40.7%) and three of 20 (15.0%; 95% CI 1.3-28.7%) tested human serum samples were positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences obtained from PCR products indicated that the HEV strains present in wild boars and the human population all belonged to genotype 3, supporting the zoonotic role of wild boars in the spread of HEV infection.

  8. Use and outcome of thrombus aspiration in patients with primary PCI for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the multinational Euro Heart Survey PCI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weipert, Kay F; Bauer, Timm; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2016-09-01

    The clinical benefit of thrombus aspiration (TA) in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well defined. Furthermore, there is a large variation in the use of TA in real-world registries. Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 7146 consecutive patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI were prospectively enrolled into the PCI Registry of the Euro Heart Survey Programme. For the present analysis, patients treated additionally with TA (n = 897, 12.6 %) were compared with those without TA (n = 6249, 87.4 %). Patients with hemodynamic instability at initial presentation (15.1 vs. 11.0 %; p < 0.001) and resuscitation prior to PCI (10.4 vs. 7.4 %; p = 0.002) were more frequently treated with TA. TIMI flow grade 0/1 before PCI was more often found among those with TA (73.5 vs. 58.6 %; p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors in the propensity score analysis, TA was not associated with improved in-hospital survival (risk difference -1.1 %, 95 % confidence interval -2.7 to 0.6 %). In this European real-world registry, the rate of TA use was low. Hemodynamically unstable patients were more likely to be treated with TA. Consistent with the results of the TASTE study and the TOTAL trial, TA was not associated with a significant reduction in short-term mortality.

  9. Factors Associated with Fatal Outcomes Following Cholera-Like Syndrome in Far North Region of Cameroon: A Community-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouma, Fabrice N; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Ram, Malathi; Debes, Amanda K; Sack, David A

    2016-12-07

    This study demonstrates that most cholera deaths in this region of Cameroon occur out of hospital. This is a region which is prone to cholera, and interventions are needed to improve access to emergency medical care, especially during cholera outbreaks. Cameroon has experienced 14 cholera epidemics during the last 20 years, and these have had high case fatality rates. This study attempted to assess the effect of delays in seeking care and the locations of care as possible risk factors for cholera mortality. The study used data from a community-based survey regarding the circumstances of 97 fatal cases and 197 control (nonfatal) cases following a cholera-like syndrome in villages with cholera-like diseases during cholera outbreaks in Cameroon during 2009-2011. Deaths occurred in one of four environments: the community, in a temporary community treatment center (TCTC), in transit to a treatment center, or in a hospital (39%, 32%, 5%, and 24%, respectively). Using a case-control analysis, factors associated with deaths included the nonuse of a cholera treatment center, receiving health care in a TCTC instead of a hospital, and greater than 4 hours delay between the onset of symptoms and the decision to go to a treatment center (odds ratios of 17.1 [confidence interval (CI): 7.0-41.8], 2.5 [CI: 1.2-5.0], and 2.2 [CI: 1.0-4.6], respectively). During cholera epidemics, a higher proportion of deaths are still occurring in communities. The nonuse and delays in deciding to go a treatment center, and treatment at TCTC rather than a hospital were risk factors for death among patients with cholera-like syndrome in Cameroon. Informing people on community management of cholera-like syndrome and improving care in all health facilities are needed to reduce deaths during cholera epidemics.

  10. A survey on the consumption, knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward the efects of folic acid on pregnancy outcome in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ozar MASHAYEKHI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveWhile the effects of folic acid are well established in prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs, these diseases have a high prevalence in Iran. In order to encourage folic acid supplement use in pregnancy, it is important to promote the awareness of women of childbearing age regarding folic acid importance in preventing NTDs. The aim of the present study was to study the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women on the effect of folic acid on pregnancy outcome and its use during pregnancy.Materials and MethodsA questionnaire was completed by 400 women from postnatal and prenatal wards/clinics using random sampling. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic information, folic acid consumption in pregnancy and the attitude and knowledge of the participants on folic acid  supplementation and the source of information on folic acid supplementation.The questions were aimed at subjects' knowledge of folic acid effects on fetal growth and development and prevention of NTDs and not prevention of anemia. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (ver. 13.5.ResultsAbout 89.9% used folic acid supplements at some point of the pregnancy and 53.7% knew it was beneficial for the fetus. Approximately, 25% and 34.8% of those who used folic acid believed that it was most useful when taken preconception and during the first trimester, respectively. Only 15.4% knew itcould prevent NTDs. The most common information sources for folic acid use were physicians.ConclusionAwareness and use of folic acid were most prevalent among Iranian women, especially among educated ones. The results showed areas in which further work could be helpful to improve awareness regarding the benefits of folic acid.Key words: Folic acid;pregnancy; knowledge; neural tube defects (NTDs

  11. A survey on the consumption, knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward the efects of folic acid on pregnancy outcome in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ozar MASHAYEKHI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveWhile the effects of folic acid are well established in prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs, these diseases have a high prevalence in Iran. In order to encourage folic acid supplement use in pregnancy, it is important to promote the awareness of women of childbearing age regarding folic acid importance in preventing NTDs. The aim of the present study was to study the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women on the effect of folic acid on pregnancy outcome and its use during pregnancy.Materials and MethodsA questionnaire was completed by 400 women from postnatal and prenatal wards/clinics using random sampling. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic information, folic acid consumption in pregnancy and the attitude and knowledge of the participants on folic acid supplementation and the source of information on folic acid supplementation.The questions were aimed at subjects' knowledge of folic acid effects on fetal growth and development and prevention of NTDs and not prevention of anemia. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (ver. 13.5.ResultsAbout 89.9% used folic acid supplements at some point of the pregnancy and 53.7% knew it was beneficial for the fetus. Approximately, 25% and 34.8% of those who used folic acid believed that it was most useful when taken preconception and during the first trimester, respectively. Only 15.4% knew itcould prevent NTDs. The most common information sources for folic acid use were physicians.ConclusionAwareness and use of folic acid were most prevalent among Iranian women, especially among educated ones. The results showed areas in which further work could be helpful to improve awareness regarding the benefits of folic acid.

  12. Patient-reported outcomes after discontinuation of long-term topical corticosteroid treatment for atopic dermatitis: a targeted cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi-Ando N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Naoko Takahashi-Ando,1 Mark A Jones,2 Shigeki Fujisawa,3 Rokuro Hama4 1Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan; 2School of Population Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia; 3Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 4Japan Institute of Pharmacovigilance, Osaka, Japan Background: Topical corticosteroid (TCS treatment is widely prescribed for atopic dermatitis (AD. However, TCS treatment is associated with tachyphylaxis, and discontinuation after long-term use may cause exacerbation of symptoms. Some AD patients are reluctant to use TCS. Objective: To evaluate patient-reported short- and long-term outcomes after discontinuation of TCS treatment for AD. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to adult AD patients (n=1,812 of doctors who did not recommend TCS as first-line therapy for patients who preferred to avoid TCS. Data collected included current TCS use, duration of TCS use, past discontinuation of TCS use, exacerbation of symptoms after discontinuation of TCS use, and limitations to daily activities because of AD. Results: Of 918 respondents, 97.7% had used TCS, of whom 92.3% had experienced discontinuation of TCS use. After discontinuation, 63.9% experienced their most severe AD symptoms ever. The severity of exacerbation of symptoms was significantly correlated with the length of TCS use (P<0.001. Although most respondents who experienced severe exacerbation after TCS discontinuation were not current TCS users, they generally had fewer current limitations to activities than when AD symptoms were at their worst. Conclusion: Adult Japanese AD patients who experience severe exacerbation of symptoms immediately after discontinuation of TCS use generally improve over time. We suggest caution regarding long-term TCS treatment in AD patients.Keywords: adverse effects of corticosteroids, symptom exacerbation, rosacea-like dermatitis 

  13. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies.

  14. Planet Hunters VI: The First Kepler Seven Planet Candidate System and 13 Other Planet Candidates from the Kepler Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Joseph R; Fischer, Debra A; Jek, Kian J; Moriarty, John C; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Schwamb, Megan E; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert; Omohundro, Mark; Winarski, Troy; Goodman, Samuel J; Jebson, Tony; Lacourse, Daryll

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 14 new transiting planet candidates in the Kepler field from the Planet Hunters citizen science program. None of these candidates overlap with Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), and five of the candidates were missed by the Kepler Transit Planet Search (TPS) algorithm. The new candidates have periods ranging from 124-904 days, eight residing in their host star's habitable zone (HZ) and two (now) in multiple planet systems. We report the discovery of one more addition to the six planet candidate system around KOI-351, marking the first seven planet candidate system from Kepler. Additionally, KOI-351 bears some resemblance to our own solar system, with the inner five planets ranging from Earth to mini-Neptune radii and the outer planets being gas giants; however, this system is very compact, with all seven planet candidates orbiting $\\lesssim 1$ AU from their host star. We perform a numerical integration of the orbits and show that the system remains stable for over 100 million years....

  15. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  16. Poachers and Poverty: Assessing Objective and Subjective Measures of Poverty among Illegal Hunters Outside Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli J Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal hunters in Africa may be making rational decisions about the hunting activities they partake in. These decisions could be linked to their socioeconomic status and the livelihood opportunities available to them. In particular, poverty is widely considered the leading driver that causes a household's inhabitants to take up poaching in protected areas. Programs aiming to protect vulnerable wildlife populations by mitigating poaching have historically relied upon income-based poverty metrics in efforts to reduce regional poverty and incentivise local inhabitants to discontinue poaching activities. Because such data sets that deal with poachers directly are rare, assumptions about the role of poverty, and the extent of poverty, that drives poaching have been hard to test. This study uses a unique sample of 173 self-admitted poachers living in villages adjacent to Ruaha National Park in Tanzania to explore the influence of poverty on poaching. Results indicated high demographic and household economy heterogeneity among poaching households. Capability deprivation examined more subjective measures of poverty and revealed that poachers are strongly motivated by the need to improve their incomes, but are not necessarily the poorest of the poor.

  17. Wide allelic heterogeneity with predominance of large IDS gene complex rearrangements in a sample of Mexican patients with Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ortigoza, M A; García-de Teresa, B; González-Del Angel, A; Berumen, J; Guardado-Estrada, M; Fernández-Hernández, L; Navarrete-Martínez, J I; Maza-Morales, M; Rius-Domínguez, R

    2016-05-01

    Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is caused by pathogenic variants in the IDS gene. This is the first study that examines the mutational spectrum in 25 unrelated Mexican MPSII families. The responsible genotype was identified in 96% of the families (24/25) with 10 novel pathogenic variants: c.133G>C, c.1003C>T, c.1025A>C, c.463_464delinsCCGTATAGCTGG, c.754_767del, c.1132_1133del, c.1463del, c.508-1G>C, c.1006+1G>T and c.(-217_103del). Extensive IDS gene deletions were identified in four patients; using DNA microarray analysis two patients showed the loss of the entire AFF2 gene, and epilepsy developed in only one of them. Wide allelic heterogeneity was noted, with large gene alterations (e.g. IDS/IDSP1 gene inversions, partial to extensive IDS deletions, and one chimeric IDS-IDSP1 allele) that occurred at higher frequencies than previously reported (36% vs 18.9-29%). The frequency of carrier mothers (80%) is consistent with previous descriptions (>70%). Carrier assignment allowed molecular prenatal diagnoses. Notably, somatic and germline mosaicism was identified in one family, and two patients presented thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia after idursulfase enzyme replacement treatment. Our findings suggest a wide allelic heterogeneity in Mexican MPSII patients; DNA microarray analysis contributes to further delineation of the resulting phenotype for IDS and neighboring loci deletions.

  18. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A.; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Valeggia, Claudia R.

    2017-01-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. PMID:26092820

  19. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  20. Hunter-McAlpine craniosynostosis phenotype associated with skeletal anomalies and interstitial deletion of chromosome 17q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.; Prescott, K.; Milner, R. [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Syndromic craniosynostosis is frequently associated with skeletal abnormalities, but the biological basis for this association is unclear. Molecular genetic studies have the biological basis for this association is unclear. Molecular genetic studies have identified a number of loci and at least one candidate gene, the MSX2 gene. We recently encountered a 9 y.o. boy with moderate mental retardation, congenital craniosynostosis, and multiple skeletal anomalies. Physical features strongly suggested Hunter-McAlpine syndrome (HMS). Specifically, he had triangular facies with a small mouth prominent chin, bulbous nose, thin vermillion border, malaligned and malformed teeth, and low set, rudimentary ears. Skeletal features included: bilambdoidal, bicoronal, and sagittal craniosynostosis; right preaxial polydactyly; bilateral talipes; coxa valga; genu valgum; bilateral fusion of the hamate and capitate; scoliosis; and small, irregular middle phalangeal epiphyses. High resolution chromosome analysis revealed an interstitial deletion of G negative material of subbands q23.1{r_arrow}23.3 or q23.3{r_arrow}q24.2 of a No. 17 homologue. HMS, a presumed autosomal dominant disorder associated with characteristic facies, variable degrees of mental retardation, craniosynostosis, and minor acral-skeletal anomalies, proved to be the most likely explanation for this patient`s findings. We propose that our patient has a new mutation for HMS with more severe skeletal involvement than previously reported. Linkage studies are in progress to test the hypothesis that familial HMS may be localized to chromosome 17.

  1. Planet hunters. VI. An independent characterization of KOI-351 and several long period planet candidates from the Kepler archival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Joseph R.; Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Moriarty, John C.; Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Omohundro, Mark R.; Winarski, Troy; Goodman, Samuel Jon; Jebson, Tony; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Paterson, David A.; Schwamb, Megan E. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University. No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Parrish, Michael [Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: joseph.schmitt@yale.edu [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of 14 new transiting planet candidates in the Kepler field from the Planet Hunters citizen science program. None of these candidates overlapped with Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) at the time of submission. We report the discovery of one more addition to the six planet candidate system around KOI-351, making it the only seven planet candidate system from Kepler. Additionally, KOI-351 bears some resemblance to our own solar system, with the inner five planets ranging from Earth to mini-Neptune radii and the outer planets being gas giants; however, this system is very compact, with all seven planet candidates orbiting ≲ 1 AU from their host star. A Hill stability test and an orbital integration of the system shows that the system is stable. Furthermore, we significantly add to the population of long period transiting planets; periods range from 124 to 904 days, eight of them more than one Earth year long. Seven of these 14 candidates reside in their host star's habitable zone.

  2. Ancient marine hunter-gatherers from Patagonia and Tierra Del Fuego: Diversity and differentiation using uniparentally inherited genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Constanza; Galimany, Jacqueline; Kemp, Brian M; Judd, Kathleen; Reyes, Omar; Moraga, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    The human population history from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego has been of great interest in the context of the American peopling. Different sources of evidence have contributed to the characterization of the local populations, but some main questions about their history remain unsolved. Among the native populations, two marine hunter-gatherers groups inhabited the Patagonian channels below the 478S: Kawéskar and Yámana. Regardless of their geographical proximity and cultural resemblance, their languages were mutually unintelligible. In this study we aim to evaluate the genetic diversity of uniparental genetic markers in both groups and to test if there is a high genetic differentiation between them, mirroring their linguistic differences. Ancient DNA was extracted from 37 samples from both populations. We compared their genetic variability of their mitochondrial lineages and Y-STR as well as with other modern native populations from the area and further north. We observed an important differentiation in their maternal lineages: while Kawéskar shows a high frequency of D (80%), Yámana shows a high frequency of C (90%). The analysis of paternal lineages reveals the presence of only Q1a2a1a1 and little variation was found between individuals. Both groups show very low levels of genetic diversity compared with modern populations. We also notice shared and unique mitochondrial DNA variants between modern and ancient samples of Kawéskar and Yámana. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Unknotting night-time muscle cramp: a survey of patient experience, help-seeking behaviour and perceived treatment effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Blyton Fiona; Chuter Vivienne; Burns Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Night-time calf cramping affects approximately 1 in 3 adults. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of night-time calf cramp; if and where people seek treatment advice; and perceived treatment effectiveness. Methods 80 adults who experienced night-time calf cramp at least once per week were recruited from the Hunter region, NSW, Australia through newspaper, radio and television advertisements. All participants completed a pilot-tested survey about muscle cram...

  4. Survey outcomes of health education at eight public hospitals%8家公立医院实施健康教育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解公立医院实施健康教育现状。方法对北京市8家综合公立医院健康教育工作情况进行问卷调查和专家访谈,发现其中存在的问题。结果目前医院健康教育组织机构基本建立(100.0%),健康教育的形式和内容也在不断丰富,但同时还面临健康教育供给相对不足、管理者和医务人员对医院健康教育的认识和重视程度不足、医院健康教育人力资源及政策保障缺乏、适合医院发展且高效的健康教育模式尚未建立等问题。结论要明确政府职责,加大支持力度;进一步完善人才培养机制,加强医院健康教育队伍建设;建立评估体系,探讨适合医院健康教育可持续发展模式。%Objective To learn the present health education at public hospitals.Methods Questionnaires survey and specialist interview were used at eight public hospitals in Beijing.Results Establishment of hospital health education organizations(100.0%),and greater diversity in the forms and contents of health education.Problems found include short supply of health education,and lack of attention by both management and employees for such education,lack of HR resource and policy support, and that of a health education pattern for hospital to develop an efficient health education.Conclusions Proposals made are as follows:clear definition of government role and greater support;better training mechanism to develop a team for such education;an appraisal system to probe into a model desirable for sustainable development of hospital health education.

  5. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  6. Assessment of Visual Status of the Aeta, a Hunter-Gatherer Population of the Philippines (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allingham, R. Rand

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A screening study was performed to assess levels of visual impairment and blindness among a representative sample of older members of the Aeta, an indigenous hunter-gatherer population living on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Methods Unrelated older Aeta couples were randomly invited to participate in a visual screening study. All consented individuals had ocular history, medical history, complete ophthalmic examination, height, weight, and blood pressure taken. Results A total of 225 individuals were screened from 4 villages. Visual acuity, both uncorrected and pinhole corrected, was significantly worse among older vs younger age-groups for women, men, and when combined (P < .001). Visual impairment was present in 48% of uncorrected and 43% of pinhole corrected eyes in the oldest age-group. Six percent of the screened population was bilaterally blind. The major causes of blindness were readily treatable. The most common etiologies as a proportion of blind eyes were cataract (66%), refractive error (20%), and trauma (7%). No cases of primary open-angle, primary angle-closure, or exfoliation glaucoma were observed in this population. Discussion Visual impairment and blindness were common in the Aeta population. Primary forms of glaucoma, a major cause of blindness found in most population-based studies, were not observed. The absence of primary glaucoma in this population may reflect random sampling error. However, based on similar findings in the Australian Aborigine, this raises the possibility that these two similar populations may share genetic and/or environmental factors that are protective for glaucoma.. PMID:19277240

  7. Pottery use by early Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Korean peninsula closely linked with the exploitation of marine resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Shinya; Lucquin, Alexandre; Ahn, Jae-ho; Hwang, Chul-joo; Craig, Oliver E.

    2017-08-01

    The earliest pottery on the Korean peninsula dates to the early Holocene, notably later than other regions of East Asia, such as Japan, the Russian Far East and Southern China. To shed light on the function of such early Korean pottery and to understand the motivations for its adoption, organic residue analysis was conducted on pottery sherds and adhered surface deposit on the wall of pottery vessels (foodcrusts) excavated from the Sejuk shell midden (7.7-6.8ka calBP) on the southeastern coast and the Jukbyeon-ri site (7.9-6.9ka calBP) on the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula, that represents the earliest pottery assemblages with reliable radiocarbon dates. Through chemical and isotopic residue analysis, we conclude that the use of pottery at these sites was oriented towards marine resources, supported by lipid biomarkers typical of aquatic organisms and stable carbon isotope values that matched authentic marine reference fats. The findings contrast with other archaeological evidence, which shows that a wider range of available food resources were exploited. Therefore, we conclude pottery was used selectively for processing aquatic organisms perhaps including the rendering of aquatic oils for storage. Early pottery use in Korea is broadly similar to other prehistoric temperate hunter-gatherers, such as in Japan, northern Europe and northern America. However, it is also notable that elaborately decorated red burnished pottery excavated from isolated location at the Jukbyeon-ri site had a different usage pattern, which indicates that division of pottery use by vessel form was established even at this early stage.

  8. Development of idursulfase therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome): the past, the present and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David Ah; Kimura, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is a rare, multisystemic, progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) enzyme. Accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate results in a broad range of disease manifestations that are highly variable in presentation and severity; notably, approximately two-thirds of individuals are affected by progressive central nervous system involvement. Historically, management of this disease was palliative; however, during the 1990s, I2S was purified to homogeneity for the first time, leading to cloning of the corresponding gene and offering a means of addressing the underlying cause of MPS II using enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Recombinant I2S (idursulfase) was produced for ERT using a human cell line and was shown to be indistinguishable from endogenous I2S. Preclinical studies utilizing the intravenous route of administration provided valuable insights that informed the design of the subsequent clinical studies. The pivotal Phase II/III clinical trial of intravenous idursulfase (Elaprase(®); Shire, Lexington, MA, USA) demonstrated improvements in a range of clinical parameters; based on these findings, intravenous idursulfase was approved for use in patients with MPS II in the USA in 2006 and in Europe and Japan in 2007. Evidence gained from post-approval programs has helped to improve our knowledge and understanding of management of patients with the disease; as a result, idursulfase is now available to young pediatric patients, and in some countries patients have the option to receive their infusions at home. Although ERT with idursulfase has been shown to improve somatic signs and symptoms of MPS II, the drug does not cross the blood-brain barrier and so treatment of neurological aspects of the disease remains challenging. A number of novel approaches are being investigated, and these may help to improve the

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from the fruits of Piper chaba Hunter in rats

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    K Jaijoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The water extract from the fruits of Piper chaba Hunter was evaluated for acute and subchronic toxicity in both male and female rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight was administered in rats (five females, five males. The results showed no signs of toxicity such as general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs. Subchronic toxicity was studied by daily oral doses (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for consecutive 90 days. The satellite group was treated with the extract at the dose of 1,200 mg/kg/day for 90 days and kept for other 28 days after treatment. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that P. chaba extract does not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are popular and extensively used in the developing world. In many places, they offer a more wide available and more affordable alternative to pharmaceutical drugs and natural food supplements. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or preparations derived from them should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for use in the development of pharmaceutical.

  10. Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Louise T; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

    2014-01-21

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population.

  11. Clinical features and treatment outcomes of otitis media with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (OMAAV): A retrospective analysis of 235 patients from a nationwide survey in Japan.

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    Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Kishibe, Kan; Tateyama, Kaori; Morita, Yuka; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kunimoto, Yasuomi; Matsui, Takamichi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Okada, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Inagaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Shigeto; Iino, Yukiko; Murakami, Shingo; Takahashi, Haruo; Tono, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to analyze clinical features and treatment outcomes of otitis media caused by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), i.e. otitis media with AAV (OMAAV). This survey was performed between December 2013 and February 2014. The study began with a preliminary survey to 123 otolaryngology institutions in Japan to inquire about their experiences with OMAAV patients during the past 10 years, and was followed by a questionnaire survey to investigate clinical and laboratory findings. OMAAV was defined using the criteria described in the text. Two hundred and thirty-five patients classified as OMAAV were enrolled in this study. They were characterized as follows: (1) disease onset with initial signs/symptoms due to intractable otitis media with effusion or granulation, which did not respond to ordinary treatments such as antibiotics and insertion of tympanic ventilation tubes, followed by progressive hearing loss; (2) predominantly female (73%) and older (median age: 68 years); (3) predominantly myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive (60%), followed by proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA-positive (19%) and both ANCAs-negative (16%); (4) frequently observed accompanying facial palsy (36%) and hypertrophic pachymeningitis (28%); and (5) disease often involving lung (35%) and kidney (26%) lesions. Four factors associated with OMAAV were found to be related to an unfavorable clinical course threatening the patient's hearing and/or lives, namely facial palsy, hypertrophic pachymeningitis, both ANCAs-negative phenotype, and disease relapse. The occurrence of hypertrophic pachymeningitis was associated with facial palsy (p < 0.05), both ANCAs-negative phenotype (p < 0.001), and headache (p < 0.001). The administration of corticosteroid together with an immunosuppressant was an independent predicting factor for lack of disease relapse (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, p = 0.03) and an improvement in hearing loss (OR =2.58, p = 0.0002). Since

  12. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

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    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  13. The APU and the 1978 Mathematics Survey

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    Bell, Alan

    1977-01-01

    A tentative structure for a survey concerned with assessing the whole range of outcomes of school mathematics education is outlined. The structure provides for surveying content categories, process categories, and attitudes, utilizing practical manipulative problems. (MN)

  14. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Impact of Type of Clothing Worn during Anthropometric Measurements and Timing of the Survey on Weight and Body Mass Index Outcome Measures in 6–9-Year-Old Children

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    Trudy M. A. Wijnhoven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI conducted examinations in 6–9-year-old children from 16 countries in the first two rounds of data collection. Allowing participating countries to adhere to their local legal requirements or adapt to other circumstances required developing a flexible protocol for anthropometric procedures. Objectives. (1 Review intercountry variation in types of clothing worn by children during weight and height measurements, clothes weight adjustments applied, timing of the survey, and duration of data collection; (2 assess the impact of the observed variation in these practices on the children’s weight or body mass index (BMI outcome measures. Results. The relative difference between countries’ unadjusted and clothes-adjusted prevalence estimates for overweight was 0.3–11.5%; this figure was 1.4–33.3% for BMI-for-age Z-score values. Monthly fluctuations in mean BMI-for-age Z-score values did not show a systematic seasonal effect. The majority of the monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values did not differ statistically within a country; only 1–3 monthly values were statistically different within some countries. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that the built-in flexibility in the COSI protocol concerning the data collection practices addressed in the paper can be kept and thus do not necessitate a revision of the COSI protocol.

  15. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Chen, Chao Ying

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated survey response factors (particularly initial nonresponse and survey mode) that may be associated with bias in survey research. We examined prevention-related beliefs and outcomes for initial mail survey responders (n=209), follow-up mail survey responders (n=78), and follow-up telephone survey responders (n=74). The Pearson chi-square test and analysis of variance identified beliefs and behavioral outcomes associated with survey response mode. Follow-up options to the initial mail survey improved response rates (22.0-38.0 percent). Initial mail survey responders more strongly believed topical fluoride protects teeth from cavities than others (P=0.04). A significantly larger proportion of parents completing a follow-up telephone survey (30.8 percent) refused topical fluoride for their child than those completing mail surveys (10.3-10.4 percent) (Psurveys with follow-up improve response rates. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode may be associated with biases in survey research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Planet Hunters. V. A Confirmed Jupiter-size Planet in the Habitable Zone and 42 Planet Candidates from the Kepler Archive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Barclay, Thomas; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris; Jek, Kian J.; Smith, Arfon M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M.; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert; Hoekstra, Abe J.; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; LaCourse, Daryll; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Chopin, Mike; Herszkowicz, Rafal

    2013-10-01

    We report the latest Planet Hunter results, including PH2 b, a Jupiter-size (R PL = 10.12 ± 0.56 R ⊕) planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. PH2 b was elevated from candidate status when a series of false-positive tests yielded a 99.9% confidence level that transit events detected around the star KIC 12735740 had a planetary origin. Planet Hunter volunteers have also discovered 42 new planet candidates in the Kepler public archive data, of which 33 have at least 3 transits recorded. Most of these transit candidates have orbital periods longer than 100 days and 20 are potentially located in the habitable zones of their host stars. Nine candidates were detected with only two transit events and the prospective periods are longer than 400 days. The photometric models suggest that these objects have radii that range between those of Neptune and Jupiter. These detections nearly double the number of gas-giant planet candidates orbiting at habitable-zone distances. We conducted spectroscopic observations for nine of the brighter targets to improve the stellar parameters and we obtained adaptive optics imaging for four of the stars to search for blended background or foreground stars that could confuse our photometric modeling. We present an iterative analysis method to derive the stellar and planet properties and uncertainties by combining the available spectroscopic parameters, stellar evolution models, and transiting light curve parameters, weighted by the measurement errors. Planet Hunters is a citizen science project that crowd sources the assessment of NASA Kepler light curves. The discovery of these 43 planet candidates demonstrates the success of citizen scientists at identifying planet candidates, even in longer period orbits with only two or three transit events. .

  17. PLANET HUNTERS. V. A CONFIRMED JUPITER-SIZE PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE AND 42 PLANET CANDIDATES FROM THE KEPLER ARCHIVE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Schwamb, Megan E. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Jek, Kian J.; Hoekstra, Abe J.; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; LaCourse, Daryll; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Smith, Arfon M.; Parrish, Michael; Lynn, Stuart [Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: ji.wang@yale.edu [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the latest Planet Hunter results, including PH2 b, a Jupiter-size (R{sub PL} = 10.12 ± 0.56 R{sub ⊕}) planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. PH2 b was elevated from candidate status when a series of false-positive tests yielded a 99.9% confidence level that transit events detected around the star KIC 12735740 had a planetary origin. Planet Hunter volunteers have also discovered 42 new planet candidates in the Kepler public archive data, of which 33 have at least 3 transits recorded. Most of these transit candidates have orbital periods longer than 100 days and 20 are potentially located in the habitable zones of their host stars. Nine candidates were detected with only two transit events and the prospective periods are longer than 400 days. The photometric models suggest that these objects have radii that range between those of Neptune and Jupiter. These detections nearly double the number of gas-giant planet candidates orbiting at habitable-zone distances. We conducted spectroscopic observations for nine of the brighter targets to improve the stellar parameters and we obtained adaptive optics imaging for four of the stars to search for blended background or foreground stars that could confuse our photometric modeling. We present an iterative analysis method to derive the stellar and planet properties and uncertainties by combining the available spectroscopic parameters, stellar evolution models, and transiting light curve parameters, weighted by the measurement errors. Planet Hunters is a citizen science project that crowd sources the assessment of NASA Kepler light curves. The discovery of these 43 planet candidates demonstrates the success of citizen scientists at identifying planet candidates, even in longer period orbits with only two or three transit events.

  18. Nutrition, modernity and the archaeological record: coastal resources and nutrition among Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers on the Western Cape coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Katharine; Parkington, John E; Marais, Adrian D; Braun, David R

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the nutritional value of some marine and terrestrial food resources available to Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers in the Western Cape of South Africa with respect to an important macronutrient (protein) and an essential micronutrient (iron) and introduce a framework for assessing the relative utility of marine and terrestrial resources. Whilst the ability to extract nutrients from the environment has always been a lynchpin in archaeologists' reconstructions of human evolution, a recent paradigm shift has recognized the role of marine resources in encephalization. Nutritional research indicates that marine ecosystems are the best source for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for proper brain development, and excavations at securely dated archaeological sites in South Africa provide firm evidence for the exploitation of marine resources by Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers from at least Marine Isotope Stage 5 (130 ka), and possibly even earlier. Because marine molluscs are abundant, predictably located and easily harvested, they would have been readily available to all members of the community, in contrast to terrestrial resources. The improving archaeological record gives important clues to resource choice, but many more nutritional observations are needed to determine the extent to which marine resources could have met the nutrient requirements of prehistoric people. Our observations indicate that marine and terrestrial fauna are both excellent sources of protein, and that marine molluscs have higher iron concentrations than we expected for invertebrate fauna. We calculate the number of individual food items from a selection of marine and terrestrial species needed to provide the protein and iron requirements of a hypothetical group of hunter-gatherers, identify contrasts in peoples' requirements for and access to nutrients and resources, and discuss the implications for prehistoric subsistence strategies and human evolution

  19. Neuroethics vs neurophysiologically and neuropsychologically uninformed influences in child-rearing, education, emerging hunter-gatherers, and artificial intelligence models of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, A A

    1993-04-01

    Potentially negative long-term consequences in four areas are emphasized, if specific neuromaturational, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological facts within a neurodevelopmental and ecological context are neglected in normal functional levels of child development and maturational lag of the frontal lobe system in "Attention Deficit Disorder," in education (reading/writing and arithmetic), in assessment of cognitive functioning in hunter-gatherer populations, specifically modified in the service of their survival, and in constructing computer models of the brain, neglecting consciousness and intentionality as criticized recently by Searle.

  20. The surgeon, the Countess, her husband and his lover: John Hunter (1728-93) and the Countess of Strathmore (1749-1800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy

    2007-08-01

    John Hunter (1728-93) was one of the most popular and controversial surgeons of the 18th century. He treated the celebrities of his day including William Pitt the younger, Adam Smith and David Hume. Today he is acclaimed for his pioneering approach as the founder of scientific surgery. Yet a hitherto unknown aspect of his work--looking after the illegitimate offspring of one of his patients--has only recently come to light in some letters transcribed in archives at Glamis Castle in Scotland.