WorldWideScience

Sample records for hunter education association

  1. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety; Final Rule #0;#0... Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and...

  2. Influence of Age and Educational Level on the Behavior of Hunters in Vojvodina Province (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Marković

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as an important factor in the development of economy has a major impact on the development of hunting and hunting tourism. In this research, it has conducted a survey of hunters from the territory of Vojvodina Province regarding their attitude and motives for hunting, importance of education, importance of GIS in hunting, poaching as well as their level of hunting ethics. Using SPSS program, it was cross-referenced the individual responses in relation to age category and level of education. The results show that the youngest hunters (18 to 35 years compared to middle age hunters (35-59 years and old hunters (over 60 visit hunting events more, they are the most informed about GIS and they are most willing to learn about these technologies. The number of hunters that took part in the poaching is proportional with their level of education, so that most hunters that participate in poaching hold a university degree. However, hunters holding a university degree in the highest percentage believe that GIS can contribute to the development of hunting largely, and are willing to participate in training.

  3. The curvature of semidirect product groups associated with two-component Hunter-Saxton systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we study two-component versions of the periodic Hunter-Saxton equation and its μ-variant. Considering both equations as a geodesic flow on the semidirect product of the circle diffeomorphism group Diff( S) with a space of scalar functions on S we show that both equations are locally well posed. The main result of this paper is that the sectional curvature associated with the 2HS is constant and positive and that 2µHS allows for a large subspace of positive sectional curvature. The issues of this paper are related to some of the results for 2CH and 2DP presented in Escher et al (2011 J. Geom. Phys. 61 436-52).

  4. The curvature of semidirect product groups associated with two-component Hunter-Saxton systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Martin, E-mail: kohlmann@ifam.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Applied Mathematics, University of Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-06-03

    In this paper, we study two-component versions of the periodic Hunter-Saxton equation and its {mu}-variant. Considering both equations as a geodesic flow on the semidirect product of the circle diffeomorphism group Diff(S) with a space of scalar functions on S we show that both equations are locally well posed. The main result of this paper is that the sectional curvature associated with the 2HS is constant and positive and that 2{mu}HS allows for a large subspace of positive sectional curvature. The issues of this paper are related to some of the results for 2CH and 2DP presented in Escher et al (2011 J. Geom. Phys. 61 436-52).

  5. Trace elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the Upper Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhana, Biswas Karabi [Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endcrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Research Division, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bridgman, Howard [University of Newcastle, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science (Australia); McOrist, Gordon [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division, Menai (Australia)

    2002-05-01

    Airbone particulate matter, both total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM{sub 10}, and soil samples from four sampling sites were collected in the Upper Hunter Valley in NSW, Australia in early 1999. This study aimed to measure relative amounts of particulates during this period, and identify associated trace elements and their potential sources. Particulates were analyzed for trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Total concentrations ({mu}g m{sup -3}) of TSP and PM{sub 10} varied within 7-135 and 4-19, respectively, among sampling sites. Mean concentrations (ng m{sup -3}) of iron, barium, zinc, lanthanum, bromine, chromium, rubidium, neodymium, cobalt, hafnium, cerium, thorium, uranium, scandium and cesium varied within 2042-2867, 529-1500, 28-40, 5.45-11.44, 5.3-20.6, 10.4-12.7, 4.14-11.56, 5.4-8.1, 1.16-1.98, 1.76-2.17, 0.71-3.9, 0.21-0.50, 0.29-0.84, 0.28-1.23, and 0.18-0.30, respectively. Significant correlation between sites for many elements suggested some common source(s) of some elements. The enrichment levels of the trace elements identified some crustal materials as a predominant source of particulate matter. (author)

  6. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  7. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  8. Managing and Educating Outside: A Cree Hunter's Perspective on Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Freddy; Whiteman, Gail; Atkinson, Miriam; Radu, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    Educational approaches addressing environmental sustainability are of growing interest to management educators. The James Bay Cree in Canada offer a novel and ecologically embedded approach to management education as an inspiring template for integrating a deep sense-of-place within management education. The authors describe the Cree approach as…

  9. Identification and specialization as a waterfowl hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Like specialization, identity offers a way for differentiating and understanding recreationists and for gaining insight into the question of participant progression in an activity. We examined how identity related to measures of specialization among lapsed and current waterfowl hunters. Lapsed hunters included those who had purchased a Minnesota waterfowl stamp between 2000 and 2004, but not since this time. Current hunters had purchased a 2010 stamp. Results suggested that some waterfowl hunters specialize and progress toward a waterfowl-hunter identity. Others, however, either hunt for years but never specialize and identify as waterfowl hunters, or move toward but do not attain a waterfowl hunter identity. Individuals who achieve a waterfowl hunter identity may also later relinquish this identity. Identification was associated with increased specialization and resistance to change from a preference for waterfowl hunting. Individuals who had relinquished their identity retained social and knowledge-based commitment to waterfowl hunting, whereas attraction and centrality declined.

  10. Vulnerable Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Asha Begum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps contain more risk. But user may not know the effects that are caused by the app which is installed until the performance of mobile is reduced. With the prosperity of the Android app economy, many apps have been published and sold in various markets. However, short development applications and insufficient security development apps have led to many vulnerable apps. So to reduce these type of problems Vulnerable Hunter is proposed. Through the proposed application user can see which application is risky and then the user may uninstall that application. The main advantage of designing this app is without internet also the users will use this application. Users also feel more convenient to work with mobile apps.

  11. The formation of fire residues associated with hunter-gatherers in humid tropical environments: A geo-ethnoarchaeological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Ajithparsad, P.; French, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Tropical forests have been an important human habitat and played a significant role in early human dispersal and evolution. Likewise, the use of fire, besides being one of the exceptional characteristics of humans, serves as a marker for human evolution. While the use of fire by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is relatively well documented in arid and temperate environments, the archaeological evidence in humid tropical environment is to date very limited. We first review the archaeological evidence for hunter-gatherer use of fire in humid tropical environments and suggest that better understanding of formation processes is required. We present a geo-ethnoarchaeological study from South India, involving ethnography, excavations and laboratory-based analyses in order to build a new framework to study fire residues in humid tropical forests associated with hunter-gatherer's use of fire. Ethnographic observations point to a dynamic and ephemeral use of hearths. Hearths location were dictated by the social and ever-changing social dynamics of the site. The hearths deposited small amount of residues which were later swept on a daily basis, re-depositing ash and charcoal in waste areas and leaving only a microscopic signal in the original location. Particular acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within tropical sediments result in the complete dissolution of ash and bones while favouring the preservation of charcoal and phytoliths. Consequently, the identification of fire residues in humid tropical forests and the reconstruction of the human use of fire must involve multi-proxy microscopic analysis to detect its micro-signatures.

  12. Hunter-McAlpine craniosynostosis phenotype associated with skeletal anomalies and interstitial deletion of chromosome 17q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.; Prescott, K.; Milner, R. [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Syndromic craniosynostosis is frequently associated with skeletal abnormalities, but the biological basis for this association is unclear. Molecular genetic studies have the biological basis for this association is unclear. Molecular genetic studies have identified a number of loci and at least one candidate gene, the MSX2 gene. We recently encountered a 9 y.o. boy with moderate mental retardation, congenital craniosynostosis, and multiple skeletal anomalies. Physical features strongly suggested Hunter-McAlpine syndrome (HMS). Specifically, he had triangular facies with a small mouth prominent chin, bulbous nose, thin vermillion border, malaligned and malformed teeth, and low set, rudimentary ears. Skeletal features included: bilambdoidal, bicoronal, and sagittal craniosynostosis; right preaxial polydactyly; bilateral talipes; coxa valga; genu valgum; bilateral fusion of the hamate and capitate; scoliosis; and small, irregular middle phalangeal epiphyses. High resolution chromosome analysis revealed an interstitial deletion of G negative material of subbands q23.1{r_arrow}23.3 or q23.3{r_arrow}q24.2 of a No. 17 homologue. HMS, a presumed autosomal dominant disorder associated with characteristic facies, variable degrees of mental retardation, craniosynostosis, and minor acral-skeletal anomalies, proved to be the most likely explanation for this patient`s findings. We propose that our patient has a new mutation for HMS with more severe skeletal involvement than previously reported. Linkage studies are in progress to test the hypothesis that familial HMS may be localized to chromosome 17.

  13. Neuroethics vs neurophysiologically and neuropsychologically uninformed influences in child-rearing, education, emerging hunter-gatherers, and artificial intelligence models of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, A A

    1993-04-01

    Potentially negative long-term consequences in four areas are emphasized, if specific neuromaturational, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological facts within a neurodevelopmental and ecological context are neglected in normal functional levels of child development and maturational lag of the frontal lobe system in "Attention Deficit Disorder," in education (reading/writing and arithmetic), in assessment of cognitive functioning in hunter-gatherer populations, specifically modified in the service of their survival, and in constructing computer models of the brain, neglecting consciousness and intentionality as criticized recently by Searle.

  14. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  15. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. Settings and Design: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Results: In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both. Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1–6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0 was 3.2 (1.4–6.7, P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9–1.8, P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Conclusion: Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  16. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC) weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both). Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1-6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0) was 3.2 (1.4-6.7), P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9-1.8), P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  17. A Trial of an All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Education Video in a Community-Based Hunter Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert S.; Graham, James; Helmkamp, James C.; Dick, Rhonda; Thompson, Tonya; Aitken, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: All-terrain vehicle (ATV) injury is an increasingly serious problem, particularly among rural youth. There have been repeated calls for ATV safety education, but little study regarding optimal methods or content for such education. The purpose of this study was to determine if an ATV safety video was effective in increasing ATV safety…

  18. Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners and the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    . Significant differences in wildlife value orientations were found. Mutualists and distanced dominated in the public; most landowners and hunters were utilitarian followed by pluralist. Male hunters were more utilitarian than female. More active hunters were more utilitarian; hunters belonging to a hunting...... association were more utilitarian than those who did not belong to associations. Full-time farmers were more utilitarian than part-time farmers, and conventional farmers were more utilitarian than organic farmers. No significant difference with regard to residence for all three groups was found. Future...

  19. Zoonotic disease risk and the bushmeat trade: assessing awareness among hunters and traders in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among both conservationists and public health officials for its influence on zoonotic disease transmission and animal conservation. While the association between infectious diseases and the bushmeat trade is well established in the research community, risk perception among bushmeat hunters and traders has not been well characterized. I conducted surveys of 123 bushmeat hunters and traders in rural Sierra Leone to investigate hunting practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risk associated with the bushmeat trade. Twenty-four percent of bushmeat hunters and traders reported knowledge of disease transmission from animals to humans. Formal education did not significantly affect awareness of zoonotic disease transmission. Individuals who engaged exclusively in preparation and trading of bushmeat were more likely to accidentally cut themselves compared to those who primarily engaged in bushmeat hunting (P zoonotic pathogens through accidental self-cutting compared to men (P zoonotic disease transmission risk among vulnerable communities.

  20. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  1. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  2. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies.

  3. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A.; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Valeggia, Claudia R.

    2017-01-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. PMID:26092820

  4. A synergistic effort among geoscience, physics, computer science and mathematics at Hunter College of CUNY as a Catalyst for educating Earth scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmun, H.; Buonaiuto, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships for academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Led by Earth scientists the Program awarded scholarships to students in their junior or senior years majoring in computer science, geosciences, mathematics and physics to create two cohorts of students that spent a total of four semesters in an interdisciplinary community. The program included mentoring of undergraduate students by faculty and graduate students (peer-mentoring), a sequence of three semesters of a one-credit seminar course and opportunities to engage in research activities, research seminars and other enriching academic experiences. Faculty and peer-mentoring were integrated into all parts of the scholarship activities. The one-credit seminar course, although designed to expose scholars to the diversity STEM disciplines and to highlight research options and careers in these disciplines, was thematically focused on geoscience, specifically on ocean and atmospheric science. The program resulted in increased retention rates relative to institutional averages. In this presentation we will discuss the process of establishing the program, from the original plans to its implementation, as well as the impact of this multidisciplinary approach to geoscience education at our institution and beyond. An overview of accomplishments, lessons learned and potential for best practices will be presented.

  5. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  6. The Infrared Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 This image composite compares infrared and visible views of the famous Orion nebula and its surrounding cloud, an industrious star-making region located near the hunter constellation's sword. The infrared picture is from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, and the visible image is from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, headquartered in Tucson, Ariz. In addition to Orion, two other nebulas can be seen in both pictures. The Orion nebula, or M42, is the largest and takes up the lower half of the images; the small nebula to the upper left of Orion is called M43; and the medium-sized nebula at the top is NGC 1977. Each nebula is marked by a ring of dust that stands out in the infrared view. These rings make up the walls of cavities that are being excavated by radiation and winds from massive stars. The visible view of the nebulas shows gas heated by ultraviolet radiation from the massive stars. Above the Orion nebula, where the massive stars have not yet ejected much of the obscuring dust, the visible image appears dark with only a faint glow. In contrast, the infrared view penetrates the dark lanes of dust, revealing bright swirling clouds and numerous developing stars that have shot out jets of gas (green). This is because infrared light can travel through dust, whereas visible light is stopped short by it. The infrared image shows light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Light with wavelengths of 8 and 5.8 microns (red and orange) comes mainly from dust that has been heated by starlight. Light of 4.5 microns (green) shows hot gas and dust; and light of 3.6 microns (blue) is from starlight.

  7. Planet Hunters: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

  8. On a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We determine the solution of the geodesic equation associated with a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton system on a semidirect product obtained from the diffeomorphism group of the circle, modulo rigid rotations, and a space of scalar functions. In particular, we compute the time of breakdown of the geodesic flow. As a further goal, we establish a local well-posedness result for the two-component Hunter-Saxton system in the smooth category. The paper gets in line with some recent results for the generalized Hunter-Saxton equation provided by Escher, Wu and Wunsch in [J. Escher, Preprint 2010] and [H. Wu, M. Wunsch, arXiv:1009.1688v1 [math.AP

  9. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  10. Hunter Valley的诚信%Hunter Valley's Honesty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 去年圣诞节假期,我和小T曾和大连狮子一家三口,到悉尼附近知名旅游地Hunter Valley(猎人谷)度过了快乐充实的三天. 我们一行五人在圣诞节那天乘坐提前预订好的马车,大约走访了八、九个大大小小的葡萄洒园.

  11. Hunters in the new millennium”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Peter

    of the modern world continue to practice hunting? What are the preferences of the modern hunter? How are the preferences and conduct of hunters related to the social and demographic factors? What are the social, political and economical impacts of hunting? What motivates people to hunt? - In spite of the fact...... that hunting is a common source of conflict between different interests, only very few studies has been made to produce knowledge about people hunting for leisure. The survey “Hunters in the new millennium” is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of hunters and hunting in an increasing urbanized...

  12. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  13. Danes - The keen bargain hunters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2008-01-01

    New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product.......New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product....

  14. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A. [SRC for Ore Deposit Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Maillet, P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Geology; Maillet, P. [ORSTOM Centre de Brest, France, (France); Monzier, M. [ORSTOM Centre, Ecuador, (Ecuador)

    1997-12-31

    The Hunter `fracture zone` is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle. Extended abstract. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. The hunter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th century: humankind has become a spacefaring civilization, colonizing the solar system and beyond. While no alien forms of life have yet been encountered in this expansion into space, colonists suddenly encounter machines of alien origin - huge robots able to reproduce themselves.  Called replicators by the colonists, they seem to have but a single goal: to destroy all organic life they come in contact with. Since the colonial governments have no means to fight this menace directly, they instead promise huge rewards to whoever destroys a replicator. As a result, the frontier attracts a new kind of adventurers, the Hunters, who work to find and destroy the replicators. Mike Edwards, a skilled young maintenance technician and robotics expert at a faraway outpost, will not only become one of them - but be the very first one to unlock the secret behind the replicators’ origin and mission.   The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular space travel, robotics and self-replica...

  16. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  17. Is serum zinc associated with pancreatic beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in pre-diabetic and normal individuals? Findings from the Hunter Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanrin P Vashum

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine if there is a difference in serum zinc concentration between normoglycaemic, pre-diabetic and type-2 diabetic groups and if this is associated with pancreatic beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in the former 2 groups. METHOD: Cross sectional study of a random sample of older community-dwelling men and women in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance were calculated for normoglycaemic and prediabetes participants using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-2 calculator. RESULT: A total of 452 participants were recruited for this study. Approximately 33% (N = 149 had diabetes, 33% (N = 151 had prediabetes and 34% (N = 152 were normoglycaemic. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA parameters were found to be significantly different between normoglycaemic and prediabetes groups (p<0.001. In adjusted linear regression, higher serum zinc concentration was associated with increased insulin sensitivity (p = 0.01 in the prediabetic group. There was also a significant association between smoking and worse insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Higher serum zinc concentration is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. Longitudinal studies are required to determine if low serum zinc concentration plays a role in progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes.

  18. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-10-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource

  19. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    OpenAIRE

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P; French, C

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of ...

  20. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  1. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  2. 32 CFR 636.10 - Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration. 636.10... Stewart, Georgia § 636.10 Hunter Army Airfield vehicle registration. Personnel assigned or employed at Hunter Army Airfield are required to register their privately owned vehicles within five days...

  3. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  4. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  5. Hunters Try to Capture Their Past

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Daily

    2012-01-01

    Mo Guizhen was 5 when she saw a real bed for the first time.She refused to sleep on it,accustomed as she was to deer furs laid on the ground of hunters' huts in the depths of the Greater Hinggan Mountains in northeastern China.

  6. Hunters syndrom og hørenedsaettelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Eva Kirkegaard; Møller, Troels Reinholdt; Wetke, Randi

    2010-01-01

    functions and language were delayed, and he made audible respiratory sounds and was obviously nasally congested. The boy was referred for further investigations at the Department of Paediatrics. The tests showed that the boy suffered from Hunter Syndrome (MPSII) and he underwent relevant treatment....

  7. Using the Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model to Improve Outcomes Assessments in Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Michelle D.; Martin, Gregory S.; Burns, Alvin C.; Bush, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces marketing educators to the Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model (HDIM) as an approach to significantly and substantially improve student learning through course-embedded assessment. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated in three different marketing courses taught by three different marketing professors. The…

  8. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  9. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Paola; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid) was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases. PMID:28018694

  10. DBD-Hunter: a knowledge-based method for the prediction of DNA-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2008-07-01

    The structures of DNA-protein complexes have illuminated the diversity of DNA-protein binding mechanisms shown by different protein families. This lack of generality could pose a great challenge for predicting DNA-protein interactions. To address this issue, we have developed a knowledge-based method, DNA-binding Domain Hunter (DBD-Hunter), for identifying DNA-binding proteins and associated binding sites. The method combines structural comparison and the evaluation of a statistical potential, which we derive to describe interactions between DNA base pairs and protein residues. We demonstrate that DBD-Hunter is an accurate method for predicting DNA-binding function of proteins, and that DNA-binding protein residues can be reliably inferred from the corresponding templates if identified. In benchmark tests on approximately 4000 proteins, our method achieved an accuracy of 98% and a precision of 84%, which significantly outperforms three previous methods. We further validate the method on DNA-binding protein structures determined in DNA-free (apo) state. We show that the accuracy of our method is only slightly affected on apo-structures compared to the performance on holo-structures cocrystallized with DNA. Finally, we apply the method to approximately 1700 structural genomics targets and predict that 37 targets with previously unknown function are likely to be DNA-binding proteins. DBD-Hunter is freely available at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/skolnick/webservice/DBD-Hunter/.

  11. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munier A. Nour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases.

  12. Ethical acceptability of recreational hunting - does the motive of the hunter matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ,001) and hunters (n=1,130) in Denmark. In this survey just under half of the general public indicated that the hunters’ motives affected their attitude to the acceptability of hunting. A significant difference in wildlife value orientations was found between the two groups. Motives relating to nature, the social...... is to assess the extent to which the perceived motive for recreational hunting plays a role in its public acceptance. We also compare public perceptions of the importance of motive with those of hunters. We conducted a nationally representative survey (web-based questionnaires) of the general public (n=1......’, ‘the sport’, ‘the excitement’, and ‘to kill’ to recreational hunting to a much greater degree than the hunters themselves; and these motives were associated with lower assessments of the acceptability of recreational hunting among the public. The mismatch between presumed and professed motives among...

  13. Hunter standoff killer team (HSKT) ground and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Balinda; Ennis, Mark; Yeates, Robert; Condon, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Since the inception of powered flight, manned aerial vehicles have been a force multiplier on the battlefield. With the emergence of new technology, the structure of the military battlefield is changing. One such technology, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has emerged as a valuable asset for today's war fighter. UAVs have traditionally been operated by ground control stations, yet minimum research has been targeted towards UAV connectivity. Airborne Manned Unmanned System Technology Baseline (AMUST-Baseline) was a concept that demonstrated the battlefield synergy gained by Manned and Unmanned Vehicle teaming. AMUST-Baseline allowed an Apache Longbow's (AH-64D) co-pilot gunner (CPG) to have Level IV control of a Hunter fixed wing UAV. Level IV control of a UAV includes payload control, flight control and direct data receipt. With the success of AMUST-Baseline, AATD, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and the Boeing Company worked towards enhanced Manned and Unmanned connectivity through a technology investment agreement. This effort named Airborne Manned Unmanned System Technology Demonstration (AMUST-D) focused on the connectivity between two manned platforms, Apache Longbow (AH-64D) and Command and Control (C2) Blackhawk, and Hunter UAV. It allows robust communication from the UAV to each platform through the Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL). AMUST-D used decision aiding technology developed under the Rotorcraft Pilots Associate (RPA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) as to assist in control of the Hunter UAV, as well as assist the pilot in regularly performed duties. Through the use of decision aiding and UAV control, the pilot and commander were better informed of potential threats and targets, thus increasing his situational awareness. The potential benefits of improved situational awareness are increased pilot survivability, increased lethality, and increased operational effectiveness. Two products were developed under the AMUST-D program, the

  14. Radioactive caesium in hunters and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, G.; Bergman, R. [Natonal Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Center for Risk Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Enander, A. [National Defence Research Establishment, Karlstad (Sweden); Johansson, K.J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    We have measured the whole-body content of radiocesium in men and women in households, where at least one member is a hunter. Hunter families live to a great extent on forest products, such as mushrooms, berries and meat from game. Measurements were performed in two areas in northern Sweden and in three areas in the middle part of Sweden with deposition levels between 7 to 80 kBq/m{sup 2}. The average whole body content of {sup 137}Cs varied between 0.3 to 1.9 kBq for women and 0.6 to 4.7 kBq for men, depending on the deposition level. Each individual in the measured group was also asked to fill in questionnaire and a food diary to provide complementary information of, e.g., food intake and other life conditions. The single dietary factor most clearly related to whole-body content in these groups is the intake of meat from moose. The best regression model with variables from the questionnaire explained 60% of the variance in the whole-body content of {sup 137}Cs in the measurement group. Some of the variables in this model were deposition level, sex, rate of intake and estimated consumption of moose meat and estimated amount of bilberries in the fridge. 6 refs, 5 figs, 14 tabs.

  15. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  16. Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The author offers the thesis that hunter-gatherers promoted, through cultural means, the playful side of their human nature and this made possible their egalitarian, nonautocratic, intensely cooperative ways of living. Hunter-gatherer bands, with their fluid membership, are likened to social-play groups, which people could freely join or leave.…

  17. Attribute-based analysis of hunters' lease preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Munn, Ian A; Hudson, Darren; West, Ben

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of hunter preferences for hunting lease attributes is important to landowners because such knowledge provides key information for managing and marketing fee-hunting in order to maximize revenues. Premised on this insight, we used attribute based modeling to investigate how hunter preferences for potential leases were influenced by lease and hunter-specific attributes. A mail survey of Mississippi licensed hunters provided the necessary data. Estimation results based on McFadden conditional logit regression suggested that lease attributes including game diversity, lease location relative to hunter residence, lease size, lease duration and lease rate influenced willingness to pay for additional units of lease attributes. Depending on the specific levels of these attributes, WTP could vary as much as $5.70 per acre. Of the hunter-specific attributes, age and income significantly influenced hunter decision to buy a lease or opt for status quo. Results of this study should assist landowners in increasing financial returns from fee-hunting endeavors through appropriate changes to their hunting access policies and wildlife management activities in response to hunter preferences regarding lease attributes.

  18. Wild boar hunters profile in Shimane prefecture, western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda, G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars have been expanding their range and seriously damage agricultural crops all over Japan. Such situation is obvious in Shimane Prefecture, western end of Honshu Island, where most of its territory is mountainous. Populaton control is strongly expected by farmers and administration. However, the number of hunters has been drastically decreasing since the 1970’s. To maintain and increase hunters, we must investigate their activities and attitudes to clarify the problems. Questionnaires were conducted in 2001 on 310 hunters who renewed their hunting license at local office. The response rate was 80.0%. Wild boar hunters accounted for 61.6%, and the others were mostly bird hunters (32.5%. The objective of wild boar hunting was predominantly nuisance control, and very few hunted for money despite of its high commercial value. Most of them were farmers (35.8% and/or farm village dwellers (53.6%, and used the leg snare (61.4%. Despite the stable number of hunters, the number of hunters using guns is decreasing. Hunters do not to appear to be interested in maintaining the local hunting society. Leisure is the most pursued objective rather nuisance control. Therefore, actions should be taken to stimulate hunting as a leisure activity thus maintaining an important tool for wild boar management.

  19. 78 FR 77113 - Bakken Hunter, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bakken Hunter, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 2, 2013 Bakken Hunter, LLC (Bakken), 410 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202, filed in Docket No....

  20. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with muco­polysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Link

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS. The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years. Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle. Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required.

  1. Why do good hunters have higher reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric Alden

    2004-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence from many hunter-gatherer societies suggests that successful hunters experience higher prestige and greater reproductive success. Detailed quantitative data on these patterns are now available for five widely dispersed cases (Ache, Hadza, !Kung, Lamalera, and Meriam) and indicate that better hunters exhibit higher age-corrected reproductive success than other men in their social group. Leading explanations to account for this pattern are: (1) direct provisioning of hunters' wives and offspring, (2) dyadic reciprocity, (3) indirect reciprocity, (4) costly signaling, and (5) phenotypic correlation. I examine the qualitative and quantitative evidence bearing on these explanations and conclude that although none can be definitively rejected, extensive and apparently unconditional sharing of large game somewhat weakens the first three explanations. The costly signaling explanation has support in some cases, although the exact nature of the benefits gained from mating or allying with or deferring to better hunters needs further study.

  2. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates.

  3. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  4. The Hunter Drain Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Fallon, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines water quality concerns related to the operation of the Hunter Drain located in the vicinity of the Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  5. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  6. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  7. perceptions and adaptations of beekeepers and honey hunters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    honey sector (i.e. honey hunters) to climate change are, however, not adequately explored. The objective ... resort, beekeepers that are severely affected by climate change had no other choice than abandoned beekeeping for .... Trees, shrub.

  8. Morality and Gender: A Commentary on Pratt, Golding, and Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems in Pratt, Golding, and Hunter's investigation (in this issue) of two propositions central to Gilligan's (1982) thesis on the mismeasurement of women's moral orientation and development. Describes research addressing the problems and indicates directions for further research. (RH)

  9. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  10. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  11. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  12. [A case of tularemia in a Danish hunter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edfors, Robert; Smith, Birgitte; Lillebaek, Troels

    2010-02-01

    "Rabbit fever" (Francisella Tularensis) is a rare infection in Denmark. It was first described in Denmark in 1987. It is most likely to affect people who come into close contact with infected animals or ticks, such as hunters, butchers and veterinarians. The diagnosis should be suspected in such persons presenting with fever, headache, lethargy, lymphadenitis and bite wounds. We present a Danish case describing the diagnosis and treatment of a hunter infected with T. tularensis.

  13. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  14. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-05

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey.

  15. Improvements to the Hunter Dose tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Aucott, T. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-01

    Since 1965, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted deer hunts which are open to the general public. SRS performs field monitoring for cesium-137 (Cs-137) of each harvested animal to determine whether the animal may be released to the hunter. A new field system for measuring Cs-137 in the harvested animals has been developed. The system incorporates numerous enhancements compared to the original system. The original system was composed of two Ludlum Measurements scalar-driven 2 inch x 2 inch sodium iodide counters, while the new system is based on a single Ametek Ortec Digibase-driven 2 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch sodium iodide gamma spectrometer. The new system includes a series of easy-to-assemble stainless steel encapsulated lead shields. The combination of the larger detector size and lead shielding improved the detection limit of the new system by a factor of approximately three compared to the original system. This lower detection limit allows for a larger number of measurements to be directly compared to the laboratory results, in cases where animal portions have been sampled. The results from developing and using this system are presented as well as recommendations on improvements to the overall field monitoring of the SRS hunts.

  16. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Transsulfuration pathway thiols and methylated arginines: the Hunter Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arduino A Mangoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum homocysteine, when studied singly, has been reported to be positively associated both with the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA, via inhibition of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH activity] and with symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA. We investigated combined associations between transsulfuration pathway thiols, including homocysteine, and serum ADMA and SDMA concentrations at population level. METHODS: Data on clinical and demographic characteristics, medication exposure, C-reactive protein, serum ADMA and SDMA (LC-MS/MS, and thiols (homocysteine, cysteine, taurine, glutamylcysteine, total glutathione, and cysteinylglycine; capillary electrophoresis were collected from a sample of the Hunter Community Study on human ageing [n = 498, median age (IQR = 64 (60-70 years]. RESULTS: REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT: a age (P = 0.001, gender (P = 0.03, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = 0.08, body mass index (P = 0.008, treatment with beta-blockers (P = 0.03, homocysteine (P = 0.02, and glutamylcysteine (P = 0.003 were independently associated with higher ADMA concentrations; and b age (P = 0.001, absence of diabetes (P = 0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.01, lower eGFR (P<0.001, cysteine (P = 0.007, and glutamylcysteine (P < 0.001 were independently associated with higher SDMA concentrations. No significant associations were observed between methylated arginines and either glutathione or taurine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders the combined assessment of transsulfuration pathway thiols shows that glutamylcysteine has the strongest and positive independent associations with ADMA and SDMA. Whether this reflects a direct effect of glutamylcysteine on DDAH activity (for ADMA and/or cationic amino acid transport requires further investigations.

  18. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos García-Diez

    Full Text Available Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites. On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  19. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  20. Rabbit hunter uveitis: case report of tularemia uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrada, Céline; Azza, Said; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography showed a late hyperfluorescence with focal vascular leakage. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of a 3.8 mm parietal granuloma with a few calcifications in the left eye. While extensive work-up eliminated any other infectious and non-infectious etiology, tularemia was diagnosed by advanced serology consisting of two-dimensional Western-immunoblotting. The patient, a hunter, recalled having killed rabbits in the days before the symptoms appeared. Uveitis was rapidly controlled following treatment with doxycycline, yet three years after initiation of the treatment, the patient still complained of loss of vision in the left eye with a central scotoma. Posterior uveitis may be an infrequent manifestation of tularemia infection, and therefore this infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraocular inflammation in areas where F. tularensis is endemic.

  1. Gender & Education Association: A Case Study in Feminist Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on feminist activist academics who were instrumental in creating the UK Gender & Education Association at the turn of the twenty-first century. Drawing on my own intellectual biography (David, M. E. 2003. "Personal and Political: Feminisms, Sociology and Family Lives" Stoke-on-Trent. Trentham Books.) linked to…

  2. Developing Citizen Committees for Education Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for education association leaders for use (a) in providing sole leadership in forming citizen committees when school boards or administrators refuse to permit or encourage citizen participation, or (b) in offering guidelines to the school board or administrators in establishing effective citizen committees. The booklet is…

  3. 'Inhuman' Rights by the National Education Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchak, Paul

    1975-01-01

    The author criticizes the National Education Association's stance on human relations as too narrow by only including visible minority groups which exclude a large number of the European ethnic groups. He suggests that the base of ethnic studies be broadened to avoid discrimination and to create a sound study of human relations. Printed in the May…

  4. A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

  5. The European Association for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichen, M.

    2006-06-01

    The still very young EAAE (officially founded in November 1995) is an association grouping astronomy minded "educators" (teachers, professional and amateur astronomers, etc.) whose main goal is the development of the place and role of astronomy teaching at various educational levels. An executive council of nine persons is in charge of the large-scale cohesion of the association, while two standing committees (financial support, communication network) and seven working groups (astronomical concepts, didactic materials, training of teachers, student projects, planetarium links, research on teaching materials, and public education) form the structure through which each member can contribute to the association's actions. Each one of these groups is "multi-national" (members come from over twenty countries in Europe and elsewhere), and thus the adopted structure favors the emergence of an international network of teachers, one of the EAAE's primary concerns. Different projects have been achieved or are on the way of achievement (such as the AOL "astronomy on line," the set up of a summer school for teachers, simultaneous observations of solar and lunar eclipses by students all over Europe, development and testing of didactic material, etc.) partially showing the great educational potential of the EAAE.

  6. Shopping Association Of Government Education Development In East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamd Guzali Tafalas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain and analyze in detail The positive association Government spending in education PP with a Gross Enrolment Ratio GER and net enrollment ratio NER in East Java Province. Government spending on education is less associated significantly to the gross enrollment ratio at primary education. gross enrollment GER especially at the level of elementary education. As for the middle and high school level of education government spending on education was significantly associated with the gross enrollment ratio at middle and high school education. Government spending on education is less associated significantly to the net enrollment rates and high school education level elementary junior high education level government spending on education was significantly associated with the level of education net enrollment rate in junior high.

  7. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  8. Hunter-gatherer plant use in southwest Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Ibañez, Juan José; Zapata, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on plant use by the last hunter-gatherers in the Levant, from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the first experiments with plant cultivation at the beginning of the Holocene. This review of Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic plant use summarises available archaeobotanical and t...

  9. Planet Hunters 2 in the K2 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fischer, Debra; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Ishikawa, Sascha; Lintott, Chris; Lynn, Stuart; Schmitt, Joseph; Snyder, Chris; Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) is an online citizen science project enlisting hundreds of thousands of people to search for planet transits in the publicly released Kepler data. Volunteers mark the locations of visible transits in a web interface, with multiple independent classifiers reviewing a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment. In September 2014, Planet Hunters entered a new phase. The project was relaunched with a brand new online classification interface and discussion tool built using the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) latest technology and web platform. The website has been optimized for the rapid discovery and identification of planet candidates in the light curves from K2, the two-wheeled ecliptic plane Kepler mission. We will give an overview of the new Planet Hunters classification interface and Round 2 review system in context of the K2 data. We will present the first results from the Planet Hunters 2 search of K2 Campaigns 0 and 1 including a summary of new planet candidates.

  10. Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short Period Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwamb, Megan E; Fischer, Debra A; Giguere, Matthew J; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M; Brewer, John M; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of \\geq 2 R\\oplus planets on short period (< 15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, \\geq 4 R\\oplus Planet Hunters \\geq 85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Ke...

  11. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives.

  12. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Karla; Harper Tisha; Lans Cheryl; Bridgewater Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Pe...

  13. Sources of nonresponse to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Geissler, P.H.; Hoover, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Response rates to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey (WHQS) have declined since the 1950's, suggesting that harvest estimates may be biased. Consequently, we investigated reasons for WHQS nonresponse using surveys of waterfowl hunters in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Texas [USA]. Sampling frames were constructed using lists of buyers of state hunting licenses or state duck stamps. We mailed questionnaires to 16,452 randomly selected hunters, with 2 follow-up mailings at 3-week intervals. Questionnaires were completed by 8,812 respondents, and a further 587 interviews were conducted by telephone. Post offices accounted for between 53.7% (Minn.) and 92.8% (N.J.) of federal waterfowl duck stamp sales, and stores accounted for most other sales. Of hunters who bought a federal waterfowl stamp from sample post offices, between 16.7% (Minn.) and 40.0% (Ark.) reported receiving a WHQS contact card. Of those receiving contact cards, between 30.0% (N.J.) and 64.3% (La. and Tex.) reported returning them. Because survey coverage of the target population is poor, we recommend that a new sampling frame be developed for the WHQS.

  14. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-01-01

    In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the...

  15. Librarians as Hunter-Gatherers: Lessons Learned from an Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by the pressing need for electronic resource usage statistics, librarians are finding themselves being thrust into the role of hunter-gatherer. This article discusses the work done at University Library at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis to provide usage statistics for all its paid subscriptions for a 3-year period. The…

  16. Hunter syndrome: Case report and review of literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are about thirteen different clinical syndromes of. MPS.2 We report a case of Hunter syndrome, as far as we know this is the .... egaly and cardiovascular complications after the transplant in children. ' .... Bone marrow trans- plantation in ...

  17. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  18. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  19. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis with unilateral subluxation of the spine and postoperative lumbar spondylolisthesis in Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon B; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2016-03-01

    Surgical correction for kyphoscoliosis is increasingly being performed for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Reported case series have predominantly included patients with Type I (Hurler) and Type IV (Morquio) MPS. To their knowledge, the authors describe the first case report of surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome (MPS Type II) and the rare occurrence of lumbar spondylolisthesis following surgical stabilization. A 12-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and no associated symptoms. Spinal radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of 48° (T11-L3) and scoliosis of 22° (T11-L3) with an anteriorly hypoplastic L-1 vertebra. The deformity progressed to kyphosis of 60° and scoliosis of 42° prior to surgical intervention. Spinal CT scans identified left T12-L1 facet subluxation, causing anterior rotatory displacement of the spine proximal to L-1 and bilateral L-5 isthmic spondylolysis with no spondylolisthesis. A combined single-stage anterior and posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis from T-9 to L-4 was performed. Kyphosis and scoliosis were corrected to 4° and 0°, respectively. Prolonged ventilator support and nasogastric feedings were required for 3 months postoperatively. At 2.5 years following surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, mobilizing independently, and had achieved a solid spinal fusion. However, he had also developed a Grade II spondylolisthesis at L4-5; this was managed nonoperatively in the absence of symptoms or further deterioration of the spondylolisthesis to the 3.5-year postoperative follow-up visit. Satisfactory correction of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome can be achieved by combined anterior/posterior instrumented arthrodesis. The risk of developing deformity or instability in motion segments adjacent to an instrumented fusion may be greater in patients with MPS related to the underlying connective tissue disorder.

  20. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  1. A bivalent scale for measuring crowding among deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

    2014-01-01

    One factor that may influence satisfaction in outdoor recreation is crowding, which historically has been defined as a negative evaluation of the density of other participants. While this definition is suitable for most scenarios, there are circumstances where encounters with others in the area are evaluated positively and thus contribute to the satisfaction of the participant. To adequately describe this phenomenon we suggest a more inclusive measurement of crowding that allows for both positive and negative evaluations of participant density to more accurately explore the relationship between crowding and satisfaction. We identified a sub-group of deer hunters who negatively evaluated the low density of other hunters, which reduced their satisfaction with their overall hunting experience. The methodology for measuring crowding in recreation research may have an important effect in identifying the relationship crowding has with other relevant variables as well as management implications.

  2. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  3. Sacrificing Steve: How I Killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Carman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  4. HiggsHunters - a citizen science project for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Since the launch of HiggsHunters.org in November 2014, citizen science volunteers have classified more than a million points of interest in images from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Volunteers have been looking for displaced vertices and unusual features in images recorded during LHC Run-1. We discuss the design of the project, its impact on the public, and the surprising results of how the human volunteers performed relative to the computer algorithms in identifying displaced secondary vertices.

  5. Sacrificing Steve : how I killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  6. Hunter Fleming与Access合作开发oligotropin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆义(摘)

    2005-01-01

    英国Hunter Fleming公司已与美国的药物输送公司Access Pharmaceuticals签署合作协议,采用Access公司的维生素B12口服药物输送技术,开发治疗亨廷顿氏阿尔茨海默氏病的口服制剂oligotropin(HF0420)。

  7. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Hervey C; Duda, Pavel; Marlowe, Frank W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait "high gods" stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.

  8. Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. METHODOLOGY: Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. RESULTS: Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice. DISCUSSION: Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities.

  9. PhosphoHunter: An Efficient Software Tool for Phosphopeptide Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tiengo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation is a protein posttranslational modification. It is responsible of the activation/inactivation of disease-related pathways, thanks to its role of “molecular switch.” The study of phosphorylated proteins becomes a key point for the proteomic analyses focused on the identification of diagnostic/therapeutic targets. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is the most widely used analytical approach. Although unmodified peptides are automatically identified by consolidated algorithms, phosphopeptides still require automated tools to avoid time-consuming manual interpretation. To improve phosphopeptide identification efficiency, a novel procedure was developed and implemented in a Perl/C tool called PhosphoHunter, here proposed and evaluated. It includes a preliminary heuristic step for filtering out the MS/MS spectra produced by nonphosphorylated peptides before sequence identification. A method to assess the statistical significance of identified phosphopeptides was also formulated. PhosphoHunter performance was tested on a dataset of 1500 MS/MS spectra and it was compared with two other tools: Mascot and Inspect. Comparisons demonstrated that a strong point of PhosphoHunter is sensitivity, suggesting that it is able to identify real phosphopeptides with superior performance. Performance indexes depend on a single parameter (intensity threshold that users can tune according to the study aim. All the three tools localized >90% of phosphosites.

  10. A Template for Analyzing Costs Associated with Educational Delivery Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, test, and apply a framework for determining cost of alternative educational course delivery modes. This study reviews and analyzes the costs associated with traditional education and compares it to those costs associated with video conference and online distance education at a single institution. The…

  11. Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire; Epps, Patience; Gray, Russell; Hill, Jane; Hunley, Keith; McConvell, Patrick; Zentz, Jason

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance) status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56), despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of borrowing were

  12. Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bowern

    Full Text Available In recent years, linguists have begun to increasingly rely on quantitative phylogenetic approaches to examine language evolution. Some linguists have questioned the suitability of phylogenetic approaches on the grounds that linguistic evolution is largely reticulate due to extensive lateral transmission, or borrowing, among languages. The problem may be particularly pronounced in hunter-gatherer languages, where the conventional wisdom among many linguists is that lexical borrowing rates are so high that tree building approaches cannot provide meaningful insights into evolutionary processes. However, this claim has never been systematically evaluated, in large part because suitable data were unavailable. In addition, little is known about the subsistence, demographic, ecological, and social factors that might mediate variation in rates of borrowing among languages. Here, we evaluate these claims with a large sample of hunter-gatherer languages from three regions around the world. In this study, a list of 204 basic vocabulary items was collected for 122 hunter-gatherer and small-scale cultivator languages from three ecologically diverse case study areas: northern Australia, northwest Amazonia, and California and the Great Basin. Words were rigorously coded for etymological (inheritance status, and loan rates were calculated. Loan rate variability was examined with respect to language area, subsistence mode, and population size, density, and mobility; these results were then compared to the sample of 41 primarily agriculturalist languages. Though loan levels varied both within and among regions, they were generally low in all regions (mean 5.06%, median 2.49%, and SD 7.56, despite substantial demographic, ecological, and social variation. Amazonian levels were uniformly very low, with no language exhibiting more than 4%. Rates were low but more variable in the other two study regions, in part because of several outlier languages where rates of

  13. The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Shu- Ting Kao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Nabokov’s Lolita, Humbert Humbert’s The Enchanted Hunters, as a quest for love, aims to reconstruct a felicitous world or integrate various fragmentary details into an organic unity that revives a lost love, experiencing it on the basis of irony, and revealing a simulation of the desire, violence, and despondency which have been expressed in myths of nymphs and Persephone. The protagonist never reaches this unity, but his narrative of erotic and romantic love reveals him as a pathetic addict engaged in mechanical reproduction related to the phenomena of desire, seduction, violence, and sex. His The Enchanted Hunters does not simulate what he expects of his childhood love with Annabel; rather, it simulates the erotic imagination suggested in Mary D. Sheriff’s term “nymphomania,” in which artists fall degenerately to a model of tragedy. Keywords: simulation, nymph, nymphomania, The Enchanted Hunters The Enchanted Hunters in Nabokov’s Lolita refers to the name of a hotel and the title of a play. This seeming coincidence is actually not coincidental: Nabokov weaves a story concerning a pedophile’s seduction of a prepubescent child into a “story within a story,” in which the girl is imagined as a seducer who bewitches a number of hunters. Just as the girl in the play is a figment of a poet’s imagination, so Lolita in the novel Lolita is an imaginary production of a middle-aged pedophile. Yet Lolita is not so much a novel revealing guilt and mental disorder, but a mélange of art and reality, or more specifically, it is about a coinage in which the author fabricates art and myth in real life. Parallel to the protagonist who simulates what he expects of his childhood love, Annabel, in the form of the nymphet, Lolita, Nabokov replicates the beauty of butterflies in the pursuit of beauty and immortality, and develops the world of art with a pathetic tone whereby we gradually perceive a simulation of the desire, violence, and

  14. High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmlund Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and culture are believed to interact, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence for the process. One candidate example that has been put forward is lactase persistence in adulthood, i.e. the ability to continue digesting the milk sugar lactose after childhood, facilitating the consumption of raw milk. This genetic trait is believed to have evolved within a short time period and to be related with the emergence of sedentary agriculture. Results Here we investigate the frequency of an allele (-13910*T associated with lactase persistence in a Neolithic Scandinavian population. From the 14 individuals originally examined, 10 yielded reliable results. We find that the T allele frequency was very low (5% in this Middle Neolithic hunter-gatherer population, and that the frequency is dramatically different from the extant Swedish population (74%. Conclusions We conclude that this difference in frequency could not have arisen by genetic drift and is either due to selection or, more likely, replacement of hunter-gatherer populations by sedentary agriculturalists.

  15. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  16. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility is deeply entangled with all aspects of hunter-gatherer life ways, and is therefore an issue of central importance in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility, and understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. Since mobility is, to a large extent, driven by the need for a continuous supply of food, a natural framework for addressing this question is provided by the metabolic theory of ecology. This provides a powerful framework for formulating formal testable hypotheses concerning evolutionary and ecological constraints on the scale and variation of hunter-gatherer residential mobility. We evaluate these predictions using extant data and show strong support for the hypotheses. We show that the overall scale of hunter-gatherer residential mobility is predicted by average human body size, and the limited capacity of mobile hunter-gatherers to store energy internally. We then s...

  17. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  18. Behavioral Outcomes of Supervisory Education in the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Judith R; Orme-Rogers, Charles; Bush, Johnny C; Stowman, Sheryl Lyndes; Seeger, Rodney W

    2016-03-01

    This study advances the work of developing a theory for educating Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) Supervisors by describing the behaviors which result from the successful completion of CPE supervisory education. Twenty-eight Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE) Certification Commissioners were interviewed to identify the behaviors demonstrated by Supervisory Education Students (Candidates) which influenced the decision to certify them at the level of Associate Supervisor. Specific behavioral descriptors are listed for each ACPE supervisory competency.

  19. The Hunter pulmonary angiography catheter for a brachiocephalic vein approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Galia; Kowalik, Karen J; Ganguli, Suverano; Hunter, David W

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to describe our experience in performing pulmonary angiography using the Hunter pulmonary catheter, manufactured by Cook, Inc., which is a modified 6F pigtail catheter with a "C-shaped" curve, designed for a brachiocephalic vein approach. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent pulmonary angiograms using the Hunter catheter between August 1997 and January 2002. Operator comments were gathered in 86 (70%) of the cases. The operator was, if possible, the most junior resident on the service. Thirty-nine operators participated in the survey. Efficacy, safety, and ease of use of the catheter were determined by operators' comments and ECG observations during the procedure. Corroborating clinical data were gathered from medical records. In 68 (79%) of the procedures that were commented upon, the operator described insertion into the pulmonary artery (PA) as easy; only 2 (2%) indicated difficulty in accessing the PA. In 41 (63%) of the bilateral angiograms that were commented upon, the operator described accessing the left PA from the right PA as easy; only 6 (9%) rated it as difficult and all were with an older technique in which the catheter was withdrawn to the pulmonary bifurcation without a wire or with only the soft tip of the wire in the pigtail and then rotated to the left main pulmonary artery. Thirty-one of the 41 patients who demonstrated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had a previous history of heart disease. Nineteen of the 39 patients who did not have PVCs had a history of heart disease (p = 0.018). The maneuverability and shape of the Hunter catheter make pulmonary angiography an easy procedure, even for operators with minimal experience and limited technical proficiency. PVCs demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with a positive patient history for cardiac disease, rather than being a universal risk.

  20. The Fugue Pattern in The Heart is a Lonely Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭主美

    2013-01-01

    Carson McCullers The Heart is a Lonely Hunter is her representative work. McCullers deploys the skill of fugue pattern through the multi-voices reflected in the characters, tactfully unite the form and content into a whole. By adopting Bakhtin ’s theory of polyphony, this paper aims to analyze the fugue pattern together with its multi-voices in the three parts, namely, the exposition, the development and the return reflected in the novel, which highlights its theme of universal loneliness so impressive-ly.

  1. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  2. Solar Energy Development Assistance for Fort Hunter Liggett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Chvala, William D.

    2011-03-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided assistance to Fort Hunter Liggett to determine the opportunities for solar energy development on the site. Increasing use of renewable energy is mandated by several executive orders and legislation. Fort Hunter Liggett has many attributes that enhance its suitability for renewable energy development. First, the site is located south of San Francisco in a remote portion of the costal foothills. Brush and forest fires are frequent and often result in power outages, which subsequently impacts the site’s training mission. In addition, the site’s blended electric rate during fiscal year (FY) 2010 was high at 12 ¢/kWh. Lastly, the solar resource is moderately high; the site receives nearly 5.7 kWh/m2/day on a south facing, latitude-tilted surface. In light of these factors, the site is a clear candidate for a solar photovoltaic array. Prior to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) involvement, the site secured funding for a 1 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) array that will also provide shading for site vehicles. To best implement this project, PNNL conducted a site visit and was tasked with providing the site technical guidance and support regarding module selection, array siting, and other ancillary issues.

  3. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  4. Metagenome Sequencing of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Consolandi, Clarissa; Turroni, Silvia; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Brigidi, Patrizia; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Henry, Amanda G; Candela, Marco

    2015-06-29

    Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, we present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle. We found that the Hadza GM is adapted for broad-spectrum carbohydrate metabolism, reflecting the complex polysaccharides in their diet. Furthermore, the Hadza GM is equipped for branched-chain amino acid degradation and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. Resistome functionality demonstrates the existence of antibiotic resistance genes in a population with little antibiotic exposure, indicating the ubiquitous presence of environmentally derived resistances. Our results demonstrate how the functional specificity of the GM correlates with certain environment and lifestyle factors and how complexity from the exogenous environment can be balanced by endogenous homeostasis. The Hadza gut metagenome structure allows us to appreciate the co-adaptive functional role of the GM in complementing the human physiology, providing a better understanding of the versatility of human life and subsistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  6. Modern day relevance of William Hunter's approach to teaching "The organ of hearing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Helena; Smith, Robert A; Mackay, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    William Hunter, a pioneering teacher of Anatomy in the the eighteenth century, championed the use of dissected specimens as aids in the teaching of anatomy. Although Hunter promoted the Paris method of learning Anatomy, by student dissection, he also used prosected material as an adjunct to his lectures. We are fortunate that Hunter bequeathed his extensive collection of over 3,000 museum specimens to the University of Glasgow, many of which are housed in the Laboratory of Human Anatomy in the Thomson Building. Regions such as the temporal bone are frequently difficult for students, and indeed postgraduate trainees in ear nose and throat surgery, to visualize and understand. Hunter overcame this difficulty by producing elegant specimens highlighting the three-dimensional complexity of the area. The current vignette stresses the importance of Hunter in his contemporary setting, but also demonstrates the potential of his approach for current and future teaching programmes in this age of the Internet.

  7. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  8. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  9. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Laura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based teaching (CBT is a well-known educational device, but it has never been applied systematically to the teaching of a complex, rare, genetic disease, such as Hunter disease (MPS II. Aim To develop interactive teaching software functioning as a virtual clinic for the management of MPS II. Implementation and Results The Hunter disease eClinic, a self-training, user-friendly educational software program, available at the Lysosomal Storage Research Group (http://www.lysosomalstorageresearch.ca, was developed using the Adobe Flash multimedia platform. It was designed to function both to provide a realistic, interactive virtual clinic and instantaneous access to supporting literature on Hunter disease. The Hunter disease eClinic consists of an eBook and an eClinic. The eClinic is the interactive virtual clinic component of the software. Within an environment resembling a real clinic, the trainee is instructed to perform a medical history, to examine the patient, and to order appropriate investigation. The program provides clinical data derived from the management of actual patients with Hunter disease. The eBook provides instantaneous, electronic access to a vast collection of reference information to provide detailed background clinical and basic science, including relevant biochemistry, physiology, and genetics. In the eClinic, the trainee is presented with quizzes designed to provide immediate feedback on both trainee effectiveness and efficiency. User feedback on the merits of the program was collected at several seminars and formal clinical rounds at several medical centres, primarily in Canada. In addition, online usage statistics were documented for a 2-year period. Feedback was consistently positive and confirmed the practical benefit of the program. The online English-language version is accessed daily by users from all over the world; a Japanese translation of the program is also available. Conclusions The

  10. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service First, Menomonee Falls, WI; Amended Certification Regarding..., including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls... Maysteel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS,...

  11. Trophy hunters' willingness to pay for wildlife conservation and community benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Tibebe Weldesemaet, Yitbarek; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Tadie, Degu; Hanley, Nick

    2015-08-01

    In the face of fundamental land-use changes, the potential for trophy hunting to contribute to conservation is increasingly recognized. Trophy hunting can, for example, provide economic incentives to protect wildlife populations and their habitat, but empirical studies on these relationships are few and tend to focus on the effects of benefit-sharing schemes from an ex post perspective. We investigated the conditions under which trophy hunting could facilitate wildlife conservation in Ethiopia ex ante. We used a choice experiment approach to survey international trophy hunters' (n = 224) preferences for trips to Ethiopia, here operationalized as trade-offs between different attributes of a hunting package, as expressed through choices with an associated willingness to pay. Participants expressed strong preferences and, consequently, were willing to pay substantial premiums for hunting trips to areas with abundant nontarget wildlife where domestic livestock was absent and for arrangements that offered benefit sharing with local communities. For example, within the range of percentages considered in the survey, respondents were on average willing to pay an additional $3900 for every 10 percentage points of the revenue being given to local communities. By contrast, respondents were less supportive of hunting revenue being retained by governmental bodies: Willingness to pay decreased by $1900 for every 10 percentage points of the revenue given to government. Hunters' preferences for such attributes of hunting trips differed depending on the degree to which they declared an interest in Ethiopian culture, nature conservation, or believed Ethiopia to be politically unstable. Overall, respondents thus expressly valued the outcomes of nature conservation activities--the presence of wildlife in hunting areas--and they were willing to pay for them. Our findings highlight the usefulness of insights from choice modeling for the design of wildlife management and conservation

  12. Assessment of Online Patient Education Materials from Major Dermatologic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ann M; John, Elizabeth S; Hansberry, David R; Lambert, William Clark

    2016-09-01

    Objective: Patients increasingly use the internet to find medical information regarding their conditions and treatments. Physicians often supplement visits with written education materials. Online patient education materials from major dermatologic associations should be written at appropriate reading levels to optimize utility for patients. The purpose of this study is to assess online patient education materials from major dermatologic associations and determine if they are written at the fourth to sixth grade level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. Design: This is a descriptive and correlational design. Setting: Academic institution. Participants/measurements: Patient education materials from eight major dermatology websites were downloaded and assessed using 10 readability scales. A one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Statistically Different post hoc analysis were performed to determine the difference in readability levels between websites. Results: Two hundred and sixty patient education materials were assessed. Collectively, patient education materials were written at a mean grade level of 11.13, with 65.8 percent of articles written above a tenth grade level and no articles written at the American Medical Association/National Institutes of Health recommended grade levels. Analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference between websites for each reading scale (pdermatologic association websites are written well above recommended reading levels. Associations should consider revising patient education materials to allow more effective patient comprehension. (J ClinAesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):23-28.).

  13. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials.

  14. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P.; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials. PMID:27783683

  15. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Zes, David A

    2015-01-01

    Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  16. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  17. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  18. Costs and benefits in hunter-gatherer punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Hunter-gatherer punishment involves costs and benefits to individuals and groups, but the costs do not necessarily fit with the assumptions made in models that consider punishment to be altruistic--which brings in the free-rider problem and the problem of second-order free-riders. In this commentary, I present foragers' capital punishment patterns ethnographically, in the interest of establishing whether such punishment is likely to be costly; and I suggest that in many cases abstentions from punishment that might be taken as defections by free-riders are actually caused by social-structural considerations rather than being an effect of free-rider genes. This presentation of data supplements the ethnographic analysis provided by Guala.

  19. Educational attainment moderates the associations of diabetes education with health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes education is a critical element of care for people with diabetes. However, the associations between diabetes education and self-care or health outcomes have not been clearly demonstrated at a national level. The aims of this study were to examine the associations of attendance of diabetes education classes with health behaviours and glycaemic control, and to understand whether these associations were moderated by level of educational attainment. Data were analysed for 456 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, collected from January 2010 to December 2012. No significant differences were observed between patients who had attended diabetes education classes and those who had never attended for factors such as smoking, drinking, exercise, nutrition therapy or glycaemic control. There was a significant interaction effect between receiving diabetes education and level of educational attainment on obtaining optimal glycaemic control. Attending diabetes education was positively associated with optimal glycaemic control among patients with more than a high school education but was negatively associated with it among those with less than middle school education. Diabetes education programmes need to be tailored to the needs and cognitive capacities of the target population.

  20. Harry Potter's Provocative Moral World: Is There a Place for Good and Evil in Moral Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    In a challenging critique of moral education in public schools, James Davison Hunter argues that the unspoken imperative of all moral education is to teach only those virtues, principles, and other moral teachings about which there is essentially no disagreement in American society. Hunter claims that almost every major form of moral education in…

  1. Harry Potter's Provocative Moral World: Is There a Place for Good and Evil in Moral Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    In a challenging critique of moral education in public schools, James Davison Hunter argues that the unspoken imperative of all moral education is to teach only those virtues, principles, and other moral teachings about which there is essentially no disagreement in American society. Hunter claims that almost every major form of moral education in…

  2. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population.

  3. The Bayesian image retrieval system, PicHunter: theory, implementation, and psychophysical experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, I J; Miller, M L; Minka, T P; Papathomas, T V; Yianilos, P N

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the theory, design principles, implementation and performance results of PicHunter, a prototype content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system. In addition, this document presents the rationale, design and results of psychophysical experiments that were conducted to address some key issues that arose during PicHunter's development. The PicHunter project makes four primary contributions to research on CBIR. First, PicHunter represents a simple instance of a general Bayesian framework which we describe for using relevance feedback to direct a search. With an explicit model of what users would do, given the target image they want, PicHunter uses Bayes's rule to predict the target they want, given their actions. This is done via a probability distribution over possible image targets, rather than by refining a query. Second, an entropy-minimizing display algorithm is described that attempts to maximize the information obtained from a user at each iteration of the search. Third, PicHunter makes use of hidden annotation rather than a possibly inaccurate/inconsistent annotation structure that the user must learn and make queries in. Finally, PicHunter introduces two experimental paradigms to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the system, and psychophysical experiments are presented that support the theoretical claims.

  4. The Origins and Rise of Associate Degree Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Patricia T.

    This book offers an analytical history of the associate degree nursing (ADN) program and the role of associate degree nurses in the U.S. health care system. It covers the period from just after World War II to the middle of the 1980s. The support of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the Federal Government for ADN education is highlighted. Chapter…

  5. Symmetry Reduction and Group Invariant Solutions of Hunter-Saxton Equations%Hunter-Saxton方程的对称约化与群不变解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀美英; 胡恒春

    2016-01-01

    借助符号计算软件Maple,根据微分方程单参数不变群和群不变解的概念,利用李群对称的待定系数法,得到Hunter-Saxton方程的包含5个任意常数和一个任意函数的一般形式的对称.通过该对称中任意的函数和常数的不同选取,将Hunter-Saxton方程约化为不同形式的常微分方程.最后对约化后的常微分方程进行变换求解,进一步得出Hunter-Saxton方程的一些群不变解和精确解.

  6. Assessing the Main-Belt Comet Population with Comet Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Hsieh, Henry H.; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ying-Tung; Lintott, Chris; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Mishra, Ishan

    2017-01-01

    Cometary activity in the asteroid belt is a recent discovery. Evidence suggests recent collisions play a role excavating subsurface water ice in these Main Belt Comets (MBCs). MBCs may be an alternative source of Earth’s water. The properties and origins of the MBCs remain elusive. To date ~15 MBCs are known, but only with many tens to 100s of MBCs can we fully explore this new reservoir and its implications for the early Earth.Automated routines identify cometary objects by comparing the point spread functions (PSFs) of moving objects to background stars. This approach may miss cometary activity with low-level dust comae or trails that are too weak or extended to affect an object's near-nucleus PSF profile. Direct visual inspection of moving objects by survey team members can often catch such unusual objects, but such an approach is impractical for the largest surveys to date, and will only become more intractable with the next generation wide-field surveys.With the Internet, tens of thousands of people can be engaged in the scientific process. With this citizen science approach, the combined assessment of many non-experts often equals or rivals that of a trained expert and in many cases outperforms automated algorithms. The Comet Hunters (http://www.comethunters.org) project enlists the public to search for MBCs in data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) wide survey. HSC is to date the largest field-of-view camera (covering a 1.5 degree diameter circle on sky) on a 8-10-m class telescope. The HSC wide survey provides the sensitivity to detect cometary activity at lower levels than have been possible for previous surveys.We will give an overview of the Comet Hunters project. We will present the results from the first ~10,000 HSC asteroids searched and provide an estimate on the frequency of cometary activity in the Main Asteroid beltAcknowledgements: This work uses data generated via the Zooniverse.org platform, development of which was supported by a Global

  7. The association between educational level and dementia in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella-Maria Paddick

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The majority of people with dementia worldwide live in developing countries. Studies from the developed world have reported an association between lower educational attainment and dementia, but there are few data from the developing world where literacy and educational levels are frequently much lower. In this study we assessed the association between education and dementia prevalence in a rural Tanzanian setting. Methods: In phase I, 1198 individuals aged 70 and over were assessed using the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D. In phase Ii a stratified sample of those seen in phase I were fully assessed and a clinical diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria was made where appropriate. Information regarding literacy, highest attained educational level and occupation were also collected. Results: The median subject cognitive score on the CSI-D was 25.7 (IQR 22.7 to 28.0 for females and 27.7 (IQR 25.7 to 29.4 for males. This difference was significant (U=117770.0, z= -9.880, p<0.001. In both males and females a lower CSI-D subject cognitive score was significantly associated with having had no formal education (U=34866.5, z= -6.688, p<0.001, for females; U=20757.0, z= -6.278, p<0.001, for males. After adjusting for the effect of age, having no formal education was significantly associated with greater odds of having 'probable dementia' by CSI-D, as was illiteracy. Amongst those interviewed in phase II, there was no significant difference in literacy or education between those with diagnosed DSM-IV dementia and those without. Conclusion: In this rural Tanzanian population, we found a significant association between low levels of education and dementia by CSI-D. This relationship was not significant in cases meeting DSM-IV criteria for dementia.

  8. Integrability and Solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-Liu; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation is proposed and studied. It is shown that the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation can be transformed to the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation by reciprocal transformations. Based on the Lax-pair of the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation, a non-isospectral Lax-pair of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Hunter-Saxton equation is derived. In addition, exact singular solutions with a finite number of corners are obtained. Furthermore, the (2 + 1)-dimensional μ-Hunter-Saxton equation is presented, and its exact peaked traveling wave solutions are derived. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11471174 and NSF of Ningbo under Grant No. 2014A610018

  9. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  10. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  11. Hunter Harvest and Effort North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2001-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reports contains summarized yearly harvest of game species on Coldwater River, Dahomey, and Tallahatchie NWRs and the total hunter effort based on daily use cards...

  12. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  13. Wetted channel and bar features for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  14. 弱耗散μ-Hunter-Saxton 方程的爆破%Blow-up of a weakly dissipative μ-Hunter-Saxton equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红杰; 刘静静; 齐静; 刘硕

    2015-01-01

    研究了弱耗散μ-Hunter-Saxton 方程 Caucly 问题的爆破现象。给出了一个新的爆破结果,推导出爆破强解精确的爆破率。%We study the Cauchy problem of the weakly dissipative μ-Hunter-Saxton equation.The present work is main-ly concerned with blow-up phenomena of the equation.We first present a new blow-up result for strong solutions to the equation.Then,we drive the precise blow-up rate for strong solutions to the equation.

  15. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters′ Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years, and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%, while 23/202 (11% exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19% had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%, had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Concas, Maria Pina; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; van der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Brge; Schraut, Katharina E.; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V.; Poot, Raymond A.; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A.; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L.; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kahonen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lebreton, Mael P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C. M.; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A.; Magi, Reedik; Maki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A.; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Ollier, William E. R.; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Porteous, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D.; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Volker, Uwe; Volzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bultmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jorgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppnen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.; Esko, Tonu; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Concas, Maria Pina; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; van der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Brge; Schraut, Katharina E.; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V.; Poot, Raymond A.; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A.; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L.; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kahonen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lebreton, Mael P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C. M.; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A.; Magi, Reedik; Maki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A.; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Ollier, William E. R.; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Porteous, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D.; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Volker, Uwe; Volzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bultmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jorgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppnen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); J.J. Lee (James J.); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A.); P. Turley (Patrick); Chen, G.-B. (Guo-Bo); V. Emilsson (Valur); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Oskarsson, S. (Sven); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Thom, K. (Kevin); Timshel, P. (Pascal); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); J. Bacelis (Jonas); C. Baumbach (Clemens); Bjornsdottir, G. (Gyda); J.H. Brandsma (Johan); Pina Concas, M. (Maria); J. Derringer; Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A.); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); S. Girotto; Gupta, R. (Richa); L.M. Hall (Leanne M.); S.E. Harris (Sarah); E. Hofer; Horikoshi, M. (Momoko); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); Kaasik, K. (Kadri); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); R. Karlsson (Robert); A. Kong (Augustine); J. Lahti (Jari); S. van der Lee (Sven); Deleeuw, C. (Christiaan); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Lindgren, K.-O. (Karl-Oskar); Liu, T. (Tian); M. Mangino (Massimo); J. Marten (Jonathan); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); A. Payton (Antony); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); Qian, Y. (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); Rueedi, R. (Rico); Salvi, E. (Erika); Schmidt, B. (Börge); Schraut, K.E. (Katharina E.); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R.A. Poot (Raymond); B. St Pourcain (Beate); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); N. Verweij (Niek); D. Vuckovic (Dragana); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); Yang, J. (Jingyun); Zhao, W. (Wei); Zhu, Z. (Zhihong); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); G. Biino; K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); H. Campbell (Harry); Cappuccio, F.P. (Francesco P.); G. Davies (Gail); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); I. Demuth (Ilja); Ding, J. (Jun); Eibich, P. (Peter); Eisele, L. (Lewin); N. Eklund (Niina); D.M. Evans (David); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A.J. Forstner; I. Gandin (Ilaria); Gunnarsson, B. (Bjarni); B.V. Halldorsson (Bjarni); T.B. Harris (Tamara); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); L.J. Hocking; G. Homuth (Georg); M. Horan (Mike); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Juqessur (Astanand); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); Keltigangas-Järvinen, L. (Liisa); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Koskinen, S. (Seppo); A. Kraja (Aldi); Kroh, M. (Martin); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); A. Latvala (Antti); L.J. Launer (Lenore); Lebreton, M.P. (Maël P.); D.F. Levinson (Douglas F.); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P. Lichtner (Peter); D.C. Liewald (David C.); A. Loukola (Anu); P.A. Madden (Pamela); R. Mägi (Reedik); Mäki-Opas, T. (Tomi); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); P. Marques-Vidal; Meddens, G.A. (Gerardus A.); G. Mcmahon (George); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); Milaneschi, Y. (Yusplitri); L. Milani (Lili); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); R. Myhre (Ronny); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); W.E.R. Ollier (William); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); K. Petrovic (Katja); D.J. Porteous (David J.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); Ring, S.M. (Susan M.); A. Robino (Antonietta); O. Rostapshova (Olga); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Rustichini (Aldo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Sanders, A.R. (Alan R.); A.-P. Sarin; R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R.J. Scott (Rodney); B.H. Smith (Blair); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J.A. Staessen (Jan); E. Steinhagen-Thiessen (Elisabeth); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Terracciano; M.D. Tobin (Martin); S. Ulivi (Shelia); S. Vaccargiu (Simona); L. Quaye (Lydia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); C. Venturini (Cristina); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); U. Völker (Uwe); Völzke, H. (Henry); J.M. Vonk (Judith); D. Vozzi (Diego); J. Waage (Johannes); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); H. Bisgaard (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); U. Bültmann (Ute); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); K. Hagen (Knut); B. Franke (Barbara); L. Franke (Lude); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); C. Gieger (Christian); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J. Gratten (Jacob); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEducational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okbay, Aysu; P. Beauchamp, Jonathan; Alan Fontana, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural...

  20. Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, P.M.; Gude, J.A.; Russell, R.E.; Ackerman, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Can Marriage Education Mitigate the Risks Associated with Premarital Cohabitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Allen, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., “pre-commitment cohabitation”) for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between pre-commitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before ...

  2. Nursing education progression: associate degree nursing faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Dale; Zomorodi, Meg; Wagner, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to examine the attitudes, influences, and practices of associate degree nursing (ADN) faculty in relation to advising students about nursing education progression. The results indicated that ADN faculty have a sense of moral and personal role responsibility to encourage students to continue their education. Deficits in faculty knowledge of program details and multiple demands on their time are factors that influence advising practices.

  3. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  4. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Crittenden

    Full Text Available Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  5. Genetic and cultural kinship among the Lamaleran whale hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvard, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The human ability to form large, coordinated groups is among our most impressive social adaptations. Larger groups facilitate synergistic economies of scale for cooperative breeding, such economic tasks as group hunting, and success in conflict with other groups. In many organisms, genetic relationships provide the structure for sociality to evolve via the process of kin selection, and this is the case, to a certain extent, for humans. But assortment by genetic affiliation is not the only mechanism that can bring people together. Affinity based on symbolically mediated and socially constructed identity, or cultural kinship, structures much of human ultrasociality. This paper examines how genetic kinship and two kinds of cultural kinship--affinal kinship and descent--structure the network of cooperating whale hunters in the village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Social network analyses show that each mechanism of assortment produces characteristic networks of different sizes, each more or less conducive to the task of hunting whales. Assortment via close genetic kin relationships (r = 0.5) produces a smaller, denser network. Assortment via less-close kin relations (r = 0.125) produces a larger but less dense network. Affinal networks are small and diffuse; lineage networks are larger, discrete, and very dense. The roles that genetic and cultural kinship play for structuring human sociality is discussed in the context of these results.

  6. Adaptive memory: fitness relevance and the hunter-gatherer mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Gregory, Karie J; Van Arsdall, Joshua E

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed in terms of its fitness value. When people are asked to rate the relevance of words to a survival scenario, performance on subsequent surprise memory tests exceeds that obtained after most other known encoding techniques. The present experiments explored this effect using survival scenarios designed to mimic the division of labor thought to characterize early hunter-gatherer societies. It has been suggested that males and females have different cognitive specializations due to the unique survival tasks (hunting and gathering, respectively) they typically performed during periods of human evolution; the present experiments tested whether such specializations might be apparent in memory for words rated for relevance to these activities. Males and females were asked to rate the relevance of random words to prototypical hunting and gathering scenarios or to matched, non-fitness-relevant control scenarios (gathering food on a scavenger hunt or in a hunting contest). Surprise retention tests revealed superior memory for the words when they were rated for relevance to hunting and gathering scenarios, compared with when they were rated for relevance to the control scenarios, but no sex differences were found in memory performance.

  7. Conservation laws and symmetries of Hunter-Saxton equation: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Liu, Q. P.

    2016-03-01

    Through a reciprocal transformation {{T}0} induced by the conservation law {{\\partial}t}≤ft(ux2\\right)={{\\partial}x}≤ft(2uux2\\right) , the Hunter-Saxton (HS) equation {{u}xt}=2u{{u}2x}+ux2 is shown to possess conserved densities involving arbitrary smooth functions, which have their roots in infinitesimal symmetries of {{w}t}={{w}2} , the counterpart of the HS equation under {{T}0} . Hierarchies of commuting symmetries of the HS equation are studied under appropriate changes of variables initiated by {{T}0} , and two of these are linearized while the other is identical to the hierarchy of commuting symmetries admitted by the potential modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. A fifth order symmetry of the HS equation is endowed with a sixth order hereditary recursion operator, which is proved to have a bi-Hamiltonian factorization, by its connection with the Fordy-Gibbons equation. These results reveal the origin for the rich and remarkable structures of the HS equation and partially answer the questions raised by Wang (2010 Nonlinearity 23 2009).

  8. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  9. 2009 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Educational Needs Assessment Report

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    Alaa Rostom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual survey of Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG members’ educational needs was conducted via an online survey during April 2009. A total of 261 individuals completed the survey. Similar to previous years, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD topics – particularly Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC therapeutics, and difficult IBD cases – were most in demand for future educational events. Other highly rated areas were endoscopic techniques and therapeutics, celiac disease, approach to gastrointestinal (GI infections and live endoscopy. The two most popular educational formats were ‘Lectures/presentations streamed to computer/podcasts’ and ‘A CAG educational portal to on-line presentations, self-assessments and maintenance of certification (MainCert point tracking’.

  10. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

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    Ronald J Bridges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  11. ESPRESSO: the ultimate rocky exoplanets hunter for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Denis; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Amate, Manuel; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.; Dekker, Hans; Abreu, Manuel; Affolter, Michael; Avila, Gerardo; Baldini, Veronica; Bristow, Paul; Broeg, Christopher; Carvas, Pedro; Cirami, Roberto; Coelho, João.; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cupani, Guido; D'Odorico, Valentina; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Delabre, Bernard; Figueira, Pedro; Fleury, Michel; Fragoso, Ana; Genolet, Ludovic; Gomes, Ricardo; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay; Hughes, Ian; Iwert, Olaf; Kerber, Florian; Landoni, Marco; Lima, Jorge; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Lovis, Christophe; Maire, Charles; Mannetta, Marco; Martins, Carlos; Moitinho, André; Molaro, Paolo; Monteiro, Manuel; Rasilla, José Luis; Riva, Marco; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Santin, Paolo; Sosnowska, Danuta; Sousa, Sergio; Spanò, Paolo; Tenegi, Fabio; Toso, Giorgio; Vanzella, Eros; Viel, Matteo; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO, the VLT rocky exoplanets hunter, will combine the efficiency of modern echelle spectrograph with extreme radial-velocity precision. It will be installed at Paranal on ESO's VLT in order to achieve a gain of two magnitudes with respect to its predecessor HARPS, and the instrumental radial-velocity precision will be improved to reach 10 cm/s level. We have constituted a Consortium of astronomical research institutes to fund, design and build ESPRESSO on behalf of and in collaboration with ESO, the European Southern Observatory. The project has passed the preliminary design review in November 2011. The spectrograph will be installed at the so-called "Combined Coudé Laboratory" of the VLT, it will be linked to the four 8.2 meters Unit Telescopes (UT) through four optical "Coudé trains" and will be operated either with a single telescope or with up to four UTs. In exchange of the major financial and human effort the building Consortium will be awarded with guaranteed observing time (GTO), which will be invested in a common scientific program. Thanks to its characteristics and the ability of combining incoherently the light of 4 large telescopes, ESPRESSO will offer new possibilities in many fields of astronomy. Our main scientific objectives are, however, the search and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of quiet, near-by G to M-dwarfs, and the analysis of the variability of fundamental physical constants. In this paper, we present the ambitious scientific objectives, the capabilities of ESPRESSO, the technical solutions for the system and its subsystems, enlightening the main differences between ESPRESSO and its predecessors. The project aspects of this facility are also described, from the consortium and partnership structure to the planning phases and milestones.

  12. The night of the hunter: children & adults in the secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry caesar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Night of the Hunter is  the 1956 Charles Laughton’s film considered  one of the best discussions about childhood. In this film, the story revolves around the fate of John and Pearl, two orphaned siblings whose father was hanged for stealing. The father had given the children the money, and they hid the money inside the girl’s doll. When the Preacher Powell enters their lives , both John and Pearl are in danger. The siblings have to keep a secret which is both where they put the money, and the fact that, for children, money is simply paper.

  13. The Effects of Changing Sea Ice on Marine Mammals and Their Hunters in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, H.; Quakenbush, L.; Nelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information and insight relevant to ecological understanding, conservation action, and the regulation of human activity. We interviewed hunters in villages from northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, focusing on bowhead whales, walrus, and ice seals. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice, with resulting effects on the timing of marine mammal migrations, the distribution and behavior of the animals, and the efficacy of certain hunting methods, for example the difficulty of finding ice thick enough to support a bowhead whale for butchering. At the same time, hunters acknowledged impacts and potential impacts from changing technology such as more powerful outboard engines and from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. Hunters have been able to adapt to some changes, for example by hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring on St. Lawrence Island, or by focusing their hunt in a shorter period in Nuiqsut to accommodate work schedules and worse weather. Other changes, such as reduced availability of ice seals due to rapid retreat of pack ice after spring break-up, continue to defy easy responses. Continued environmental changes, increased disturbance from human activity, and the introduction of new regulations for hunting may further challenge the ability of hunters to provide food as they have done to date, though innovation and flexibility may also provide new sources of adaptation.

  14. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  15. The Benefits Associated with Dance Education for Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Terra; Chambliss, Catherine

    Dance education provides an opportunity for aerobic exercise and conditioning that is especially appealing to many girls. Dance may act as an outlet for girls and give them confidence, but, at the same time, it may create risks associated with perceived body-image. The benefits of taking dance classes were examined for girls, ages 13-20, enrolled…

  16. Organizational Climate of the Association of Leadership Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori; McKim, Billy; Bruce, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Without feedback from members and former members, professional organizations run the risk of being stalemated. This study sought to explore perceptions of current and former members of the Association of Leadership Educators (ALE) related to the organization and the climate within the organization. No statistical differences were found in the…

  17. Distance Education Needs of Agribusinesses and Professional Agriculture Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Thomson, Joan S.

    1995-01-01

    Usable needs assessment data from 66 agribusinesses and 61 associations showed they preferred distance education programs that were individually targeted or general programs on contemporary issues or for certification/licensure. Proprietary programs were desired on training, new products, and marketing strategies; however, there was concern about…

  18. Medicine and music: a note on John Hunter (1728-93) and Joseph Haydn (1732-1809).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-05-01

    Joseph Haydn was a central figure in the development and growth of the European classical musical tradition in its transition from the Baroque period. John Hunter as the Founder of Scientific Surgery was a dominant figure in 18th-century British medical science. Anne Hunter née Home (1742-1821) was in her own right a figure of some eminence in the literary circles of 18th-century London. Attracted to the burgeoning medical and musical scenes of London, John Hunter married Anne Home and became a famous surgeon; Haydn became acquainted with the Hunters. The people, the opportunities and the circumstances had coincided.

  19. Voice pitch alters mate-choice-relevant perception in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Feinberg, David R

    2009-03-22

    In humans, voice pitch is thought to be a cue of underlying quality and an important criterion for mate choice, but data from non-Western cultures have not been provided. Here we test attributions to and preferences for voices with raised and lowered pitch in hunter-gatherers. Using a forced-choice playback experiment, we found that both men and women viewed lower pitched voices in the opposite sex as being better at acquiring resources (e.g. hunting and gathering). While men preferred higher pitched women's voices as marriage partners, women showed no overall preference for voice pitch in men. However, women who were currently breastfeeding had stronger preferences for higher pitched male voices whereas women not currently breastfeeding preferred lower pitched voices. As testosterone is considered a costly signal associated with dominance, heritable immunity to infection and low paternal investment, women's preferences potentially reflect a trade-off between securing good genes and paternal investment. Men's preferences for higher pitched female voices are probably due to an evolved preference for markers of fecundity, reflected in voice pitch.

  20. Securing a Future: Cree Hunters' Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Sayles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the adaptive responses of northern aboriginal peoples include examples of purposive modification and management of ecologically favorable areas to increase resource productivity. Practices include clearing of trees, burning of berry patches and construction of fish weirs. This paper examines the adaptive capacity of the northern aboriginal community of Wemindji, east coast James Bay, in relation to long term landscape changes induced by coastal uplift processes. Associated changes are noticeable within a human lifetime and include the infilling of bays, the merger of islands with the mainland, as well as shifts in vegetative and wildlife communities. In response, generations of Cree hunters have actively modified the landscape using a variety of practices that include the construction of mud dykes and the cutting of tuuhiikaan, which are corridors in the coastal forest, to retain and enhance desirable conditions for goose hunting. We provide an account of the history, construction, and design of these features as well as the motivations and social learning that inform them. We reveal a complex and underappreciated dynamic between human resistance and adaptation to environmental change. While landscape modifications are motivated by a desire to increase resource productivity and predictability, they also reflect an intergenerational commitment to the maintenance of established hunting places as important connections with the past. Our findings support a revised perspective on aboriginal human agency in northern landscape modification and an enhanced role for aboriginal communities in adaptive planning for environmental change.

  1. Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Rey, Aude; Gerbault, Pascale; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Dyble, Mark; E Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-07-12

    Many defining human characteristics including theory of mind, culture and language relate to our sociality, and facilitate the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships. Therefore, deciphering the context in which our sociality evolved is invaluable in understanding what makes us unique as a species. Much work has emphasised group-level competition, such as warfare, in moulding human cooperation and sociality. However, competition and cooperation also occur within groups; and inter-individual differences in sociality have reported fitness implications in numerous non-human taxa. Here we investigate whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Using economic gift games we find that relational wealth: a) displays individual-level variation; b) provides advantages in buffering food risk, and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and female fertility; c) is partially heritable. These results highlight that individual-level processes may have been fundamental in the extension of human cooperation beyond small units of related individuals, and in shaping our sociality. Additionally, the findings offer insight in to trends related to human sociality found from research in other fields such as psychology and epidemiology.

  2. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  3. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Reyes-García

    Full Text Available Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i schooling and ii local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane' from whom we collected information on 1 schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy, 2 local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3 working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  4. Applications of resilience theory in management of a moose-hunter system in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wildfire-related effects on a slow ecological variable, i.e., forage production, and fast social-ecological variables, i.e., seasonal harvest rates, hunter access, and forage offtake, in a moose-hunter system in interior Alaska. In a 1994 burn, average forage production increased slightly (5% between 2007 and 2013; however, the proportional removal across all sites declined significantly (10%. This suggests that moose are not utilizing the burn as much as they have in the past and that, as the burn has aged, the apparent habitat quality has declined. Areas with a greater proportion of accessible burned area supported both high numbers of hunters and harvested moose. Our results suggest that evaluating ecological variables in conjunction with social variables can provide managers with information to forecast management scenarios. We recommend that wildlife managers monitor fast variables frequently, e.g., annually, to adapt and keep their management responsive as resources fluctuate; whereas slower variables, which require less frequent monitoring, should be actively incorporated into long-term management strategies. Climate-driven increases in wildfire extent and severity and economically driven demographic changes are likely to increase both moose density and hunting pressure. However, the future resilience of this moose-hunter system will depend on integrated management of wildfire, hunter access, and harvest opportunities.

  5. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  6. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  7. Education and Volunteer Associations in Colombia, 1860-1880. Social Demands and Educational Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the current challenges faced by the historiography of education in Colombia is that of going beyond the traditional State-centered approach in order to address the role played by other social actors in the field of education. On the basis of a review of press publications, the article seeks to contribute to the issue by examining the participation of volunteer associations in Colombian educational life between 1860 and 1880. These organizations, whose members came from very diverse social strata, promoted pedagogical initiatives that had an impact on the development of education in the country. Therefore, it is important to study them in order to achieve a richer understanding of the history of Colombian education.

  8. The Association Between Higher Education and Approximate Number System Acuity

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    Marcus eLindskog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans are equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities, measured either early (1th year or late (3rd year in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity.

  9. Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short-period Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of >=2 R ⊕ planets on short-period (=4 R ⊕ Planet Hunters >=85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler >=4 R ⊕ planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of >=4 R ⊕ short-period planets is nearly complete.

  10. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-01-01

    The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique pla......]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations....... in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence...

  11. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  12. Delirium in elderly patients: association with educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sónia; Paiva, José Artur; Simões, Mário R; Fernandes, Lia

    2017-04-01

    Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment. The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20-9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication. Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.

  13. Issues in Associate Degree Nursing. Bridge to Success. Education and Service: A Partnership for Associate Degree Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This publication is a compilation of highlights from papers presented at the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) project's regional conferences during 1983-84. Papers address pertinent issues in ADN education and practice. "AD Education: Are the Parameters Real?" (Julia Perkins) examines the parameters of associate degree nursing education from a…

  14. Radioiodination and biodistribution of quantum dots using Bolton-Hunter reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Park, Jae [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sup Lee, Tae, E-mail: nobelcow@kirams.re.k [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun Kang, Joo [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rita [Nano/Bio Chemistry Group, Institut Pasteur Korea (IP-Korea), Seongnam 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong Cheon, Gi, E-mail: larry@kirams.re.k [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the radioiodination and biodistribution of quantum dots (QDs) using Bolton-Hunter reagent were investigated. Radioiodination yield was 33.4{+-}2.0%. Fluorescent intensity of radioiodinated QDs decreased to 75.4% of the maximum prior to radioiodination. In biodistribution and ex vivo fluorescence imaging, radioiodinated QDs were highly accumulated in reticuloendothelial system (liver and spleen) and had low level bone uptakes and slow clearance from body. These results suggest that the radioiodination method of nanoparticles using Bolton-Hunter reagent could be easily used in the biodistribution and quantification of nanoparticles in vivo.

  15. 利用Hunter-Lab色差仪测量彩涂板的色差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红军; 陈剑; 王文杰; 曹彦婷

    2006-01-01

    介绍了利用Hunter-Lab色差仪对彩涂板进行色差测量的方法和原理,并对该方法的准确度和精密度进行了分析.结果表明,利用Hunter-Lab色差仪可快速准确的测量彩涂板色差,对彩涂板的生产具有极强的指导意义.

  16. Generic regularity and Lipschitz metric for the Hunter-Saxton type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Chen, Geng; Shen, Yannan; Tan, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The Hunter-Saxton equation determines a flow of conservative solutions taking values in the space H1 (R+). However, the solution typically includes finite time gradient blowups, which make the solution flow not continuous w.r.t. the natural H1 distance. The aim of this paper is to first study the generic properties of conservative solutions of some initial boundary value problems to the Hunter-Saxton type equations. Then using these properties, we give a new way to construct a Finsler type metric which renders the flow uniformly Lipschitz continuous on bounded subsets of H1 (R+).

  17. Molecular characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum isolated from an outbreak in treasure hunters Histoplasma capsulatum in treasure hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Bertha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, primary pulmonary histoplasmosis is the most relevant clinical form of the disease. The geographical distribution of specific strains of Histoplasma capsulatum circulating in Mexico has not been fully established. Outbreaks must be reported in order to have current, updated information on this disease, identifying new endemic areas, manner of exposure to the fungi, and molecular characterization of the causative agents. We report a recent outbreak of histoplasmosis in treasure hunters and the molecular characterization of two isolates obtained from these patients. Methods Six patients admitted to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER in Mexico City presented severe respiratory symptoms suggestive of histoplasmosis. They acquired the infection in the Veracruz (VZ endemic zone. Diagnosis was made by X-ray and Computed tomography (CT, liver function, immunological techniques, and culture. Identification of H. capsulatum isolates was confirmed by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted with a probe from the M antigen, and the isolates were characterized by means of Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR employed the 1253 oligonucleotide and a mixture of oligonucleotides 1281 and 1283. These were compared to eight reference strain isolates from neighboring areas. Results X-ray and CT revealed disseminated micronodular images throughout lung parenchyma, as well as bilateral retrocaval, prevascular, subcarinal, and hilar adenopathies, hepatosplenomegaly, and altered liver function tests. Five of the six patients developed disseminated histoplasmosis. Two H. capsulatum strains were isolated. The same band profile was detected in both strains, indicating that both isolates corresponded to the sole H. capsulatum strain. Molecular characterization of the isolates was similar in 100% with the EH-53 Hidalgo human (HG strain (reference strain integrated into the LAm A clade described for

  18. Hunter-Schmidt Meta-Analysis Paradigm: Its Properties and Applications%Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式:特征和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王拥军; 俞国良

    2010-01-01

    Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式是一种以随机效应模型为基础的比较完备的元分析技术,可以校正效应值的抽样误差、测量误差和全距误差.Hunter-Schmidt元分析范式是应用心理学领域30年来最重要的进展之一,它拓展了心理学的研究方法,开创了校正各种测验误差的方法论研究,激励了心理学家对预测因子的效度概化研究,确认了预测因子和效标之间的水平关系特征和结构关系特征.

  19. Sunday Schools and English Teaching: Re-Reading Ian Hunter and the Emergence of "English" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    This article represents an "overdue encounter" with the ideas of Ian Hunter to reconsider the historical emergence and descent of English teaching in the United States. Influenced by Hunter's account of the "pastoral" and "bureaucratic" genealogy of English teaching in England, my historical study documented…

  20. The Associating Abilities of Pre-Service Teachers Science Education Program Acquisitions with Engineering According to STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumen, Ozlem Ozcakir; Calisici, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the associating abilities of elementary education pre-service teachers science education program acquisitions with engineering using STEM education. In the study which is a case study, firstly pre-service teachers were trained about the STEM education approach. Then "Elementary School Science Education…

  1. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 11: The extent that waterfowl hunting space met the needs of waterfowl hunters in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the adequacy of waterfowl hunting space, it is necessary to compare the number of hunters that space available can support with the number of hunters...

  2. Associate in science degree education programs: organization, structure, and curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, William F

    2005-09-01

    After years of discussion, debate, and study, the respiratory care curriculum has evolved to a minimum of an associate degree for entry into practice. Although programs are at liberty to offer the entry-level or advanced level associate degree, most are at the advanced level. The most popular site for sponsorship of the associate degree in respiratory care is the community college. The basis for community college sponsorship seems to be its comprehensive curriculum, which focuses on a strong academic foundation in writing, communication, and the basic sciences as well as supporting a career-directed focus in respiratory care. Issues facing the community college are tied to literacy, outcomes, assessment, placement,cooperation with the community, partnerships with industry, and articulation arrangements with granting institutions granting baccalaureate degrees. Community colleges must produce a literate graduate capable of thriving in an information-saturated society. Assessment and placement will intensify as the laissez-faire attitudes toward attendance and allowing students to select courses without any accountability and evaluation of outcome become less acceptable. Students will be required to demonstrate steady progress toward established outcomes. Maintaining relations and cooperation with the local community and the health care industry will continue to be a prominent role for the community college. The challenge facing associate degree education in respiratory care at the community college level is the ability to continue to meet the needs of an expanding professional scope of practice and to provide a strong liberal arts or general education core curriculum. The needs for a more demanding and expanding respiratory care curriculum and for a rich general education core curriculum have led to increased interest in baccalaureate and graduate degree education. The value of associate degree education at the community college level is well established. It is

  3. Knowledge-Sharing Networks in Hunter-Gatherers and the Evolution of Cumulative Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Thompson, James; Grace, Olwen Megan; van der Burgt, Xander M; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Smith, Daniel; Lewis, Jerome; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-09-26

    Humans possess the unique ability for cumulative culture [1, 2]. It has been argued that hunter-gatherer's complex social structure [3-9] has facilitated the evolution of cumulative culture by allowing information exchange among large pools of individuals [10-13]. However, empirical evidence for the interaction between social structure and cultural transmission is scant [14]. Here we examine the reported co-occurrence of plant uses between individuals in dyads (which we define as their "shared knowledge" of plant uses) in BaYaka Pygmies from Congo. We studied reported uses of 33 plants of 219 individuals from four camps. We show that (1) plant uses by BaYaka fall into three main domains: medicinal, foraging, and social norms/beliefs; (2) most medicinal plants have known bioactive properties, and some are positively associated with children's BMI, suggesting that their use is adaptive; (3) knowledge of medicinal plants is mainly shared between spouses and biological and affinal kin; and (4) knowledge of plant uses associated with foraging and social norms is shared more widely among campmates, regardless of relatedness, and is important for camp-wide activities that require cooperation. Our results show the interdependence between social structure and knowledge sharing. We propose that long-term pair bonds, affinal kin recognition, exogamy, and multi-locality create ties between unrelated families, facilitating the transmission of medicinal knowledge and its fitness implications. Additionally, multi-family camps with low inter-relatedness between camp members provide a framework for the exchange of functional information related to cooperative activities beyond the family unit, such as foraging and regulation of social life.

  4. Factors associated with fourth grade health education scores on the Maine Educational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroble, L P

    1997-02-01

    Data collected in 1994 on the health section of the fourth grade Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) were analyzed in this study. Correlational studies and analyses of variance tested significance of community, school, and teacher variables. A multiple regression analysis with a path model determined significant factors associated with achievement in health. The most salient finding was that students' overall ability--represented by achievement in the other MEA content areas--related strongly to achievement in health. Community socioeconomic status emerged as another significant influence on health scores. Type of health education program did not make a difference in scores, but any method of delivering health education, in contrast to no health education affected health scores significantly. Up to 30 minutes of instruction per week yielded the highest mean scores. The teachers' rating of the health program emerged as a pivotal variable.

  5. California Association of Professors of Educational Administration: Promoting Equity and Excellence in Educational Leader Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Olio, Franca; Jones, Albert; Jindra, Susan; Jungwirth, Linda; Lindsey, Delores B.; Lindsey, Randall B.; Mirci, Philip; Purrington, Linda; Moore-Steward, Thelma; Thomas, Chris; Ward, Cheryl; Winkelman, Peg; Wise, Don

    2014-01-01

    This feature article charts the efforts of the California Association of Professors of Educational Administration (CAPEA) to move from primarily a policy-driven organization that lacked a significant number of diverse members and perspectives to a values-driven organization committed to equity and cultural competency. This is a chronicle of the…

  6. Can marriage education mitigate the risks associated with premarital cohabitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Allen, Elizabeth S

    2015-06-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., "precommitment cohabitation") for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between precommitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random assignment to intervention. After intervention, this precommitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, precommitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Furthermore, those with precommitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the 2-year follow-up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered.

  7. Non-viral transfer approaches for the gene therapy of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanin, R; Friso, A; Alba, S; Piller Puicher, E; Mennuni, C; La Monica, N; Hortelano, G; Zacchello, F; Scarpa, M

    2002-01-01

    Hunter syndrome is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the housekeeping enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS). Deficiency of IDS causes accumulation of undegraded dermatan and heparan-sulphate in various tissues and organs. Approaches have been proposed for the symptomatic therapy of the disease, including bone marrow transplantation and, very recently, enzyme replacement. To date, gene therapy strategies have considered mainly retroviral and adenoviral transduction of the correct cDNA. In this paper, two non-viral somatic gene therapy approaches are proposed: encapsulated heterologous cells and muscle electro-gene transfer (EGT). Hunter primary fibroblasts were co-cultured with either cell clones over-expressing the lacking enzyme or with the same incorporated in alginate microcapsules. For EGT, plasmid vector was injected into mouse quadriceps muscle, which was then immediately electro-stimulated. Co-culturing Hunter primary fibroblasts with cells over-expressing IDS resulted in a three- to fourfold increase in fibroblast enzyme activity with respect to control cells. Fibroblast IDS activity was also increased after co-culture with encapsulated cells. EGT was able to transduce genes in mouse muscle, resulting in at least a tenfold increase in IDS activity 1-5 weeks after treatment. Although preliminary, results from encapsulated heterologous cell clones and muscle EGT encourage further evaluations for possible application to gene therapy for Hunter syndrome.

  8. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwamb, Megan E. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Parrish, Michael [Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: megan.schwamb@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of {>=}2 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets on short-period (<15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} Planet Hunters {>=}85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} short-period planets is nearly complete.

  9. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  10. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  11. Indice de Indices en la Biblioteca de Hunter College para el Estudiante Hispano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero Bielsa, Alberto; And Others

    Designed for Spanish-speaking students of Hunter College of the City University of New York, this guide explains the use of 70 English-language indexes found in the college library. The explanations are given in Spanish in order to simplify the process of library research for students who are not completely comfortable with English. Each index is…

  12. The seed hunter in het spoor van Vavilov (interview met C. Kik)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanderink, R.; Kik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Er moet voor een veredelaar een grote variatie aan plantmateriaal aanwezig zijn om uit te kunnen putten zodat onze gewassen, die vaak bestaan uit monoculturen, voor de toekomst veiliggesteld worden. Het vinden van die variatie is het werk van seed hunters of zadenverzamelaars. Eén van die seed

  13. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, Vicky; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gath

  14. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  15. Recent origin and cultural reversion of a hunter-gatherer group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oota

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary hunter-gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter-gatherer groups such as the Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term isolation and small population sizes. We report here genetic evidence concerning the origins of the Mlabri, an enigmatic hunter-gatherer group from northern Thailand. The Mlabri have no mtDNA diversity, and the genetic diversity at Y-chromosome and autosomal loci are also extraordinarily reduced in the Mlabri. Genetic, linguistic, and cultural data all suggest that the Mlabri were recently founded, 500-800 y ago, from a very small number of individuals. Moreover, the Mlabri appear to have originated from an agricultural group and then adopted a hunting-gathering subsistence mode. This example of cultural reversion from agriculture to a hunting-gathering lifestyle indicates that contemporary hunter-gatherer groups do not necessarily reflect a pre-agricultural lifestyle.

  16. Period Determination of Binary Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May-September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Oey, Julian; Pravec, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for seven confirmed or possible binary asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) and Leura Observatory from 2009 May through 2010 September: 1453 Fennia, 2501 Lohja, 3076 Garbor, 4029 Bridges, 5325 Silver, 6244 Okamoto, and (6265) 1985 TW3.

  17. Adaptation of Hunter Cynism Scale to Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Zafer; Bakioglu, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to carry out the adaptation of Hunter Cynicism Scale to Turkish. For this purpose, this study consists of two stages. 311 university students participated in for the first stage and 313 university students participated in for the second stage of this study. In the first stage, translation, exploratory factor analysis,…

  18. 76 FR 9345 - Brian Hunter; Third Supplemental Notice of Designation of Commission Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hunter; Third Supplemental Notice of Designation of Commission Staff On February 1, 2008, the Commission issued an order that, inter alia, designated the staff of...

  19. History and Development of the Schmidt-Hunter Meta-Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I provide answers to the questions posed by Will Shadish about the history and development of the Schmidt-Hunter methods of meta-analysis. In the 1970s, I headed a research program on personnel selection at the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM). After our research showed that validity studies have low statistical power, OPM…

  20. Geometric Integrability of Two-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Juu-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the two-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number o, conservation laws are directly constructed. In addition, a class of nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  1. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugal, Cherie; van Beest, Floris; Vander Wal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying hi...

  2. ASSOCIATION OF EDUCATIONAL, OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND RELIGION WITH CONSANGUINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundip Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is widely perceived that consanguinity is more prevalent among the underprivileged in the society. In general, consanguini ty is influenced by geographic, demographic, religious, cultural and socio-economic factors. Consanguineous marriage is widely practiced in India particularly, in traditional Muslim communities and Hindu communities in South India. In present study, an effort has been made to study the association between educational and occupational status of parents and their religion with the occurrence of consanguineous marriages. AIM AND OBJECTIVES To determine the association of educational and occupational status of parents and their religion with occurrence of consanguineous marriages. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is subset of my previous study, which was done retrospectively in Government Medical College and Civil Hospitals of Western Maharashtra between 1st Oct. 2011 till 31st May 2012. A total of 182 congenitally defective live births and stillbirths admitted in above hospitals in same period were studied against total deliveries taken place. Information was collected by using questionnaires and pedigree charts were formed. Information about consanguinity, degree of consanguinity, parental education, parental occupation, religion, etc. was obtained. Data obtained was statistically analysed. RESULTS 1. Incidence of congenital anomalies is 1.16%. 2. Consanguineous marriages and offsprings with congenital defect are more common among parents who are educated up to primary and secondary education level. 3. Consanguineous marriages and offsprings with congenital defect are more common among parents of low socio-economic status, i.e. mothers who are housewives and fathers who are farmers. 4. Frequency of consanguineous marriage was found more in Muslims than Hindus. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 1. Incidence of congenital anomalies is 1.16%. 2. Consanguineous marriages and offsprings with congenital defect are found

  3. PLANET HUNTERS. VIII. CHARACTERIZATION OF 41 LONG-PERIOD EXOPLANET CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER ARCHIVAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Picard, Alyssa; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ma, Bo [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Simister, Dean Joseph; Grégoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P.; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-12-20

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0–Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits, and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1–3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4″. We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Kepler Stellar Catalog by Huber et al. We validate 7 planet candidates that have planet confidence over 0.997 (3σ level). These validated planets include 3 single-transit planets (KIC-3558849b, KIC-5951458b, and KIC-8540376c), 3 planets with double transits (KIC-8540376b, KIC-9663113b, and KIC-10525077b), and 1 planet with four transits (KIC-5437945b). This work provides assessment regarding the existence of planets at wide separations and the associated false positive rate for transiting observation (17%–33%). More than half of the long-period planets with at least three transits in this paper exhibit transit timing variations up to 41 hr, which suggest additional components that dynamically interact with the transiting planet candidates. The nature of these components can be determined by follow-up radial velocity and transit observations.

  4. The spatial structure of hunter access determines the local abundance of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Blake, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In many previously remote regions in the world, increasing and often unregulated access is leading to dramatic increases in hunting pressure and declines in the densities of prey species, sometimes to the point of local extinction. Not surprisingly, numerous studies have found a correlation between the distance to the closest access point and prey densities. Here we hypothesized that, for many wide-ranging species, local abundances are reduced by hunting associated with multiple access points as opposed to just the closest access points. We also hypothesized that the distribution of hunter access determines both patterns of occupancy and abundance in occupied areas and that these two patterns (occupancy and abundance) respond to access at different spatial scales. Using data on the distribution of abundances of African forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in and around five national parks in Central Africa, we tested these hypotheses using a model comparison framework. We found that models including an index based on the distance to multiple roads outperformed models including other access-based covariates, including a model based on distance to the closest road only. We also found that models that allowed us to model occupancy and abundance separately outperformed simpler models. Occupancy responds to access at the same scale as previous estimates of average maximum displacement in the subspecies, while the scale of the response of abundance is more ambiguous, but appears to be greater. Lastly, we show that incorporating indices based on multiple access points and modeling abundance and occupancy has important practical consequences for our understanding of overall regional abundances and the distribution of abundances within regions.

  5. Serological surveillance of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases among hunters in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp., Francisella tularensis, Echinococcus spp., or hantaviruses. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of zoonotic agents, viz. A. phagocytophilum, hantaviruses, and Echinococcus spp., with special regard to B. burgdorferi s.l., among hunters in Lubelskie Voivodeship (eastern Poland. Methods: Serum samples collected from 134 hunters from Lubelskie Voivodeship were analyzed with the use of immunological techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, line immunoblot test, and indirect fluorescence assay for the presence of antibodies against the agents. Results: Specific antibodies were detected in 66% of the tested individuals. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. (39%, A. phagocytophilum (30%, hantaviruses (9%, and Echinococcus spp. (8% were detected individually or as mixed results. Interpretation & conclusion: The results confirm that there is a risk of exposure to different pathogens in the forested areas in eastern Poland and that hunters are highly vulnerable to infection with the examined zoonotic agents. A significant proportion of co-occurring antibodies against different pathogens was noticed. Thus, hunters have to take special care of their health status evaluation and mitigate the exposure risk by using adequate prophylaxis measures.

  6. Response of moose hunters to predation following wolf return in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Wikenros

    Full Text Available Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces, the main prey of wolves.We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25, and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43. There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827 during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2 compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2 wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas and to hunters (actual harvest. In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females.We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator-humans-that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves' main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds' habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark A.; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Concas, Maria Pina; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; van der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E.; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V.; Poot, Raymond A.; Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A.; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans68, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L.; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lebreton, Maël P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.M.; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A.; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A.; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Ollier, William E.R.; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Porteous, David J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D.; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bultmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.; Esko, Tõnu; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Educational attainment (EA) is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are also estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. We report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for EA that extends our earlier discovery sample1,2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We now identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioral phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because EA is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:27225129

  8. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  9. Fish species and other data from DERWENT HUNTER from 31 August 1959 to 16 June 1960 (NODC Accession 7300634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 1959 the cruise programme for F.R.V. DERWENT HUNTER was changed and cruises were planned to investigate tuna in South-East Australian waters in a much...

  10. Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephanie; Ambata, Philippe; Narat, Victor; Giles-Vernick, Tamara

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission. This initial host shift cannot explain the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Instead, we must understand the processes by which the virus became transmissible, possibly between Sangha basin inhabitants and ultimately reached Kinshasa. A historical epidemiology of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, provides a much-needed corrective to the major shortcomings of the cut hunter. Based on 62 oral historical interviews conducted in southeastern Cameroon and archival research, we show that HIV emerged from ecological, economic, and socio-political transformations of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The gradual imposition of colonial rule built on and reoriented ecologies and economies, and altered older patterns of mobility and sociality. Certain changes may have contributed to the initial viral host shift, but more importantly, facilitated the adaptation of HIV-1M to human-to-human transmission. Our evidence suggests that the most critical changes occurred after 1920. This argument has important implications for public health policy, underscoring recent work emphasizing alternative pathways for zoonotic spillovers into human beings.

  11. A Philatelic Excursion with Jeff Hunter in Probability and Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. H. Styan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an excursion with Jeff Hunter, visiting some of his research topics. Specifically, we will present some facts about certain people whose work seems to have influenced Jeff in his scientific career; we illustrate our presentation with postage stamps that have been issued in honour of these people. Our main guide is Hunter’s two-volume book entitled Mathematical Techniques of Applied Probability (Academic Press, 1983.

  12. Newborn screening for hunter disease: a small-scale feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, G J G; Goudriaan, D A; Boer, A M; Van den Bosch, J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Elvers, L H; Weinreich, S S; Reuser, A J

    2014-01-01

    Hunter disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Two main therapies have been reported for MPS II patients: enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Both treatment modalities have been shown to improve some symptoms, but the results with regard to cognitive functioning have been poor. Early initiation of therapy, i.e., before neurological symptoms have manifested, may alter cognitive outcome. The need for early identification makes Hunter disease a candidate for newborn screening (NBS). Our objective was to explore the use of a fluorometric assay that could be applicable for high-throughput analysis of IDS activity in dried blood spots (DBS). The median IDS activity in DBS samples from 1,426 newborns was 377 pmol/punch/17 h (range 78-1111). The IDS activity in one sample was repeatedly under the cutoff value (set at 20% of the median value), which would imply a recall rate of 0.07%. A sample from a clinically diagnosed MPS II individual, included in each 96-well test plate, had IDS activities well below the 20% cutoff value. Coefficients of variation in quality control samples with low, medium, and high IDS activities (190, 304, and 430 pmol/punch/17 h, respectively) were 12% to 16%. This small-scale pilot study shows that newborn screening for Hunter disease using a fluorometric assay in DBS is technically feasible with a fairly low recall rate. NBS may allow for identification of infants with Hunter disease before clinical symptoms become evident enabling early intervention.

  13. Shell beads of the Last Hunter-Gatherers and Earliest Farmers in South-Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Fernández, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the suspended objects of adornment made from marine mollusc shells that have been recorded at Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in southwest Europe. Particular attention will be given to taxonomic determination, technological aspects and the strategies utilised to obtain the raw materials for these objects. The distribution of certain species and the types of ornamentation used by the last hunter-gatherers and first farming communities will also be discussed.

  14. 演奏八弦吉他的怪才Charlie Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石岩

    2002-01-01

      一看到这把怪琴,少见的8弦配置加上扇形的弦品指板,你就会知道使用这把吉他的吉他手一定是个怪才.他就是Charlie Hunter,一个富于创新的年轻爵士吉他手.……

  15. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C. Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase®, Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients’ responses. PMID:25071396

  16. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S, an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S (Elaprase®, Shire enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.

  17. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants among Dozo hunters: an ethnobotanical survey in Niamberla village, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibiri, André; Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Dao, Abou; Elkington, Bethany G; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2015-05-01

    This investigation aims to provide a database of Dozo traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of common diseases. The study was conducted through individual interviews using a survey form. Data were recorded in a database allowing statistical analysis. Each plant was recorded and documented with a herbarium specimen. Settings/Location & Subjects: The term Dozo refers to great hunters from Burkina Faso, highly renowned for their knowledge of medicinal plants. Niamberla village was founded by Dozo hunters and is currently the residence of many traditional healers. Unfortunately, their indigenous knowledge is not well recorded and may be lost between two generations. A total of 16 traditional healers were interviewed, giving 89 recipes for the treatment of 37 diseases. The most common diseases are malaria (13%), psychological/spiritual issues (12%), gastric disorders (11%), sexually transmitted diseases (10%), and wounds (8%). A total of 56 medicinal plants have been identified, consisting mostly of trees (44%), shrubs (34%), and herbs (16%). The results of this research provide a basis for pharmacological and toxicological investigations and are necessary to preserve the indigenous knowledge of traditional medicine among Dozo hunters.

  18. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  19. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  20. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  1. Multimodal image analysis of the retina in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II): Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Isadora Darriba Macedo; Finzi, Simone; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Kim, Chong Ae; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2017-08-18

    We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation. There was hyperautofluorescence at the central fovea and perifovea, and a diffuse bilateral choroidal fluorescence in angiography. Macular SD-OCT showed a thinning of the external retina at the perifovea in both eyes. Visual field testing showed a bilateral ring scotoma. The full field ERG was subnormal, with a negative response in the scotopic phase. Visual Evoked Potencial test and cranial MRI were normal. Our multimodal analysis reported here attempted to contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of GAG deposition in the eye, focusing on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Defining this natural history is essential for a proper comparison with Hunter patients receiving systemic treatment, thus determining if it can or cannot improve retinal function in humans with this disorder.

  2. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience.

  3. Nonlocal Symmetries and Geometric Integrability of Multi-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lu; SONG Jun-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems. It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm, Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed. For the three-component Camo ssa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems, their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.%@@ We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems.It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm,Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable,namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces.As a consequence,their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed.For the three-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems,their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  4. City Life in the Midst of the Forest: a Punan Hunter-Gatherer's Vision of Conservation and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Levang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Punan Tubu, a group of hunter-gatherers in East-Kalimantan, Indonesia, are used to illustrate the very real trade-offs that are made between conservation and development. This group has undergone various forms of resettlement in the 20th century, to the point that some are now settled close to the city of Malinau whereas others remain in remote locations in the upper Tubu catchment. This study is based on several years of ethnographic and household analysis. The Punan clearly favor both conservation and development. In the city, the Punan benefit from all positive effects of development. Child and infant mortality rates are very low, and illiteracy has been eradicated among the younger generation. However, the Punan complain that nothing in town is free. The older generation, in particular, resents the loss of Punan culture. Because of frustration and unemployment, young people often succumb to alcoholism and drug addiction. The Punan do not want to choose between conservation and development, between forest life and city life. They want to benefit from the advantages of both locations, to enjoy both free forest products and the positive aspects of modern life, to go wild boar hunting in the morning and watch television in the evening. In short, they want to enjoy city life in the midst of the forest. The same kind of contradiction has led to identity problems. They want to uphold the traditional life of the hunter-gatherer, but at the same time they reject marginalization and seek integration into the larger society. In short, they want integration without loss of identity. The settlement of Sule-Pipa illustrates how some groups have dealt with the contradiction more successfully. Thanks to good organization and charitable donations, they have secured educational facilities and basic health care, and marketing costs are reduced by collectively organized road and river transportation. The economy of the village is thriving, mainly because of

  5. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students’ Physical Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Chen, Steve Mason, Andrew Hypnar, Austin Hammond-Bennett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students’ physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers’ levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR. The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students’ cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students’ health-enhancing physical fitness.

  6. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L A; Schloetter, M; Mietus-Synder, M; Morris, R C; Sebastian, A

    2009-08-01

    The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases-'diseases of civilization'. We investigated in humans whether a diet similar to that consumed by our preagricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors (that is, a paleolithic type diet) confers health benefits. We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled study, in nine nonobese sedentary healthy volunteers, ensuring no weight loss by daily weight. We compared the findings when the participants consumed their usual diet with those when they consumed a paleolithic type diet. The participants consumed their usual diet for 3 days, three ramp-up diets of increasing potassium and fiber for 7 days, then a paleolithic type diet comprising lean meat, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and excluding nonpaleolithic type foods, such as cereal grains, dairy or legumes, for 10 days. Outcomes included arterial blood pressure (BP); 24-h urine sodium and potassium excretion; plasma glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC) during a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity; plasma lipid concentrations; and brachial artery reactivity in response to ischemia. Compared with the baseline (usual) diet, we observed (a) significant reductions in BP associated with improved arterial distensibility (-3.1+/-2.9, P=0.01 and +0.19+/-0.23, P=0.05);(b) significant reduction in plasma insulin vs time AUC, during the OGTT (P=0.006); and (c) large significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (-0.8+/-0.6 (P=0.007), -0.7+/-0.5 (P=0.003) and -0.3+/-0.3 (P=0.01) mmol/l respectively). In all these measured variables, either eight or all nine participants had identical directional responses when switched to paleolithic type diet, that is, near consistently improved status of circulatory, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism/physiology. Even short-term consumption of a paleolithic type diet improves BP and glucose tolerance, decreases insulin

  7. Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents: cues to counteract socioeconomic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. Methods We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study), school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school), perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness) and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years). We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools). Results We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational

  8. Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents: cues to counteract socioeconomic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Tavel, Peter; van Dijk, Jitse P; Abel, Thomas; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2010-03-24

    Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study), school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school), perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness) and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years). We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools). We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational aspirations of grammar school

  9. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  10. Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-06-01

    Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing.

  11. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-GPS integration: Interseismic strain accumulation across the Hunter Mountain fault in the eastern California shear zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, Noel; Amelung, Falk; Lanari, Riccardo

    2010-09-01

    The principal limitations of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to measure subtle, long-wavelength deformation are uncertainties associated with the satellite orbits. We propose a method to remove orbital phase errors from the InSAR data by integrating InSAR and continuous GPS time series. We model the along-track variation of the baseline errors as second-order polynomials and estimate the coefficients using the continuous GPS measurements. We apply this method to a 600 km long region encompassing the Basin and Range and the eastern California shear zone. Comparison of the corrected InSAR velocities with independent GPS data shows that this method removes the long-wavelength InSAR errors. The InSAR data reveal a region of sharp variation in the line-of-sight velocity across the Hunter Mountain fault. We model the deformation as interseismic elastic strain accumulation across a strike-slip fault. The modeling suggests a fault slip rate of 4.9 ± 0.8 mm/yr and a locking depth of 2 ± 0.4 km. The shallow locking depth suggests that the Hunter Mountain fault is a transfer fault between low angle normal faults in the area.

  12. The education power of immigrant associations in multicultural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Jiménez, Antonio J.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With this qualitative research we are trying to know the collaborative capacity and contributions that Immigrant Associations could do to the schools that form part of a social context characterised by the recent and massive arrival of immigrants of Maghrebian, Sub-Sahara, South America, European Union, and East Europe origin. The sample constituted by 55 immigrants that are members of Immigrant Associations, 16 teachers and 16 directors of schools, makes us to think about the role the Immigrant Associations could play in the education centres. The information coming out from immigrants and teachers shows up that the participation of associations, besides to do a good intercultural work and favour the identity signs of new students, empower the school influence of immigrant children. In addition to, this participation would support the continuity between the school and the student family; it also constitutes a way of working with children and young people in communities of learning. Con esta investigación cualitativa pretendemos dar a conocer la capacidad colaborativa y las aportaciones que pueden realizar las asociaciones de inmigrantes a las escuelas que forman parte de un contexto social caracterizado por la llegada reciente y masiva de inmigrantes de orígenes Magrebí, África Subsahariana, Sudamérica, Unión Europea y Europa del Este. La muestra constituida por 55 inmigrantes miembros de asociaciones de inmigrantes y 16 profesores y 16 directores de centros educativos, nos permite comprender el papel que pueden jugar las asociaciones de inmigrantes en los centros educativos. Los datos obtenidos a partir de los propios inmigrantes y profesores, ponen de manifiesto que la participación de las asociaciones, además de realizar una buena labor de mediación intercultural y favorecer las señas identitarias de los nuevos escolares, potencia el “poder” escolar y social de niños y jóvenes inmigrantes. Además, esta participaci

  13. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  14. The Role of Higher Education Associations in Shaping Policy that Connects Immigration to Educational Opportunity: A Social Capital Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Noe

    2011-01-01

    This study utilizes social capital theory to examine the collective agency available to national higher education associations and better understand the power of the collectivity to influence policy. The analysis draws on a specific issue, the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act, and investigates letters and statements…

  15. The Past, the Present, and the Future of Associate Degree Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlton, Donna

    A review of the history of associate degree nursing (ADN) education is presented, along with a discussion of contemporary problems faced by ADN educators. The paper first notes the practical, hospital-based nature of early nursing education programs; reviews early studies calling for school-based programs to prepare nurses for different levels of…

  16. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  17. AERA Code of Ethics: American Educational Research Association Approved by the AERA Council February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…

  18. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  19. Teaching Children with Disabilities: Preparation through State Music Educators Association Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Meehan, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types and frequency of music and special education workshops held at state music educators association (MEA) conferences. Specifically, the researchers sought to determine the following within the past 10 years: (a) states that offered music and special education workshops at their MEA conferences,…

  20. Reflections--Dell C. Kjer: A Pioneer Teacher Educator and Association Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Reflects upon the role of Dell C. Kjer, a leader in teacher education and president of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) from 1965-1967. Describes his early years in Wisconsin, military duties and student life at George Peabody, his contributions to teacher education, and his contributions to ACEI and other professional…

  1. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students' Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Hammond-Bennett, Austin

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET) were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students' physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR). The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students' cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students' health-enhancing physical fitness. Key pointsAlthough Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance has its unique and critical teaching components, each essential teaching dimensions is intertwined and immersed in teaching practices.Four essential teaching dimensions all significantly

  2. Fragile X-Associated Disorders (FXD): A Handbook for Families, Health Care Providers, Counselors, and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragile X-associated Disorders (FXD) A Handbook for Families, Health Care Providers, Counselors, and Educators For Personal Use Only ... contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Section 1: Genetics of Fragile X-Associated Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Case Scenario of a Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

  3. Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852 - Where's the Flux?

    CERN Document Server

    Boyajian, T S; Rappaport, S A; Fabrycky, D; Fischer, D A; Gandolfi, D; Kennedy, G M; Liu, M C; Moor, A; Olah, K; Vida, K; Wyatt, M C; Best, W M J; Ciesla, F; Csak, B; Dupuy, T J; Handler, G; Heng, K; Korhonen, H; Kovacs, J; Kozakis, T; Kriskovics, L; Schmitt, J R; Szabo, Gy; Szabo, R; Wang, J; Goodman, S; Hoekstra, A; Jek, K J

    2015-01-01

    Over the duration of the Kepler mission, KIC 8462852 was observed to undergo irregularly shaped, aperiodic dips in flux down to below the 20% level. The dipping activity can last for between 5 and 80 days. We characterize the object with high-resolution spectroscopy, spectral energy distribution fitting, and Fourier analyses of the Kepler light curve. We determine thatKIC 8462852 is a main-sequence F3 V/IV star, with a rotation period ~0.88 d, that exhibits no significant IR excess. In this paper, we describe various scenarios to explain the mysterious events in the Kepler light curve, most of which have problems explaining the data in hand. By considering the observational constraints on dust clumps orbiting a normal main-sequence star, we conclude that the scenario most consistent with the data is the passage of a family of exocomet fragments, all of which are associated with a single previous breakup event. We discuss the necessity of future observations to help interpret the system.

  4. Educational opportunities and implications associated with the team physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Robb S; Rehberg, Joelle Stabile; Prybicien, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Teaching is one of the primary responsibilities of the team physician. After all, teaching and medicine are inseparable. Educating others is a challenging yet essential role of a team physician, and understanding the educational opportunities, responsibilities, and methods of creating a learning environment are essential qualities of the team physician. The successful teaching team physician is the one who accepts his role as an educator, understands the importance of involvement in the educational process at all levels, and is able to create an environment conducive to student learning, while at the same time serving as a valuable resource for patients, coaches, administrators, and the public.

  5. Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

    2003-12-01

    While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although

  6. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  7. Overview of the Texas Mining and Reclamation Association`s education project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, M.F. [Texas Mining and Reclamation Association, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Mining and Reclamation Association (TMRA) sponsors {open_quotes}Resources and the Environment,{close_quotes} a teacher workshop held at a lignite mine each summer. Over a period of five years more than two hundred science teachers have participated in the 4-day workshop, and through them approximately 50,000 middle school students have been exposed to the curriculum. The workshop was developed with a grant from Phillips Petroleum Foundation, provided to the Center for Engineering Geosciences at Texas A&M University. The funding enabled the development of a program consisting of a science education curriculum addressing the earth-science concepts associated with lignite production and reclamation activities. The workshop is currently being instructed by Jim Luppens, Phillips Coal Company, and two assisting earth science specialists. The workshop includes classroom instruction, presentations by guest speakers, hands-on activities, and a tour of a lignite mine. The workshop ends with a mock public hearing involving role-playing. Roles include mining personnel, regulatory agencies, local townspeople, and adjacent landowners. The curriculum is provided as a resource for teachers and includes 55 teaching units; each comprised of student story, teacher outline, and classroom/lab activities. The objective of the curriculum is to provide middle school students with an opportunity to learn about earth science and apply that knowledge to a real situation. The unifying theme of the workshop is geology and the development of lignite coal resources; from the planning stages of a mine to final reclamation.

  8. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B

  9. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  12. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth.

  13. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Nick; Freeman, Sonia; Connor, Linda; Albrecht, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  14. Period Determination of Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May 2009 - September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for 27 asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) from 2009 May through 2010 September: 308 Polyxo, 326 Tamara, 369 Aeria, 504 Cora, 822 Lalage, 1164 Kobolda, 1619 Ueta, 1625 The NORC, 1685 Toro, 2189 Zaragoza, 2287 Kalmykia, 2639 Planman, 3695 Fiaia, 4786 Tatianina, 5333 Kanaya, (5452) 1937 NN, 6170 Levasseur, 7741 Fedoseev, 14815 Rutberg, 15724 Zille, 16525 Shumarinaiko, (21996) 1993 XP31, (29729) 1999 BY1, (35404) 1997 YV5, (39087) 2000 VN50, (66146) 1998 TU3, and (101769) 1999 FF52.

  15. 王邪斗争新体验之HUNTER THE RECKONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴龙

    2002-01-01

    《猎手(Hunter)》是High Voltage Software公司很早就推出的一款游戏,原作曾经赢得了很多玩者的赞赏,但是它的续作《猎手:测算(Hunter: The Reckoning)》的制作更加精细。在游戏中,当选择了4个“猎手”之一后,你会切身体会到在黑暗的宇宙中同邪恶进行斗争的艰辛。

  16. Consideration on the Survival and Loneliness in the Heart Is a Lonely Hunter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LI

    2015-01-01

    "Loneliness" is the main melody in almost all the works of Carson McCullers, and it is particularly prominent in novel the Heart Is a Lonely Hunter. All characters in the works were confined by loneliness and could not extricate themselves. Why do human beings feel so lonely?In this paper, the root of the loneliness reflected by human survival itself is discussed, namely, the relationship between the inherent conflict and loneliness of human survival, so as to think about loneliness deeply.

  17. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbotham, N.; Freeman, S.; Connor, L.; Albrecht, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). School of Medicine & Public Health

    2010-03-15

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  18. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R; Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Evans, Alan C; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-10-25

    To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Valmyr Bania

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Completed tertiary education is closely associated with employment and influences income, health and personal well-being. Objective: The purpose of the study is to explore predictors for completed tertiary education among indigenous Sami and non-indigenous young people in relation to mental health indicators and educational factors in sociocultural rural and urban contexts across the Arctic part of Norway. Design: The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study (NAAHS is a cross-sectional, school-based survey that was conducted in 2003–2005. Of all 5,877 10th graders (aged 15–16 years in north Norway, 83% from all 87 municipalities participated; 450 (9.2% reported indigenous Sami ethnicity, and 304 (6.2% reported Laestadian affiliation. Data from NAAHS were merged with registry data from the National Education Database and Norwegian Patient Register for 3,987 adolescents who gave their consent for follow-up studies. Results: Completion of upper secondary school is the only common predictor of a completed tertiary education degree for both genders. Among females, conduct problems was a significant predictor of lower level education, typically vocational professions, while among males severe mental health problems requiring treatment by the specialist health care system reduced the opportunity to complete tertiary education at intermediate and higher level. Parental higher educational level was associated with less lower education among females and less higher education among males. Men residing in the northernmost and remote areas were less likely to complete education on higher level. Males’ completion of higher level education was strongly but not significantly associated (p=0.057 with higher average marks in lower secondary school. Conclusions: The gender differences found in this study emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions to encourage, support and empower young people to attend and complete tertiary education

  20. The Association between Education and Mortality for Adults with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2017-03-01

    Although the relationship between education and mortality is well documented in the general population, it has not been examined for adults with intellectual disability. Informed by fundamental cause theory, I explore the association between education and mortality in a sample of 4,241 adults with intellectual disability from the 1986-2009 National Health Interview Survey with Linked Mortality Files through 2011. Cox regression models were utilized to analyze the predictive effect of education on mortality risk while taking into account birth cohort differences. Increased education was associated with lower mortality risk for adults with intellectual disability, and this relationship strengthened in later birth cohorts who had greater access to the public education system. Comparison with a sample of 21,205 adults without intellectual disability demonstrates that the association between education and mortality risk was not as robust for adults with intellectual disability and highlights the ongoing socioeconomic challenges faced by this population.

  1. National Association for the Education of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STEM skills to preparing teachers to support children’s positive racial identities, the new issue of YC offers ... Bias As a leader in anti-bias education, NAEYC is committed to sharing new research and ...

  2. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of years, so people in Indonesia claim, head-hunters – figures of dread and fascination that have haunted societies, politics, and the public imagination in Indonesia at least since colonial times – have begun to adopt a novel and troubling tactic. Instead of decapitating...... their victims and using the human heads in construction rituals as they used to do, head-hunters are now allegedly harvesting the victims’ organs for sale on the international organ market. Based on a comparison of ethnographic material from North Maluku, a province in the eastern part of Indonesia, and news...... reports I trace the shift from head-hunting to organ theft and suggest that this plasticity is not merely a symbolic representation of changing political and economic realities. Rather, I argue, the organ-stealing head-hunters are part of a global travelling package that includes and entangles organ...

  3. Diagnosis of Hunter's syndrome carriers; radioactive sulphate incorporation into fibroblasts in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toennesen, T.; Lykkelund, C.; Guettler, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mutual correction of co-cultivated fibroblasts from patients with Hunter's and Hurler's syndrome could be inhibited by either fructose 1-phosphate or mannose 6-phosphate. In the presence of fructose 1-phosphate a 50% mixture of fibroblasts from a patient with Hunter's syndrome and a normal homozygous individual showed an increased /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides. When fibroblast cultures from one obligate and two possible carriers of Hunter's syndrome were tested for /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation, the cultures showed either twice the normal /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate or an abnormally high incorporation in the presence as well as in the absence of the sugar phosphate.

  4. Hunter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Breathing difficulty Chromosome ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  5. MetaboHunter: an automatic approach for identification of metabolites from 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culf Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy is widely used for high-throughput characterization of metabolites in complex biological mixtures. However, the accurate identification of individual compounds is still a challenging task, particularly in spectral regions with higher peak densities. The need for automatic tools to facilitate and further improve the accuracy of such tasks, while using increasingly larger reference spectral libraries becomes a priority of current metabolomics research. Results We introduce a web server application, called MetaboHunter, which can be used for automatic assignment of 1H-NMR spectra of metabolites. MetaboHunter provides methods for automatic metabolite identification based on spectra or peak lists with three different search methods and with possibility for peak drift in a user defined spectral range. The assignment is performed using as reference libraries manually curated data from two major publicly available databases of NMR metabolite standard measurements (HMDB and MMCD. Tests using a variety of synthetic and experimental spectra of single and multi metabolite mixtures show that MetaboHunter is able to identify, in average, more than 80% of detectable metabolites from spectra of synthetic mixtures and more than 50% from spectra corresponding to experimental mixtures. This work also suggests that better scoring functions improve by more than 30% the performance of MetaboHunter's metabolite identification methods. Conclusions MetaboHunter is a freely accessible, easy to use and user friendly 1H-NMR-based web server application that provides efficient data input and pre-processing, flexible parameter settings, fast and automatic metabolite fingerprinting and results visualization via intuitive plotting and compound peak hit maps. Compared to other published and freely accessible metabolomics tools, MetaboHunter implements three efficient methods to search for metabolites in manually curated

  6. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marc; Estrada, Nereyda; Smith, Derek A

    2012-12-01

    The Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is a popular game species throughout Central America, particularly among indigenous populations, and is currently endangered. Research on Miskitu hunting was conducted over 4 months in a remote region in northeastern Honduras that overlaps with the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. The hunting zone was mapped together with hunters and interviews were conducted with elders and other community members about tapir hunting. Results show that tapir harvesting is targeted toward specific habitats at specific times of year. Harvest rates for one year suggest that tapir hunting in the area exceeds estimates of maximum sustainable production. Nevertheless, field surveys reveal the presence of tapir within 1 km of the community, and its harvest tends to be nearby, in both forested and agricultural landscapes, suggesting that the animal has not been depleted in the area. It appears that the existence of forest areas adjacent to the hunting zone that do not experience hunting, together with the anthropogenic habitats created through shifting cultivation, are factors that help explain the presence of tapirs in the area. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range.

  7. Síndrome de Hunter Mucopolisacaridosis (II:reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghunter Paz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Hunter, es una alteración genética que afecta principalmente a los varones, debido a la deficiencia o ausencia de la enzima iduronato-2-sulfatasa, que interfiere con lacapacidad del cuerpo de descomponer y reciclar los mucopolisacáridos. La incidencia es de 1:10.000 a 1:25.000 de recién nacidos vivos. Las manifestaciones físicas, incluyen rasgos faciales distintivos, cabeza grande, abdomen aumentado, engrosamiento de válvulas cardíacas, enfermedad respiratoria obstructiva, retraso del desarrollo mental y aumento de tamaño del hígado y del bazo.Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino de 7 años de edad, con diagnostico de síndrome de Hunter hace seis años, con antecedentes de crisis convulsivas en dos oportunidades y cuadros de bronconeumonía.Al examen físico presenta fascie tosca, contractura en musculo bíceps braquial, se logra la extensión de las manos, camina con la punta de los pies y presenta hepato y esplenomegalia. Al cual se le trató la sintomatología respiratoria con el uso de antibióticos.

  8. Dietary resilience among hunter-gatherers of Tierra del Fuego: Isotopic evidence in a diachronic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Mary Anne; Zangrando, Atilio Francisco Javier; Tessone, Augusto; Kochi, Sayuri; Moggi Cecchi, Jacopo; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Profico, Antonio; Manzi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations.

  9. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  10. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  11. Pathway from Vocational Education and Associate Degree to Higher Education: Chinese International Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Tran, Ly Thi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing international students' decision to engage in international education is essential for education providers to better cater for students' educational expectations and enhance their attractiveness to international students. Whilst there has been extensive research on the reasons why international students undertake…

  12. Is maternal education level associated with diet in 10-year-old children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Jones, Louise R; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andrew R; Emmett, Pauline M

    2011-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal education level and diet in 10-year-old children. Three-day diet diaries (child completed with parental help) were collected. Height and weight were measured in research clinics. Maternal education level was derived from a questionnaire completed during pregnancy and classified into low, medium or high. One-way ANOVA was undertaken to compare maternal education groups for nutrient intakes and the Kruskal-Wallis test used for food consumption. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. Children (n 7474) who provided dietary data at age 10 years. A large proportion (60 %) of the sample was classified as plausible reporters, with under-reporting accounting for 36 %. No clear differences were found for intakes of energy or macronutrients between maternal education groups for plausible reporters. However, there were marked differences in micronutrient intakes especially for vitamin C, retinol equivalents and folate, highlighting lower diet quality with lower maternal education level. Intakes of fruit and vegetables showed a positive gradient with increasing maternal education (57 % v. 79 % consumed fresh fruit in low and high educational groups, respectively). A trend towards higher intake in the lower educated group was shown for less healthy foods (meat pies P education level. Lower maternal education was associated with less healthy food choices that could be detrimental to health. Further research is needed to establish if these associations can be explained by other socio-economic factors.

  13. Sea Education Association's sailing research vessels as innovative platforms for long-term research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, P.; Carruthers, E. A.; Engels, M.; Goodwin, D.; Lavender Law, K. L.; Lea, C.; Schell, J.; Siuda, A.; Witting, J.; Zettler, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sea Education Association's (SEA) two research vessels, the SSV Corwith Cramer and the SSV Robert C. Seamans are unique in the research world. Not only do these ships perform advanced research using state of the art equipment, they do so under sail with high school, undergraduate, and graduate students serving as both the science team and the crew. Because of SEA's educational mission and reliance on prevailing winds for sailing, the vessels have been studying repeated tracks for decades, providing valuable long-term data sets while educating future marine scientists. The Corwith Cramer has been collecting data in the North Atlantic between New England, the Sargasso Sea, Bermuda, and the Caribbean since 1987 while the Robert C. Seamans has been operating in the Eastern Pacific between the US West Coast, Hawaii, and French Polynesia since 2001. The ships collect continuous electronic data from hull mounted ADCP, chirp, and a clean flowing seawater system logging temperature, salinity, in-vivo chlorophyll and CDOM fluorescence, and beam attenuation. The ships also periodically collect data from profiling CTDs with chlorophyll and CDOM fluorometers, transmissometers, and dissolved oxygen and PAR sensors. In addition to electronic data, archived long term data sets include physical samples from net tows such as marine plastic debris and tar, and plankton including Halobates (a marine insect), leptocephali (eel larvae), and phyllosoma (spiny lobster larvae). Both vessels are 134' brigantine rig tall ships and are designated sailing school vessels (SSV) by the US Coast Guard, and both have received instrumentation grants from NSF to provide high quality, reliable data that is submitted to the NSF R2R archives. Students sailing on these ships spend time on shore at the SEA campus in Woods Hole, MA taking classes in oceanography, nautical science, maritime studies and public policy. Each student is required to write a proposal for their research before heading to sea, and

  14. Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Louise T; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

    2014-01-21

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population.

  15. Organizational Climate of the American Association for Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Torres, Robert M.; Murphy, Tim H.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating programs and outcomes is common practice in educational arenas; less frequent in professional societies and organizations. A clear understanding of the climate of an organization is important, potentially providing leadership with an understanding of how to improve the functionality of an organization. The purpose of this…

  16. Canadian Athletic Therapists' Association Education Task Force Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Mark R.; Bergeron, Glen; Klassen, Connie; Parr, Kelly; Valdez, Dennis; Elliott, Jacqueline; Peeler, Jason; Orecchio, Elsa; McKenzie, Kirsty; Streed, Kristin; DeMont, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Context: A published commentary from 2 of the current authors acted as a catalyst for raising some key issues that have arisen in athletic therapy education in Canada over the years. Objective: The purpose of this article is to report on the process followed to establish a number of consensus statements related to postsecondary athletic therapy…

  17. Preschool Gifted Education: Perceived Challenges Associated with Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Salman, Rania C.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the challenges related to implementing gifted education services in preschool centers. Participants were 254 licensed preschool center directors in a southern state. Participants completed a researcher-created survey including both selected response items and constructed response items to examine the perceived…

  18. The National Dance Association: The Leader in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderfather, Kathleen; Hearn, Colleen Porter

    2010-01-01

    From the earliest years of what is now AAHPERD, American dance education has exerted a strong presence. In 1932 the National Section on Dance was established, and in 1979 the capital letter "D" ceremoniously became a part of AAHPERD. Visionaries such as Gulick and Margaret H'Doubler (who is credited with creating the first dance major program in…

  19. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A.; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later.\\ud Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  20. The association between educational parameters and a cognitive screening measure in older blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Sardina, Angie L; Corona, Richard T; Willingham, Kurtis; Migoyo, Rafael V; Andel, Ross A

    2017-07-10

    To expand on prior literature by examining how various education parameters (performance-based reading literacy, years of education, and self-rated quality of education) relate to a cognitive screening measure's total and subscale scores of specific cognitive abilities. Black adults (age range: 55-86) were administered self-rated items years of education and quality of education, and a measure of performance-based reading literacy. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to screen for overall cognitive functioning as well as performance on specific cognitive abilities. Sixty-nine percent of the sample had reading grade levels that were less than their reported years of education. Lower years of education and worse reading literacy are associated with poorer MMSE performance, particularly on the attention and calculation subscales. Years of education, a commonly used measure for education, may not be reflective of Black adults' educational experiences/qualities. Thus, it is important to account for the unique educational experiences of adults that could influence their MMSE performance. Incorporating quality and quantity of education will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the individual's performance on cognitive measures, specifically as it relates to sociocultural differences.

  1. The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE): Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) is now over 90 years old. Recently recommitted to a focus on research in library and information science teaching and pedagogy, and support for educators in the field, ALISE serves its members with a range of publications, awards, and services. Membership is strong and…

  2. Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents : cues to counteract socioeconomic differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, Andrea; Tavel, P.; van Dijk, J.P.; Abel, T.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to th

  3. IVA (Illinois Vocational Association) Workshops--An Innovative Approach to Inservice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward T.

    1974-01-01

    A joint effort in inservice education between the Illinois Division of Vocational and Technical Education and the Illinois Vocational Association (IVA) created ten diversified mini workshops which were conducted at the 1973 IVA convention in Chicago. The overall, average participant rating for the workshop was 3.76 on a one-to-four continuum. (EA)

  4. The PR in PN for Education Associations. PR Bookshelf, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This booklet presents suggestions and guidelines for the effective use of public relations (PR) techniques during professional negotiations (PN) among teachers, administrators, and boards of education. Introductory sections present the National Education Association (NEA) position regarding professional negotiation and grievance procedures and…

  5. IVA (Illinois Vocational Association) Workshops--An Innovative Approach to Inservice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward T.

    1974-01-01

    A joint effort in inservice education between the Illinois Division of Vocational and Technical Education and the Illinois Vocational Association (IVA) created ten diversified mini workshops which were conducted at the 1973 IVA convention in Chicago. The overall, average participant rating for the workshop was 3.76 on a one-to-four continuum. (EA)

  6. Extracting Patterns from Educational Traces via Clustering and Associated Quality Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaescu, Marian; Tanasie, Alexandru; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Clustering algorithms, pattern mining techniques and associated quality metrics emerged as reliable methods for modeling learners’ performance, comprehension and interaction in given educational scenarios. The specificity of available data such as missing values, extreme values or outliers, creates

  7. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs Improvement Act of 2000. Section 80.61 What requirements apply... the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act, but the current regulations apply the requirement to... Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act. This would help agencies comply with statutory requirements...

  8. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice.

  9. Under What Conditions Do Children Thrive in the Madeline Hunter Model? A Report of Project Follow Through, Napa, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jane; And Others

    This study evaluated the effect of a comprehensive training program for teachers based on Madeline Hunter's Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP). To examine the question of implementation, teachers in the first through fourth grades in Napa Valley elementary schools were observed teaching two reading and two mathematics classes before and…

  10. Arrowheads as indicators of interpersonal violence and group identity among the Neolithic Pitted Ware hunters of southwestern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The three main types of tanged flint arrowheads (A, B, and C) characteristic of the Neolithic Pitted Ware hunter, fisher and gatherers of southwestern Scandinavia are traditionally viewed as chronological conditioned. However, recent studies have shown their simultaneity during the early 3rd mill...

  11. Quest for water in coastal Georgia: assessment of alternative water sources at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.

    2011-01-01

    To meet growing demands for water in the coastal Georgia area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted detailed site investigations and modeling studies at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the water-bearing potential of ponds and wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  12. The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College. A Partnership among Earth Science, Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmun, Haydee; Buonaiuto, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships to 40 academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics…

  13. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  14. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of years, so people in Indonesia claim, head-hunters – figures of dread and fascination that have haunted societies, politics, and the public imagination in Indonesia at least since colonial times – have begun to adopt a novel and troubling tactic. Instead of decapitating...

  15. REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF RURAL EDUCATION, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, OCTOBER, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISENBERG, ROBERT M.

    THE GOALS FOR RURAL EDUCATION, THE ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT, AND STATISTICAL DATA ABOUT MEMBERSHIP AND FINANCIAL STATUS ARE PRESENTED IN THE MAIN BODY OF THE REPORT. THE APPENDICES INCLUDE--(1) A FINANCIAL STATEMENT, (2) REPORTS FROM THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE TO THE STATE DIRECTORS, FROM THE COMMITTEE ON RURAL LIFE AND EDUCATION, FROM THE…

  16. Core Hunter II: fast core subset selection based on multiple genetic diversity measures using Mixed Replica search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beukelaer Herman De

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sampling core subsets from genetic resources while maintaining as much as possible the genetic diversity of the original collection is an important but computationally complex task for gene bank managers. The Core Hunter computer program was developed as a tool to generate such subsets based on multiple genetic measures, including both distance measures and allelic diversity indices. At first we investigate the effect of minimum (instead of the default mean distance measures on the performance of Core Hunter. Secondly, we try to gain more insight into the performance of the original Core Hunter search algorithm through comparison with several other heuristics working with several realistic datasets of varying size and allelic composition. Finally, we propose a new algorithm (Mixed Replica search for Core Hunter II with the aim of improving the diversity of the constructed core sets and their corresponding generation times. Results Our results show that the introduction of minimum distance measures leads to core sets in which all accessions are sufficiently distant from each other, which was not always obtained when optimizing mean distance alone. Comparison of the original Core Hunter algorithm, Replica Exchange Monte Carlo (REMC, with simpler heuristics shows that the simpler algorithms often give very good results but with lower runtimes than REMC. However, the performance of the simpler algorithms is slightly worse than REMC under lower sampling intensities and some heuristics clearly struggle with minimum distance measures. In comparison the new advanced Mixed Replica search algorithm (MixRep, which uses heterogeneous replicas, was able to sample core sets with equal or higher diversity scores than REMC and the simpler heuristics, often using less computation time than REMC. Conclusion The REMC search algorithm used in the original Core Hunter computer program performs well, sometimes leading to slightly better results

  17. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharani, U; Sherchan, P; Schloetter, M; Stratford, S; Xiao, A; Sebastian, A; Nolte Kennedy, M; Frassetto, L

    2015-08-01

    The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases--'diseases of civilization'--such as obesity and diabetes. We investigated in type 2 diabetes whether a diet similar to that consumed by our pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors ('Paleolithic' type diet) confers health benefits. We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled diet study in type 2 diabetes patients. We compared the findings in 14 participants consuming a Paleo diet comprising lean meat, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and excluding added salt, and non-Paleolithic-type foods comprising cereal grains, dairy or legumes, with 10 participants on a diet based on recommendations by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) containing moderate salt intake, low-fat dairy, whole grains and legumes. There were three ramp-up diets for 7 days, then 14 days of the test diet. Outcomes included the following: mean arterial blood pressure; 24-h urine electrolytes; hemoglobin A1c and fructosamine levels; insulin resistance by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and lipid levels. Both groups had improvements in metabolic measures, but the Paleo diet group had greater benefits on glucose control and lipid profiles. Also, on the Paleo diet, the most insulin-resistant subjects had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (r = 0.40, P = 0.02), but no such effect was seen in the most insulin-resistant subjects on the ADA diet (r = 0.39, P = 0.3). Even short-term consumption of a Paleolithic-type diet improved glucose control and lipid profiles in people with type 2 diabetes compared with a conventional diet containing moderate salt intake, low-fat dairy, whole grains and legumes.

  18. Association between addiction treatment staff professional and educational levels and perceptions of organizational climate and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Ivy; Lundgren, Lena; Beltrame, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Research studies have identified addiction treatment staff who have higher levels of education as having more positive attitudes about evidence-based treatment practices, science-based training, and the usefulness of evidence-based practices. This study examined associations between addiction treatment staff level of education and their perceptions of 3 measures of organizational change: organizational stress, training resources and staffing resources in their treatment unit. The sample included 588 clinical staff from community-based substance abuse treatment organizations who received Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) funding (2003-2008) to implement evidence-based practices (EBPs). Bivariate analysis and regression modeling methods examined the relationship between staff education level (no high school education, high school education, some college, associate's degree, bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree, and other type of degree such as medical assistant, registered nurse [RN], or postdoctoral) and attitudes about organizational climate (stress), training resources, and staffing resources while controlling for staff and treatment unit characteristics. Multivariable models identified staff with lower levels of education as having significantly more positive attitudes about their unit's organizational capacity. These results contradict findings that addiction treatment staff with higher levels of education work in units with greater levels of organizational readiness for change. It cannot be inferred that higher levels of education among treatment staff is necessarily associated with high levels of organizational readiness for change.

  19. Una valigia caduta in mare: Jaume Serra Hunter e la "Scuola di Barcellona"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzareno Fioraso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nella storiografia filosofica spagnola non esiste, probabilmente, una definizione ambigua e problematica come quella che riguarda la cosiddetta "Scuola di Barcellona". La tesi principale di questo articolo è che tale scuola non giunse mai a nascere, ma ne esistette soltanto una forma embrionale che non poté maturare perché, in conseguenza della situazione politica venutasi a creare con la guerra civile (1936-1939, i suoi componenti si dispersero nell'esilio. Ciò nonostante, è possibile riconoscere alcuni tratti comuni, seppur labili e (forse non sostanziali, nella diaspora degli intellettuali catalani che rendono possibile definirla, con le dovute cautele, "Scuola di Barcellona". Tali caratteristiche comuni si possono far risalire a colui che, in un certo senso, fu il fondatore della scuola, essendo il principale maestro delle nuove leve filosofiche della Catalogna all'inizio del XX secolo: Jaume Serra Hunter.

  20. Evolutionary or fragmented environmental policy making? coal, power, and agriculture in the Hunter Valley, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Diana G.

    1988-05-01

    Intensified surface mining, power generation, and smelting operations in the Hunter River lowlands, NSW, Australia have posed numerous new environmental management problems. Legislative controls over water, soils, and land use management have been clearly insufficient and remain so. The complex range of environmental changes is challenging government agencies as well as coal developers. While water demands are increasing in the region the proportionally greatest competitors are power generation and irrigation. Comprehensive regional water quality assessment is inadequate and divided between a number of agencies with fragmentary interests. Coal development inquiries signal further controversy over appropriate management solutions and are an ongoing phenomenon in the region. The early 1980s resource boom has been followed by lower rates of economic growth, which have resulted in disparate agency responses to major ongoing environmental questions. While issue attention cycles are often remarkably short in environmental management, matters of water, land, and air quality require intensive and ongoing monitoring and policy development.

  1. Symmetry Analysis and Conservation Laws for the Hunter-Saxton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Nadjafikhah; Fatemeh Ahangari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the problem of determining the most generalLie point symmetries group and conservation laws of a well known nonlinear hyperbolic PDE in mathematical physics called the Hunter-Saxton equation (HSE) is analyzed.By applying the basic Lie symmetry method for the HSE,the classical Lie point symmetry operators are obtained.Also,the algebraic structure of the Lie algebra of symmetries is discussed and an optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras of the HSE symmetry algebra which creates the preliminary classification of group invariant solutions is constructed.Particularly,the Lie invariants as well as similarity reduced equations corresponding to infinitesimal symmetries are obtained.Mainly,the conservation laws of the HSE are computed via three different methods including Boyer's generalization of Noether's theorem,first homotopy method and second homotopy method.

  2. Maximum likelihood methods for investigating reporting rates of rings on hunter-shot birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Morgan, B.J.T.; North, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that hunters do not report 100% of the rings that they find on shot birds. Reward studies can be used to estimate what this reporting rate is, by comparison of recoveries of rings offering a monetary reward, to ordinary rings. A reward study of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) is used to illustrate the design, and to motivate the development of statistical models for estimation and for testing hypotheses of temporal and geographic variation in reporting rates. The method involves indexing the data (recoveries) and parameters (reporting, harvest, and solicitation rates) by geographic and temporal strata. Estimates are obtained under unconstrained (e.g., allowing temporal variability in reporting rates) and constrained (e.g., constant reporting rates) models, and hypotheses are tested by likelihood ratio. A FORTRAN program, available from the author, is used to perform the computations.

  3. Planet Hunters: New Kepler planet candidates from analysis of quarter 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lintott, Chris; Sharzer, Charlie; Fisher, Debra A; Barclay, Thomas; Parrish, Michael; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Schawinski, Kevin; Gagliano, Rovert; Gilardi, Joe; Jek, Kian J; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Smits, Tjapko

    2012-01-01

    We present new planet candidates identified in NASA Kepler quarter two public release data by volunteers engaged in the Planet Hunters citizen science project. The two candidates presented here survive checks for false-positives, including examination of the pixel offset to constrain the possibility of a background eclipsing binary. The orbital periods of the planet candidates are 97.46 days (KIC 4552729) and 284.03 (KIC 10005758) days and the modeled planet radii are 5.3 and 3.790 R_Earth. The latter star has an additional known planet candidate with a radius of 5.05 R_Earth and a period of 134.49 which was detected by the Kepler pipeline. The discovery of these candidates illustrates the value of massively distributed volunteer review of the Kepler database to recover candidates which were otherwise uncatalogued.

  4. Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Pablo A; Santoro, Calogero M; Latorre, Claudio; Standen, Vivien G; Abades, Sebastián R; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Arriaza, Bernardo; Hochberg, Michael E

    2012-09-11

    The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices.

  5. General medicine advanced training: lessons from the John Hunter training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, D; Attia, J; Pickles, R

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number of advanced trainees pursuing general medicine as a specialty. This reflects an awareness of the need for broader training experiences to equip future consultant physicians with the skills to manage the healthcare challenges arising from the demographic trends of ageing and increasing comorbidity. The John Hunter Hospital training programme in general medicine has several characteristics that have led to the success in producing general physicians prepared for these challenges. These include support from a core group of committed general physicians, an appropriate and sustainable funding model, flexibility with a focus on genuine training and developing awareness of a systems approach, and strong links with rural practice.

  6. Bounty Hunter x Alpha Industries 暗黑军事结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    日本里原系品牌找来正宗军服品牌Alpha Industries合作已不算新鲜事,早在1999年里原文化的黄金时期,差不多每到冬季总见不同类型的合作军褛款式,直到今年也不例外,而且一直延伸到春夏季。向来以朋克摇滚作设计方针的Bounty Hunter,在最新单品中再次找来Alpha Industries合作,推出以MA-1作蓝本的暗黑款式,并在细节上经过特别加工。

  7. The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to…

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  9. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  10. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  11. Enzymatic replacement therapy for Hunter disease: Up to 9 years experience with 17 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Parini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hunter disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and multi-organ impairment. The central nervous system (CNS is involved in at least 50% of cases. Since 2006, the enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT is available but with no effect on the cognitive impairment, as the present formulation does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Here we report the outcome of 17 Hunter patients treated in a single center. Most of them (11 started ERT in 2006, 3 had started it earlier in 2004, enrolled in the phase III trial, and 3 after 2006, as soon as the diagnosis was made. The liver and spleen sizes and urinary GAGs significantly decreased and normalized throughout the treatment. Heart parameters improved, in particular the left ventricular mass index/m2 decreased significantly. Amelioration of hearing was seen in many patients. Joint range of motion improved in all patients. However, no improvement on respiratory function, eye, skeletal and CNS disease was found. The developmental quotient of patients with a CNS involvement showed a fast decline. These patients were no more testable after 6 years of age and, albeit the benefits drawn from ERT, their quality of life worsened throughout the years. The whole group of patients showed a consistent residual disease burden mainly represented by persistent skeletal disease and frequent need of surgery. This study suggests that early diagnosis and treatment and other different therapies which are able to cross the blood–brain barrier, might in the future improve the MPS II outcome.

  12. Brood surveys and hunter observations used to predict gobbling activity wild turkeys in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Matthew D.; Vilella, Francisco; Strickland, Bronson K.; Wang, Guiming; Godwin, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks utilize data from turkey hunter observations and brood surveys from across the state to manage wild turkey Meleagris gallopavo populations. Since 1995, hunters have collected gobbling and jake observation data, while the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks' personnel and cooperating wildlife managers of several natural resource agencies throughout the state have collected brood survey data. Both sources of data serve to forecast poult recruitment and gobbling activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate if these data can serve as a viable predictor of gobbling activity. We used three mixed models to investigate the relationship between the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior and the total number of poults per hens 2 y prior (model 1), number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior (model 2), the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the total number poults per total hens observed 2 y prior (model 3) using data from 1995 to 2008 among five wild turkey management regions encompassing the state. We incorporated region as a random effect to account for spatial variation. We found the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior correlated with the total number of poults per total hens observed 2 y prior. We also found the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting correlated with the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior. Additionally, we found that the total poults per total hens observed 2 y prior was correlated to the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting. Our results show promise for using indices of gobbling activity, jake observations, and brood surveys to estimate gobbling activity.

  13. FEMALE EDUCATION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CHANGES IN SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC BEHAVIOUR: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

    2015-09-01

    Education is a crucial factor in influencing the pattern and timing of marriage for women, and the changes in levels of female literacy will also change the dynamics of family formation. India has experienced consistent improvement in levels of female literacy; therefore, this study examined the association of women's education with the changes in their demographic behaviour in the Indian context. The central idea of the paper is to examine the differences in age at marriage and first birth, choice of marriage partner and the number of children ever born based on educational attainment of women. In addition, the study examined incongruence in years of schooling and discontinuation from school, for children based on education of the mother. The study utilized data from the third round of District Level Household and Facility Survey. The sample constituted 344,164 ever-married women aged 35 years and above with surviving children aged 5-20 years. The results imply that women with higher education are more likely to marry late and have fewer children compared with less educated women. Accordingly, increase in education of women also increases the probability of marrying men with better education than themselves. The study further observed that education of wife has a greater association with the number of children ever born than the education of husband. At the same time, incongruence in years of schooling and drop-out from school are both high for children of uneducated women. The study also found that the children from urban areas are more likely to drop out than their rural counterparts. In addition to education of the mother, number and composition of children in the family and economic condition of the household are some other factors that influence the educational attainment of children.

  14. Associations between education and physical functioning and pain in adult Danish cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Dorte; Nygaard, Tina K; Horsbøl, Trine A; Kjær, Trille; Vedsted, Peter; Johansen, Christoffer; Hovaldt, Hanna B; Sandager, Mette; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-02-01

    Late effects after cancer diagnosis and treatment are common, but only few studies have examined the role of social factors in developing these late effects. The aim of this study was to examine the association between educational level and physical function and pain among cancer survivors two years after diagnosis. The study population consisted of adult Danish patients with a first-time cancer diagnosis who were sent a questionnaire in 2010 and followed up in 2012. In total, 4346 returned the first questionnaire shortly after diagnosis and 2568 returned the follow-up questionnaire. After exclusion of 177 due to missing information, we included 2391 cancer survivors in the analyses. Physical function and pain were measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for men and women, and adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Additionally, analyses were stratified on comorbidity. Differences in mean scores according to educational level were small. Physical function was better in women with medium (2.8; 95% CI 0.1;5.4) and higher education (3.4; 95% CI 0.9;5.9) compared to women with short education. In contrast, men with medium education reported lower physical function (-2.9; 95% CI -5.7;-0.1) than men with short education. Compared to women with short education, we found lower pain scores among women with medium (-5.0; 95% CI -8.7;-1.4) and higher education (-3.4; 95% CI -6.7;0.0). Similarly, men with higher education experienced lower pain score (-3.4; 95% CI -6.9;0.1) than men with short education. The role of educational level differed between those with and without comorbidity. Educational level is slightly associated with physical function and pain among cancer survivors. However, mean differences in this study were small and below what is considered clinically relevant.

  15. Word Association Data and the Assessment of Bilingual Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capco, Clemencia S.; Tucker, G. Richard

    1971-01-01

    Manuscript supported, in part, by grants from the Canada Council and the Defense Research Board of Canada to Mr. Tucker. More complete version was prepared by Miss Capco as A Study of the Verbal Behavior of Bilingual Children Using a Word Association Technique", M.A. thesis, Philippine Normal College, Manila, 1969. (VM)

  16. Higher Education Association Lobbying: Grassroots Outreach as a Signal of Constituent Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to gain a better understanding of lobbying by the major DC-based higher education associations. To understand this phenomenon, this study looked at the lobbying tactics used by the associations and how they decide on what lobbying tactics to use. A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used with a sample comprised of…

  17. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yongling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. Methods The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Results Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males. Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively. Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30 mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14. Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0

  18. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  19. Association between the Education and Thalassaemia: A Statistical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamruz Zaman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comprises the questionnaire/interview survey of 320 patients and their parent’s conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan to study the literacy of thalassaemia among parents and the severity of thalassaemia on different social aspects. Parent’s educations were strongly linked to cure that disease specially the test (during pregnancy. The majority of parent’s were illiterate and were also against the family planning. Inter family marriages was also one of the main reason of the disease among these patient’s. 56.9% of the patient parents were first cousins while only 1.3% of the patients were matriculate. In the social factors, their average family income was very less as compared to the family members and the expenditure of the treatment. It was also found that the disease was more common in positive blood groups. To coup with the situation, efforts to increase the literacy rate and awareness of the disease are urgently required.

  20. Associations between sexuality education in schools and adolescent birthrates: a state-level longitudinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Iguchi, Martin; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-02-01

    To examine the impact of sexuality education practices on adolescent birthrates while controlling for demographic characteristics and religious/political factors at a state level. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-four states, from 1997 through 2005. Girls aged 15 to 17 years. The state sexuality education practices (ie, sexually transmitted disease prevention, pregnancy prevention, condom efficacy) for 1996 through 2004 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Health Profiles Survey. State birthrates for girls aged 15 to 17 years for 1997 through 2005 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In a longitudinal, unadjusted model, our findings provide evidence that increased sexuality education within school curricula is associated with lower adolescent birthrates (average sexuality education topics β = -0.61; P = .001). However, the effect of sexuality education disappeared when taking into consideration the demographic characteristics, religiosity, and abortion policies of the state (average sexuality education topics β = -0.12; P = .26). States with higher religiosity rankings and greater political conservatism had higher adolescent birthrates. The effects of sexuality education were constrained by state characteristics and do not independently explain the considerable variations in adolescent birthrates found across states. Our findings underscore the strong influence of state characteristics on adolescent birthrates above and beyond sexuality education, which must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of sexuality education programs.

  1. The association between education and induced abortion for three cohorts of adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Heini

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores whether the likelihood of abortion by education changed over time in Finland, where comprehensive family planning services and sexuality education have been available since the early 1970s. This subject has not previously been studied longitudinally with comprehensive and reliable data. A unique longitudinal set of register data of more than 250,000 women aged 20-49 born in 1955-59, 1965-69, and 1975-79 was analysed, using descriptive statistics, concentration curves, and discrete-time event-history models. Women with basic education had a higher likelihood of abortion than others and the association grew stronger for later cohorts. Selection into education may explain this phenomenon: although it was fairly common to have only basic education in the 1955-59 cohort, it became increasingly unusual over time. Thus, even though family planning services were easily available, socio-economic differences in the likelihood of abortion remained.

  2. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Amarelys Morera Pérez; Nora Sexto Delgado; Boris Yanes Tarancón; Anabel Casanova Lezcano

    2016-01-01

    Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in th...

  3. 2016 World Federation of Chiropractic/Association of Chiropractic Colleges Education Conference proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In October 2016, the World Federation of Chiropractic and Association of Chiropractic Colleges Education Conference was held in Montreal, Canada. This summary provides the titles of the contributed presentations. The full set of abstracts for this meeting are published online at www.journalchiroed.com as an exclusively electronic publication that is part of volume 30, issue 2 (October 2016) of the Journal of Chiropractic Education. PMID:27749117

  4. Business education in veterinary schools: the potential role of the Veterinary Business Management Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieves, Nina R; Roark, Andrew W; Sparks, Tonya K

    2007-01-01

    Studies have indicated the importance of business education in improving the income level attained by veterinarians and the quality of service they provide. The Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA), a national organization of veterinary students, has the potential to augment veterinary curricula by providing additional education to help ensure professional success. Local chapters at 27 of the 28 veterinary colleges in the United States (as of 2007) supplement the curriculum by focusing on business topics. A national governing board oversees the chapters, helping to ensure that high-quality educational programs are conducted and providing a conduit for communication.

  5. Networks of Learning : Professional Association and the Continuing Education of Teachers of Mathematics in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Sikunder Ali

    . The formation and growth of this network can be viewed as developing insights into the improvement of mathematics education in the developing world. The contributions of the association may also add value to the learning of teacher colleagues in other parts of the world. This sharing of the experience may...... and policy makers have been recently receiving attention an innovative and flexible professional development forum for creating ownership among these stakeholders' regarding implementing change and reforms in educational landscape in different countries. The paper draws on the notion of "networking...... further support in opening up possibilities for creating other networks of learning to assist reform efforts in education throughout the world....

  6. Balancing Rights: Education Law in a Brave New World. Papers [of the] Education Law Association (ELA) Annual Conference (48th, New Orleans, LA, November 14-16, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Law Association, Dayton, OH.

    This collection contains 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002. It has as its focus education law, yet it covers a wide variety of topics and issues affecting the entire range of education from preschool to college. Among the topics are the following: school vouchers; school safety and…

  7. Comet Hunters: A Citizen Science Project to Search for Comets in the Main Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Schwamb, Megan Elizabeth; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ying-Tung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lintott, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Fully automated detection of comets in wide-field surveys remains a challenge, as even highly successful comet-finding surveys like Pan-STARRS rely on a combination of both automated flagging algorithms and vetting by human eyes. To take advantage of the long-noted superiority of the human eye over computer algorithms in certain types of pattern recognition, particularly when dealing with a range of target morphologies of interest, we have created a citizen science website with the aim of allowing the general public to aid in the search for active asteroids, which are objects that occupy dynamically asteroidal orbits yet exhibit comet-like dust emission due to sublimation, impact disruption, rotational destabilization, or other effects. Located at comethunters.org, the Comet Hunters website was built using the Zooniverse Project Builder (https://www.zooniverse.org/lab), and displays images of known asteroids obtained either from archival data obtained between 1999 and 2014 by the Suprime-Cam wide-field imager mounted on the 8-m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, or more contemporary data obtained by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) wide-field imager also on the Subaru Telescope as part of the ongoing HSC Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) survey. By using observations from such a large-aperture telescope, most of which have never been searched for solar system objects, much less cometary ones, we expect that volunteers should be able to make genuinely scientifically significant discoveries, and also provide valuable insights into the potential and challenges of searching for comets in the LSST era. To date, over 13,000 registered volunteers have contributed 350,000 classifications. We will discuss the design and construction of the Comet Hunters website, and also discuss early results from the project.This work uses data generated via the Zooniverse.org platform, development of which was supported by a Global Impact Award from Google, and by the Alfred P. Sloan

  8. Mount Pinatubo, inflammatory cytokines, and the immunological ecology of Aeta hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robin M; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    Early growth cessation and reproduction are predicted to maximize fitness under conditions of high adult mortality, factors that could explain the pygmy phenotype of many rainforest hunter-gatherers. This life-history hypothesis is elegant but contentious in part because it lacks a clear biological mechanism. One mechanism stems from the field of human immunological ecology and the concept of inflammation "memory" across the life cycle and into subsequent generations. Maternal exposures to disease can influence immunological cues present in breast milk; because maternal provisioning via lactation occurs during critical periods of development, it is plausible that these cues can also mediate early growth cessation and small body size. Such epigenetic hypotheses are difficult to test, but the concept of developmental programming is attractive because it could explain how the stature of a population can change over time, in terms of both secular increases and rapid intergenerational decreases. Here we explore this concept by focusing on the Aeta, a population of former hunter-gatherers, and the Ilocano, a population of rice farmers. We predicted that Aeta mothers would produce breast milk with higher concentrations of four bioactive factors due to high infectious burdens. Further, we predicted that the concentrations of these factors would be highest in the cohort of women born in the early 1990s, when exposure to infectious disease was acute following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. We analyzed levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and epidermal growth factor in the milk of 24 Aeta and 31 Ilocano women and found no detectable differences, whereas levels of transforming growth factor-?2 were elevated among the Aeta, particularly as a function of maternal age. We found no difference between cohorts divided by the volcanic eruption (n = 43 born before, n = 12 born after). We discuss the implications of our findings for the terminal investment

  9. Macrophysical climate models and Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence shifts in Central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We use stable carbon isotopic values from bone collagen, as well as carbon values from carbonate extracted from bone apatite from 69 prehistoric human skeletal samples to investigate past resource use and climate relationships over the Middle and Late Holocene in Central Texas. Bone samples come from seven archaeological sites and samples date from 6,900 BP to the close of the prehistoric sequence at about 350 BP. Carbon isotopes from these samples suggest four broad dietary trends. From 6,900 through about 3,800 BP, carbon isotopes suggest a gradual increase in the consumption of resources that ultimately use a C3 photosynthetic pathway. A decline in δ13C in both collagen and carbonate values follows, suggesting a decrease in C3 resource use through roughly 2,900 BP. A variable, but once again increasing pattern on C3 resource use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is indicated in bone isotopes through about 1,000 BP. After that date, a decrease in C3 resource dependence, with hints at greater subsistence diversity, is suggested through the close of the sequence at 350 BP. To assess the impact of climate shifts on this isotopic pattern, we developed a series of macrophysical climate models (MCM) for several locations in Central Texas focusing on fall, winter, and early spring precipitation. This fall-spring rainfall should closely determine C3 production. If subsistence shifts are responding to climate-induced changes in resource availability, then the measured hunter-gatherer carbon isotope trends summarized above should pattern with C3 production as monitored by the modeled fall-spring precipitation values. For the Middle Holocene portion of the sequence, the precipitation models suggest increasing C3 production, consistent with increasing C3 dependence shown in the isotopic data. A decline in C3 production between 3,900 and 3,000 BP in the models is also consistent with the isotopic decline at that point. After 3,000 BP, however, the coupling between fall

  10. Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-06-14

    Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner's dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player's cooperation choices in prisoner's dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were 'moral bargain hunters' who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a 'price list' of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game.

  11. Association between maternal education and malocclusion in Mongolian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumurkhuu, Tsasan; Fujiwara, Takeo; Komazaki, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Inazawa, Johji; Ganburged, Ganjargal; Bazar, Amarsaikhan; Ogawa, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malocclusion is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 20–60% of adolescents worldwide. Although its treatment is often expensive and unaffordable for disadvantaged individuals, few studies have examined the relationship between malocclusion and socioeconomic status. We investigated the prevalence of malocclusion among Mongolian adolescents and its association with maternal education in a community-based sample in Mongolia. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings 2 large secondary schools with different backgrounds in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Participants Complete dental casts of 557 randomly recruited Mongolian schoolchildren aged 11–16 years were evaluated using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need to dichotomise orthodontic treatment requirements. Exclusion criteria were the presence of orthodontic treatment history and absence of maternal educational status. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers to assess socioeconomic status. Poisson regression analysis was performed to examine the association between malocclusion and maternal educational status. Results The prevalence of malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment among all adolescents was 35.2% (95% CI 31.2 to 39.2). In the unadjusted analysis, the prevalence ratio (PR) for malocclusion was higher (PR=1.46; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.20) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background than among those of mothers with a low educational background. After adjusting for covariates, the PR remained significantly higher (PR=1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.82) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background. Other socioeconomic status variables, including family income and the educational level of the father, showed no association with malocclusion. Conclusions These findings suggest that malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment in adolescents is more prevalent among children of mothers with high levels of education. Further studies are

  12. Mental health problems of Dutch adolescents: the association with adolescents' and their parents' educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Jano; Bosma, Hans; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Feron, Frans J

    2010-06-01

    We studied the hypothesis of socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems by examining whether a low educational level of adolescents and their parents shows independent (cumulative) or dependent (including interactive) associations with adolescents' mental health problems, or whether equalization occurred. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the preventive Youth Health Care Centre in a relatively deprived Dutch former mining area. Participants were 1861 adolescents aged 13 or 14 years (response rate 71.7%). The self-administered Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to identify adolescents' mental health problems. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations, and linear regression models to check the robustness of the findings. A low educational level of adolescents was strongly related to their mental health problems (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 3.31-8.70). The initially high odds ratios for adolescents with low-educated parents (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14-2.59) disappeared after controlling for the adolescents' own educational level (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.73-1.74). In terms of interactions, no specifically increased odds were found, e.g. for low-educated adolescents with high-educated parents. There was no evidence for socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems. Lower educated adolescents had substantially higher odds of having mental health problems, regardless of their parents' education. The odds may be affected by differences in intelligence and life events. Youth healthcare workers should collaborate closely with schools to intervene in time, particularly among low-educated adolescents. More interventions are probably needed to reduce these major inequities.

  13. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muh, Hon Cheng; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tammi, Martti T

    2009-06-10

    Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738), performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter).

  14. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Cheng Muh

    Full Text Available Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738, performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter.

  15. Inferring the demographic history of African farmers and pygmy hunter-gatherers using a multilocus resequencing data set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Patin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.

  16. Murine neural stem cells model Hunter disease in vitro: glial cell-mediated neurodegeneration as a possible mechanism involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar Poli, E; Zalfa, C; D'Avanzo, F; Tomanin, R; Carlessi, L; Bossi, M; Nodari, L Rota; Binda, E; Marmiroli, P; Scarpa, M; Delia, D; Vescovi, A L; De Filippis, L

    2013-11-07

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII or Hunter Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficit of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) activity and characterized by progressive systemic and neurological impairment. As the early mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration remain elusive, we chose to examine the properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from an animal model of the disease in order to evaluate whether their neurogenic potential could be used to recapitulate the early phases of neurogenesis in the brain of Hunter disease patients. Experiments here reported show that NSCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of early symptomatic IDS-knockout (IDS-ko) mouse retained self-renewal capacity in vitro, but differentiated earlier than wild-type (wt) cells, displaying an evident lysosomal aggregation in oligodendroglial and astroglial cells. Consistently, the SVZ of IDS-ko mice appeared similar to the wt SVZ, whereas the cortex and striatum presented a disorganized neuronal pattern together with a significant increase of glial apoptotic cells, suggesting that glial degeneration likely precedes neuronal demise. Interestingly, a very similar pattern was observed in the brain cortex of a Hunter patient. These observations both in vitro, in our model, and in vivo suggest that IDS deficit seems to affect the late phases of neurogenesis and/or the survival of mature cells rather than NSC self-renewal. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFR-α+) glial progenitors appeared reduced in both the IDS-ko NSCs and in the IDS-ko mouse and human Hunter brains, compared with the respective healthy controls. Treatment of mutant NSCs with IDS or PDGF throughout differentiation was able to increase the number of PDGFR-α+ cells and to reduce that of apoptotic cells to levels comparable to wt. This evidence supports IDS-ko NSCs as a reliable in vitro model of the disease, and suggests the rescue of PDGFR-α+ glial cells as a

  17. Origin and diet of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the mediterranean island of Favignana (Egadi Islands, Sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello A Mannino

    Full Text Available Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d'Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP. Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d'Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d'Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of

  18. The associations of personality traits and parental education with smoking behaviour among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Aina M.; Leiva, Alfonso; Estela, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether personality traits and parental education are associated with smoking initiation in a sample of Spanish secondary school students. Participants, taken from the ITACA study (842 adolescents aged 14–15 years), completed a questionnaire assessing personality traits of the Five Factor Model, smoking behaviours and parental education. Multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age and sex were used to determine the independent associations and interactions of personality traits and parental education with risk of ever trying smoking, as well as with being a regular smoker in adolescence. Higher conscientiousness was related to a lower chance of trying smoking at least once (OR = 0.57, 95% CIs = 0.46, 0.71) as well as being a regular smoker (OR = 0.39, 95% CIs = 0.27, 0.55). Higher emotional instability (neuroticism) was associated with higher risk of being in either smoking category (OR = 1.33, 95% CIs = 1.10, 1.60 and OR = 1.76, 95% CIs = 1.31, 2.35, respectively). Higher extraversion was also associated with a higher risk of both types of smoking behaviour (OR = 1.38, 95% CIs = 1.12, 1.70 and OR = 2.43 (1.67, 3.55, respectively). Higher parental education was significantly related to lower risk of being a regular smoker (OR = 0.70, 95% CIs = 0.54, 0.89), but not with trying smoking in the past. Finally, we found no evidence of the interactions between adolescents’ personality and parental education in predicting adolescent smoking behaviours. We conclude that personality factors and parental education are important and independent factors associated with smoking behaviour in adolescents. PMID:28333969

  19. Maternal literacy and associations between education and the cognitive home environment in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cori M; Berkule, Samantha B; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Huberman, Harris S; Klass, Perri E; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Morrow, Lesley M; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether maternal literacy level accounts for associations between educational level and the cognitive home environment in low-income families. Analysis of 369 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Urban public hospital. Low-income mothers of 6-month-old infants. Maternal literacy level was assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III/Bateria III Woodcock-Munoz Tests of Achievement, Letter-Word Identification Test. Maternal educational level was assessed by determining the last grade that had been completed by the mother. The cognitive home environment (provision of learning materials, verbal responsivity, teaching, and shared reading) was assessed using StimQ, an office-based interview measure. In unadjusted analyses, a maternal literacy level of ninth grade or higher was associated with increases in scores for the overall StimQ and each of 4 subscales, whereas a maternal educational level of ninth grade or higher was associated with increases in scores for the overall StimQ and 3 of 4 subscales. In simultaneous multiple linear regression models including both literacy and educational levels, literacy continued to be associated with scores for the overall StimQ (adjusted mean difference, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-5.7) and all subscales except teaching, whereas maternal educational level was no longer significantly associated with scores for the StimQ (1.8; 0.5-4.0) or any of its subscales. Literacy level may be a more specific indicator of risk than educational level in low-income families. Studies of low-income families should include direct measures of literacy. Pediatricians should develop strategies to identify mothers with low literacy levels and promote parenting behaviors to foster cognitive development in these at-risk families.

  20. Planet Hunters: the first two planet candidates identified by the public using the Kepler public archive data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra A.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Lynn, Stuart; Parrish, Michael; Sartori, Thibault; Simpson, Robert; Smith, Arfon; Spronck, Julien; Batalha, Natalie; Rowe, Jason; Jenkins, Jon; Bryson, Steve; Prsa, Andrej; Tenenbaum, Peter; Crepp, Justin; Morton, Tim; Howard, Andrew; Beleu, Michele; Kaplan, Zachary; Vannispen, Nick; Sharzer, Charlie; Defouw, Justin; Hajduk, Agnieszka; Neal, Joe P.; Nemec, Adam; Schuepbach, Nadine; Zimmermann, Valerij

    2012-02-01

    Planet Hunters is a new citizen science project designed to engage the public in an exoplanet search using NASA Kepler public release data. In the first month after launch, users identified two new planet candidates which survived our checks for false positives. The follow-up effort included analysis of Keck HIRES spectra of the host stars, analysis of pixel centroid offsets in the Kepler data and adaptive optics imaging at Keck using NIRC2. Spectral synthesis modelling coupled with stellar evolutionary models yields a stellar density distribution, which is used to model the transit orbit. The orbital periods of the planet candidates are 9.8844 ± 0.0087 d (KIC 10905746) and 49.7696 ± 0.000 39 d (KIC 6185331), and the modelled planet radii are 2.65 and 8.05 R⊕. The involvement of citizen scientists as part of Planet Hunters is therefore shown to be a valuable and reliable tool in exoplanet detection. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 40 000 volunteers in the Planet Hunters project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at .

  1. The impact of agricultural emergence on the genetic history of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Etienne; Siddle, Katherine J; Laval, Guillaume; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; Becker, Noémie; Froment, Alain; Régnault, Béatrice; Lemée, Laure; Gravel, Simon; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Perry, George H; Barreiro, Luis B; Verdu, Paul; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of agriculture in West-Central Africa approximately 5,000 years ago, profoundly modified the cultural landscape and mode of subsistence of most sub-Saharan populations. How this major innovation has had an impact on the genetic history of rainforest hunter-gatherers-historically referred to as 'pygmies'-and agriculturalists, however, remains poorly understood. Here we report genome-wide SNP data from these populations located west-to-east of the equatorial rainforest. We find that hunter-gathering populations present up to 50% of farmer genomic ancestry, and that substantial admixture began only within the last 1,000 years. Furthermore, we show that the historical population sizes characterizing these communities already differed before the introduction of agriculture. Our results suggest that the first socio-economic interactions between rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers introduced by the spread of farming were not accompanied by immediate, extensive genetic exchanges and occurred on a backdrop of two groups already differentiated by their specialization in two ecotopes with differing carrying capacities.

  2. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  3. Detection of a new mutation (T1140C) in a patient with Hunter syndrome from Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yibin; DU Chuanshu; WANG Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    This study identified mutations of the idumate-2-suffatase (IDS) gene in a patient with Hunter syndrome,and established a basis for the diagnosis of the prenatal gene of Hunter syndrome.Urine glyeosaminoglycan (GAG) assay was used to make the preliminary diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type H.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from dried blood spots and DNA sequencing were applied to analyze hotspot mutations in exons 9,3 and 8 of the IDS gene in the proband and his parents.A new missense mutation (T1140C) in exon 8 of the IDS gene was found by using DNA sequencing.This mutation caused a substitution of codon 339 from CTA (leucine) to CCA (praline).The patient is a hemizygote,and his mother is a heterozygote.The new missense mutation results in a change in the primary and tertiary structure of the IDS protein.It is possible that this mutation severely impairs enzymatic activity and is the underlying basis for the pathology seen in this patient with Hunter syndrome.

  4. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  5. Planet Hunters. VIII. Characterization of 41 Long-Period Exoplanet Candidates from Kepler Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas; Picard, Alyssa; Ma, Bo; Bowler, Brendan P; Schmitt, Joseph R; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Jek, Kian J; LaCourse, Daryll; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Simister, Dean Joseph; Gregoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Jebson, Tony; Omohundro, Mark R; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Sejpka, Johann; Terentev, Ivan A; Gagliano, Robert; Paakkonen, Jari-Pekka; Berge, Hans Kristian Otnes; Winarski, Troy; Green, Gerald R; Schmitt, Allan R

    2015-01-01

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0-Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1-3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4". We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive a...

  6. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations.

  7. Planet Hunters: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet in a Quadruple Star System

    CERN Document Server

    Schwamb, Megan E; Carter, Joshua A; Welsh, William F; Fischer, Debra A; Torres, Guillermo; Howard, Andrew W; Crepp, Justin R; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris J; Kaib, Nathan A; Terrell, Dirk; Gagliano, Robert; Jek, Kian J; Parrish, Michael; Smith, Arfon M; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert J; Giguere, Matthew J; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of a transiting circumbinary planet (PH1) around KIC 4862625, an eclipsing binary in the Kepler field. The planet was discovered by volunteers searching the first six Quarters of publicly available Kepler data as part of the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Transits of the planet across the larger and brighter of the eclipsing stars are detectable by visual inspection every ~137 days, with seven transits identified in Quarters 1-11. The physical and orbital parameters of both the host stars and planet were obtained via a photometric-dynamical model, simultaneously fitting both the measured radial velocities and the Kepler light curve of KIC 4862625.The 6.18 $\\pm$ 0.17 Earth radii planet orbits outside the 20-day orbit of an eclipsing binary consisting of an F dwarf (1.734 +/- 0.044 Solar radii, 1.528 +/- 0.087 Solar masses) and M dwarf (0.378 +/0 0.023 Solar radii, 0.408 +/- 0.024 solar masses). For the planet, we find an upper mass limit of 169 Earth masses(0.5...

  8. Jaguar conservation in southern Belize: Conflicts, perceptions, and prospects among mayan hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Belize has emerged as an international leader in jaguar conservation through the creation of numerous protected areas that contain prime cat habitat and by strengthening conservation laws. For example, in 1984, Belize created the Cockscomb Basin Jaguar Preserve, the first special jaguar protection area in the Americas. In 1995, the government expanded Cockscomb by creating the adjacent Chiquibul National Park. In 2010, the government continued this commitment to jaguar conservation by creating the Labouring Creek Jaguar Corridor Wildlife Sanctuary in central Belize. As a result of these protected areas, Belize has been rightfully lauded as a leader in nature-based tourism and protected areas creation in Central America. However, outside national parks and communities that directly benefit from ecotourism, it is less clear how supportive rural residents are of cat conservation. It is also not clear if jaguars persist outside protected areas in locations such as southern Belize, where the environment has been significantly altered by human activities. Through interviews with Mayan hunters, this paper investigates the attitudes towards jaguars, human-jaguar conflicts, and potential community-based jaguar conservation in two Mayan villages in the Toledo District in southern Belize. Also, using indirect methods, the paper documents the presence/absence and other temporal/spatial aspects of jaguars in a heavily altered landscape in southern Belize.

  9. Planet Hunters, Undergraduate Research, and Detection of Extrasolar Planet Kepler-818 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Crannell, Graham; Duncan, James; Hays, Aryn; Hendrix, Landon

    2017-01-01

    Detection of extrasolar planets provides an excellent research opportunity for undergraduate students. In Spring 2012, we searched for transiting extrasolar planets using Kepler spacecraft data in our Research Experience in Physics course at Austin College. Offered during the regular academic year, these Research Experience courses engage students in the scientific process, including proposal writing, paper submission, peer review, and oral presentations. Since 2004, over 190 undergraduate students have conducted authentic scientific research through Research Experience courses at Austin College.Zooniverse’s citizen science Planet Hunters web site offered an efficient method for rapid analysis of Kepler data. Light curves from over 5000 stars were analyzed, of which 2.3% showed planetary candidates already tagged by the Kepler team. Another 1.5% of the light curves suggested eclipsing binary stars, and 1.6% of the light curves had simulated planets for training purposes.One of the stars with possible planetary transits had not yet been listed as a planetary candidate. We reported possible transits for Kepler ID 4282872, which later was promoted to planetary candidate KOI-1325 in 2012 and confirmed to host extrasolar planet Kepler-818 b in 2016 (Morton et al. 2016). Kepler-818 b is a “hot Neptune” with period 10.04 days, flux decrease during transit ~0.4%, planetary radius 4.69 Earth radii, and semi-major axis 0.089 au.

  10. The neutrino hunters the chase for the ghost particle and the secrets of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In Neutrino Hunters, the renowned astrophysicist and award-winning writer Ray Jayawardhana takes us on a thrilling journey into the shadowy world of neutrinos and the colorful lives of those who seek them. Demystifying particle science along the way, Jayawardhana tells a detective story with cosmic implications—interweaving tales of the sharp-witted theorist Wolfgang Pauli; the troubled genius Ettore Majorana; the harbinger of the atomic age Enrico Fermi; the notorious Cold War defector Bruno Pontecorvo; and the dynamic dream team of Marie and Pierre Curie. Then there are the scientists of today who have caught the neutrino bug, and whose experimental investigations stretch from a working nickel mine in Ontario to a long tunnel through a mountain in central Italy, from a nuclear waste site in New Mexico to a bay on the South China Sea, and from Olympic-size pools deep underground to a gigantic cube of Antarctic ice—called, naturally, IceCube. As Jayawardhana recounts a captivating saga of scientific disc...

  11. The Implications of Victimhood Identity: The Case of ‘Persecution’ of Swedish Hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica von Essen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographically based study examines Swedish hunters’ claims to victimhood through appeal to the term ‘persecution’. Perceiving disenfranchisement, injustice and discrimination on the basis of wolf conservation policy, we present hunters’ self-styled predicament as victimhood-claimants of persecution at the hands of a state that has been co-opted by a conservationist, pro-wolf agenda that systematically disenfranchises rural and hunting interests and lifestyles. Through the phenomenological accounts of hunter respondents, our paper takes seriously the hunters’ perception of persecution and, likewise, considers the opposite case made by conservationists: that wolves have been, and continue to be, the real victims of persecution in the conflict. Nonetheless, we show that the persecution language as it is applied from opposing parties in the conflict is problematic inasmuch as it is focused around creating a moral panic and confusion among the Swedish public who are ultimately responsible, as a democratic body-politic, for assessing the legitimacy of claims to moral wrong-doing and legal redress for the wronged. Our case study joins scholarship that explores the pathologies of claims to victimization

  12. Robert Plant (1818–1858: A Victorian plant hunter in Natal, Zululand, Mauritius and the Seychelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal P. McCracken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s Robert William Plant collected plants and other natural specimens in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. This one-time Englishman compiled a dictionary for gardeners before emigrating to Natal in 1850. There he worked as the agent for Samuel Stevens, the London dealer in ‘curiosities of natural history’. Though Plant collected mainly plants, he also sent consignments of beetles, butterflies, bird skins and shells back to Britain. He published the first scientific paper on Zululand and was requested by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to write the first Flora natalensis. It was while collecting for this never-to-be-completed treatise that Plant contracted malaria in Maputaland. He died in St Lucia in 1858 and in doing so became South Africa’s martyr to botany. What emerges from this study is a picture of the difficulties faced by plant hunters in mid-19th-century South Africa, the sort of plants they collected and the necessity for them sometimes to diversify into other natural history products to survive.

  13. Hunter-gatherer mobility and embedded raw-material procurement strategies in the mediterranean upper paleolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasso, Antonin; Porraz, Guillaume

    2016-05-06

    Since the early 1980s, the sourcing of lithic raw materials has become central to studies of the territorial range and mobility strategies of Pleistocene foraging societies. Results have been fruitful but somehow repetitive. We will discuss the embedded procurement strategy, which presumes that raw material acquisition was part of other subsistence activities rather than an autonomous technological task. We argue that this theoretical assumption, when taken as dogma, restricts the role of technology in human history and also underestimates the way some lithic resources may have affected the organization of past hunter-gatherers. We base our discussion on the Upper Paleolithic (UP) from the Liguro-Provençal arc, with examples from the Proto-Aurignacian and the Epigravettian. Our regional record shows that in this context the movement of rocks over distances greater than 100 km was the norm rather than the exception. We argue that these long-distance procurements mirror technical needs that were oriented toward the selection of high-quality flints. We support the hypothesis that indirect procurement was an important component of regional socio-economic networks.

  14. Atypical clinical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Subodh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a very rare case of mucopolysaccharidosis with atypical presentation such as mild mental retardation, an acrocephalic head and no corneal clouding. The purpose of presenting this case is to highlight the distinctive manifestation of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome. Case presentation A 10-year-old East Asian boy presented with abdominal distension of five years' duration and complained of shortness of breath on and off for the same period. On examination his head was large and his head circumference was 54.5 cm. His neck was short, he had coarse facial features, a depressed nasal bridge and small stubby fingers with flexion of distal interphalangeal joints, and a low arched palate was observed. There was mild mental retardation. Conclusion Based on clinical findings and radiological features it is possible to diagnose a case of mucopolysaccharidosis. Careful and systemic approach is needed to accurately diagnose the exact type as enzymatic studies are not available in most centers.

  15. The Hunters Point cogeneration project: Environmental justice in power plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosloff, L.H. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Varanini, E.E. III [Marron, Reid and Sheehy, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The recent Hunters Point, San Francisco power plant siting process in California represents the first time that environmental justice has arisen as a major power plant siting issue. Intervenors argued that the siting process was racially and economically biased and were supported by leading environmental justice activists at the Golden Gate Law School`s Environmental Justice Clinic, a leading thinker in this field. The applicant argued that environmental justice charges cannot realistically be made against a modern natural-gas energy facility with state-of-the-art environmental controls. The applicant also argued that environmental justice concerns were fully addressed through the extensive environmental and socioeconomic review carried out by California Energy Commission staff. After extensive testimony and cross-examination, the Commission agreed with the applicant. This case has important lessons for companies that could be charged with environmental justice violations and environmental justice activists who must decide where to most effectively target their efforts. This paper reviews the proceeding and its lessons and makes recommendations regarding future applicability of environmental justice issues to the power generation sector. The authors represented the applicant in the facility siting proceeding.

  16. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R Hill

    Full Text Available Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  17. Potential Roles of Essential Oil and Extracts of Piper chaba Hunter to Inhibit Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro anti-listerial potential of essential oil and various organic extracts of Piper chaba Hunter (Piperaceae were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by the GC-MS. Fifty four compounds representing 95.4% of the total oil w ere identified, of which α-humulene (16.4%, caryophyllene oxide (12.2%, veridiflorol (8.1%, globulol (7.4%, β-selinene (7.1%, spathulenol (6.2%, trans-nerolidol (5.1%, linalool (4.5%, 3-pentanol (3.5%, tricyclene (2.2% and p-cymene (1.6% were the major compounds. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential anti-listerial effect against all five strains of Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on the viable cell count of the tested Listeria spp. Our findings demonstrate that the essential oil and extracts derived from the leaf of P. chaba might be a potential source of natural preservatives used in food industries.

  18. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  19. Tumour Angiogenesis: A Growth Area—From John Hunter to Judah Folkman and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Stephenson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels in the body. Abnormal angiogenesis is recognised as a “common denominator” in many disease processes, and the development of angiogenesis inhibitors holds great hope in the ongoing battle against cancer. The field of angiogenesis has roots in the Hunterian era of the late eighteenth century but did not begin to blossom until the early 1970s when the then controversial findings and conclusions of Judah Folkman, the “father of angiogenesis,” were first published. There were only 65 publications with angiogenesis in the title in the 10 years after Folkman first proposed the idea of tumour angiogenesis, compared to over 9,000 publications from the year 2000 to 2010. In this review we will explore the voyage of discovery from the first observations of John Hunter in the eighteenth century, via the struggle faced by Folkman to prove the importance of angiogenesis, and finally how his determination has led to modern angiogenesis inhibitors being used in everyday clinical practice.

  20. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-06-21

    Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be

  1. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence (DV against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Methods Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15–49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women. In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Results Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.89 and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87 DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group. Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39–0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55–0.63. The model’s goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.152. Conclusions Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be

  2. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  3. Is there any association between blood pressure and education level? The CroHort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, Marijan; Ivicević-Uhernik, Ana; Kern, Josipa; Vuletić, Silvije

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how the association of 5-year cumulative incidence of arterial hypertension (further 5-CIAH) and education varies according to body weight, age and sex. The study was conducted on cohort of 1383 subjects aged 18+ with initially normal blood pressure (systolic education level and hypertension development was recorded in the group of men and in the group of woman aged 65+. In the group of women with normal body weight, younger than 65 years, significantly higher 5-CIAH values were recorded in those with less than 12 years of education (32.5% [22.0 to 42.9]) compared to those with 12 or more years of education (9.6% [6.1 to 13.1]).

  4. The medical-industrial complex, professional medical associations, and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome

    2011-12-01

    Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias.

  5. Educational attainment but not literacy is associated with HIV risk behavior among incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Clarke, Jennifer G; Hebert, Megan R; Ray, Moira K; Stein, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    To identify the educational factors associated with HIV risk behaviors among incarcerated women. We evaluated a cohort of female detainees at The Rhode Island Adult Correctional Institute between July and September 2004. Among the 423 women who participated in the study, 55% did not have a high school diploma, 29% had disability, 37% had problem drinking, and 61% (257/423) reported HIV risk behavior. In multiple logistic regression, participants who had completed high school had the lowest likelihood of HIV risk behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-1.00). There was no association between participants? literacy level and HIV risk behavior (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.83-4.92). Correctional education programs to reduce HIV risk behavior should focus on those with low educational attainment irrespective of literacy skills.

  6. Iron(III) accumulations in inland saline waterways, Hunter Valley, Australia: Mineralogy, micromorphology and pore-water geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacson, Lloyd S., E-mail: lisaac11@scu.edu.au [Southern Cross GeoSciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Burton, Edward D.; Bush, Richard T. [Southern Cross GeoSciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Electron Microscope Unit, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Johnston, Scott G. [Southern Cross GeoSciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Macdonald, Bennett C.T. [The Fenner School for Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Sullivan, Leigh A. [Southern Cross GeoSciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); White, Ian [The Fenner School for Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2009-10-15

    Discharge of Fe(II)-rich groundwaters into surface-waters results in the accumulation of Fe(III)-minerals in salinized sand-bed waterways of the Hunter Valley, Australia. The objective of this study was to characterise the mineralogy, micromorphology and pore-water geochemistry of these Fe(III) accumulations. Pore-waters had a circumneutral pH (6.2-7.2), were sub-oxic to oxic (Eh 59-453 mV), and had dissolved Fe(II) concentrations up to 81.6 mg L{sup -1}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on natural and acid-ammonium-oxalate (AAO) extracted samples indicated a dominance of 2-line ferrihydrite in most samples, with lesser amounts of goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, and alumino-silicate clays. The majority of Fe in the samples was bound in the AAO extractable fraction (Fe{sup Ox}) relative to the Na-dithionite extractable fraction (Fe{sup Di}), with generally high Fe{sup Ox}:Fe{sup Di} ratios (0.52-0.92). The presence of nano-crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O) with lesser amounts of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). In addition, it was found that lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), which occurred as nanoparticles as little as {approx}5 lattice spacings thick perpendicular to the (0 2 0) lattice plane, was also present in the studied Fe(III) deposits. Overall, the results highlight the complex variability in the crystallinity and particle-size of Fe(III)-minerals which form via oxidation of Fe(II)-rich groundwaters in sand-bed streams. This variability may be attributed to: (1) divergent precipitation conditions influencing the Fe(II) oxidation rate and the associated supply and hydrolysis of the Fe(III) ion, (2) the effect of interfering compounds, and (3) the influence of bacteria, especially Leptothrix ochracea.

  7. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lunau

    Full Text Available Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment.We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695, with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate, and (2 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life. In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education.Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities.Our results point to different types of policies that may help to

  8. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  9. Association between maternal education and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherar, Lauren B; Griffin, Tom P; Ekelund, Ulf; Cooper, Ashley R; Esliger, Dale W; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Bo Andersen, Lars; Cardon, Greet; Davey, Rachel; Froberg, Karsten; Hallal, Pedro C; Janz, Kathleen F; Kordas, Katarzyna; Kriemler, Susi; Pate, Russell R; Puder, Jardena J; Sardinha, Luis B; Timperio, Anna F; Page, Angie S

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigating socioeconomic variation in physical activity (PA) and sedentary time is important as it may represent a pathway by which socioeconomic position (SEP) leads to ill health. Findings on the association between children's SEP and objectively assessed PA and/or sedentary time are mixed, and few studies have included international samples. Objective Examine the associations between maternal education and adolescent's objectively assessed PA and sedentary time. Methods This is an observational study of 12 770 adolescents (10–18 years) pooled from 10 studies from Europe, Australia, Brazil and the USA. Original PA data were collected between 1997 and 2009. The associations between maternal education and accelerometer variables were examined using robust multivariable regression, adjusted for a priori confounders (ie, body mass index, monitor wear time, season, age and sex) and regression coefficients combined across studies using random effects meta-analyses. Analyses were conducted in March 2014. Results Adolescents of university educated mothers spent more time sedentary (9.5 min/day, p=0.005) and less time in light activity (10 min/day, p<0.001) compared with adolescents of high school educated mothers. Pooled analysis across two studies from Brazil and Portugal (analysed separately because of the different coding of maternal education) showed that children of higher educated mothers (tertiary vs primary/secondary) spent less time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (6.6 min/day, p=0.001) and in light PA (39.2 min/day: p<0.001), and more time sedentary (45.9 min/day, p<0.001). Conclusions Across a number of international samples, adolescents of mothers with lower education may not be at a disadvantage in terms of overall objectively measured PA. PMID:26802168

  10. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in the Health Area number 2 in Cienfuegos municipality. Risk factors associated with malocclusions were identified, as well as the knowledge needs of the children and their parents. An educational program on risk factors associated with malocclusions was designed and implemented. Surveys were applied before and after the intervention. The variables studied included risk factors associated with malocclusions and the level of knowledge about them. Results: children and parents increased their knowledge about risk factors associated with malocclusions. Ninety four point three percent of the most common oral habits (tongue thrusting, finger-sucking and bottle feeding were eliminated. Conclusion: the intervention was effective since it raised the level of knowledge of the children and their parents and led to the elimination of a considerable number of modifiable risk factors associated with malocclusions.

  11. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; De Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J. H. M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; De Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiríksdóttir, Guoný; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Guonason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; St Pourcain, Beate; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three repli

  12. Free Association in Sex Education: Understanding Sexuality as the Flow of Thought in Conversation and Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemore, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on the theory and method of free association in psychoanalysis to frame an investigation of the content, structure, and function of the thinking expressed in conversations about sexuality and sexual health. The investigation emerges from an ongoing three-year study of the way adolescents, teachers, and peer sex educators negotiate…

  13. Perceived Change in Leadership Skills as a Result of the Wilderness Education Association Wilderness Stewardship Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Elisabeth; Spencer, Steve

    A study examined the impact of a Wilderness Education Association Wilderness Stewardship course on students' leadership skills development. Twelve students at Western Kentucky University completed the Leadership Skills Inventory (LSI) before and after a 2-week Wilderness Stewardship course that included ten days of field experience in camping,…

  14. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Medland, S.E.; Derringer, J.; Yang, J.; Esko, T.; Martin, N.W.; Westra, H.J.; Shakhbazov, K.; Abdellaoui, A.; Agrawal, A.; Albrecht, E.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Amin, N.; Bamard, J.; Baumeister, S.E.; Benke, K.S.; Bielak, L.F.; Boatman, J.A.; Boyle, P.A.; Davies, G.; de Leeuw, C.; Eklund, N.; Evans, D.S.; Fehrmann, R.; Fischer, K.; Gieger, C.; Gjessing, H.K.; Hägg, S.; Harris, J.R.; Hayward, C.; Holzapfel, C.; Ibrahim-Verbaas, C.A.; Ingelsson, E.; Jacobsson, B.; Joshi, P.K.; Jugessur, A.; Kaakinen, M.; Kanoni, S.; Karjalainen, J.; Kolcic, I.; Kristiansson, K.; Kutalik, Z.; Lahti, J.; Lee, S.H.; Lin, P.; Lind, P.A.; Liu, Y.; Lohman, K.; Loitfelder, M.; McMahon, G.; Marques Vidal, P.; Meirelles, O.; Milani, L.; Myhre, R.; Nuotio, M.J.; Oldmeadow, C.J.; Petrovic, K.E.; Peyrot, W.J.; Polašek, O.; Quaye, L.; Reinmaa, E.; Rice, J.P.; Rizzi, T.S.; Schmidt, H.; Schmidt, R.; Smith, A.V.; Smith, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Terracciano, A.; van der Loos, M.J.H.M.; Vitart, V.; Völzke, H.; Welllmann, J.; Yu, L.; Zhao, W.; Allik, J.; Attia, J.R.; Bandinelli, S.; Bastardot, F.; Beauchamp, J.; Bennett, D.A.; Berger, K.; Bierut, L.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bültmann, U.; Campbell, H.; Chabris, C.F.; Cherkas, L.; Chung, M.K.; Cucca, F.; de Andrade, M.; De Jager, P.L.; de Neve, J.E.; Deary, I.J.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Deloukas, P.; Dimitriou, M.; Eiríksdóttir, G.; Elderson, M.F.; Eriksson, J.G.; Evans, D.M.; Faul, J.D.; Ferrucci, L.; Garcia, M.E.; Grönberg, H.; Guðnason, V.; Hall, P.; Harris, J.M.; Harris, T.B.; Hastie, N.D.; Heath, A.C.; Hernandez, D.G.; Hoffmann, W.; Hofman, A.; Holle, R.; Holliday, E.G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Iacono, W.G.; Illig, T.; Järvelin, M.R.; Kähönen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Kirkpatrick, P.M.; Kowgier, M.; Latvala, A.; Launer, L.J.; Lawlor, D.A.; Lehtimäki, T.; Li, J.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lichtner, P.; Liewald, D.C.; Madden, P.A.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mäkinen, T.E.; Masala, M.; McGue, M.; Metspalu, A.; Mielck, A.; Miller, M.B.; Montgomery, G.W.; Mukherjee, S.; Nyholt, D.R.; Oostra, B.A.; Palmer, L.J.; Palotie, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Perola, M.; Peyser, P.A.; Preisig, M.; Räikkönen, K.; Raitakari, O.T.; Realo, A.; Ring, S.M.; Ripatti, S.; Rivadeneira, F.; Rudan, I.; Rustichini, A.; Salomaa, V.; Sarin, A.P.; Schlessinger, D.; Scott, R.J.; Snieder, H.; St Pourcain, B.; Starr, J.M.; Hoon Sul, J.; Surakka, I.; Svento, R.; Teumer, A.; Tiemeier, H.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; van Wagoner, D.R.; Vartiainen, E.; Viikari, J.; Vollenweider, P.; Vonk, J.M.; Waeber, G.; Weir, D.R.; Wichmann, H.E.; Widen, E.; Willemsen, G.; Wilson, J.F.; Wright, A.F.; Conley, D.; Davey-Smith, G.; Franke, L.; Groenen, P.J.F.; Johannesson, M.; Kardia, S.L.R.; Krueger, J.F.; Laibson, D.; Martin, N.G.; Meyer, M.N.; Posthuma, D.; Thurik, A.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; Visscher, P.M.; Benjamin, D.J.; Cesarini, D.; Koellinger, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three repli

  15. Ritual Associated with Participation in Physical Education: The Power of Excuse Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Physical education (PE) is steeped in history, tradition and ritual. The accepted tradition of excuse notes allowing pupils to self-exempt from lessons is one such ritual associated with the subject in schools. This paper explores the impact of this phenomenon, focusing on participation and engagement levels within PE lessons. Data was collected…

  16. Critical Literacy: A Collection of Articles from the Australian Literacy Educators' Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Heather, Ed.; Green, Pam, Ed.

    This compilation of one new article and 11 previously published articles from the Australian Literacy Educators' Association offers diverse perspectives on critical literacy. The articles explain the principles of critical literacy from a theoretical perspective, illustrate the comparative changes between theories of literacy development, detail…

  17. Word Associations as a Tool for Assessing Conceptual Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Korfiatis, Konstantinos J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we have applied a word association procedure for assessing conceptual change in science education, leaning on the presuppositions of the theory of social representations. The proposed method was applied both before and after a university population ecology course. Our results have shown that the teaching procedure can change…

  18. Association between educational level and access to safe abortion in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tábata Z; Passini, Renato; Duarte, Graciana A; Sousa, Maria H; Faúndes, Aníbal

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate sociodemographic factors associated with induced abortion. As part of a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 15 800 civil servants from Campinas, Brazil, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire about absolutely unwanted pregnancies in January 2010. Bivariate analysis and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were used to explore the associations between induced abortion and sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, 1660 questionnaires were returned. Unwanted pregnancy was reported by 296 (17.8%) respondents, of whom 165 (55.7%) resorted to abortion. Multiple regression analysis showed that college education was the only variable associated with an increased chance of abortion. Among 157 participants who answered questions about the abortion procedure, 97 (61.8%) reported that it had been performed by a physician. Following abortion, 35 (22.9%) of 153 reported that medical care was required and 26 (16.6%) of 157 reported hospitalization, principally those with a lower level of education and those whose abortion had been performed by a nonphysician. Compared with women with a college education, those with a lower education level were less likely to terminate an absolutely unwanted pregnancy and to have an abortion performed by a physician, and they were more likely to have complications. These findings confirm the social inequalities associated with abortion in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  20. Inclusive Education Policy: What the Leadership of Canadian Teacher Associations Has to Say about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. Anthony; Lyons, Wanda; Timmons, Vianne

    2015-01-01

    In inclusive education research, rarely are teacher associations a topic of investigation despite their critical role in its implementation and efficacy. A study was conducted as part of the Canadian Disability Policy Alliance using a "learning collaborative" methodology that explored the extent to which Canadian provincial/territorial…

  1. Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Guidelines for Research Mentorship: Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Wester, Kelly L.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Chang, Catherine Y.; Hays, Danica G.; Pepperell, Jennifer; Spurgeon, Shawn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe guidelines endorsed by the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision for research mentorship, including characteristics of mentors and mentees. Suggestions for implementing the guidelines at the individual, program, institution, and professional levels are focused on enhancing mentoring relationships as well as…

  2. Identifying Nonacademic Behaviors Associated with Post-School Employment and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Amber E.; Martin, James E.; Juan, Chen Ya; Hennessey, Maeghan N.; Terry, Robert A.; el-Kazimi, Nidal A.; Pannells, Tammy C.; Willis, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted an analysis of the secondary transition qualitative and quantitative research literature to build comprehensive constructs and lists of student nonacademic behaviors associated with post-high school employment and education. From a pool of 83 initial quantitative and qualitative studies, 35 met the inclusion criteria, and the analysis…

  3. Press, Radio, and TV Tips for Education Associations. PR Bookshelf No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains suggestions and techniques aimed at those individuals in education associations who are in charge of news media relations for their organizations. The following aspects of reporting news to the media are discussed: getting organized and acquainted, thinking like a newsperson, writing clearly and simply, typing the news…

  4. Play: Essential for All Children. A Position Paper of the Association for Childhood Education International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Joan Packer; Quisenberry, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Presents position of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) regarding children and play. Discusses ACEI's fundamental beliefs about the importance of play, citing supporting research and theory. Presents guiding principles and practices for play experiences, focusing on adults' crucial role in structuring and planning the…

  5. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  6. Expanding the Epistemological Terrain: Increasing Equity and Diversity within the American Educational Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…

  7. Reactions to the Implicit Association Test as an Educational Tool: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Amy L.; Ryan, Carey S.; Gervais, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reactions to the Race Implicit Association Test (IAT), which has been widely used but rarely examined as an educational tool to raise awareness about racial bias. College students (N = 172) were assigned to read that the IAT reflected either personal beliefs or both personal and extrapersonal factors (single vs. multiple explanation…

  8. Free Association in Sex Education: Understanding Sexuality as the Flow of Thought in Conversation and Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemore, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on the theory and method of free association in psychoanalysis to frame an investigation of the content, structure, and function of the thinking expressed in conversations about sexuality and sexual health. The investigation emerges from an ongoing three-year study of the way adolescents, teachers, and peer sex educators negotiate…

  9. The National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education: An Academic Society for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers the transcript of Steven Estes' address at the plenary session of the 2015 Annual Conference of the National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education (NAKHE), Clearwater Beach Hilton Hotel, Clearwater, Florida, January 9. Consistent with the conference's theme of "Tradition, Transition, and Transformation," in…

  10. Poor asthma education and medication compliance are associated with increased emergency department visits by asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Muhsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma remain a major cause of frequent Emergency Department (ED visits by pediatric patients. However, other factors including psychosocial, behavioural and educational, are also reportedly associated with repetitive ED visits. Therefore, it is necessary to determine whether such visits are justifiable. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors associated with visits to ED by asthmatic children. METHODS: Asthmatic children (n = 297 between 1-17 years old were recruited and information collected at the time of visiting an ED facility at two major hospitals. RESULTS: Asthmatic patients visited the ED 3.9 ΁ 3.2 times-per-year, on average. Inadequately controlled asthma was perceived in 60.3% of patients. The majority of patients (56.4% reported not receiving education about asthma. Patients reflected misconceptions about the ED department, including the belief that more effective treatments are available (40.9%, or that the ED staff is better qualified (27.8%. About half of patients (48.2% visited the ED because of the convenience of being open 24 hours, or because they are received immediately (38.4%. Uncontrolled asthma was associated with poor education about asthma and/or medication use. Patients educated about asthma, were less likely to stop corticosteroid therapy when their symptoms get better (OR:0.55; 95% CI:0.3-0.9; P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: This study reports that most patients had poor knowledge about asthma and were using medications improperly, thus suggesting inefficient application of management action plan. Unnecessary and frequent visits to the ED for asthma care was associated with poor education about asthma and medication use. Potential deficiencies of the health system at directing patients to the proper medical facility were uncovered and underline the necessity to improve education about the disease and medication compliance of patients and

  11. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  12. Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianduan; Koch, Felix S; Marcus, Claude; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ong, Ken K; Sobko, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood growth affects long-term health and could contribute to health inequalities that persist throughout life. Methods We compared growth data of 4-6 year old children born 1997-2002 in UK (n=15,168), Sweden (n=6,749) and rural China (n=10,327). Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated against the WHO Standard. Obesity and overweight were defined by International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs, and stunting, underweight and thinness by height, weight or BMI < −2 SDS. Associations with maternal education were standardised by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Mean SDS height, weight and BMI in UK (−0.01; 0.42; 0.62, respectively) and Sweden (0.45; 0.59; 0.45) were higher than in China (−0.98, −0.82, −0.29). Higher maternal education was consistently associated with taller offspring height SDS (SII: UK 0.25; Sweden 0.17; China 1.06). Underweight and stunting were less common in UK (prevalence: 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively) and Sweden (0.3% and 0.6%) than in China (9.5% and 16.4%), where these outcomes were inversely associated with maternal education (SII: −25.8% and −12.7%). Obesity prevalence in UK, Sweden and China was 4.8%, 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Maternal education was inversely associated with offspring obesity in UK (SII: −3.3%) and Sweden (−2.8%), but not in China (+0.3%). Conclusions Higher maternal education was associated with more favourable growth in young children: lower obesity and overweight in UK and Sweden, and lower stunting and underweight in rural China. Public health strategies to optimize growth in early childhood need to acknowledge socioeconomic factors, but possibly with a different emphasis in different settings. PMID:23450064

  13. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, and community poverty with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Rebecca J; Schwartz, Todd A; Prizer, Lindsay P; Randolph, Randy; Schoster, Britta; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M; Callahan, Leigh F

    2013-06-01

    To examine cross-sectional baseline data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project for the association between individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) measures with hip osteoarthritis (OA) outcomes. We analyzed data on 3,087 individuals (68% white and 32% African American). Educational attainment and occupation were used as individual measures of SES. Census block group household poverty rate was used as a measure of community SES. Hip OA outcomes included radiographic OA and symptomatic OA in one or both hip joints. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of each hip OA outcome with each SES variable separately, and then with all SES measures simultaneously. Associations between hip OA outcomes and SES variables were evaluated for effect modification by race and sex. Living in a community of high household poverty rate showed independent associations with hip radiographic OA in one or both hips (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18-1.92) and bilateral (both hips) radiographic OA (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.32-2.66). Similar independent associations were found between low educational attainment among those with symptomatic OA in one or both hips (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09-1.91) or bilateral symptomatic OA (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.08-3.39), after adjusting for all SES measures simultaneously. No significant associations were observed between occupation and hip OA outcomes, nor did race or sex modify the associations. Our data provide evidence that hip OA outcomes are associated with both education and community SES measures, associations that remained after adjustment for covariates and all SES measures. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome in women: modifying effect of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, Yucel; Arik, Hale; Toğrul, Belgin Unal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the researchers in this study was to examine the relations of paid work versus housework and educational level to metabolic syndrome in women. The study sample consisted of women who participated in a baseline survey of the Heart of Balcova Project, which is an ongoing cohort study in Izmir, Turkey. A randomly selected subsample of women who were aged 30-64 years and who were not retired or unemployed was derived from the individuals who participated in the Heart of Balcova Project. All data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 191 workers and 342 housewives. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was explored using multiple logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among housewives than among workers. Among the women with a high educational level, odds of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher for housewives than for those who were employed. An association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was not observed in the group with a low level of education. The findings revealed that educational level had a modifying effect on the relationship between employment status and metabolic syndrome among women and thus has implications for improving the understanding of the importance of health and educational opportunities for housewives.

  15. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  16. Early cannabis initiation and educational attainment: is the association causal? Data from the French TEMPO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Bolze, Camille; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J; Pryor, Laura; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie

    2017-05-18

    : Adolescent cannabis use has been reported to predict later educational attainment; however, results of past studies may be confounded by inappropriate control for factors that make some youths more likely to use cannabis precociously than others. We aimed to test the possibility of a causal relationship between early cannabis initiation and later academic achievement. : Analyses are based on data collected among TEMPO cohort study participants (France, 2009, n  = 1103, 22-35 years). Participants were previously assessed in childhood (1991) and adolescence (1999); additionally, their parents had taken part in a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study (GAZEL). Early cannabis initiation was defined as use at age 16 or earlier. Educational attainment was defined as the completion of a high-school degree ('Baccalauréat'). Early (up to and including age 16 years) and late (after age 16 years) cannabis-use initiators were compared with non-users using logistic regression models controlled for inverse probability weights (IPWs) of exposure calculated based on participants' socio-demographic, juvenile and parental characteristics. : In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, early cannabis initiators were more likely than non-users to have low educational attainment [odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.55]. In IPWs-controlled analyses, this association somewhat decreased (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.40). Late cannabis initiators did not have lower educational attainment than non-users. Early cannabis use and educational attainment appeared more strongly associated in young women than in young men. : Early cannabis can cause low educational attainment. Youths who initiate cannabis use early require attention from addiction and education specialists to reduce their odds of poor long-term outcomes.

  17. Survey design and observations relating to cancer education funding. Cancer Education Survey II: cancer education in United States medical schools (conducted by The American Association for Cancer Education with the support of the American Cancer Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakemeier, R F; Kupchella, C E; Chamberlain, R M; Gallagher, R E; O'Donnell, J F; Parker, J A; Hill, G J; Brooks, C M

    1992-01-01

    A survey has been conducted of cancer education programs for medical students in United States medical schools by the American Association for Cancer Education with grant support from the Department of Detection and Treatment of the American Cancer Society (formerly the Professional Education Department). Two questionnaires were used, an Educational Resources Questionnaire (ERQ), which 126 of the 128 medical schools completed and returned, and a Faculty and Curriculum Questionnaire (FCQ), which was completed and returned by 1,035 faculty members who had been named as active in undergraduate medical student cancer education by respondents in each school who had been designated by the Dean's Office to complete the ERQ. Overall conclusions included: (1) increased coordination of cancer education activities is a major need in many schools; (2) there is widespread interest in the further development of cancer education objectives; (3) development of a national cancer education curriculum is needed; (4) there is interest in the development of improved instructional materials and methods; (5) development of evaluation methods is needed for cancer education programs; and (6) an ongoing funding process is needed to provide support for interdepartmental coordination of cancer education activities. Cancer prevention and detection topics were ranked above cancer treatment in plans for future curriculum emphasis. More detailed conclusions and recommendations are provided in this publication and three subsequent articles in this issue of the Journal of Cancer Education.

  18. Associations between music education, intelligence, and spelling ability in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katrin; Gust, Kilian; Bitz, Urlich; Kammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Musical education has a beneficial effect on higher cognitive functions, but questions arise whether associations between music lessons and cognitive abilities are specific to a domain or general. We tested 194 boys in Grade 3 by measuring reading and spelling performance, non verbal intelligence and asked parents about musical activities since preschool. Questionnaire data showed that 53% of the boys had learned to play a musical instrument. Intelligence was higher for boys playing an instrument (p intelligence remained (p music education and general cognitive ability as well as a specific language link.

  19. [Dietary patterns among preschoolers and its association with education level of the parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S Q; Cao, H; Gu, C L; Xu, Y Q; Ni, L L; Tao, H H; Shao, T; Tao, F B

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To identify the dietary patterns among preschoolers in Ma'anshan, and to investigate its association with the education levels of the parents. Methods: A total of 16 439 children aged 3-6 were recruited from 91 kindergartens in Ma'anshan city to participate in the study. Food frequency and socio-demographic information were collected through questionnaire survey. Dietary data was collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and principal-components analysis was used to derive the dietary patterns. Ordinal multinomial logistic regression was employed to explore the association between the education level of parents and the dietary patterns. Results: Five dietary patterns- "processed" , "beverage" , "snack" , "protein" and "vegetarian" were identified. Data showed that the total variance was 48.02% and the cumulative proportion of processed reached 24.78%. Low educational level of the father was positively associated with both "beverage" (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63) and "snack" dietary pattern (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43). Low educational level of mother was positively associated with the "processed" (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.57) and "beverage" dietary pattern (OR=1.48, 95%CI: 1.23-1.77), and showed a negative correlation with "protein" (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.52-0.74) and "vegetarian" dietary pattern (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.60-0.86). Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that preschoolers in Ma'anshan tend to choose unhealthy dietary pattern. Dietary pattern was directly influenced by the parents, and especially the education level of the mothers.

  20. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

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    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  1. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianguo; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  2. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Planet Hunters: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet in a Quadruple Star System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Welsh, William F.; Fischer, Debra A.; Torres, Guillermo; Howard, Andrew W.; Crepp, Justin R.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Kaib, Nathan A.; Terrell, Dirk; Gagliano, Robert; Jek, Kian J.; Parrish, Michael; Smith, Arfon M.; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert J.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of a transiting circumbinary planet (PH1b) around KIC 4862625, an eclipsing binary in the Kepler field. The planet was discovered by volunteers searching the first six Quarters of publicly available Kepler data as part of the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Transits of the planet across the larger and brighter of the eclipsing stars are detectable by visual inspection every ~137 days, with seven transits identified in Quarters 1-11. The physical and orbital parameters of both the host stars and planet were obtained via a photometric-dynamical model, simultaneously fitting both the measured radial velocities and the Kepler light curve of KIC 4862625. The 6.18 ± 0.17 R ⊕ planet orbits outside the 20 day orbit of an eclipsing binary consisting of an F dwarf (1.734 ± 0.044 R ⊙, 1.528 ± 0.087 M ⊙) and M dwarf (0.378 ± 0.023 R ⊙, 0.408 ± 0.024 M ⊙). For the planet, we find an upper mass limit of 169 M ⊕ (0.531 Jupiter masses) at the 99.7% confidence level. With a radius and mass less than that of Jupiter, PH1b is well within the planetary regime. Outside the planet's orbit, at ~1000 AU, a previously unknown visual binary has been identified that is likely bound to the planetary system, making this the first known case of a quadruple star system with a transiting planet.

  4. International empirical research in comparative education. An example of the studies of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Postlethwaite, T. Neville

    1995-01-01

    Two questions are posed: 1) does IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) type research fall within the realm of Comparative Education? and, 2) does IEA research produce any generalisations about education? The conceptualisation of IEA studies and the procedures used are outlined and some results of the research are presented. It is left to the reader to decide on whether or not the "social science" empirical approach" can be considered as one of several a...

  5. GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  6. Association between maternal education and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherar, Lauren B; Griffin, T. P.; Ekelund, U.

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigating socioeconomic variation in physical activity (PA) and sedentary time is important as it may represent a pathway by which socioeconomic position (SEP) leads to ill health. Findings on the association between children's SEP and objectively assessed PA and/or sedentary time......, Brazil and the USA. Original PA data were collected between 1997 and 2009. The associations between maternal education and accelerometer variables were examined using robust multivariable regression, adjusted for a priori confounders (ie, body mass index, monitor wear time, season, age and sex......) and regression coefficients combined across studies using random effects metaanalyses. Analyses were conducted in March 2014. Results Adolescents of university educated mothers spent more time sedentary (9.5 min/day, p=0.005) and less time in light activity (10 min/day, p

  7. High educational attainment moderates the association between dental health-care supply and utilization in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Maike; Kunst, Anton E; Brockmann, Hilke

    2016-02-01

    In line with the theory of supplier-induced demand, an increased physician density often goes along with a higher utilization of medical services, including dental services. This study aimed to assess whether dentist density and self-employment are related to dental care use, and whether these relationships are moderated by patients' educational attainment. We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) from over 20,000 respondents, 50 + yr of age, in 13 countries. We conducted multilevel logistic regressions with probability and type of dental treatment on individual education, country-specific dentist density, and dentist remuneration, and their cross-level interaction. Patients with a high educational level were more likely to report a dentist visit (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.912-2.305) and to receive preventive care (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.697-2.043) than those with a low educational level (reference category). Cross-level interaction effects indicated that high dentist density decreases dental care utilization differences between patients with high (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999), medium (OR = 0.995, 95% CI: 0.991-0.999), and low education levels. This was also true for prevention use (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.992-0.999 for patients with a high education level, and OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-1.000 for patients with a medium education level). The findings suggest that although dentist density is positively associated with dental care utilization, patients have differing susceptibilities to dental care supply.

  8. Readability assessment of patient education materials on major otolaryngology association websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Li, Shawn; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Various otolaryngology associations provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEM) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of otolaryngology-related IPEMs on various otolaryngology association websites and to determine whether they are above the recommended reading level for patient education materials. Analysis of patient education materials from 9 major otolaryngology association websites. The readability of 262 otolaryngology-related IPEMs was assessed with 8 numerical and 2 graphical readability tools. Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) analysis. Mean readability scores for each otolaryngology association website were compared. Mean website readability scores using Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Coleman-Liau Index, SMOG grading, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST Formula, New Fog Count Test, Raygor Readability Estimate, and the Fry Readability Graph ranged from 20.0 to 57.8, 9.7 to 17.1, 10.7 to 15.9, 11.6 to 18.2, 10.9 to 15.0, 8.6 to 16.0, 10.4 to 12.1, 8.5 to 11.8, 10.5 to 17.0, and 10.0 to 17.0, respectively. ANOVA results indicate a significant difference (P otolaryngology association websites exceed the recommended fourth- to sixth-grade reading level.

  9. Associations between music education, intelligence, and spelling ability in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, Katrin; Gust, Kilian; Bitz, Urlich; Kammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Musical education has a beneficial effect on higher cognitive functions, but questions arise whether associations between music lessons and cognitive abilities are specific to a domain or general. We tested 194 boys in Grade 3 by measuring reading and spelling performance, non verbal intelligence and asked parents about musical activities since preschool. Questionnaire data showed that 53% of the boys had learned to play a musical instrument. Intelligence was higher for boys playing an instru...

  10. Association between maternal education and malocclusion in Mongolian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tumurkhuu, Tsasan; Fujiwara, Takeo; Komazaki, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Inazawa, Johji; Ganburged, Ganjargal; Bazar, Amarsaikhan; Ogawa, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malocclusion is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 20–60% of adolescents worldwide. Although its treatment is often expensive and unaffordable for disadvantaged individuals, few studies have examined the relationship between malocclusion and socioeconomic status. We investigated the prevalence of malocclusion among Mongolian adolescents and its association with maternal education in a community-based sample in Mongolia. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings 2 large secondary s...

  11. Associations of Educational Attainment With Disability and Life Expectancy by Race and Gender in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2016-12-01

    This study provides estimates of associations of education with life expectancy and the percentage of remaining life from age 40 with disability. We used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1999-2011 ( n = 8,763; 94,246 person-years), measuring five education levels. We estimated probabilities of disability and death with multinomial logistic Markov models, and used microsimulations beginning at age 40, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, age, and disability. With college education, African American and White women, and African American and White men, respectively, lived 46.6%, 44.0%, 55.2%, and 50.4% more years from age 40 than those educated at less than the ninth grade ( p disability were lower with high education, by 37.9%, 38.9%, 41.0%, and 39.9% ( p education levels. Low education is associated with shorter lives with much more disability.

  12. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34 in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results: Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44, but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions: HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  13. A review: dietary restrictions on hunter-gatherer women and the implications for fertility and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, K A

    1989-09-01

    In many hunter gatherer societies, food taboos dictate the diets of females. These taboos often happen during their most critical reproductive times in their life, e.g., pregnancy. Among some subarctic Athapaskan societies, females at menarche cannot eat fresh meat. They, like other hunter gatherer societies, also restrict fresh meat consumption for menstruating women. Young women of the Aranda society in Australia cannot eat protein rich foods, e.g., lizards, until they have a child. Australian aboriginal societies restrict protein and fat foods for pregnant and lactating women. Even though the literature shows that the undernourished are inclined to reach menarche at a later age than those who eat a well balanced diet, it does not clearly establish whether differences in age at menarche significantly affect overall fertility. Research done on many different under or marginally nourished populations indicates that maternal nutritional health influences birth spacing significantly. Specifically, undernutrition causes longer postpartum amenorrhea. Therefore, lower fertility rates follow longer birth intervals. Research shows that poor maternal nutritional health does not prevent the fetus from surviving and growing. Yet mothers who do not consume many calories often have low birth weight infants. These infants are at high risk of dying because they have little to no fat reserves and they consume inadequate amounts of nutrition since the mothers cannot make insufficient amounts of milk. Since contemporary research shows that maternal nutritional health does effect fertility and infant mortality, food taboos do have the ability to influence population size. More research is needed to understand the factors that influenced the reproductive rates of past hunter-gatherer societies, so anthropologists can identify the demographically significant changes which sedentism and agriculture caused 10,000 years ago.

  14. Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

  15. Groundwater modeling to evaluate interaquifer leakage in the Floridan aquifer system near Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations using a modified regional groundwater- flow model were used to determine the amount of leakage from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) through the Lower Floridan confining unit (LFC) into the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) resulting from pumping about 1 million gallons per day at newly constructed LFA production wells at Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart in coastal Georgia. Simulated steadystate drawdown at each of the LFA production wells closely matched observed drawdown during a 72-hour aquifer test with the observed water levels reaching steady-state by the end of the test period. However, simulated drawdown was greater than observed drawdown in the UFA because of the short duration of the aquifer test and the time required for groundwater movement through the LFC into the LFA. Steadystate simulations provide an estimate of leakage based on the long-term continuous operation of each production well. Results of model simulations indicate that interaquifer leakage accounts for 48 percent of the flow to the well at Hunter Army Airfield, and 98 percent of the flow to the well at Fort Stewart. Simulated results near the Hunter Army Airfield production well indicated that 65 percent of the leakage from the UFA to the LFA occurs within a 1-mile radius, whereas simulated results near the Fort Stewart production well indicated 80-percent leakage from the UFA to the LFA within the same radius. The greater amount of leakage to the production well near Fort Stewart can be attributed to the higher transmissivity of the UFA and higher vertical hydraulic conductivity in the LFC near the well.

  16. Preparation of Early Childhood Teachers. A Position Paper Developed for the Association for Childhood Education International by the 1982-82 ACEI Teacher Education Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nita H.; Pease, Don

    1983-01-01

    Identifies curricular areas that, in the view of the Association for Childhood Education International, should be addressed in a preparation program for teachers of children from birth through the eighth year. (RH)

  17. A novel educational programme to improve knowledge regarding health care-associated infection and hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Nevo, Igal; Shekhter, Ilya; Rosen, Lisa F; Scheinman, Stephen R; Arheart, Kristopher L; Birnbach, David J

    2011-06-01

    Lack of hand hygiene by health-care workers is the most significant cause of health care-associated infection. This programme was designed to make health-care workers want to wash their hands, to change their knowledge regarding hand hygiene and health care-associated infection, and influence practice. Improvement between pre- and post-test scores was statistically significant. Compliance is a multifactorial problem that involves knowledge and behaviour. Educational awareness and frequent reminders are critical to maintain high rates of hand hygiene compliance.

  18. Independent Associations of Maternal Education and Household Wealth with Malaria Risk in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Siri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence that they play similar but independent roles, maternal education and household wealth are usually conflated in studies of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES on malaria risk. Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey data from nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used to explore the relationship of malaria parasitemia in children with SES factors at individual and cluster scales, controlling for urban/rural residence and other important covariates. In multilevel logistic regression modeling, completion of six years of maternal schooling was associated with significantly lower odds of infection in children (OR = 0.73, as was a household wealth index at the 40th percentile compared to the lowest percentile (OR = 0.48. These relationships were nonlinear, with significant quadratic terms for both education and wealth. Cluster-level wealth index was also associated with a reduction in risk (OR = 0.984 for a one percentile increase in mean wealth index, as was urban residence (OR = 0.59. Among other covariates, increasing child's age and household size category were positively correlated with infection, and sleeping under an insecticide-treated bednet the previous night (OR = 0.80 was associated with a moderate reduction in risk. Considerable variation in parameter estimates was observed among country-specific models. Future work should clearly distinguish between maternal education and household resources in assessing malaria risk, and malaria prevention and control efforts should be aware of the potential benefits of supporting the development of human capital.

  19. Outreach Programmes for Education and Training: Contributions from the International Cartographic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, W. E.; Fairbairn, D.

    2012-07-01

    Organisations like the International Cartographic Association champion programmes that develop and deliver education and training to cartographers and geospatial scientists, globally. This can be in the form of traditional university and training college programmes, short courses for professional and technical members of mapping agencies and as outreach initiatives to transfer knowledge about the discipline and its contemporary practices. Through its international community, the ICA undertakes the transfer of knowledge about cartography and GI Science by publishing books and special editions of journals and running workshops. Colleagues from the ICA community conduct these workshops on a volunteer basis, generally with the support of the national member organisation of ICA or the national mapping body. For example, the ICA promotes the generation of extensive publications, generally through its Commissions and Working Groups. The publications include books, journals and the ICA Newsletter. Outreach activities are especially pertinent to up skill colleagues from developing countries. Specialist programmes can be offered for professional and 'everyday' map users (from adults to children). The ICA can assist with its current programmes, designed to embrace professional and non-professional cartographers alike. This paper will address how education and outreach programmes can be supported by international associations, by offering programmes independently, or in partnership with sister associations and national and regional organisations and societies. As well, the paper will address the need to deliver education and outreach programmes not to just the professional international community, but also to map users and citizen map publishers.

  20. The Bayview Hunters Point Foundation for Community Improvement: a pioneering multi-ethnic human service organization (1971-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Ellen; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Bayview Hunters Point Foundation for Community Improvement is a nonprofit organization established in 1971 to defend the legal rights of African-Americans living in its community. Over the years, the agency diversified its services to include mental health and substance abuse treatment, violence prevention, youth programming, and HIV services. The organization has overcome multiple challenges during its 37-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have influenced the way the organization has financed and delivered its services. The history of the organization presents a collaborative approach to community problem-solving and exemplifies the important role that external relationships play in relationship to nonprofit growth and survival.

  1. Functional responses of human hunters to their prey - why harvest statistics may not always reflect changes in prey population abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard; Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    functional response to the point count indices, with similar auto-correlative structures in the two variables. Other species showed different functional responses, the result of hunter behaviour, such as voluntary hunting restraint on species of concern and saturation effects from rapidly expanding abundant...... are used as an index for population size. It is essential that detectability/accessibility of a species does not change systematically over time. Such bias may derive from habitat shifts, difference in timing of counts and hunting harvest, changes in migration patterns and annual reproduction and mortality...

  2. Plan de mejoramiento para la gestión del direccionamiento estratégico en Market Hunters Ltda

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Para el presente proyecto de grado, se realizó un análisis situacional de Market Hunters Ltda, empresa dedicada a la comercialización de aceites y aditivo que a su vez presta servicios de asistencia automotriz. Basado en el ambiente percibido en el técnicentro, la entrevista con el gerente y los resultados encontrados en la matriz integral, se llego a concluir que dicha información representaría para dicha investigación un punto de partida en la búsqueda de la raíz del problema; las falencias...

  3. OPERATION ODESSA: THE FLIGHT OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS TO LATIN AMERICA AFTER WORLD WAR II AND THE NAZI HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  4. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  5. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  6. Hunters of the Ice Age: The biology of Upper Paleolithic people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brigitte M; Formicola, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Paleolithic represents both the phase during which anatomically modern humans appeared and the climax of hunter-gatherer cultures. Demographic expansion into new areas that took place during this period and the diffusion of burial practices resulted in an unprecedented number of well-preserved human remains. This skeletal record, dovetailed with archeological, environmental, and chronological contexts, allows testing of hypotheses regarding biological processes at the population level. In this article, we review key studies about the biology of Upper Paleolithic populations based primarily on European samples, but integrating information from other areas of the Old World whenever possible. Data about cranial morphology, skeletal robusticity, stature, body proportions, health status, diet, physical activity, and genetics are evaluated in Late Pleistocene climatic and cultural contexts. Various lines of evidence delineate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a critical phase in the biological and cultural evolution of Upper Paleolithic populations. The LGM, a long phase of climatic deterioration culminating around 20,000 BP, had a profound impact on the environment, lifestyle, and behavior of human groups. Some of these effects are recorded in aspects of skeletal biology of these populations. Groups living before and after the LGM, Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) and Late Upper Paleolithic (LUP), respectively, differ significantly in craniofacial dimensions, stature, robusticity, and body proportions. While paleopathological and stable isotope data suggest good health status throughout the Upper Paleolithic, some stress indicators point to a slight decline in quality of life in LUP populations. The intriguing and unexpected incidence of individuals affected by congenital disorders probably indicates selective burial practices for these abnormal individuals. While some of the changes observed can be explained through models of biocultural or environmental

  7. Change in receptive vocabulary from childhood to adulthood: associated mental health, education and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Arnott, Wendy; Copland, David A; McMahon, Katie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Najman, Jake M; Scott, James G

    2017-09-01

    Population-based studies have found that early language delays are associated with poorer long-term outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have explored the influence of change in language ability over time on adult outcomes. To examine the educational, vocational and mental health outcomes for adults accounting for different vocabulary developmental profiles over a 16-year period. A total of 1914 participants of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) were categorized into four groups based on their vocabulary skills at 5 and 21 years: (1) persistently good (n = 1679), (2) persistently poor (n = 33), (3) improved (n = 160), and (4) deteriorated (n = 42). The associations between vocabulary group and educational, vocational, and mental health outcomes at 21 years were investigated. Adults with deteriorated and persistently poor vocabulary skills were less likely to have completed secondary school; with the improved, deteriorated and persistently poor groups being less likely to be engaged in education, employment or training at the 21-year follow-up, compared with the persistently good group. Adults with deteriorated performance were at an increased risk of affective disorders, as well as substance and alcohol abuse/misuse. These findings provide evidence that impaired vocabulary skills in adulthood, regardless of whether the deficit was acquired early or later, are associated with adverse outcomes. Clinicians and educators need to be aware of these adversities and ensure they are supporting children and adolescents in whom language difficulties exist or emerge so as to prevent poor long-term outcomes from occurring. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Method This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2. The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm. Conclusion In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.

  9. From Aristotle to Angelou: Best Practices in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovre, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The modern character education movement emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of growing parental and public concern for moral drift, or what sociologist James Davison Hunter referred to as "the death of character." This public anomie was captured in these words from Sanford McDonnell, chairman emeritus of McDonnell Douglas and chair of…

  10. From Aristotle to Angelou: Best Practices in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovre, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The modern character education movement emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of growing parental and public concern for moral drift, or what sociologist James Davison Hunter referred to as "the death of character." This public anomie was captured in these words from Sanford McDonnell, chairman emeritus of McDonnell Douglas and chair of the…

  11. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. METHODS: This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income, physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version, dietary habits, tobacco use, excessive intake of alcohol (questions from the tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and nutrition domains of the FANTASTIC instrument, and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI]. Descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and crude and adjusted multinomial regression were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 69.5%; 44.1% were dissatisfied with excess weight. BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² was associated with dissatisfaction with excess weight; factors associated with dissatisfaction with slimness were being male, eating an unhealthy diet, and smoking tobacco. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that female college students with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² are more likely to present dissatisfaction with excess weight. Being male, eating an unhealthy diet, engaging in physical activity for < 739.61 min/week and smoking tobacco were the variables associated with dissatisfaction with thinness.

  12. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Elisa Pinheiro; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), dietary habits, tobacco use, excessive intake of alcohol (questions from the tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and nutrition domains of the FANTASTIC instrument), and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI]). Descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and crude and adjusted multinomial regression were used. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 69.5%; 44.1% were dissatisfied with excess weight. BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² was associated with dissatisfaction with excess weight; factors associated with dissatisfaction with slimness were being male, eating an unhealthy diet, and smoking tobacco. Our findings suggest that female college students with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² are more likely to present dissatisfaction with excess weight. Being male, eating an unhealthy diet, engaging in physical activity for < 739.61 min/week and smoking tobacco were the variables associated with dissatisfaction with thinness.

  13. Parental education and family status--association with children's cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloudíková, Iva; Hrubá, Drahoslava; Samara, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Social influences are among the most important factors associated with children's and adolescents' smoking. Social norms in families, peer groups, professional and municipal communities influence the individuals ones by the process of socialization obtained mainly by interactions and observations. Especially social context of the home environment expressed by household smoking restriction serves as a socialization mechanism that dissuades from the using of tobacco. Parental anti-smoking socialization practices (their attitudes and knowledge about children smoking, discussion about smoking in appropriate quality and frequency, smoking environment in homes) are influenced by their education and family status. Markers of social environment (the level of mothers' and fathers' education, family status) were investigated during interview with 5th graders included in the cohort participating in the programme "Non-smoking Is Normal". Data about the self-reported exposure to passive smoking at homes and cars were taken into consideration. Information about discussions with parents about smoking, opinions about adults smoking, experimentation with smoking, and concurrent decision about smoking in the future were obtained from 766 children aged 11 years. Those who did not know parental education or family status were excluded from the evaluation. Differences were evaluated using the chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel, Fisher and Yates corrected tests in the statistic software Epi Info, version 6. The level of mothers' and fathers' education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking. Compared to families of higher educated parents, children living in families with middle and low levels of parents' education were significantly more exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in car (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.04-1.83) and fewer of them live in non-smoking environments. In the whole cohort, 67.5% children have not smoked even one puff yet, 17.2% reported one

  14. Are Economic Development and Education Improvement Associated with Participation in Transnational Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H

    2015-08-01

    Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently.

  15. Deaf persons' english reading levels and associations with epidemiological, educational, and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    One hundred six Michigan d/Deaf persons, part of a study evaluating how to improve d/Deaf persons' understanding of cancer prevention recommendations, had reading levels determined using the Test of Reading Comprehension, Syntactic Sentences. Respondents averaged 52 years old, 59% female, 84% Caucasian, 58% married, and 75% Deaf community members. The mean Test of Reading Comprehension, Syntactic Sentences score was 6.1 (women: 6.2, men: 6.0). Higher scores were associated with greater income (p = .02), employment (p = .01), education (high school p = .002, some college p Deaf father (p = .02), losing hearing after age 20 years, believing smoking is bad (p Deaf community membership (p = .02). In multivariate analysis, higher scores were associated with higher income, college degree, and teacher using English. Reading levels of a predominantly Deaf population were low. Higher income, college degree, and teacher using English were associated with higher reading levels.

  16. Planet Hunters: The First Two Planet Candidates Identified by the Public using the Kepler Public Archive Data

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Debra; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Lynn, Stuart; Parrish, Michael; Sartori, Thibault; Simpson, Robert; Smith, Arfon; Spronck, Julien; Batalha, Natalie; Rowe, Jason; Jenkins, Jon; Bryson, Steve; Prsa, Andrej; Tenenbaum, Peter; Crepp, Justin; Morton, Tim; Howard, Andrew; Beleu, Michele; Kaplan, Zachary; vanNispen, Nick; Sharzer, Charlie; DeFouw, Justin; Hajduk, Agnieszka; Neal, Joe; Nemec, Adam; Schuepbach, Nadine; Zimmermann, Valerij

    2011-01-01

    Planet Hunters is a new citizen science project, designed to engage the public in an exoplanet search using NASA Kepler public release data. In the first month after launch, users identified two new planet candidates which survived our checks for false- positives. The follow-up effort included analysis of Keck HIRES spectra of the host stars, analysis of pixel centroid offsets in the Kepler data and adaptive optics imaging at Keck using NIRC2. Spectral synthesis modeling coupled with stellar evolutionary models yields a stellar density distribution, which is used to model the transit orbit. The orbital periods of the planet candidates are 9.8844 ±0.0087 days (KIC 10905746) and 49.7696 ±0.00039 (KIC 6185331) days and the modeled planet radii are 2.65 and 8.05 R⊕. The involvement of citizen scientists as part of Planet Hunters is therefore shown to be a valuable and reliable tool in exoplanet detection.

  17. Speculation on the timing and nature of Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer colonization of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. Brantingham; MA Haizhou; J. W. Olsen; GAO Xing; D. B. Madsen; D. E. Rhode

    2003-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer populations in greater northeast Asia experienced dramatic range expansions during the early Upper Paleolithic (45-22 ka) and the late Upper Paleolithic (18-10 ka), both of which led to intensive occupations of cold desert environments including the Mongolian Gobi and northwest China. Range contractions under the cold, arid extremes of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 22-18 ka) may have entailed widespread population extirpations. The high elevation Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is significantly more extreme in both climate and environment than either the Gobi or the Siberian taiga forests, and provides an ideal setting to test fundamental models of human biogeog-raphy in the context of regional population fluctuations. The area is presently occupied primarily by nomadic pastoralists, but it is clear that these complex middle Holocene (<6 ka) economic adaptations were not a necessary prerequisite for successful colonization of the high elevation Plateau. Exploratory field-work in 2000-2001 has established that Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers were present on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by at least 12 ka and possibly much earlier. Aspeculative model for the colonization process is developed and preliminary archaeological data in support of the model are presented.

  18. The issue of socioeconomic complexity in the mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the middle and upper Ebro valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Martínez de Lagrán, Íñigo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades several hunter-gatherer groups have been defined, from ethnography and archaeology, as complex socioeconomic communities. This article reviews the main definitions of complexity and its principal feature contrasting them with the archaeological record of the Mesolithic in the Ebro valley. The main goal of this paper is to find out if these hunter-gatherer communities show indications of a certain socioeconomic complexity.

    En las últimas décadas se han definido en el ámbito etnográfico y arqueológico diferentes comunidades de cazadores-recolectores que presentan una organización socioeconómica compleja. En el presente trabajo se hace un repaso a las principales definiciones de esta complejidad y a sus rasgos fundamentales aplicándolos al registro actual del Mesolítico en la Alta y Media Cuenca del Ebro. El objetivo principal es determinar si estas comunidades de cazadores-recolectores presentan rasgos definitorios de una cierta complejidad socioeconómica.

  19. Ethnotaxonomy of mastofauna as practised by hunters of the municipality of Paulista, state of Paraíba-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, José S; Araujo, Helder FP; Almeida, Fabiana S

    2006-01-01

    It was aimed in the present work to report aspects related to identification, naming and categorization of the mastofauna species of the caatinga biome, according to hunters' knowledge of Northeast Brazil. The methods of free and semi-structured interviews and guided tours were applied here. The data obtained were analyzed under the emic/etic point of view by comparing the local people's knowledge to those reported in the literature. The inland hunters use some classification models of mammals living around them as for example the folk taxonomy, and a categorization based on the animal utility. Some species are preferably hunted for providing food while others are hunted for therapeutic ends. Hunt techniques were made evident by the informers. The retrieval and comprehension of the whole process related to such knowledge is very important to evaluate the human culture and the protection that people exert on local biodiversity, since these aspects have implications for the conservation and management of faunistic resources. PMID:16603080

  20. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  1. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78, social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3 and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8. We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009 and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease, consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  2. National Earth Science Teachers Association Achievements in Earth Science Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Johnson, R. M.; Pennington, P.; Herrold, A.; Holzer, M.; Ervin, T.; Hall, B.

    2008-12-01

    The National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) continues its 25-year-long effort to advance geoscience education at all levels. NESTA especially employs multiple approaches to provide leadership, support, and resources to teachers so that all K - 12 students may receive a quality Earth and Space Science education. NESTA presents Share-a-thons, Earth and Space Science Resources Days, lectures, Rock and Mineral Raffles, field experiences, and social events that foster networking at national and regional science education conferences. Our quarterly journal,The Earth Scientist,provides quality classroom activities as well as background science information and news of opportunities of value to classroom teachers and their students. Recent issues have focused on the International Polar Year, professional development in the Earth Sciences, and recent advances in astronomy. These have included contributions from classroom and university educators and researchers. NESTA's web site, www.nestanet.org, provides timely information about upcoming events and opportunities, links to useful resources for geoscience teachers, access to the current and archived journals, and organizational information. A revised website, supported by an NSF grant, will be unveiled before the next NSTA National Conference on Science Education. These are supplemented by a monthly E-News and special "e-blasts". NESTA's leadership engages in frequent teleconferences to keep current with organizational planning. Among other accomplishments during the past year, NESTA revitalized our State contact network, identifying a member in almost every state plus some Canadian Provinces. This network will help disseminate information from NESTA, as well as provide feedback on issues of importance to members around the country. NESTA leaders and members interact with other national geoscience education organizations, including NAGT, GSA, AGI, AMS, and the Triangle Coalition. NESTA representatives also serve

  3. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  4. Clarifying the positive association between education and prostate cancer: a Monte Carlo simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anishkin, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    Using the 1993-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 5,218), we examine prostate cancer screening, mortality after the diagnosis, and health behaviors as potential mechanisms explaining the paradoxical association between men's higher education and higher prostate cancer risk. Our study combines within-cohort longitudinal hazard models predicting a prostate cancer diagnosis with Monte Carlo simulations estimating the joint effects of socioeconomic differences in prostate cancer screening and mortality after the diagnosis. Our findings strongly suggest that higher utilization of prostate cancer screening and lower mortality after the diagnosis are important explanations for higher prostate rates among more educated men. In addition to applying an innovative method to the issues of prostate cancer incidence and survival, our results have potentially important implications for the current debate about the utility of prostate cancer screening as well as for accurate predictions of future mortality and morbidity trends in the expanding older population.

  5. Educational Lines: Life, Knowledge and Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    -cultural package of the children or pedagogical methods of the teachers. After all, an approach predicated on matching these had not proved successful. Fieldwork in Greenlandic pre-schools, followed by further fieldwork among West Greenlandic caribou hunters, provided a comparative baseline for studying...... the culture of education in Euro-Western schooling as a social practice that organizes human-world relations. Fieldwork at a hunting site at the same time provided an alternative conceptualization of education relative to hunter-gatherer perceptions of a world shared among human and non-human beings......-colonization and industrialization. These historical movements proved constitutional to the dominance of the straight line as a guiding principle in organization of society as well as organization of education as schooling. The research identified a gap between life as a citizen in Greenlandic society and life as part of a socio...

  6. The Association between Spanish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Efficacy Expectations and Their Attitudes toward Overweight and Obese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Zamora-Aguilera, Nestor; De la Torre-Cruz, Manuel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Spanish physical education teachers' perceived self-efficacy toward including overweight and obese students and their attitudes toward overweight and obese students. Method: Four hundred and seventy-one physical education teachers filled out questionnaires to assess their…

  7. Motivational Factors and Worldview Dimensions Associated with Perceptions of Global Education Initiatives by U.S. College Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Francois, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motivational factors and worldview dimensions associated with perceptions of global education initiatives by college professors in the United States. The concept of "perceptions of global education initiatives" is used in this study to refer to attitudes toward institutional support for global…

  8. Clarifying and Capturing "Trust" in Relation to Science Education: Dimensions of Trustworthiness within Schools and Associations with Equitable Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara K.; Wenner, Julianne; Settlage, John; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Science education reform may fall short of its potential to reduce educational disparities if the challenges are interpreted using strictly reductionist approaches. Taking a cue from school effectiveness research and reframing our approach using systems thinking, this study examined school-level variables associated with equitable science…

  9. Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Impacts on Early Childhood Educators' Practices and Associations with Toddlers' Expressive Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Many early childhood educators struggle to meet the communication needs of children with delays and disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the functional relation between bug-in-ear coaching and the frequency of educators' correct use of targeted communication strategies, as well as associations with children's expressive…

  10. An Exploration of the Transition to the Full-Time Faculty Role among Associate Degree Nurse Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the nursing and faculty shortages, recommendations have been made to increase the number of highly educated nurses who are qualified to teach. A lack of nursing faculty has been reported at all levels of education. Because the majority of nurses enter into practice with an associate degree, the professoriate at the associate…

  11. Clarifying and Capturing "Trust" in Relation to Science Education: Dimensions of Trustworthiness within Schools and Associations with Equitable Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara K.; Wenner, Julianne; Settlage, John; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Science education reform may fall short of its potential to reduce educational disparities if the challenges are interpreted using strictly reductionist approaches. Taking a cue from school effectiveness research and reframing our approach using systems thinking, this study examined school-level variables associated with equitable science…

  12. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Parental Educational Level in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine any differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Portuguese children split by parental educational level. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 2011 on 359 Portuguese children (202 girls and 157 boys aged 10 to 17 years (mean age ± SD = 13.9 ± 1.98 years. Height and body mass were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI. Parental education level (PEL was used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES. Capillary blood sampling was used to determine: Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglycerides (TG, Fasting Glucos (GLUC, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL/LDL. These measurements were combined with measures of systolic blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness as z-scores. CVD risk was constructed by summing the z-scores. Analysis of covariance, controlling for BMI, indicated that CVD risk was significantly different across PEL groups (p = 0.01, with CVD risk score being significantly lower in low (p = 0.04 and middle (p = 0.008 PEL groups, compared to high PEL. Moreover, the covariate, BMI was also significant (p = 0.0001, β = 0.023, evidencing a significant positive association between BMI and CVD risk, with higher BMI associated with greater CVD risk. In Portuguese children, significantly greater CVD risk was found for children of high PEL, while higher BMI was associated with greater CVD risk.

  13. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Tabb, Karen M; Niciunovas, Guilherme; Cunningham, Carrie; Menezes, Paulo R; Huang, Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168) completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-3.23). Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence.

  14. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Tabb, Karen M; Niciunovas, Guilherme; Cunningham, Carrie; Menezes, Paulo R; Huang, Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168) completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23). Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. PMID:28176946

  15. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  16. Arthritis in the family practice setting: associations with education and community poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Leigh F; Shreffler, Jack; Mielenz, Thelma; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S; Xiao, Changfu; Randolph, Randy; Sloane, Philip D

    2008-07-15

    To examine associations of self-reported arthritis in 25 urban and rural family practice clinics with education (individual socioeconomic status) and community poverty (community socioeconomic status). A total of 7,770 patients at 25 family practice sites across North Carolina self-reported whether they had arthritis. Education was measured as less than a high school (HS) degree, a HS degree, and more than a HS degree. The US Census 2000 block group poverty rate (percentage of households in poverty in that block group) was grouped into low, middle, and high tertiles. We assumed heterogeneity by race (non-Hispanic white and African American) for the effects of these sociodemographic variables, and therefore stratified by race. Multilevel analyses were performed using a 2-level mixed logistic model to examine the independent associations and joint effects of education and poverty with self-reported arthritis as the outcome, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. White participants with less than a HS degree living in block groups with high poverty had 1.55 times the odds (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-2.17) of reporting arthritis compared with white participants with more than a HS degree and low poverty rates. African American participants with less than a HS degree and high poverty rates had 2.06 times the odds (95% CI 1.16-3.66) of reporting arthritis compared with African American participants with more than a HS degree and low poverty rates. In the family practice setting, both disadvantaged white and African American participants showed increased odds of self-reported arthritis, with stronger associations in African Americans.

  17. Coach-directed education is associated with injury-prevention behaviour in players: an ecological cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James C; Gardner-Lubbe, Sugnet; Lambert, Michael Ian; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-11-25

    Rugby union ('rugby') presents an above-average risk of injury to participants. BokSmart is a South African nationwide intervention that aims to reduce rugby-related injuries in players. This is achieved by educating coaches and referees to improve injury behaviour of players. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess if the receipt of injury-prevention education was associated with player behaviour. Junior (n=2279) and senior (n=1642) players, who attended merit-based South African Rugby tournaments (2008-2012), completed an anonymous questionnaire. Logistic regressions investigated if player injury-prevention behaviours were associated with the receipt of education on the same topic. Additionally, players' preferred sources of education were explored through frequency and χ(2) analyses. Of the 16 injury-prevention behaviours, 12 (75%) were associated with receiving education on that topic. The four behaviours not associated with education were: warming-up (before training and matches), and avoiding heat and massage post injury. Of the seven possible sources of this education, the majority of players chose either coaches or physiotherapists as their preferred media. In comparison with junior players, more senior players chose physiotherapists instead of coaches for warming-up and cooling-down education. The results of this study support, to a large degree, the strategy of BokSmart-influence of player behaviour through coach education. However, these findings also suggest that BokSmart could target team physiotherapists in addition to coaches and referees with their safety education. Also, players might have different preferences for this education depending on their age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Is there any association between parental education and child mortality? A study in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, T; Hoque, D M E; Chowdhury, E K; Rahman, M; Russell, M; Arifeen, S E

    2015-12-01

    To assess the association between parental education and under-five mortality, using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) data from rural Bangladesh. It also investigated whether the association of parental education with under-five mortality had changed over time. This study was nested in the IMCI cluster randomized controlled trial. Participants considered for the analysis were all children aged under five years from the baseline (1995-2000) and the final (2002-2007) IMCI household survey. The analysis sample included 39,875 and 38,544 live births from the baseline and the final survey respectively. The outcome variable was under-five mortality and the exposure variables were mother's and father's education. Data were analysed with logistic regression. In 2002-2007, the odds of the under-five mortality were 38% lower for the children with mother having secondary education, compared to the children with uneducated mother. For similar educational differences for fathers, at the same time period, the odds of the under-five mortality were 16% lower. The association of mother's education with under-five mortality was significantly stronger in 2002-2007 compared to 1995-2000. Mother's education appears to have a strong and significant association with under-five mortality, compared to father's education. The association of mother's education with under-five mortality appears to have increased over time. Our findings indicate that investing on girls' education is a good strategy to combat infant mortality in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of low educational status with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: Jaipur diabetes registry-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharikaa Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association of educational status (ES, as a marker of socioeconomic status, with the prevalence of microvascular complications in diabetes. Methods: Successive patients (n = 1214 presenting to our centre were evaluated for sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and therapeutic variables. Subjects were classified according to ES into Group 1 (illiterate, 216; Group 2 (8.0% was significantly greater in illiterate (38.0%, low (46.0% and middle (41.0% compared to high (31.5% ES subjects (P < 0.05. Conclusions: There is a greater prevalence of the microvascular disease in illiterate and low ES diabetes patients in India. This is associated with the higher prevalence of smoking/tobacco use, poor quality diet and sub-optimal diabetes control.

  20. Ups and downs in mood and energy: Associations with academic outcomes in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bullock

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in mood and energy may affect academic outcomes in higher education. With little previous research investigating this relationship it is not known whether mood and energy traits help or hinder academic performance. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating ups (high mood and energy and downs (low mood and energy in a small sample of University students in their first year of a psychology degree. The results suggest that low mood and energy traits may be detrimental to academic performance. High mood and energy traits however, were not associated with academic performance. Implications of the findings, in particular those regarding low mood and energy, are that, unlike the trait itself, the behaviours associated with the trait (e.g., procrastination, distraction, low motivation are amenable to change through psychological interventions. Several of these interventions are discussed. 

  1. Estimating the Disease Burden of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Fatimah S.; Hope, Kirsty G.; Durrheim, David N.; Givney, Rodney; Fry, Alicia M.; Dalton, Craig B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction On May 26, 2009, the first confirmed case of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (pH1N1) infection in Hunter New England (HNE), New South Wales (NSW), Australia (population 866,000) was identified. We used local surveillance data to estimate pH1N1-associated disease burden during the first wave of pH1N1 circulation in HNE. Methods Surveillance was established during June 1-August 30, 2009, for: 1) laboratory detection of pH1N1 at HNE and NSW laboratories, 2) pH1N1 community influenza-like illness (ILI) using an internet survey of HNE residents, and 3) pH1N1-associated hospitalizations and deaths using respiratory illness International Classification of Diseases 10 codes at 35 HNE hospitals and mandatory reporting of confirmed pH1N1-associated hospitalizations and deaths to the public health service. The proportion of pH1N1 positive specimens was applied to estimates of ILI, hospitalizations, and deaths to estimate disease burden. Results Of 34,177 specimens tested at NSW laboratories, 4,094 (12%) were pH1N1 positive. Of 1,881 specimens from patients evaluated in emergency departments and/or hospitalized, 524 (26%) were pH1N1 positive. The estimated number of persons with pH1N1-associated ILI in the HNE region was 53,383 (range 37,828–70,597) suggesting a 6.2% attack rate (range 4.4–8.2%). An estimated 509 pH1N1-associated hospitalizations (range 388–630) occurred (reported: 184), and up to 10 pH1N1-associated deaths (range 8–13) occurred (reported: 5). The estimated case hospitalization ratio was 1% and case fatality ratio was 0.02%. Discussion The first wave of pH1N1 activity in HNE resulted in symptomatic infection in a small proportion of the population, and the number of HNE pH1N1-associated hospitalizations and deaths is likely higher than officially reported. PMID:20360868

  2. Physical activity practices in elementary schools and associations with physical education staffing and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Johnson, Tyler G; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    Authorities recommend that schools provide a variety of opportunities for students to obtain physical activity (PA) before, during, and after school. This study assessed the prevalence of several school PA practices-including measures of quantity and quality of physical education (PE)-in elementary schools and examined the associations of PA practices with school resources (PE staffing, training, and facilities). Surveys were obtained from respondents in nationally representative samples of elementary schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 (1,831 schools). Few schools (20.8%) provided students with PE class every day, but most (76.3%) had an appropriate PE student-to-teacher ratio ( ≤ 25:1). Many schools (74.0%) offered 20 min of recess daily, but fewer than half offered organized opportunities for PA before or after school (e.g., sports). After controlling for demographics and school size, having a full-time PE teacher and requiring PE teachers to obtain PE-related continuing education (CE) were associated with PE practices such as offering ≥ 150 min of PE per week (for 3rd-grade students) and testing PE knowledge, skills, and fitness. Required CE was also associated with a higher likelihood of offering PA during the school day (i.e., activity breaks and PA outside of PE class) and before or after the school day (i.e., afterschool PA programs). Few schools offer a broad array of PA programming. However, PE staffing and CE are positively associated with many PA practices including those outside of PE, possibly indicating that PE staff serve a crucial role in promoting a whole-school PA-supportive environment.

  3. Association of maternal scaffolding to maternal education and cognition in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean R; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Schrader, Ron; Fuller, Janell

    2013-01-01

    Parental behaviour described as 'scaffolding' has been shown to influence outcomes in at-risk children. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal verbal scaffolding in toddlers born preterm and full term. The scaffolding behaviour of mothers of toddlers born preterm and healthy full term was compared during a 5-min videotaped free play session with standardized toys. We compared two types of scaffolding and their associations with socio-demographic, neonatal medical factors and cognition. The mothers of toddlers born full term used more complex scaffolding. Maternal education was associated with complex scaffolding scores for the preterm children only. Specifically, the preterm children who were sicker in the neonatal period, and whose mothers had higher education, used more complex scaffolding. In addition, children born preterm, who had less days of ventilation, had higher cognitive scores when their mothers used more complex scaffolding. Similarly, cognitive and scaffolding scores were higher for children born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive styles of toddlers born preterm compared with full term. Teaching parents play methods that support early problem-solving skills may support a child's method of exploration and simultaneously their language development. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sousa

    Full Text Available Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  5. Evaluation of an educational policing strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime associated with licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan

    2012-02-01

    Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.

  6. [Assessment of an educational program for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, I; Sáenz-González, M C; Meléndez, D

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), based on Care Bundles. A quasi-experimental study conducted in a university hospital from May 2011 to February 2012. An educational intervention (21 training sessions) was carried out in all Departments with the support of the contents in a leaflet, which included evidence-based Care Bundles for prevention of different HCAIs. The leaflet was also distributed through all Hospital Departments. We assessed the knowledge of health care workers (HCWs) as regards preventive measures before and after each training session using a self-administered questionnaire, and we studied the frequency of patients with HCAIs before and after the intervention. One-hundred-and-sixty-five out of 398 HCWs (41.5%) attended the training sessions. Their knowledge improved significantly, mainly in terms of: a) antimicrobial activity of alcohol-based solutions, b) preventive measures for cathether-associated urinary tract infections, and c) best place to insert a central venous catheter. These areas increased after training by 53.1, 29.7, and 28.2 points, respectively. There was a non-significant decrease in the incidence of patients with HCAIs by multiresistant microorganisms, and a non-significant increase in the prevalence of patients with HCAIs. The educational program improved the knowledge of the HCWs about preventive measures for HCAIs, whereas the prevalence of patients with HCAIs did not show significant changes in the period of study. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The Late Upper Paleolithic skeleton Villabruna 1 (Italy): a source of data on biology and behavior of a 14,000 year-old hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Giuseppe; Alciati, Giancarlo; Richards, Michael P; Formicola, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The Late Upper Paleolithic burial Villabruna 1 (Val Cismon, Belluno, Italy), directly dated to about 14,000 years ago (calibrated chronology), includes a well preserved skeleton accompanied by grave goods and covered with painted stones. The skeleton belongs to an adult male, about twenty-five years old, characterized by a relatively tall stature for the time period, short trunk and more linear body proportions than its contemporaries, similar to those of recent North-African populations. Multivariate statistical analysis of craniofacial characteristics place Villabruna 1 close to Le Bichon 1, a geographically and chronologically nearby specimen, suggesting genetic affinity among the last hunter and gatherers from the alpine region. Observations on dental wear and microwear indicate that the anterior dentition was involved in non-alimentary activities such as the mastication of fibrous materials including large abrasive contaminants. Whereas the information on dietary habits drawn from dental wear is not conclusive, stable isotopes analysis points to a terrestrially based diet rich in animal proteins. Biomechanical study of major long bones indicates heightened overall robusticity and marked humeral asymmetry. These results suggest intense unimanual activity, possibly linked to repeated throwing movements in hunting, and the combined effect of mobile lifestyle and mountainous terrain, as far as the femur is concerned. Paleopathological analysis did not reveal signs of any major event which might help identify a possible cause of death. However, macroscopic and radiographic examination of the skull reveals traces of porotic hyperostosis, indicative of a healed anemic condition. Finally, localized tibial periostitis, probably of traumatic origin, and lumbar hyperlordosis associated with deformations of vertebral bodies and L5 spondylolysis provide evidence of additional, minor, pathological changes.

  8. Long-term final void salinity prediction for a post-mining landscape in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Wright, A.; de Silva, H.

    2005-02-01

    Opencast mining alters surface and subsurface hydrology of a landscape both during and post-mining. At mine closure, following opencast mining in mines with low overburden to coal ratios, a void is left in the final landform. This final void is the location of the active mine pit at closure. Voids are generally not infilled within the mines' lifetime, because of the prohibitive cost of earthwork operations, and they become post-mining water bodies or pit lakes. Water quality is a significant issue for pit lakes. Groundwater within coal seams and associated rocks can be saline, depending on the nature of the strata and groundwater circulation patterns. This groundwater may be preferentially drawn to and collected in the final void. Surface runoff to the void will not only collect salts from rainfall and atmospheric fallout, but also from the ground surface and the weathering of fresh rock. As the void water level rises, its evaporative surface area increases, concentrating salts that are held in solution. This paper presents a study of the long term, water quality trends in a post-mining final void in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia. This process is complex and occurs long term, and modelling offers the only method of evaluating water quality. Using available geochemical, climate and hydrogeological data as inputs into a mass-balance model, water quality in the final void was found to increase rapidly in salinity through time (2452 to 8909 mg l-1 over 500 years) as evaporation concentrates the salt in the void and regional groundwater containing high loads of salt continues to flow into the void.

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, J A; Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P; Riggs, M R; Stromberg, B E

    1996-02-01

    Sera from 1,367 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 geographic regions in Minnesota collected during 4 hunting seasons (1990-1993) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol. Sera from 30% of the deer had antibody titers > or = 25; 8.6% were positive at a titer of 25, 11% at a titer of 50, and 10% at a titer > or = 500. There was a significant increase in seropositivity with age (P oak suburban park land. There were no statistically significant differences by year of collection. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer remains high and deer hunters and consumers should ensure that venison is well-cooked or frozen prior to consumption.

  10. Effect of Resource Spatial Correlation and Hunter-Fisher-Gatherer Mobility on Social Cooperation in Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Ignacio; Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José Manuel; Briz i Godino, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents’ movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly. PMID:25853728

  11. A new mutation (1062 del 16) of iduronate-2-sulfatase gene from a Chinese patient with Hunter syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To identify the mutations of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene, to reveal its mutation features, and to establish a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal gene diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Methods: Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) assay, PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to detect mutation of IDS gene of the patient and his parents. Results:The result showed that the patient was: DS(++), HS(++), KS(-), CS(-), and that both of his parents were negative. A frame-shift deletion mutation (1062 del 16) was identified in exon 7 of the patient's IDS gene. His parents'genotypes were normal. Conclusion: The patient's mutation was not inherited by his parents but a novel one. The mutation probably altered the primary structure and tertiary structure of IDS enzyme protein remarkably and lowered the activity of IDS enzyme greatly. Therefore it is supposed to be the direct cause of the disorder.

  12. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Ignacio; Pereda, María; Zurro, Débora; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán, José Manuel; Briz i Godino, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile). According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  13. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ∼25 000 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); S.U. Lee (Seung); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); E.M. Byrne (Enda); T. Esko (Tõnu); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G. Hemani; J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); S. Kloiber (Stefan); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); S. Lucae (Susanne); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Milani (Lili); M.M. Noethen; J.B. Potash (James B); M. Rietschel (Marcella); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); S. Ripke (Stephan); J. Shi (Jianxin); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); Z. Zhu; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); N.R. Wray (Naomi); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.M. Lewis (Cathryn); S.P. Hamilton (Steven P); M.M. Weissman; G. Breen (Gerome); S. Cichon (Sven); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); F. Holsboer; P.A. Madden; P. McGuffin (Peter); J. Barrett (Jeffrey); M.L. Pergadia (Michele); D. Lin; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); S. Steinberg; H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); R.H. Perlis (Roy H); M. Preisig; J.W. Smoller; J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); R. Uher; Z. Kutalik; K.E. Tansey; A. Teumer (Alexander); A. Viktorin (Alexander); M. Barnes (Michael); T. Bettecken (Thomas); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); R. Breuer; V.M. Castro; S.E. Churchill; W.H. Coryell (William H); N. Craddock; I.W. Craig (Ian); D. Czamara (Darina); F. Degenhardt; A.E. Farmer (Anne E); M. Fava; J. Frank; V.S. Gainer; P. Gallagher (Patience); S.D. Gordon (Scott D.); S. Goryachev; M. Gross; M. Guipponi; A.K. Henders (Anjali); S. Herms (Stefan); I.B. Hickie (Ian); S. Hoefels (Susanne); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); D.V. Iosifescu; M. Ising (Marcus); I. Jones; L. Jones (Louisa); J.-Y. Tzeng (Jung-Ying); J.A. Knowles (James A); I.S. Kohane; M.A. Kohli (Martin); A. Korszun (Ania); M. Landén (Mikael); W.B. Lawson (William B); G. Lewis; D.J. Macintyre (Donald J); W. Maier (Wolfgang); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); P.J. McGrath; A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); W.H.I. Mclean (Irwin); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); L. Middleton (Lefkos); G.M. Montgomery; S.N. Murphy; M. Nauck (Matthias); W.A. Nolen (Willem); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); M.C. O'donovan (Michael); H. Oskarsson (Hogni); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); W.A. Scheftner (William A); A. Schulz (Ansgar); T.G. Schulze; S.I. Shyn (Stanley I); E. Sigurdsson (Engilbert); S. Slager (Susan); J.H. Smit (Johannes); M. Kallela (Mikko); M. Steffens (Michael); T.E. Thorgeirsson (Thorgeir); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); J. Treutlein (Jens); M. Uhr; E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin); G. van Grootheest (Gerard); H. Völzke (Henry); J.B. Weilburg; G. Willemsen; F.G. Zitman (Frans); B. Neale; M.J. Daly (Mark); P. Sullivan (Patrick); A. Agrawal (Arpana); E. Albrecht (Eva); B. Z Alizadeh (Behrooz); J. Allik; N. Amin (Najaf); J. Attia (John); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J. Barnard (John); F. Bastardot (Francois); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); P.J. Benke (Paul); D.A. Bennett (David); K. Berger (Klaus); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); L.J. Bierut (Laura); J.A. Boatman (Jeffrey); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); U. Bültmann (Ute); H. Campbell (Harry); D. Cesarini (David); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); L. Cherkas (Lynn); M.K. Chung (Mina); D. Conley (Dalton); F. Cucca (Francesco); G.D. Smith; G. Davies (Gail); M. de Andrade (Mariza); P.L. de Jager (Philip); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); G.V. Dedoussis (George V.); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); J. Derringer; M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); N. Eklund (Niina); M.F. Elderson (Martin); K. Hagen (Knut); D.S. Evans (Daniel); D.M. Evans (David M.); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); K. Fischer (Krista); L. Franke (Lude); M. Garcia (Melissa); C. Gieger (Christian); H.K. Gjessing (Hkon K.); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Hägg (Sara); P. Hall (Per); J.R. Harris (Jennifer); J.M. Harris (Juliette); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); N. Hastie (Nick); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); W.H.A. Hofman (Adriaan); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Holle (Rolf); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); C. Holzapfel (Christina); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); T. Illig (Thomas); E. Ingelsson (Erik); B. Jacobsson (Bo); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Juqessur (Astanand); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); J. Kaprio (Jaakkko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); J. Karjalainen (Juha); R.M. Kirkpatrick (Robert); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kowgier (Matthew); K. Kristiansson (Kati); R.F. Krueger; Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); J. Lahti (Jari); D. Laibson (David); A. Latvala (Antti); L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); T. Lethimäki (Terho); J. Li (Jingmei); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P. Lichtner (Peter); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P. Lin (Peng); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Y. Liu (Yongmei); K. Lohman (Kurt); M. Loitfelder (Marisa); P.A. Madden (Pamela); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); T. Mäkinen (Tuukka); P.M. Vidal (Pedro Marques); N.W. Martin (Nicolas); G. Masala (Giovanna); M. McGue (Matt); G. Mcmahon (George); O. Meirelles; M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); A. Mielck (Andreas); L. Milani (Lili); M. Miller (Mike); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); S. Mukherjee (Sutapa); R. Myhre (Ronny); M.-L. Nuotio (Marja-Liisa); D.R. Nyholt (Dale R.); C. J Oldmeadow (Christopher); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); A. Palotie (Aarno); M. Perola (Markus); K. Petrovic (Katja); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); O. Polasek (Ozren); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M. Preisig (Martin); L. Quaye (Lydia); K. Räikkönen (Katri); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); A. Realo; E. Reinmaa (Eva); J.P. Rice (John); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T.S. Rizzi (Thais); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Rustichini (Aldo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.-P. Sarin; D. Schlessinger (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R.J. Scott (Rodney); K. Shakhbazov (Konstantin); A.V. Smith; J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); H. Snieder (Harold); B. St Pourcain (Beate); J.M. Starr (John); J.H. Sul (Jae Hoon); I. Surakka (Ida); R. Svento (Rauli); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Terracciano; A. Teumer (Alexander); A.R. Thurik (Roy); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N. Timpson (Nicholas); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); D.R. van Wagoner (David); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); J. Viikari (Jorma); P.M. Visscher (Peter); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.K. Vollenweider (Peter K.); H. Völzke (Henry); J.M. Vonk (Judith); G. Waeber (Gérard); D.R. Weir (David R.); J. Wellmann (Jürgen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); E. Widen (Elisabeth); J.F. Wilson (James F); A. Wright (Alan); J. Yang (Joanna); L. Yu (Lei); W. Zhao (Wei)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAn association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major

  14. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ∼25 000 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); S.U. Lee (Seung); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); E.M. Byrne (Enda); T. Esko (Tõnu); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G. Hemani; J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); S. Kloiber (Stefan); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); S. Lucae (Susanne); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Milani (Lili); M.M. Noethen; J.B. Potash (James B); M. Rietschel (Marcella); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); S. Ripke (Stephan); J. Shi (Jianxin); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); Z. Zhu; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); N.R. Wray (Naomi); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.M. Lewis (Cathryn); S.P. Hamilton (Steven P); M.M. Weissman; G. Breen (Gerome); S. Cichon (Sven); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); F. Holsboer; P.A. Madden; P. McGuffin (Peter); J. Barrett (Jeffrey); M.L. Pergadia (Michele); D. Lin; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); S. Steinberg; H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); R.H. Perlis (Roy H); M. Preisig; J.W. Smoller; J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); R. Uher; Z. Kutalik; K.E. Tansey; A. Teumer (Alexander); A. Viktorin (Alexander); M. Barnes (Michael); T. Bettecken (Thomas); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); R. Breuer; V.M. Castro; S.E. Churchill; W.H. Coryell (William H); N. Craddock; I.W. Craig (Ian); D. Czamara (Darina); F. Degenhardt; A.E. Farmer (Anne E); M. Fava; J. Frank; V.S. Gainer; P. Gallagher (Patience); S.D. Gordon (Scott D.); S. Goryachev; M. Gross; M. Guipponi; A.K. Henders (Anjali); S. Herms (Stefan); I.B. Hickie (Ian); S. Hoefels (Susanne); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); D.V. Iosifescu; M. Ising (Marcus); I. Jones; L. Jones (Louisa); J.-Y. Tzeng (Jung-Ying); J.A. Knowles (James A); I.S. Kohane; M.A. Kohli (Martin); A. Korszun (Ania); M. Landén (Mikael); W.B. Lawson (William B); G. Lewis; D.J. Macintyre (Donald J); W. Maier (Wolfgang); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); P.J. McGrath; A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); W.H.I. Mclean (Irwin); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); L. Middleton (Lefkos); G.M. Montgomery; S.N. Murphy; M. Nauck (Matthias); W.A. Nolen (Willem); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); M.C. O'donovan (Michael); H. Oskarsson (Hogni); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); W.A. Scheftner (William A); A. Schulz (Ansgar); T.G. Schulze; S.I. Shyn (Stanley I); E. Sigurdsson (Engilbert); S. Slager (Susan); J.H. Smit (Johannes); M. Kallela (Mikko); M. Steffens (Michael); T.E. Thorgeirsson (Thorgeir); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); J. Treutlein (Jens); M. Uhr; E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin); G. van Grootheest (Gerard); H. Völzke (Henry); J.B. Weilburg; G. Willemsen; F.G. Zitman (Frans); B. Neale; M.J. Daly (Mark); P. Sullivan (Patrick); A. Agrawal (Arpana); E. Albrecht (Eva); B. Z Alizadeh (Behrooz); J. Allik; N. Amin (Najaf); J. Attia (John); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J. Barnard (John); F. Bastardot (Francois); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); P.J. Benke (Paul); D.A. Bennett (David); K. Berger (Klaus); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); L.J. Bierut (Laura); J.A. Boatman (Jeffrey); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); U. Bültmann (Ute); H. Campbell (Harry); D. Cesarini (David); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); L. Cherkas (Lynn); M.K. Chung (Mina); D. Conley (Dalton); F. Cucca (Francesco); G.D. Smith; G. Davies (Gail); M. de Andrade (Mariza); P.L. de Jager (Philip); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); G.V. Dedoussis (George V.); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); J. Derringer; M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); N. Eklund (Niina); M.F. Elderson (Martin); K. Hagen (Knut); D.S. Evans (Daniel); D.M. Evans (David M.); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); K. Fischer (Krista); L. Franke (Lude); M. Garcia (Melissa); C. Gieger (Christian); H.K. Gjessing (Hkon K.); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Hägg (Sara); P. Hall (Per); J.R. Harris (Jennifer); J.M. Harris (Juliette); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); N. Hastie (Nick); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); W.H.A. Hofman (Adriaan); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Holle (Rolf); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); C. Holzapfel (Christina); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); T. Illig (Thomas); E. Ingelsson (Erik); B. Jacobsson (Bo); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Juqessur (Astanand); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); J. Kaprio (Jaakkko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); J. Karjalainen (Juha); R.M. Kirkpatrick (Robert); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAn association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major

  15. Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

  16. Association of Education and Smoking Status on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyeong; Noh, Juhwan; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-06-19

    Background: Exposure to smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, is also a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and behavior risk factor-related variables and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007-2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and the prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios (p graduates; smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS had significantly greater OR (p < 0.05) than nonsmokers unexposed to ETS. Subgroup analysis of diabetics according to smoking status revealed significant associations (p < 0.05) for diabetic nonsmokers exposed to ETS with female sex, single status, elementary level education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, a lack of alcohol intake, and a lack of moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations (p < 0.05) with elementary education, urban residence, a lack of moderate physical activity, a lack of alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, as well as ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for

  17. Association of Education and Smoking Status on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeong Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, is also a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and behavior risk factor-related variables and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and the prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1325 (11.4% had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios (p < 0.05 compared to college graduates; smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS had significantly greater OR (p < 0.05 than nonsmokers unexposed to ETS. Subgroup analysis of diabetics according to smoking status revealed significant associations (p < 0.05 for diabetic nonsmokers exposed to ETS with female sex, single status, elementary level education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI, hypertension, a lack of alcohol intake, and a lack of moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations (p < 0.05 with elementary education, urban residence, a lack of moderate physical activity, a lack of alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, as well as ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, especially in populations with less

  18. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  19. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-01

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging.

  20. Establishment of native and exotic grasses on mine overburden and topsoil in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C.H.A.; Koen, T.B.; Waterhouse, D. [DNR, Dangar, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Current recommendations for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley involve the sowing of exotic pasture species to reinstate mined land to Class IV and V under the Rural Land Capability System. Despite the importance of native grasses in the pre-mined landscape, they are currently not widely included in mine rehabilitation. To address this issue a project was conducted between 1994 and 2000 to research the use of native grasses for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley. This paper reports on 2 mine site experiments that aimed to assess establishment and persistence of a broad range of native and exotic grass species from an autumn sowing in both topsoil and raw spoil over a period of 61 months. The most promising natives in terms of early establishment, persistence and spread over time, included six C-3 accessions (five Austrodanthonia spp. and Austrostipa bigeniculata) and one C-4 accession (Cynodon dactylon). Persistence of these accessions was better in raw spoil than topsoil, despite initial low numbers, due to a lack of weed competition and their ability to spread by self-seeding. In topsoil, and in the absence of any biomass reduction, native species were mostly out-competed by vigorous exotic perennial grasses which were sown in these experiments and from seed influx from adjacent rehabilitation areas or from the soil seed bank. The effects of climatic conditions and differences in soil physical, chemical and seed bank characteristics at the 2 mine sites are also discussed.