WorldWideScience

Sample records for hunt study norway

  1. Diagnostic labelling influences self-rated health. A prospective cohort study: the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Pål; Langhammer, Arnulf; Krokstad, Steinar; Forsmo, Siri

    2015-10-01

    Studies have shown an independent association between poor self-rated health (SRH) and increased mortality. Few studies, however, have investigated any possible impact on SRH of diagnostic labelling. To test whether SRH differed in persons with known and unknown hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension, opposed to persons without these conditions, after 11-year follow-up. Prospective population-based cohort study in North-Trøndelag County, Norway, HUNT2 (1995-97) to HUNT3 (2006-08). All inhabitants aged 20 years and older were invited. The response rate was 69.5% in HUNT2 and 54.1% in HUNT3. In total, 34144 persons aged 20-70 years were included in the study population. The outcome was poor SRH. Persons with known disease had an increased odds ratio (OR) to report poor SRH at follow-up; figures ranging from 1.11 (0.68-1.79) to 2.52 (1.46-4.34) (men with hypothyroidism kept out owing to too few numbers). However, in persons not reporting, but having laboratory results indicating these diseases (unknown disease), no corresponding associations with SRH were found. Contrary, the OR for poor SRH in women with unknown hypothyroidism and unknown hypertension was 0.64 (0.38-1.06) and 0.89 (0.79-1.01), respectively. Awareness opposed to ignorance of hypothyroidism, DM and hypertension seemed to be associated with poor perceived health, suggesting that diagnostic labelling could have a negative effect on SRH. This relationship needs to be tested more thoroughly in future research but should be kept in mind regarding the benefits of early diagnosing of diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. The impact of parity on life course blood pressure trajectories: the HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Eirin B; Horn, Julie; Markovitz, Amanda Rose; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav

    2018-01-24

    The drop in blood pressure during pregnancy may persist postpartum, but the impact of pregnancy on blood pressure across the life course is not known. In this study we examined blood pressure trajectories for women in the years preceding and following pregnancy and compared life course trajectories of blood pressure for parous and nulliparous women. We linked information on all women who participated in the population-based, longitudinal HUNT Study, Norway with pregnancy information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 23,438 women were included with up to 3 blood pressure measurements per woman. Blood pressure trajectories were compared using a mixed effects linear spline model. Before first pregnancy, women who later gave birth had similar mean blood pressure to women who never gave birth. Women who delivered experienced a drop after their first birth of - 3.32 mmHg (95% CI, - 3.93, - 2.71) and - 1.98 mmHg (95% CI, - 2.43, - 1.53) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Subsequent pregnancies were associated with smaller reductions. These pregnancy-related reductions in blood pressure led to persistent differences in mean blood pressure, and at age 50, parous women still had lower systolic (- 1.93 mmHg; 95% CI, - 3.33, - 0.53) and diastolic (- 1.36 mmHg; 95% CI, - 2.26, - 0.46) blood pressure compared to nulliparous women. The findings suggest that the first pregnancy and, to a lesser extent, successive pregnancies are associated with lasting and clinically relevant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  3. Decennial trends and inequalities in healthy life expectancy: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Siri H; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar; Sund, Erik R

    2018-02-01

    Norway is experiencing a rising life expectancy combined with an increasing dependency ratio - the ratio of those outside over those within the working force. To provide data relevant for future health policy we wanted to study trends in total and healthy life expectancy in a Norwegian population over three decades (1980s, 1990s and 2000s), both overall and across gender and educational groups. Data were obtained from the HUNT Study, and the Norwegian Educational Database. We calculated total life expectancy and used the Sullivan method to calculate healthy life expectancies based on self-rated health and self-reported longstanding limiting illness. The change in health expectancies was decomposed into mortality and disability effects. During three consecutive decades we found an increase in life expectancy for 30-year-olds (~7 years) and expected lifetime in self-rated good health (~6 years), but time without longstanding limiting illness increased less (1.5 years). Women could expect to live longer than men, but the extra life years for females were spent in poor self-rated health and with longstanding limiting illness. Differences in total life expectancy between educational groups decreased, whereas differences in expected lifetime in self-rated good health and lifetime without longstanding limiting illness increased. The increase in total life expectancy was accompanied by an increasing number of years spent in good self-rated health but more years with longstanding limiting illness. This suggests increasing health care needs for people with chronic diseases, given an increasing number of elderly. Socioeconomic health inequalities remain a challenge for increasing pensioning age.

  4. Has life satisfaction in Norway increased over a 20-year period? Exploring age and gender differences in a prospective longitudinal study, HUNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysberg, Frode; Gjerstad, PåL; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Innstrand, Siw Tone; Høie, Magnhild Mjåvatn; Arild Espnes, Geir

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in overall life satisfaction for different age groups and between genders over a 20-year period. Data from 1984 to 2008 were extracted from a large prospective longitudinal health study of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT), Norway. The study included more than 176,000 participants ranging from 20 to 70+ years of age. Data were analysed using logistic regression and adjusted for gender. The analyses revealed an increase in life satisfaction for all age groups from 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) to 1995-1997 (HUNT 2), with the highest levels being reached at 2006-2008 (HUNT 3). For all age groups, the data showed an increase of about 20% for the period from 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) to 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). From 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) to 2006-2008 (HUNT 3), the increase in overall life satisfaction was 16% for the younger age groups, and about 32% for the older age groups (40-69 and 70+ years). Women's scores for overall life satisfaction were higher for nearly all age groups when compared to men using HUNT 3 as a reference. These findings suggest an increase in life satisfaction for all age groups from 1984 to 2008, especially for the older age group (40-69 and 70+ years). The data indicate that women score higher on life satisfaction for most age groups as compared to men.

  5. Farmers' mental health: A longitudinal sibling comparison - the HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the mental health of farmers have been largely cross-sectional and possibly confounded. We performed a prospective cohort study as well as a sibling comparison to control for unmeasured confounding. Our study included 76 583 participants aged ≥19 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008)]. We used the Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of mental distress. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between occupation at baseline and symptoms of mental distress 11 years later and fixed effects conditional logistic regression to compare farmers with their siblings working in other occupations. In the prospective cohort study, farmers had similar odds of having symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety as other manual occupational groups. Among all the occupational groups in the study, farmers had the highest odds of having symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.55, reference group: higher grade professionals]. Compared with their farming brothers and sisters, siblings in other occupations had lower odds of having high depression (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89) and anxiety (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00) scores in 2006-2008. Farmers had higher odds of having high depression scores compared to both other occupational groups and their siblings who were not working as farmers, suggesting that working in agriculture may impact mental health.

  6. Factors predicting changes in physical activity through adolescence: the Young-HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bauman, Adrian; Bratberg, Grete H; Kurtze, Nanna; Midthjell, Kristian

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective population-based study was to analyze predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) levels from early to late adolescence. Data presented are from 2,348 adolescents and their parents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and at follow-up in Young-HUNT 2, 2000-2001 Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire and participated in a clinical examination that included measurements of height and weight. Four patterns of PA emerged in the study: active or inactive at both time points (active maintainers, 13%; inactive maintainers, 59%), inactive and became active (adopters, 12%), active and became inactive (relapsers, 16%). Being overweight, dissatisfied with life, and not actively participating in sports at baseline were significant predictors of change regarding PA among boys at follow-up. For girls, smoking, drinking, low maternal education, and physical inactivity predicted relapsers and inactive maintainers. Higher levels of education and more physically active parents at baseline seemed to protect against decreased PA during follow-up for both genders. Predictors of change in, or maintaining PA status during adolescence differed by gender. These results suggest that PA-promoting interventions should be tailored by gender and focus on encouraging activity for inactive adolescents and maintenance of PA in those already active. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  8. Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romild Ulla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For decades, symptoms of anxiety and depression have been included among psychological factors associated with development of hypertension. Although this has been questioned in recent studies, most findings have been based on a single assessment of mental distress at baseline. We examined these associations using repeated assessments of anxiety, depression and blood pressure. Methods Data on 17,410 men and women aged 20 to 67 participating in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in Norway in 1984-86 were re-examined 11 and 22 years later. The main outcome was change in mean blood pressure (mm Hg during follow-up. Results We found that a high symptom level score (≥80th percentile of combined anxiety and depression at baseline, as compared to a lower symptom level, was associated with lower mean systolic (-0.67 mm Hg, p = 0.044 and diastolic (-0.25 mm Hg, p = 0.201 blood pressure at year 22. A high symptom level present at all three examinations was associated with a stronger decrease in mean systolic (-1.59 mm Hg, p = 0.004 and diastolic (-0.78 mm Hg, p = 0.019 blood pressure and with a 20% (p = 0.001 lower risk of developing hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mm Hg at year 22. The associations were only slightly attenuated in multivariate analyses, with no evidence of a mediating effect of alteration in heart rate. Conclusions This study do not support previous hypothesis that emotional stress may be a cause of hypertension. Our findings indicate that symptoms of anxiety and depression are associated with decrease in blood pressure, particularly when a high symptom level can be detected over decades.

  9. Weight status and hypertension among adolescent girls in Argentina and Norway: Data from the ENNyS and HUNT studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vik Torstein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. Methods Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and 1997, and 669 from Argentina evaluated between 2004 and 2005. Results Around 15% of adolescent girls in Norway and 19% in Argentina are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI distribution in these two countries is similar, with a low percentage (th - 90th percentile were associated with hypertension. Conclusion This study confirms a current world health problem by showing the high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and its association with hypertension in two different countries (one developed and one in transition.

  10. Insomnia as a risk factor for ill health: results from the large population-based prospective HUNT Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Lallukka, Tea; Salo, Paula; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari; Krokstad, Steinar; Simon Øverland

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia co-occurs with many health problems, but less is known about the prospective associations. The aim of the current study was to investigate if insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of mental and physical conditions. Prospective population-based data from the two last Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT2 in 1995–97 and HUNT3 in 2006–08), comprising 24 715 people in the working population, were used to study insomnia as a risk factor for incidence of physical and mental conditions. Insomnia was defined according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Insomnia at HUNT2 was a significant risk factor for incidence of a range of both mental and physical conditions at HUNT3 11 years later. Most effects were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for confounding factors, and insomnia remained a significant risk factor for the following conditions in the adjusted analyses: depression [odds ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.91–2.98], anxiety (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63–2.64), fibromyalgia (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.51–2.79), rheumatoidarthritis (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.29–2.52), whiplash (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.21–2.41), arthrosis (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.43–1.98), osteoporosis (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.14–2.01, headache (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16–1.95,asthma (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.86 and myocardial infarction (OR:1.46, 95% CI: 1.06–2.00). Insomnia was also associated significantly with incidence of angina, hypertension, obesity and stroke in the crude analyses, but not after adjusting for confounders. We conclude that insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of several physical and mental conditions. These results may have important clinical implications, and whether or not treatment of insomnia would have a preventive value for both physical and mental conditions should be studied further.

  11. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Method Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Results Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= −.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population. PMID:23509959

  12. Factors associated with consumption of alcohol in older adults - a comparison between two cultures, China and Norway: the CLHLS and the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wu, Bei; Selbæk, Geir; Krokstad, Steinar; Helvik, Anne-S

    2017-07-31

    There is little knowledge about the consumption of alcohol among Chinese and Norwegian older adults aged 65 years and over. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors related to alcohol consumption among older adults in China and Norway. The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) data in 2008-2009 conducted in China and The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study data in 2006-2008 (HUNT3) conducted in Norway were used. Mulitvariable logistic regression was used to test the factors related to alcohol consumption. The prevalence of participants who drink alcohol in the Chinese and Norwegian sample were 19.88% and 46.2%, respectively. The weighted prevalence of participants with consumption of alcohol in the Chinese sample of women and men were 7.20% and 34.14%, respectively. In the Norwegian sample, the prevalence of consumption of alcohol were 43.31% and 65.35% for women and men, respectively. Factors such as younger age, higher level of education, living in urban areas, living with spouse or partner, and better health status were related to higher likelihood of alcohol consumption among Norwegian older women and men; while reported better health status and poorer life satisfaction were related to higher likelihood of alcohol consumption among Chinese. In addition, rural males and older females with higher level of education were more likely to consume alcohol. The alcohol consumption patterns were quite different between China and Norway. Besides economic development levels and cultures in the two different countries, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, overall health status, and life satisfaction were associated with alcohol consumption as well.

  13. Leisure-time physical activity and disability pension: 9 years follow-up of the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimland, M S; Vie, G; Johnsen, R; Nilsen, T I L; Krokstad, S; Bjørngaard, J H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension, as well as risk of disability pension because of musculoskeletal or mental disorders in a large population-based cohort. Data on participants aged 20-65 years in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 (HUNT2) were linked to the National Insurance Database. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for disability pension across physical activity categories. During a follow-up of 9.3 years and 235,657 person-years, 1266 of 13,823 men (9%) and 1734 of 14,531 women (12%) received disability pension. Compared with individuals in the inactive group, those in the highly active group had a 50% lower risk of receiving disability pension (HR for men: 0.50, 0.40-0.64; women: 0.50, 0.39-0.63). After comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, the risk remained 32-35% lower (HR for men: 0.68, 0.53-0.86; women: 0.65, 0.51-0.83). The associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders than mental disorders. In summary, we observed strong inverse associations between leisure-time physical activity and disability pension. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity may be important for occupational health in reducing disability pension. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Occupational and leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension: prospective data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimland, Marius Steiro; Vie, Gunnhild; Holtermann, Andreas; Krokstad, Steinar; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the association between occupational physical activity (OPA) and disability pension due to musculoskeletal cause, mental cause or any cause. We also examined the combined association of OPA and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with disability pension. A population-based cohort study in Norway on 32 362 persons aged 20-65 years with questionnaire data on OPA and LTPA that were followed up for incident disability pension through the National Insurance Database. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted HRs with 95% CIs. During a follow-up of 9.3 years, 3837 (12%) received disability pension. Compared with people with mostly sedentary work, those who performed much walking, much walking and lifting, and heavy physical work had HRs of 1.26 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.38), 1.44 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.58) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.70), respectively. These associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders, whereas there was no clear association between OPA and risk of disability pension due to mental disorders. People with high OPA and low LTPA had a HR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.98) for overall disability pension and HR of 2.56 (95% CI 2.10 to 3.11) for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders, versus low OPA and high LTPA. We observed a positive association between OPA and risk of disability pension due to all causes and musculoskeletal disorders, but not for mental disorders. Physical activity during leisure time reduced some, but not all of the unfavourable effect of physically demanding work on risk of disability pension. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Occupational and leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension: prospective data from the HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimland, Marius Steiro; Vie, Gunnhild; Holtermann, Andreas; Krokstad, Steinar; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate the association between occupational physical activity (OPA) and disability pension due to musculoskeletal cause, mental cause or any cause. We also examined the combined association of OPA and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with disability pension. Methods A population-based cohort study in Norway on 32 362 persons aged 20–65 years with questionnaire data on OPA and LTPA that were followed up for incident disability pension through the National Insurance Database. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted HRs with 95% CIs. Results During a follow-up of 9.3 years, 3837 (12%) received disability pension. Compared with people with mostly sedentary work, those who performed much walking, much walking and lifting, and heavy physical work had HRs of 1.26 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.38), 1.44 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.58) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.70), respectively. These associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders, whereas there was no clear association between OPA and risk of disability pension due to mental disorders. People with high OPA and low LTPA had a HR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.98) for overall disability pension and HR of 2.56 (95% CI 2.10 to 3.11) for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders, versus low OPA and high LTPA. Conclusions We observed a positive association between OPA and risk of disability pension due to all causes and musculoskeletal disorders, but not for mental disorders. Physical activity during leisure time reduced some, but not all of the unfavourable effect of physically demanding work on risk of disability pension. PMID:28698178

  16. Sex-specific effects of weight-affecting gene variants in a life course perspective--The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaløy, K; Kulle, B; Romundstad, P; Holmen, T L

    2013-09-01

    The impact of previously identified genetic variants directly or indirectly associated with obesity, were investigated at birth, adolescence and adulthood to provide knowledge concerning timing and mechanisms of obesity susceptibility with focus on sex differences. Twenty four previously identified obesity- and eating disorder susceptibility loci were tested for association with adiposity traits at birth (ponderal index (PI)), adolescence and young adulthood (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) in 1782 individuals from the HUNT study. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were evaluated individually and by haplotype sliding-window approach for windows50 kb (near-MC4R, FTO and near-BDNF). The analyses were performed on the total and sex stratified samples. The most substantial effect on BMI was observed for the near-MC4R variants at adolescence and adulthood (adjusted P-values in adolescence: 0.002 and 0.003 for rs17782313 and rs571312, respectively). The same variants showed inverse association with PI in males (adjusted P-values: 0.019-0.036). Furthermore, significant effects were observed at adolescence with BMI for the near-KCTD15 variant (rs11084753) (adjusted P=0.038) in the combined sample. The near-INSIG2 (rs7566605) was significantly associated to WHR in males and near-BDNF (rs925946) in the combined sample (adjusted P=0.027 and P=0.033, respectively). The OPRD1 locus was associated to BMI and WC in males both at adolescence and adulthood with highest effect in adults (adjusted P=0.058). Interaction with sex was identified for near-MC4R, OPRD1, COMT, near-BDNF and DRD2. Most obesity susceptibility variants show stronger effect at adolescence than at birth and adulthood with a clear sex-specific effect at some loci. The near-MC4R locus exhibit inverse effect on weight at birth in boys compared with findings at adolescence and adulthood. Some variants less known for obesity-susceptibility such as OPRD1 were found to

  17. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik Reidar; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. Methods: This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006–08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity particip...

  18. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents.

  19. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Lier

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the current study was i to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI. In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3% developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55 and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57 was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52 versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84 level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24 of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of DSM-V insomnia in Norway: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Benjamin Langsæter; Sand, Trond; Odegård, Siv Steinsmo; Hagen, Knut

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have assessed the prevalence of insomnia, but the influence of non-participants has largely been ignored. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of insomnia in a large adult population using DSM-V (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed.) criteria, also taking non-participants into account. This cross-sectional study used data from a questionnaire in The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3) performed in 2006-2008, and a subsequent non-participant study. The total adult population (n=93,860 aged > or =20 years) of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, was invited. Of these, 40,535 responded to the insomnia questionnaire. Among 42,024 eligible non-participants, 6918 (17%) responded to two insomnia questions. Insomnia was diagnosed by applying modified DSM-V criteria. The age-adjusted insomnia prevalence was estimated using the age distribution of all adult inhabitants of Nord-Trøndelag. Supplementary prevalence data were estimated by extrapolating data from the non-participant study. Additionally, the association between insomnia and self-reported health was estimated, adjusting for known confounders. The total age-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-7.4) (8.6% for women, 5.5% for men). Adjusting for non-participants, the prevalence estimate changed to 7.9% (95% CI, 7.3-8.6) (9.4% for women, 6.4% for men). Insomnia was more than eight times more likely (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 6.2-11.1) among individuals with very poor versus very good self-reported health, adjusting for age, gender, employment status, chronic musculoskeletal complaints, anxiety and depression. The adjusted insomnia prevalence estimate in Nord-Trøndelag was 7.9%. Insomnia was strongly associated with poor self-reported health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and trend of COPD from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008: The HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Laxmi; Leivseth, Linda; Mai, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Yue; Henriksen, Anne Hildur; Langhammer, Arnulf; Brumpton, Ben Michael

    2018-05-01

    COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality across the world and new estimates of prevalence and trend are of great importance. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and trend of COPD from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008 in Norwegian adults ≥40 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. COPD was assessed using a fixed-ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed during 1995-1997 (n = 7158) and 2006-2008 (n = 8788). The prevalence of COPD was weighted using the inverse probability of selection and predicted probability of response. The prevalence of pre-bronchodilator COPD was 16.7% in 1995-1997 and 14.8% in 2006-2008 using fixed-ratio criteria, and 10.4% in 1995-1997 and 7.3% in 2006-2008 using LLN criteria. The prevalence of LLN COPD was higher among men (13.0% in 1995-1997, 7.7% in 2006-2008) than women (8.0% in 1995-1997, 6.9% in 2006-2008). From 1995-1997 to 2006-2008, the prevalence decreased among men but remained relatively stable among women. Over the 11-year period, the cumulative incidence of pre-bronchodilator COPD using LLN criteria was 3.3% and 2.7% among men and women respectively. The prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms increased. The prevalence declined in men but not in women from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008, and was consistently higher among men than women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Being normal weight, but feeling overweight in adolescence may effect weight development into young adulthood - An 11-year follow-up: The HUNT Study, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Cuypers, Koenraad; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Bratberg, Grete Helen; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs) who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs) in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations an...

  3. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-06-10

    Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.

  4. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Methods Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995–97), aged 13–19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006–08), aged 23–31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). Results Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive

  5. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Bauman, Adrian; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Midthjell, Kristian

    2012-12-14

    Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995-97), aged 13-19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006-08), aged 23-31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive maintainers. Active maintainers

  6. Being Normal Weight but Feeling Overweight in Adolescence May Affect Weight Development into Young Adulthood—An 11-Year Followup: The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenraad Cuypers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]. Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a “healthy” body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.

  7. Being Normal Weight but Feeling Overweight in Adolescence May Affect Weight Development into Young Adulthood-An 11-Year Followup: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Koenraad; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Bratberg, Grete; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13-19 yrs) who were followed up as young adults (24-30 yrs) in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC) adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]). Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a "healthy" body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.

  8. Patterns of receptive and creative cultural activities and their association with perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life among adults: the HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Koenraad; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Bygren, Lars Olov; Holmen, Jostein

    2012-08-01

    Cultural participation has been used both in governmental health policies and as medical therapy, based on the assumption that cultural activities will improve health. Previous population studies and a human intervention study have shown that religious, social and cultural activities predict increased survival rate. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between cultural activity and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life in both genders. The study is based on the third population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006-2008), including 50,797 adult participants from Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Data on cultural activities, both receptive and creative, perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life were collected by comprehensive questionnaires. The logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant cofactors, show that participation in receptive and creative cultural activities was significantly associated with good health, good satisfaction with life, low anxiety and depression scores in both genders. Especially in men, attending receptive, rather than creative, cultural activities was more strongly associated with all health-related outcomes. Statistically significant associations between several single receptive, creative cultural activities and the health-related outcome variables were revealed. This population-based study suggests gender-dependent associations between cultural participation and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life. The results support hypotheses on the effect of cultural activities in health promotion and healthcare, but further longitudinal and experimental studies are warranted to establish a reliable cause-effect relationship.

  9. Medical benefits in young Norwegians and their parents, and the contribution of family health and socioeconomic status. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Kristine; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; De Ridder, Karin A A; Westin, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Krokstad, Steinar

    2013-07-01

    Family and intergenerational perspectives might contribute to a better understanding of why young people in many European countries experience work impairment and end up being dependent on public benefits for life sustenance. The aim of this cohort study was to explore the relationship between the receipt of medical benefits in parents and their young adult offspring and the contributions of family health and family socioeconomic status. Baseline information on the health of 7597 adolescents and their parents who participated in the HUNT Study 1995-1997 was linked to national registers to identify long-term receipt of medical benefits for parents (1992-1997) and adolescents as they entered adulthood (1998-2008). We used logistic regression to explore the association between parent and offspring receipt of medical benefits, adjusting for family health and socioeconomic status. Among adolescents, 13% received medical benefits from age 20-29. Adolescents whose parents had received medical benefits (26%) were more likely to receive such benefits themselves from age 20-29 compared with adolescents without benefit-receiving parents (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.86-2.49). Adjustment for family health reduced this estimate considerably (to OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99), whereas adjustment for family socioeconomic status had less impact. Adolescents whose parents receive medical benefits enter adult working life with an elevated risk of health-related work exclusion. Family health vulnerability appears to be a key to understanding this association, suggesting that more attention to intergenerational continuities of health could be a way to prevent welfare dependence in future generations.

  10. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y; Grunseit, Anne; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid L; Bauman, Adrian E; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2014-01-01

    To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Population based cross-sectional study. Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and triglycerides were measured in 48,882 adults aged 20 years or older from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Adjusted multiple regression models were used to test for associations between these biomarkers and self-reported total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use in the whole sample and by cardiometabolic disease status sub-groups. In the whole sample, reporting total sitting time ≥10 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, GGT and triglyceride levels compared to those reporting total sitting time Leisure-time computer use ≥1 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, total cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, GGT and triglycerides compared with those reporting no leisure-time computing. Sub-group analyses by cardiometabolic disease status showed similar patterns in participants free of cardiometabolic disease, while similar albeit non-significant patterns were observed in those with cardiometabolic disease. Total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use are associated with poorer cardiometabolic risk profiles in adults. Reducing sedentary behaviour throughout the day and limiting TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use may have health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-11-02

    Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995-97) aged 20-61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25,521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. Methods We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995–97) aged 20–61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25 521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Results Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Conclusions Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. PMID:26525724

  13. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Methods: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting

  14. Functions and values of hunting and its management in Spain: scientific studies on the hunting community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes-Mateos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize information provided by some recent scientific studies in relation to the opinions, views and attitudes of Spanish hunters regarding hunting and its management. In particular, we discuss the different functions (economic, ecological and social that hunters attribute to hunting, as well as their moral judgements associated with the different motives for hunting. In addition, we explore how hunters value different game management tools (including predator control, releases of farm-reared animals and the regulation of hunting pressure, and we discuss how such valuations affect their decision-making. Finally, we assess potential future trends of hunting, as expressed by the hunters themselves.

  15. Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underdal, B.

    1975-01-01

    A short report is given of the activities of Norway in the field of food irradiation. Experiments were performed with a 60 Co γ-source of 30,000 Ci. The chemical changes induced by irradiation were studied in fish and spices. Radiation microbiology studies were dealing with the effect of γ-radiation on Salmonella Senftenberg in solutions and herring meal. (MG) [de

  16. Mid-Norway power study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    This report documents the results of a four months study by Shell in relation to the request from the Petroleum and Energy Minister to evaluate the viability of developing a gas fired power plant in the Nyhamna area. The power plant sizes studied are 50, 200, 430 and 860 MW nominal output, both with and without a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facilities and with an earliest start up of 2014. The power supply and demand balance is evaluated to investigate the case for building a power plant depending on demand development in the mid-Norway region. The report concludes that there is a deficit in the region which will probably be addressed through a combination of planned measures, including the planned 400 MW capacity transmission line (Oerskog to Fardal) and temporary power plants at Tjebegodden and Nyhamna together with an assumed new 2 TWh/yr capacity small hydro and wind power projects. However, a commercial sized power plant (400 MW or larger) could provide a more robust means of supply as well as provide the potential for further demand growth. The study has evaluated technical and commercial concepts for the different sized power plants with considerable experience drawn from Shell's earlier involvement in the Halten CO{sub 2} project. Order of magnitude cost estimates have been developed based on the current market outlook, for the power plant cases and the associated carbon capture facilities, including CO{sub 2} transportation pipeline and disposal wells. The carbon capture design has been based on state of the art amine technology. An economic model was developed specifically for this study for a power plant using a range of assumptions for gas, electricity and carbon credit prices. The model includes optimisation of income based on positive 'sparkspread'. The conclusion from the evaluations shows that there is a substantial gap between the likely economics and the economics that would be required for a commercial company to make an

  17. Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabin, Jessica Mira; Tambs, Kristian; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Sund, Erik; Holmen, Jostein

    2017-05-31

    A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17.6 years) prior to ascertainment. In Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, incident dementia data were collected during 1995-2011, and the diagnoses were validated by a panel of experts in the field. By using the subjects' personal identification numbers, the dementia data were linked to data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a large, population-based health study performed in 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) and 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). A total of 24,638 participants of the HUNT Study were included in the present study, 579 of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, or vascular dementia. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between dementia and blood pressure data from HUNT 1 and HUNT 2. Over the age of 60 years, consistent inverse associations were observed between systolic blood pressure and all-cause dementia, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease, but not with vascular dementia, when adjusting for age, sex, education, and other relevant covariates. This was observed for systolic blood pressure in both HUNT 1 and HUNT 2, regardless of antihypertensive medication use. There was an adverse association between systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Alzheimer disease in individuals treated with antihypertensive medication under the age of 60 years. Our data are in line with those in previous studies demonstrating an inverse association between dementia and systolic blood pressure in

  18. Substance use in children of parents with chronic pain – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaasbøll J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jannike Kaasbøll,1 Stian Lydersen,1 Marit S Indredavik1,2 1Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare of Central Norway, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital Trondheim, Norway Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between parental chronic pain and smoking, alcohol, and drug use in adolescent offspring. Methods: Cross-sectional data from Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3, a Norwegian population-based health survey conducted in the period 2006–2008 was utilized. The present sample consisted of adolescents aged 13–18 years (n=3,227 for whom information was available on maternal and paternal health statuses. Results: Results from multivariable ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses, adjusting for potential confounding factors (child age, parental age, education, and organ specific illness indicated that the estimated odds ratios (OR for smoking (OR =1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 3.05], P=0.049 and alcohol intoxication (drunkenness (OR =1.56, 95% CI [1.05, 2.33], P=0.029 were higher for boys whose mother and father had chronic pain, compared with boys for whom neither parent had chronic pain. These associations were slightly attenuated by additional adjustment for pain-related factors, such as parental smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Parental chronic pain was not significantly associated with girls' levels of substance use. There were significant interaction effects between parental chronic pain and child sex on offspring's alcohol and smoking. Conclusion: The present study expands on existing knowledge and provides groundwork for preventive and specific measures targeting substance use in families burdened with parental chronic pain. Keywords: adolescents, chronic pain, smoking, alcohol, drugs

  19. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  20. Errors associated with moose-hunter counts of occupied beaver Castor fiber lodges in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank; Gustavsen, Per Øyvind

    2002-01-01

    In Norway, Sweden and Finland moose Alces alces hunting teams are often employed to survey occupied beaver (Castor fiber and C. canadensis) lodges while hunting. Results may be used to estimate population density or trend, or for issuing harvest permits. Despite the method's increasing popularity, the errors involved have never been identified. In this study we 1) compare hunting-team counts of occupied lodges with total counts, 2) identify the sources of error between counts and 3) evaluate ...

  1. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  2. The impact of body mass index on the prevalence of low back pain: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuch, Ingrid; Hagen, Knut; Heuch, Ivar; Nygaard, Øystein; Zwart, John-Anker

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional population-based study. To examine the association between body mass index and chronic low back pain, with adjustment for potential confounders. Although many studies have investigated this association, it is still unclear whether there is a general relationship between body mass index and low back pain which applies to all populations. This study is based on data collected in the HUNT 2 study in the county of Nord-Trøndelag in Norway between 1995 and 1997. Among a total of 92,936 persons eligible for participation, 30,102 men and 33,866 women gave information on body mass index and indicated whether they suffered from chronic low back pain (69% participation rate). A total of 6293 men (20.9%) and 8923 women (26.3%) experienced chronic low back pain. Relations were assessed by logistic regression of low back pain with respect to body mass index and other variables. In both sexes, a high body mass index was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of low back pain. In men the estimated OR per 5 kg/m increase in body mass index was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12) and in women 1.17 (95% CI: 1.14-1.21), after adjustment for age, with a significantly stronger association in women. Additional adjustment for education, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, employment status, and activity at work hardly affected these associations. No interactions were found with most other factors. This large population-based study indicates that obesity is associated with a high prevalence of low back pain. Further studies are needed to determine if the association is causal.

  3. Attitudes towards recreational hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....

  4. Norwegian adolescents, physical activity and mental health: The Young-HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Slettbakk Fløtnes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of physical activity, sport participation, and body composition on the risk of symptoms of mental health problems in a large population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents.Methods: Analyses were based on 4-year longitudinal data from the Young-HUNT studies in Norway among 2000 adolescents aged 13-19 years. We calculated relative risks of anxiety/depression symptoms, as well as of feeling downhearted and dissatisfied with life, in relation to various measures of physical activity, sports participation, anthropometric measures, and body image.Results: Overall, physical activity was inversely associated with the risk for anxiety/depression in boys (Ptrend, 0.02, but not in girls (P-trend, 0.34. Girls who considered themselves “very fat/chubby” had a higher risk than those who considered themselves as “about the same as others” (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7, whereas in boys, the risk was highest for those who considered themselves as “thin/very thin” (RR, 1.7; 95% CI,1.1-2.7. Analysis of the risk of feeling downhearted or dissatisfied with life showed an inverse association for physical activity, both in girls and boys, and there was also a U-shaped association with body image.Conclusion: Physical activity was inversely related to risk of anxiety/depression in boys, but not in girls, and inversely related to the risk of feeling downhearted and dissatisfied with life in both genders. Body image was strongly associated with symptoms of anxiety/depression and measures of well-being, whereas body size showed no clear associations. These results suggest that self-perception of appearance are moreimportant for mental health in adolescents than the actual body composition, and that being physically active may be beneficial, especially among boys.

  5. Changes in parental weight and smoking habits and offspring adiposity: data from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.

  6. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  7. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  8. Characteristics of visitors to practitioners of homeopathy in a large adult Norwegian population (the HUNT 3 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løhre, Audhild; Rise, Marit By; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to investigate characteristics of female and male visitors to practitioners of homeopathy in a large adult population in Norway. A cross-sectional adult total population health survey from Central Norway (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study--HUNT 3) conducted in 2008. Variables included demographics, lifestyle, health status and health care use. Multivariate logistic regression models were employed to analyse the data. In total 50,827 participated (54% of the total population). The prevalence of visits to practitioners of homeopathy was 1.3%, a decline from 4.3% 10 years earlier. Both female and male visitors were 4-5 times more likely to experience recent somatic complaints. Further, female visitors were characterised by higher education, non-smoking, more chronic complaints, and visiting a physician or a chiropractor the past year whereas male visitors were characterised by seeking help for psychiatric complaints and visiting a chiropractor. There were no associations of age, marital status, physical activity, perceived global health, respiratory, skin, or musculoskeletal diseases with visiting practitioners of homeopathy. CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS: There has been a marked decline in visits to practitioners of homeopathy. The results indicate a change in reasons to consult from complaints that influences the visitors' global health to less chronic complaints. Further research should compare changes in visits complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners and the characteristics of visitors to practitioners of homeopathy to characteristics of other CAM visitors. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study - The HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Krokstad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. Methods Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995–97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20–69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. Results All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62 to 6.15 (3.56-10.63 as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. Conclusions This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and

  10. Behavioral determinants of play in a stag-hunt coordination game – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study is to investigate relationships between various riskattitude measures and players’ behavior in the first-round of a repeated stag hunt game. This research report presents preliminary findings that the first-round behavior cannot be explained by any of the commonly used risk-elicitation instruments and describes relationships between those instruments.

  11. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  12. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  13. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of acute myocardial infarction: the HUNT 2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2013-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  14. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of heart failure: The HUNT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  15. Chronic pain: One year prevalence and associated characteristics (the HUNT pain study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Vatten, Lars; Kaasa, Stein

    2017-12-29

    Background The reported prevalence of chronic pain ranges from 11% to 64%, and although consistently high, the calculated economic burden estimates also vary widely between studies. There is no standard way of classifying chronic pain. We have repeated measurements of pain in a longitudinal population study to improve validity ofthe case ascertainment. In this paper, associations between chronic pain and demographic characteristics, self reported health and functioning, work Incapacity and health care use were investigated in a sample from the general Norwegian population. Methods A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 Study) was invited to report pain every three months during a 12 month period. Chronic pain was defined as moderate pain or more (on the SF-8 verbal rating scale) in at least three out of five consecutive measurements. Self reported health and functioning was measured by seven of the eight subscales on the SF-8 health survey (bodily pain was excluded). Health care utilisation during the past 12 months was measured by self report, and included seeing a general practitioner, seeing a medical specialist and seeing other therapists. The survey data was combined with information on income, education, disability pension awards and unemployment by Statistics Norway, which provided data from the National Education database (NUDB) and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV). Results The total prevalence of chronic pain was 36% (95% CI34-38) among women and 25% (95% CI 22-26) among men. The prevalence increased with age, was higher among people with high BMI, and in people with low income and low educational level. Smoking was also associated with a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Subjects in the chronic pain group had a self-reported health and functioning in the range of 1-2.5 standard deviations below that of those without chronic pain. Among the chronic pain group 52% (95% CI 49-55), of participants

  16. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  17. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    Migration and intercultural relations In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  18. Insomnia and endothelial function - the HUNT 3 fitness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn B Strand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insomnia is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined insomnia in relation to endothelial function, an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the association of insomnia with endothelial function in a large population based study of healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 4 739 participants free from known cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, cancer, and sarcoidosis, and who were not using antihypertensive medication were included in the study. They reported how often they had experienced difficulties falling asleep at night, repeated awakenings during the night, early awakenings without being able to go back to sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Endothelial function was measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD derived from the brachial artery. RESULTS: We found no consistent association between the insomnia symptoms and endothelial function in multiadjusted models, but individual insomnia symptoms may be related to endothelial function. Among women who reported early awakenings, endothelial function may be lower than in women without this symptom (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided no evidence that endothelial function, an early indicator of atherosclerosis, is an important linking factor between insomnia and CHD. Further studies are needed to explore the complex interrelation between sleep and cardiovascular pathology.

  19. Mental distress predicts divorce over 16 years: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idstad, Mariann; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Borren, Ingrid; Rognmo, Kamilla; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    The association between mental distress and divorce is well established in the literature. Explanations are commonly classified within two different frameworks; social selection (mentally distressed people are selected out of marriage) and social causation (divorce causes mental distress). Despite a relatively large body of literature on this subject, selection effects are somewhat less studied, and research based on data from both spouses is scarce. The purpose of the present study is to investigate selection effects both at the individual level and the couple level. The current study is based on couple-level data from a Norwegian representative sample including 20,233 couples. Long-term selection effects were tested for by means of Cox proportional hazard models, using mental distress in both partners at baseline as predictors of divorce the next 16 years. Three identical sets of analyses were run. The first included the total sample, whereas the second and third excluded couples who divorced within the first 4 or 8 years after baseline, respectively. An interaction term between mental distress in husband and in wife was specified and tested. Hazard of divorce was significantly higher in couples with one mentally distressed partner than in couples with no mental distress in all analyses. There was also a significant interaction effect showing that the hazard of divorce for couples with two mentally distressed partners was higher than for couples with one mentally distressed partner, but lower than what could be expected from the combined main effects of two mentally distressed partners. Our results suggest that mentally distressed individuals are selected out of marriage. We also found support for a couple-level effect in which spouse similarity in mental distress to a certain degree seems to protect against divorce.

  20. Does a parental history of cancer moderate the associations between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems in teenagers: a HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie D; Loge, Jon H; Sørebø, Oystein; Dahl, Alv A

    2014-08-01

    Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway (the HUNT-2 study) 71 couples were identified with primary invasive cancer in one parent. Their 81 teenage children took part in the Young-HUNT study. These families were compared to 322 cancer-free families with 328 teenagers. Based on self-report data the relations between three variables of parental impaired health and six psychosocial problems in teenagers were analyzed family wise by structural equation modeling. Significant associations between parental and teenagers' variables were observed in eight of 18 models. A history of parental cancer was a significant moderator which decreased four of eight significant associations. Such a history significantly weakened the associations between parental poor self-rated health and teenagers' anxiety/depression and school problems. A similar association of a history of parental cancer was found between psychological distress in parents and teenagers' feelings of loneliness and poor self-rated health. This study confirmed strong associations between impaired parental health and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. A history of parental cancer weakened several of the significant associations between parental impaired health variables and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. What characterizes individuals developing chronic whiplash?: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtveit, Solbjørg Makalani; Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Petrie, Keith J; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-05-01

    Most individuals experiencing whiplash accidents recover rapidly. A considerable proportion, however, develop chronic symptoms. Psychological factors may slow recovery, possibly by increasing the likelihood of other symptoms being misattributed to, and amplified by the whiplash injury. We aimed to investigate how pre-injury mental and somatic symptoms, self-rated health, use of health-services and medications, health-behavior and socio-demographics predict the development of chronic whiplash. Data from two waves of a large, population based study (HUNT2 (baseline) and HUNT3) were used. Individuals reporting no whiplash at baseline were identified in HUNT3. Characteristics reported at baseline were compared between those who had developed chronic whiplash in HUNT3 (n=199) and those who had not (n=20,600), using Pearson's chi-squared tests, independent sample t-tests and logistic regression analyses. Individuals developing chronic whiplash reported worse baseline health than those reporting no chronic whiplash. Poor self-rated health was a strong risk factor for subsequent chronic whiplash (OR=2.26, 95%CI: 1.68-3.04). Musculoskeletal pain also increased the risk (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.15-1.26), as did diffuse somatic symptoms (OR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.47-2.96), use of different health services (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.19-1.45), high use of medications (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.14-1.43) and symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.39-2.68). Physical activity was protective (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.49-0.91). Most socio-demographic variables were not significantly associated with chronic whiplash. Poor somatic and mental pre-injury health increased the risk of subsequent chronic whiplash. This suggests that chronic whiplash is not merely an organic disorder, and highlights the importance of individual expectations, symptom reattribution and amplification in development of chronic whiplash. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Bosnes, Ole; Bosnes, Ingunn; Stordal, Eystein

    2017-05-09

    Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  4. Anuniatiq (Hunting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Truman

    This elementary language text, designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak, contains fourteen passages about hunting in Alaska. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the back and is not included in…

  5. A Comparison of Anthropometric Measures for Assessing the Association between Body Size and Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain: The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Heuch

    Full Text Available Previous work indicates that overweight and obese individuals carry an increased risk of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP. It is not known, however, how the association with body size depends on the choice of anthropometric measure used.This work compares relationships with LBP for several measures of body size. Different results may indicate underlying mechanisms for the association between body size and risk of LBP.In a cohort study, baseline information was collected in the community-based HUNT2 (1995-1997 and HUNT3 (2006-2008 surveys in Norway. Participants were 10,059 women and 8725 men aged 30-69 years without LBP, and 3883 women and 2662 men with LBP at baseline. Associations with LBP at end of follow-up were assessed by generalized linear modeling, with adjustment for potential confounders.Relationships between waist-hip-ratio and occurrence of LBP at end of follow-up were weak and non-significant after adjustment for age, education, work status, physical activity, smoking, lipid levels and blood pressure. Positive associations with LBP at end of follow-up were all significant for body weight, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference after similar adjustment, both in women without and with LBP at baseline, and in men without LBP at baseline. After additional mutual adjustment for anthropometric measures, the magnitude of the association with body weight increased in women without LBP at baseline (RR: 1.130 per standard deviation, 95% CI: 0.995-1.284 and in men (RR: 1.124, 95% CI 0.976-1.294, with other measures showing weak associations only.Central adiposity is unlikely to play a major role in the etiology of LBP. Total fat mass may be one common factor underlying the associations observed. The association with body weight remaining after mutual adjustment may reflect mechanical or structural components behind the relationship between overweight or obesity and LBP.

  6. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Sara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. Methods A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995–97 (HUNT 2. Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale, anxiety (21-integer scale and depression (21-integer scale, which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. Results The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one’s partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5–0.8 in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient. A one-year increase in a couple’s average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6–1.8 in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient. There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. Conclusions We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on

  7. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  8. Hunting for the optimal hunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Wisz, Mary

    the hunting season. To test that the geese did not leave because of a lack of food the field status in both areas was classified and density of waste grain was counted on stubble fields before, during and after the geese had left the area. The experiment is carried out in close collaboration with researchers...

  9. Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Peatlands: a Case Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S.; Viezzoli, A.; Pfaffhuber, A. A.; Vettore, A.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are extraordinary reservoirs of organic carbon that can be found over a wide range of latitudes, in tropical, to temperate, to (sub)polar climates. According to some estimates, the carbon stored in peatlands almost match the atmospheric carbon pool. Peatlands degradation due to natural and anthropogenic factors releases every year large amount of CO2 and other green house gasses into the atmosphere. The conservation of peatlands is therefore a key measure to reduce emissions and to mitigate climate change. An effective plan to prevent peatlands degradation must move from a precise estimate of the volume of peat stored across vast territories around the world. One example are the several bogs that characterize large surfaces in Norway. Our research combines the use of high spatial resolution satellite optical data with Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) and field measurements in order to map the extension and thickness of peat in Brøttum, Ringsaker province, Norway. The methodology allows us to quantify the volume of peat as well as the organic carbon stock. The variable thickness typical of Norwegian bogs allows us to test the limits of the AEM methodology in resolving near surface peat layers. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 747809. Start date: 1 June 2017. Duration: 24 months

  10. Factors related to non-recovery from whiplash. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtveit, Solbjørg Makalani; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Petrie, Keith J; Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Sivertsen, Børge

    2014-06-01

    Whiplash injuries show a variable prognosis which is difficult to predict. Most individuals experiencing whiplash injuries rapidly recover but a significant proportion develop chronic symptoms and ongoing disability. By employing longitudinal data, we investigated how psychological and physical symptoms, self-rated health, use of health services and medications, health behavior and demographic factors predict recovery from whiplash. Data from two waves of a large, Norwegian, population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study: HUNT2 and HUNT3) were used. Individuals reporting whiplash in HUNT2 (baseline) were identified in HUNT3 11 years later. The characteristics of individuals still suffering from whiplash in HUNT3 were compared with the characteristics of individuals who had recovered using Pearson's chi-squared test, independent sample t-tests and logistic regression. At follow-up, 31.6 % of those reporting whiplash at baseline had not recovered. These individuals (n = 199) reported worse health at baseline than recovered individuals (n = 431); they reported poorer self-rated health (odds ratio [OR] = 3.12; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.20-4.43), more symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.70; 95 % CI, 1.15-2.50), more diffuse somatic symptoms (OR = 2.38; 95 % CI, 1.61-3.51) and more musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.21; 95 % CI, 1.13-1.29). Individuals still suffering from whiplash also visited more health practitioners at baseline (OR = 1.18; 95 % CI, 1.06-1.32) and used more medications (OR = 1.24; 95 % CI, 1.09-1.40). Poor self-rated health seems to be a strong risk factor for whiplash injuries becoming chronic. Diffuse somatic symptoms, musculoskeletal symptoms and symptoms of anxiety at baseline are important prognostic risk factors. Knowledge of these maintaining risk factors enables identification of individuals at risk of non-recovery, facilitating adequate treatment for this vulnerable group.

  11. Comparison of sick leave patterns between Norway and Denmark in the health and care sector: a register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Fleten, Nils; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Jensen, Chris; Johnsen, Roar; Braaten, Tonje

    2013-11-01

    Sickness absence is of considerable concern in both Norway and Denmark. Labour Force Surveys indicate that absence in Norway is about twice that in Denmark and twice that of the mean reported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This study compares absence patterns according to age, percentage of employment, and occupation between municipal employees in the health and care sectors in two municipalities in Norway and Denmark. Data recorded in the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway and Aarhus, Denmark were extracted for the years 2004 and 2008, revealing 3498 and 7751 employee-years, respectively. We calculated absence rates together with number of sick leave episodes, and their association with the above-mentioned covariates. Gender-specific comparative descriptive statistics and negative binomial regression analysis were performed. The sickness absence rate in women was 11.3% in Norway (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-11.4) and 7.0% in Denmark (95% CI 7.0-7.1) whereas mean number of sick leave episodes among women was 2.4 in Denmark, compared to 2.3 in Norway (p = 0.02). Young employees in Denmark had more sick leave episodes than in Norway. Proportion of absentees was higher in Denmark compared to Norway (p Norway, for whatever reasons, may indicate that more frequent sick leaves episodes prevent higher sick leaves rates.

  12. "Gender Utopias?": U.S. Student Reflections on Studying Abroad in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Kristjane; Teig, Trisha; Bedera, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study abroad experience in Norway and Sweden that was designed to explore gender equality in two of the world's most gender-progressive countries. Course readings explored the work of feminist sociologists and asked students to think critically about gender equality from a cross-cultural perspective. Students met with…

  13. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  14. Associations between physical activity and physical and mental health--a HUNT 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheussen, Gro F; Romundstad, Pål R; Landmark, Tormod; Kaasa, Stein; Dale, Ola; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2011-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been characterized as the ultimate goal for health interventions such as physical activity (PA). We assessed how frequency, duration, and intensity of PA were related to HRQoL in younger (physical and mental health. HRQoL was measured by SF-8 Health Survey. Frequency and duration were assessed by items validated in a previous HUNT study, and intensity was assessed by Borg RPE scale. Associations between PA and physical and mental health were estimated using general linear modeling. A total of 4500 participants (56% females), age 19-91 yr, with mean age of 53±15 yr, were included. Of these, 40% were less active than recommended by international guidelines. In general, mean physical health (PCS-8) in females and males was 47.4±9.7 and 48.8±8.9, and mental health (MCS-8) was 50.5±8.0 and 51.9±7.3, respectively. Age-adjusted association between PA and HRQoL was stronger for physical than mental health in both genders and age groups. The largest differences were between no exercise and exercise groups at any level for frequency, duration, and intensity of PA. We found no substantial gender differences in association between PA and HRQoL, but association was stronger in older (≥65 yr) than younger (physical and mental health in both genders compared with no exercise, particularly among the older individuals.

  15. Deliveries in maternity homes in Norway: results from a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nina; Abelsen, Birgit; Øian, Pål

    2002-08-01

    The study aims to report the short-term outcome for the mothers and newborns for all pregnancies accepted for birth at maternity homes in Norway. A 2-year prospective study of all mothers in labor in maternity homes, i.e. all births including women and newborns transferred to hospital intra partum or the first week post partum. The study included 1275 women who started labor in the maternity homes in Norway; 1% of all births in Norway during this period. Of those who started labor in a maternity home, 1217 (95.5%) also delivered there while 58 (4.5%) women were transferred to hospital during labor. In the post partum period there were 57 (4.7%) transferrals of mother and baby. Nine women had a vacuum extraction, one had a forceps and three had a vaginal breech (1.1% operative vaginal births in the maternity homes). Five babies (0.4%) had an Apgar score below 7 at 5 min. There were two (0.2%) neonatal deaths; both babies were born with a serious group B streptococcal infection. Midwives and general practitioners working in the districts can identify a low-risk population (estimated at 35%) of all pregnant women in the catchment areas who can deliver safely at the maternity homes in Norway. Only 4.5% of those who started labor in the maternity homes had to be transferred to hospital during labor.

  16. Mountain forest wood fuel supply chains: comparative studies between Norway and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Clara; Spinelli, Raffaele; Hillring, Bengt Gunnar; Solberg, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains from Norway and Italy are presented and compared. Results from previous studies in which greenhouse gas emissions and costs were evaluated using life cycle assessment and cost analysis respectively, are compared. The supply chain is more mechanized in Norway than Italy. Steeper terrain and low road density partly explain the persistence of motor-manual felling in the Italian case. Mechanized forest harvesting can increase productivity and reduce costs, but generates more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than motor-manual harvesting. In both cases, the main sources of GHG emissions are truck transportation and chipping. The total emissions are 22.9 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Norway) and 13.2 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Italy). The Norwegian case has higher costs than the Italian one, 64 €/m 3 s.o.b. and 41 €/m 3 s.o.b. respectively, for the overall supply chain. The study shows that mountain forests constitute an interesting source for fuel biomass in both areas, but are a rather costly source, particularly in Norway. The study also exemplifies the care needed in transferring LCA results between regions and countries, particularly where forest biomass is involved. - Highlights: • We compare two mountain forest wood fuel supply chains in Norway and in Italy. • Transportation by truck generate the highest emissions in both case studies. • The energy use of the Norwegian supply chain was approximately twice as high as the Italian one. • Changes in fuel consumption affect significantly emissions and energy use from transportation and chipping operations. • Cable yarding and transportation by truck were the most expensive phases respectively in the Italian and Norwegian supply chain

  17. Study of the potential for biogas in Norway; Potensialstudie for biogass i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Schakenda, Vibeke; Morken, John

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Study of the potential for biogas in Norway' is accomplished as a cooperation between Oestfoldforskning and UMB on task for Enova SF. The aim of the project was to document theoretical energy potentials from biogas resources in Norway and to enlighten the possibility for increased production, distribution and usage of biogas. Landfill gases equivalent approximately 300 GWh or 25% of total methane emission from Norwegian waste disposal sites are totally collected in Norway. 61% of collected landfill gases are exposed to electricity and/or heat production, while the rest - 39% - is flaring. The project has surveyed that approximately 180 GWh is produced from biogas plants in Norway, based on data collected from the actual plants. It is emphasised that data from 30% of the plants are missing. Approximately half the produced biogas is used in heat production, 18% in electricity production, 19% flared while 9% has uncertain usage. The theoretical energy potential from biogas resources from waste/by-product is calculated close to 6TWh/year. Manure amount 42% (the greatest potential), then industry (23%) and garbage from household, communal establishment and trade (16%). Possible synergy between natural gas and biogas is also considered, and the most important barriers for increased production and usage of biogas are mapped. (AG). 58 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs

  18. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nødtvedt Ane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21% of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway.

  19. Switching statins in Norway after new reimbursement policy – a nationwide prescription study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Solveig; Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Rønning, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Use of statins is growing worldwide and costs represent a burden to public budgets. The introduction of simvastatin generics, generic substitution and price regulations have contributed to price reductions and resulted in overall cost reductions of statin use in Norway. What this study adds New reimbursement regulations for statins in Norway in June 2005, making simvastatin the drug of choice, had a great impact on physicians' prescribing of statins. Nearly 40% of the atorvastatin users switched to simvastatin during the 13-month period after implementation of the new regulations. Among the new users of statins the proportion receiving simvastatin increased from 48% in May 2005 to 92% in June 2006. The new regulations have reduced costs of statins, even though the prevalence of statin use has increased. Aims To assess the changes in prescribing of statins in Norway after implementation of the new reimbursement regulations for statins in June 2005. Methods Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database covering the total population in Norway (4.6 million). Outcome measures were the proportion of atorvastatin users switching to simvastatin and changes in the proportion of new statin users receiving simvastatin. Based on retail costs for all statin prescriptions dispensed in Norway, expenditure was measured in Norwegian currency. Results One-year prevalences of statin use increased from 6.3 to 6.8% for women and from 7.5 to 8.1% for men from the year before to the year after the new statin regulations. Of atorvastatin users (N = 131 222), 39% switched to simvastatin during the 13-month period after the implementation. The proportion of switching was higher in women (41%) than in men (36%). In May 2005, 48% of the new statin users received simvastatin. The proportion of new users receiving simvastatin increased rapidly after implementation of the new regulations to 68% in June 2005 and reached 92% in June 2006

  20. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  1. Headache and musculoskeletal complaints among subjects with self reported whiplash injury. The HUNT-2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Oystein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury and the relationship to chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs and headache in a large unselected adult population. Methods Between 1995 and 1997, all inhabitants 20 years and older in Nord-Trondelag county in Norway were invited to a comprehensive health survey. Out of 92,936 eligible for participation, a total of 59,104 individuals (63.6% answered the question about whiplash injury (whiplash. Among these, 46,895 (79.3% responded to the questions of musculoskeletal complaints and headache. Results The total life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury was 2.9%, for women 2.7% and for men 3.0%. There was a significant association between self reported whiplash injury and headache (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.4, and chronic MSCs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 2.8-3.8, evident for all ten anatomical sites investigated. The association was most pronounced for those with a combination of headache and chronic MSC for both men (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 3.6-6.2 and women (OR = 5.2; 95% CI 3.7-7.1. Conclusions Subjects with self reported whiplash injury had significantly more headache and musculoskeletal complaints than those without, and may in part be due to selective reporting. The causal mechanism remains unclear and cannot be addressed in the present study design.

  2. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik AI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alf Inge Hellevik,1,2 Marianne Bakke Johnsen,3,4 Arnulf Langhammer,1 Valborg Baste,5 Ove Furnes,6,7 Kjersti Storheim,3,4 John Anker Zwart,3,4 Gunnar Birkeland Flugsrud,2 Lars Nordsletten2,4 1The HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, 2Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Research and Communication Unit for Musculoskeletal Health, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, 5Uni Research Health, Bergen, 6The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 7Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Objective: Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR or total knee replacement (TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.Design: In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2 were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50–69.9 and ≥70 years and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education.Results: Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1% were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9% THRs and 1,111 (1.8% TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk

  3. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  4. Oral health of adults in northern Norway – A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Adekoya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a deficiency of data on oral health of adults in northern Norway, and available reports indicate poorer oral health in the north as compared with the rest of the country. The objective of this pilot study was to develop and test out tools for a larger epidemiological study of oral health among adults in northern Norway. The study was conducted in the municipalities of Nordkapp and Båtsfjord located in the northernmost county, Finnmark. Questionnaires and letters of invitation were sent to 100 randomly selected individuals in each town, in total 200. Those who filled and returned the questionnaires were sent appointment cards to a free oral examination at the local dental clinic. The main finding from the study was a low response rate; 34% responded to the questionnaire and 26.5% attended the oral examination. Response rate was highest among women above forty years old (37% and lowest among men under forty years (12%. There is a necessity for further studies and strategies to increase response rate to subsequent oral epidemiologic studies in northern Norway. Radiological examination is not necessary for such studies but a questionnaire and a physical oral examination should be included.

  5. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Background The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Methods...... From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1¿182¿888), Finland (n=419¿729), Norway (n=1¿006¿767) and Sweden (n=1¿974¿101). The births were linked with individual data on parental...

  6. Participation in planning – A study of urban development in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Irene Falleth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Norway, the dominance of neo-liberal ideas has resulted in a private planning practice whereby the developer is the principal actor in opaque negotiations between planning authorities and developers. We examine patterns of contact between stakeholders in urban development planning. Based on information obtained from a survey of the 145 most populous municipalities in Norway, as well as from case studies in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim, we find considerable interaction between the stakeholders involved in the planning process. The interaction patterns are different for civil society actors and private developers. We find that while developers have contacts with the planning authorities, the civil actors have contacts with the politicians. In the initial phase, i.e. before formal planning begins, this pattern is highly significant. Politicians frequently feel bound by negotiations and agreements that are made by the planners and the developers during the initial planning process.

  7. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt syndrome; Herpes zoster oticus; Geniculate ganglion zoster; Geniculate herpes; Herpetic geniculate ganglionitis ... The varicella-zoster virus that causes Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the same virus that causes chickenpox and ...

  8. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study Among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.

  9. The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldset, E.

    2012-04-01

    The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study Elen Roaldset(1), Mari Åm (2), and Oddleiv Olesen(3) 1) Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1172 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway 2) Statoil R &D, P. O. Box 2470, 7005 Trondheim, Norway 3) Norwegian Geological Survey, P.O.Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim, Norway The Stuoragurra Fault is part of the Lapland province of postglacial faults and was identified in 1983 during a colloborative project between the Geological Surveys of Finland Norway and Sweden. The Stuoragurra Fault is an 80 km long fault zone which contains three main segments of eastward dipping faults (30-55 deg.) with up to 10 m of reverse displacement and a 7 m high escarpment. It cross-cuts glaciofluvial deposits and consequently being younger than 10.000 years. The postglacial fault segments follow to a large extent older fault zones represented by lithified breccias and diabases of Proterozoic age. In this paper we will present textural and mineralogical study of a 135 m continous core drilled across the fault zone. The investigation methods include quality assessments by rock quality designation methods (RQD and Q- methods), textural and petrological descriptions visually and by thin section microscopy, and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction. Special attention is drawn to neoformed and/or degraded minerals like clay minerals and iron oxides/hydroxides. The quality assessments of the cored material reflect the degree of rock deformation and fragmentation and show the quality of the bedrock generally to be of very poor (about 60%) to poor quality" (25%) The main minerals in the fresh rock are quarts, feldspar, mica and iron oxides (magnetite and ilmenite). Throughout the cored borehole products of weathering have formed on fissures, fractures and in strongly deformed, gravelly, zones. The neoformed minerals include kaolinite, smectite, and vermiculite, as well as goethite. The mineralogical

  10. Non-response in a cross-sectional study of respiratory health in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Regine; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Henneberger, Paul K; Gundersen, G?lin Finckenhagen; Tor?n, Kjell; Kongerud, Johny; Fell, Anne Kristin M?ller

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Declining participation in epidemiological studies has been reported in recent decades and may lead to biased prevalence estimates and selection bias. The aim of the study was to identify possible causes and effects of non-response in a population-based study of respiratory health in Norway. Design The Telemark study is a longitudinal study that began with a cross-sectional survey in 2013. Setting In 2013, a random sample of 50?000 inhabitants aged 16?50?years, living in Telemark c...

  11. Critical methodologies: early childhood research studies in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette; Bjelkerud, Agnes Westgaard; Giæver, Katrine; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Holten, Ingeborg Caroline Sæbøe; Lafton, Tove; Moxnes, Anna Rigmor; Pope, Liv Alice

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and originally published in Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology (RERM). You can access the article on publisher's website by following this link: https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/rerm This chapter exemplifies seven projects and their related research methodologies. It does so to consider how to construct critical research studies without replicating someone else’s researc...

  12. Study protocol for a multicenter investigation of reablement in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Eva; Langland, Eva; Tuntland, Hanne; Førland, Oddvar; Aas, Eline; Folkestad, Bjarte; Jacobsen, Frode F; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2015-09-15

    Reablement is a promising new rehabilitation model, which is being implemented in some Western countries to meet current and future needs for home-based services. There is a need for further investigation of the effects of reablement among community-dwelling adults in terms of clinical and economic outcomes. This study will investigate the effectiveness of reablement in home-dwelling adults compared with standard treatment in terms of daily activities, physical functioning, health-related quality of life, coping, mental health, use of health care services, and costs. The study is a multicenter controlled trial. In total, 44 Norwegian municipalities will participate, including eight municipalities as a control group. For three municipalities with two zones, one will be assigned to the control group and the other to the intervention group. The experimental group will be offered reablement and the control group standard treatment. The sample will comprise approximately 750 participants. People will be eligible if they are home-dwelling adults, understand Norwegian, and have functional decline. Participants will be assessed at baseline, and after 10 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The primary outcome will be activity and participation measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Physical functioning will be measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and health-related quality of life by the European Quality of Life Scale. Coping will be measured by the Sense of Coherence questionnaire and mental health by the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. Costs will be generated based on registered working hours in different professions. Data analyses will be performed according to intention to treat. Univariate analysis of covariance will be used to investigate differences between the groups at baseline and the end of intervention. The data will be organized into two levels using a multilevel structure, i.e., individuals and municipalities, which will be

  13. Health care of hunting dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...

  14. Diabetes related risk factors did not explain the increased risk for urinary incontinence among women with diabetes. The Norwegian HUNT/EPINCONT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midthjell Kristian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes mellitus (DM and urinary incontinence (UI in women, especially severe UI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diabetes related variables could explain this association. Methods The study is part of the EPINCONT study, which is based on the large Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT 2, performed in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, during the years 1995 - 1997. Questions on diabetes and UI were answered by a total of 21 057 women aged 20 years and older. Of these 685 were identified as having diabetes, and thus comprise the population of our study. A variety of clinical and biochemical variables were recorded from the participants. Results Blood-glucose, HbA1c, albumine:creatinine ratio (ACR, duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, type of diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly differ in women with and without UI in crude analyses. However, the diabetic women with UI had more hospitalizations during the last 12 months, more homecare, and a higher prevalence of angina and use of oestrogene treatment (both local and oral/patch. After adjusting for age, BMI, parity and smoking, there were statistically significant associations between any UI and angina (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.93, homecare (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.89, and hospitalization during the last 12 months (OR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 - 2.38. In adjusted analyses severe UI was also significantly associated with the same variables, and also with diabetes drug treatment (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.10 and stroke (OR 2.47; 95% CI: 1.09 - 5.59. Conclusion No single diabetes related risk factor seems to explain the increased risk for UI among women with diabetes. However, we found associations between UI and some clinical correlates of diabetes.

  15. Americans with Disabilities Act Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a scavenger hunt for Business Law students. Specifically, students compete in this scavenger hunt to identify accessible design features on campus to undergird their study of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Title III of the ADA prohibits public accommodations from discriminating on the basis of…

  16. Immigrants’ use of emergency primary health care in Norway: a registry-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandvik Hogne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emigrants are often a selected sample and in good health, but migration can have deleterious effects on health. Many immigrant groups report poor health and increased use of health services, and it is often claimed that they tend to use emergency primary health care (EPHC services for non-urgent purposes. The aim of the present study was to analyse immigrants’ use of EPHC, and to analyse variations according to country of origin, reason for immigration, and length of stay in Norway. Methods We conducted a registry based study of all immigrants to Norway, and a subsample of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Iraq and Somalia, and compared them with native Norwegians. The material comprised all electronic compensation claims for EPHC in Norway during 2008. We calculated total contact rates, contact rates for selected diagnostic groups and for services given during consultations. Adjustments for a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were done by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Immigrants as a whole had a lower contact rate than native Norwegians (23.7% versus 27.4%. Total contact rates for Polish and German immigrants (mostly work immigrants were 11.9% and 7.0%, but for Somalis and Iraqis (mostly asylum seekers 31.8% and 33.6%. Half of all contacts for Somalis and Iraqis were for non-specific pain, and they had relatively more of their contacts during night than other groups. Immigrants’ rates of psychiatric diagnoses were low, but increased with length of stay in Norway. Work immigrants suffered less from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, but had more injuries and higher need for sickness certification. All immigrant groups, except Germans, were more often given a sickness certificate than native Norwegians. Use of interpreter was reduced with increasing length of stay. All immigrant groups had an increased need for long consultations, while laboratory tests were most often used

  17. Immigrants’ use of emergency primary health care in Norway: a registry-based observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Emigrants are often a selected sample and in good health, but migration can have deleterious effects on health. Many immigrant groups report poor health and increased use of health services, and it is often claimed that they tend to use emergency primary health care (EPHC) services for non-urgent purposes. The aim of the present study was to analyse immigrants’ use of EPHC, and to analyse variations according to country of origin, reason for immigration, and length of stay in Norway. Methods We conducted a registry based study of all immigrants to Norway, and a subsample of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Iraq and Somalia, and compared them with native Norwegians. The material comprised all electronic compensation claims for EPHC in Norway during 2008. We calculated total contact rates, contact rates for selected diagnostic groups and for services given during consultations. Adjustments for a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were done by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Immigrants as a whole had a lower contact rate than native Norwegians (23.7% versus 27.4%). Total contact rates for Polish and German immigrants (mostly work immigrants) were 11.9% and 7.0%, but for Somalis and Iraqis (mostly asylum seekers) 31.8% and 33.6%. Half of all contacts for Somalis and Iraqis were for non-specific pain, and they had relatively more of their contacts during night than other groups. Immigrants’ rates of psychiatric diagnoses were low, but increased with length of stay in Norway. Work immigrants suffered less from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, but had more injuries and higher need for sickness certification. All immigrant groups, except Germans, were more often given a sickness certificate than native Norwegians. Use of interpreter was reduced with increasing length of stay. All immigrant groups had an increased need for long consultations, while laboratory tests were most often used for Somalis and Iraqis

  18. The Local Value Chain of Hunted Red Deer Meat: A Scenario Analysis Based on a Northern Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gaviglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although in recent decades, meat from hunted wild ungulates has shown interesting results in terms of market opportunities, the scientific literature is still lacking in economic studies concerning the estimation of the meat’s value for involved stakeholders. We present an analysis of the evolution of price in the local red deer meat supply chain. This analysis has been conducted through a survey based on in-depth interviews with the stakeholders involved in an Italian local supply chain. Findings derived from this study describe a case study, however, they also represent the potential dynamics of the value of Italian game meat, highlighting that the development of a sustainable local supply chain of this product may represent an economic resource for involved stakeholders.

  19. Konstantin Naktanov, About Hunting

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina

    2016-01-01

    Konstantin’s grandfather hunted wolves and foxes by using traps. Konstantin’s father, in contrast, hunted with a rifle. In his youth Konstantin went with his father on hunting trips. They hunted hares and steppe birds (seagulls, ducks), except for swans. Konstantin recalls that the seagull’s meat smelled of fish. Killed wolves were skinned in the same way as people skinned sheep. The Kalmyks did not use the fur of foxes or ferrets, because (ordinary) people were not supposed to use or wear wh...

  20. Stakeholder views on criteria and processes for priority setting in Norway: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidem, Jeremy M

    2017-06-01

    Since 2013, Norway has engaged in political processes to revise criteria for priority setting. These processes have yielded key efficiency and equity criteria, but excluded potentially relevant social values. This study describes the views of 27 stakeholders in Norway's health system regarding a wider set of priority-setting criteria and procedural characteristics. Between January and February 2016, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of policymakers, hospital administrators, practitioners, university students and seniors. Improving health among low-socioeconomic-status groups was considered an important policy objective: some favored giving more priority to diseases affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and some believed inequalities in health could be more effectively addressed outside the health sector. Age was not widely accepted as an independent criterion, but deemed relevant as an indicator of capacity to benefit, cost-effectiveness and health loss. Cost-effectiveness, severity and health-loss measures were judged relevant to policymaking, but cost-effectiveness and health loss were considered less influential to clinical decision-making. Public engagement was seen as essential yet complicated by media and stakeholder pressures. This study highlights how views on the relevance and implementation of criteria can vary significantly according to the health system level being evaluated. Further, the findings suggest that giving priority to socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and reducing inequalities in health may be relevant preferences not captured in recent policy proposals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.

  2. Consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. A comparative study in France and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Valérie Lengard; Naes, Tormod; Enderli, Géraldine; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-08-01

    This study explores consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese in France (n=120) and Norway (n=119). The respondents were presented with 16 photographs of a traditional cheese from their respective countries, varying according to six factors: pasteurisation, organic production, omega-3, packaging, price and appropriateness. For each of the scenarios the consumers indicated their willingness to buy the cheese on a nine-point scale. Results show that consumers' willingness to buy traditional cheese is highly driven by price, appropriateness and pasteurisation in both countries. However, on average consumers in the French sample prefer buying raw milk cheese, while consumers in the Norwegian sample prefer buying pasteurised cheese. These general trends are led by a pro-raw milk segment in France and a pro-pasteurised milk segment in Norway. Several interaction effects involving appropriateness are detected, indicating the importance of the consumption context on the acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. On a general level, the results indicate that well-accepted innovations in traditional cheese are those that reinforce the traditional and authentic character of the product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway studied by means of moss analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1977-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of 28 elements in different parts of Norway was studied by means of moss analysis. The species Hylocomium splendens was selected after a comparison of different species. For several elements large regional differences were found. The highest concentration of these elements were found in the southernmost part of the country and in places near the west coast with high annual precipitation. The lowest values were found in places with low annual precipitation in Eastern Norway and the interior parts of the more northerly parts of the country. Within each region the highest deposition was observed in places with high annual precipitation. For the elements Pb, Sb, As, and Se the observed concentration range amounted to a factor of about 20. In the case of Ag, Cd, Cs, and V the range was smaller, but still amounting to a factor of 10 or more. A lower but still distinct spread was observed for Cr, Mo, Cu, and Zn. For all these elements long distance transport from sources in the densely populated and heavily industrialized parts of Europe probably are of importance for the obsreved distribution. (Auth.)

  4. Modelling the effects of climate change on the energy system-A case study of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljom, Pernille; Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Haugen, Jan Erik; Meir, Michaela; Rekstad, John; Jarlset, Thore

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to identify the effects of climate change on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. Changes in the future wind- and hydro-power resource potential, and changes in the heating and cooling demand are analysed to map the effects of climate change. The impact of climate change is evaluated with an energy system model, the MARKAL Norway model, to analyse the future cost optimal energy system. Ten climate experiments, based on five different global models and six emission scenarios, are used to cover the range of possible future climate scenarios and of these three experiments are used for detailed analyses. This study indicate that in Norway, climate change will reduce the heating demand, increase the cooling demand, have a limited impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro-power potential. The reduction of heating demand will be significantly higher than the increase of cooling demand, and thus the possible total direct consequence of climate change will be reduced energy system costs and lower electricity production costs. The investments in offshore wind and tidal power will be reduced and electric based vehicles will be profitable earlier. - Highlights: → Climate change will make an impact on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. → An impact is lower Norwegian electricity production costs and increased electricity export. → Climate change gives earlier profitable investments in electric based vehicles. → Climate change reduces investments in offshore wind and tidal power.

  5. Patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a qualitative comparative study between Norway and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-06-20

    In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of the healthcare system, such as gatekeeping, do not explain the magnitude of the differences. Our hypothesis is that patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation play a major role in explaining different healthcare utilisation behaviour in different countries. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore these subjective concepts comparatively, between Germany and Norway. With that aim in mind, we chose a comparative qualitative study design. In Norway and Germany, we are going to interview 20 patients each with qualitative episodic interviews. In addition, we are going to conduct participant observation in four German and four Norwegian primary care practices. The data will be analysed by thematic coding. Using selected categories, we are going to conduct comparative case and group analyses. The study adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki. All interviewees will sign informed consent forms and all patients will be observed during consultation. Strict rules for data security will apply. Developed theory and policy implications are going to be disseminated by a workshop, presentations for experts and laypersons and publications.

  6. Patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a quality comparative study between Norway and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Wolfram; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of th...

  7. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  8. Hunting for Ecological Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…

  9. Nutritional rickets in Norway: a nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Haakon E; Skram, Kristina; Berge, Ingvill Almås; Madar, Ahmed A; Bjørndalen, Hilde Johanne

    2017-05-29

    Poor vitamin D status has been reported to be highly prevalent in many non-western immigrant groups living in Norway and other western countries. However, data on rickets are scarce, and the aim of the current study was to identify new cases of nutritional rickets in Norway in the period 2008-2012 among children under the age of 5 years. Register-based cohort study. The Norwegian population from 2008 to 2012. Children with nutritional rickets under the age of 5 years. Nutritional rickets. Patients with ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision) diagnosis code E55.0 (active rickets) treated at all Norwegian hospitals were identified in the Norwegian Patient Registry. We were able to review 85% of the medical records for diagnosis confirmation. In addition, we identified patients with the diagnoses E55.9, E64.3 and E83.3 to identify individuals with rickets who had been given other diagnoses. Nutritional rickets was confirmed in 39 children aged 0-4 years with the diagnosis of E55.0. In addition, three patients with the diagnosis of unspecified vitamin D deficiency (E55.9) were classified as having nutritional rickets, giving a total of 42 patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 1.40 years (range 0.1-3.5 years), and 93% had a non-western immigrant background. The incidence rate of rickets was estimated to be 0.3 per 10 000 person-years in the total Norwegian child population under the age of 5 years and 3.1 per 10 000 person-years in those with an immigrant background from Asia or Africa. The number of children with nutritional rickets in Norway remained low in the period 2008-2012. Nearly all children had a non-western immigrant background. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  11. HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located

  12. Epidemiology of Benign External Hydrocephalus in Norway-A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Ulrikke S; Zahl, Sverre M; Egge, Arild; Helseth, Eirik; Wester, Knut

    2017-08-01

    Benign external hydrocephalus is defined as a rapidly increasing head circumference (occipitofrontal circumference) with characteristic radiological findings of increased subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid spaces on neuroimaging. The incidence of benign external hydrocephalus has not been previously reported, and there is no available information on the ratio of benign external hydrocephalus in the population of hydrocephalic children. This study is retrospective and population-based study, geographically covering two health regions in the southern half of Norway with a total mean population of 3.34 million in the ten-year study period, constituting approximately 75% of the Norwegian population. Children with a head circumference crossing two percentiles, or greater than the 97.5th percentile, and with typical imaging findings of enlarged frontal subarachnoid spaces with or without enlarged ventricles were included. Children were excluded if they had a history of head trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, central nervous system infection, other known causes of hydrocephalus, or were born preterm defined as birth before 37 weeks of gestation. A total of 176 children fitting the criteria were identified, giving an incidence of 0.4 per 1000 live births. One hundred fifty-two (86.4%) of the patients were male, and mean age at referral was 7.3 months. Increasing head circumference was the main reason for referral in 158 (89.8%) patients and the only finding in 60 (34.1%) patients. Thirty-seven (21%) children had normal ventricles on imaging; the remainder had increased ventricular size. The incidence of pediatric hydrocephalus in Norway is reported to be 0.75 per 1000 live births, thus benign external hydrocephalus accounts for approximately 50% of hydrocephalic conditions in this population. The incidence of benign external hydrocephalus was found to be 0.4 per 1000 live births in this population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. A photovoice study of school belongingness among high school students in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, Vaiva Sunniva Deraas; Warne, Maria; Huot, Suzanne; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti

    2018-12-01

    Although high school graduation is important for living conditions and health throughout life, many students do not complete. In Norway's northern most county, Finnmark, up to 45% of students do not complete high school. Contrary to prior research that has primarily focused on causes for dropout, this study's aim was to deepen understanding of factors that support high school attendance. A strengths-based participatory approach using photovoice addressed attendance factors as perceived by seven participating students from one high school in Finnmark. Qualitative content analysis of data generated through group dialogue about participant-generated photos and individual interviews identified six factors important for students' school attendance: a supportive school environment, a good learning environment, recuperation and recreation, family and friends, goals and ambitions, and place attachment. Related aspects of a supportive environment and belongingness, where school staff made important contributions to promoting a positive environment, were essential.

  14. Stochastics of environmental and financial economics Centre of Advanced Study, Oslo, Norway, 2014-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Nunno, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings offer a selection of peer-reviewed research and survey papers by some of the foremost international researchers in the fields of finance, energy, stochastics and risk, who present their latest findings on topical problems. The papers cover the areas of stochastic modeling in energy and financial markets; risk management with environmental factors from a stochastic control perspective; and valuation and hedging of derivatives in markets dominated by renewables, all of which further develop the theory of stochastic analysis and mathematical finance. The papers were presented at the first conference on “Stochastics of Environmental and Financial Economics (SEFE)”, being part of the activity in the SEFE research group of the Centre of Advanced Study (CAS) at the Academy of Sciences in Oslo, Norway during the 2014/2015 academic year.

  15. The Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort (MISA) Study: PCA analyses of environmental contaminants in maternal sera and dietary intake in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Hofoss, Dag; Hansen, Solrunn; Thomassen, Yngvar; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-03-01

    Although predictors of contaminants in serum or whole blood are usually examined by chemical groups (e.g., POPs, toxic and/or essential elements; dietary sources), principal component analysis (PCA) permits consideration of both individual substances and combined variables. Our study had two primary objectives: (i) Characterize the sources and predictors of a suite of eight PCBs, four organochlorine (OC) pesticides, five essential and five toxic elements in serum and/or whole blood of pregnant women recruited as part of the Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study conducted in Northern Norway (The MISA study); and (ii) determine the influence of personal and social characteristics on both dietary and contaminant factors. Recruitment and sampling started in May 2007 and continued for the next 31 months until December 2009. Blood/serum samples were collected during the 2nd trimester (mean: 18.2 weeks, range 9.0-36.0). A validated questionnaire was administered to obtain personal information. The samples were analysed by established laboratories employing verified methods and reference standards. PCA involved Varimax rotation, and significant predictors (p≤0.05) in linear regression models were included in the multivariable linear regression analysis. When considering all the contaminants, three prominent PCA axes stood out with prominent loadings of: all POPs; arsenic, selenium and mercury; and cadmium and lead. Respectively, in the multivariate models the following were predictors: maternal age, parity and consumption of freshwater fish and land-based wild animals; marine fish; cigarette smoking, dietary PCA axes reflecting consumption of grains and cereals, and food items involving hunting. PCA of only the POPs separated them into two axes that, in terms of recently published findings, could be understood to reflect longitudinal trends and their relative contributions to summed POPs. The linear combinations of variables generated by PCA identified prominent

  16. A Validation Study of the National Assessment Instruments for Young English Language Learners in Norway and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Karmen; Moe, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This article is a validation study of two national large-scale tests that measure the language proficiency of 11/12 year-old English learners in Norway and Slovenia. Following the example of Alderson and Banerjee (2008), the authors of the article have employed the EALTA guidelines for good practice to validate the tests, and to formulate major…

  17. Investigating textbooks as crucial interfaces between culture, policy and teacher curricular practice : two contrasted case studies in France and Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepin, B.; Gueudet, G.; Trouche, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of mathematics curriculum documents, commonly used textbooks and teacher ‘curricular practice’ with respect to educational traditions in France and Norway. The study has helped to develop a deeper understanding of (1) educational traditions in France and

  18. Frequent attenders in general practice and immigrant status in Norway: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care.

  19. Job satisfaction among hospital doctors in Norway and Germany. A comparative study on national samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf G

    2009-07-01

    To compare German and Norwegian hospital doctors on 10 different aspects of job satisfaction and general life satisfaction. The study population consisted of a representative sample of 1,448 German and 484 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 33-65 years (n = 1,932), selected from nationwide postal surveys in 2006. The questionnaires contained items on subjective life satisfaction and the validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale. Each item was scored on a seven-point Likert scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). A mean sum score was calculated, ranging from 1 to 7. Regression analyses and generalized-linear-model-estimated means controlled for age and gender with 95% confidence intervals were used for comparison. Norwegian hospital doctors had significantly higher life satisfaction (mean 5.31 vs. 5.15) and job satisfaction (mean 5.09 vs. 4.55) than their German colleagues. Item by item, doctors in Norway were significantly more content with seven aspects of their work: "Freedom to choose your own methods of working'' (mean 5.00 vs. 4.72), "opportunities to use your skills'' (mean 5.49 vs. 5.01), "physical working conditions'' (mean 4.62 vs. 4.08), "recognition you get for good achievements'' (mean 4.83 vs. 4.26), "overall job situation'' (mean 5.57 vs. 4.64), "work hours'' (mean 4.39 vs. 3.39), "ate of pay'' (mean 4.70 vs. 3.70). General life satisfaction and age, but not gender, were positively associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Norwegian hospital doctors enjoy a higher level of life and job satisfaction than German hospital doctors. The most likely reasons for this are more acceptable work hours, salary and control over clinical work in Norway.

  20. Early-Onset Paternal Smoking and Offspring Adiposity: Further Investigation of a Potential Intergenerational Effect Using the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carslake

    Full Text Available Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Using the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT Study, we find that paternal smoking during pre-adolescence (45,000 offspring, we cannot rule out a weaker association, perhaps common to sons and daughters, which would be consistent with the ALSPAC study. Alternatively, we discuss whether confounding, chance in parallel tests, or sample selection effects might explain the observed associations of early paternal smoking with offspring BMI.

  1. Deforestation and hunting effects on wildlife across Amazonian indigenous lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and hunting are main wildlife threats in Amazonia, affecting the ecosystem and dwellers that rely on game meat. Data from 9109 hunted animals from 35 villages of 8 Pano indigenous lands in Brazilian Amazonia were used to build 4 indicators of wildlife status based on ecological models and to analyze the effects of deforestation, hunting pressure, and socioeconomic aspects on wildlife variation. Although variation in wildlife status indicated depletion in certain locations, hunters from most villages continued to hunt their preferred game after decades of intensive hunting. Indigenous hunting resulted in local depletion of species because of the dispersal of animals away from the source of hunting. This local effect can be explained by the permanent hunting of wildlife in the region, the behavior of Pano hunters, and the design and scale of this study analysis. Regionally, however, deforestation and associated factors are the cause of reduced population density and hunting success, extirpating sensitive species. Roads exacerbated hunting effects through disturbance, encroachment, and provision of access to livestock meat at markets. To avoid local depletion, indigenous people must review their subsistence hunting practices, whereas to achieve regional wildlife conservation and to maintain indigenous societies in Amazonia, wildlife habitat loss should be limited.

  2. The association between school class composition and suicidal ideation in late adolescence: Findings from the Young-HUNT 3 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalen Joakim D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have explored the association between social context and suicidal ideation using multilevel models. This study examines how suicidal ideation in adolescence is related to school class composition. Methods Data were obtained from the Young-HUNT 3 study (2006–2008, a population study of adolescents attending secondary school in the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The final sample included 2923 adolescents distributed among 379 school classes in 13 schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the contribution of various factors at the individual and school class levels. Results The results indicate that 5.3 percent of the variation in suicidal ideation can be attributed to differences between school classes. However, a substantial part of this variation can be explained by an unequal distribution of students at risk as a result of individual factors. After controlling for individual-level variables, the results show a higher probability of suicidal ideation in school classes having higher proportions of girls as well as in those following a vocational education programme. Conclusion Targeting classes that either follow a vocational education programme or have a high proportion of girls can be an effective approach to intervention because such classes may include a greater number of students at risk for having suicidal thoughts compared to classes with a high proportion of boys or classes following a general education programme.

  3. Hunting camp. River Murray

    OpenAIRE

    ? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer

    2003-01-01

    200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.

  4. Hunting the mysterious Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Parker, Andy

    1996-01-01

    The Higgs boson is the most mysterious of all the fundamental particles. It accounts for how other particles acquired mass just after the beginning of the Universe. LEP-2 and the LHC at CERN will hunt it down between them

  5. Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Kvaløy

    Full Text Available The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally.Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97 and HUNT3 (2006-08 surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood.The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10(-4, adj. P = 0.015. DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980 was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10(-3, adj. P = 0.019 and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10(-4, adj. P = 0.003. When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5 was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10(-7, adj. P = 0.001. Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important.DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to

  6. Participatory epidemiology at the neotropics: study of diseases of backyard livestock and description of hunting patterns in Uaxactún, Maya Reserve Biosphere, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida Ruíz, Samuel Alberto; Guerra Centeno, Dennis Sigfried; Bailey Leonardo, Edgar Leonel; Rohn, Karl; Kösters, Sarah; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2016-04-07

    The intention of the following study was to describe the interrelationship between villagers, domestic animals and wildlife at the Community Forestry Concession of Uaxactún, Guatemala by means of participatory epidemiological methods. The main focus was generating information regarding different livestock diseases considered important by villagers and their relevance, as well as obtaining knowledge concerning hunting activities and cooking methods to gain a better understanding of the interrelationship of people and animals and the diseases of their animals. For poultry, an overall prevalence of 41% of Newcastle disease was found by means of the ELISA test by antibody detection, chicken being the most affected species in the village. No samples were positive to avian influenza with the HI test. No virus was isolated by means of the tracheal or cloaca swabbing of ducks. All species could be hunted by chance at any time of the year. There was a difference in species hunted between seasons, peccaries being more frequently hunted during the dry season and in contrast, deer and wild avian during the rainy season. Villagers did not consume any raw meat. The cooking methods depended on the species. Stewing was the most favoured method for peccaries, wild birds, tepezcuintle and domestic poultry, whereas grilling was preferable for deer, roasting for armadillos and marinating for pork. According to the generated information, the most important domestic livestock species in the village are chickens and pigs, chickens being the most affected by diseases. No evident health problems on pigs were observed in this study. Hunting was shown as an activity enhanced by poverty and the lack of employment opportunities in the village and was mostly directed at larger species such as deer and peccaries. From the viewpoint of a transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans cooking methods mostly reflected a protective factor as no raw meat was eaten, stews and broths being the most

  7. A method for studying the hunting oscillations of an airplane with a simple type of automatic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the amplitude and frequency, under certain simplifying conditions, of the hunting oscillations of an automatically controlled aircraft with lag in the control system or in the response of the aircraft to the controls. If the steering device is actuated by a simple right-left type of signal, the series of alternating fixed amplitude signals occuring during the hunting may ordinarily be represented by a square wave. Formulas are given expressing the response to such a variation of signal in terms of the response to a unit signal.

  8. Multicultural Education: Learners with Diverse Linguistic and Cultural Background : A Case Study of one Primary School in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tosic, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate how a primary school in Norway addresses learners with diverse linguistic and cultural background, in this study referred as culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CLD learners). The study is founded on the premises of multicultural education (MCE) which is considered essential to address the education of CLD learners. Therefore, the scope of the study is based on a five- category theoretical framework comprising: understanding the concept ...

  9. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Diaz

    Full Text Available As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations.This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique.Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37-0.39 for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57-0.59 for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66-0.68 for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages.Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of multimorbidity patterns for some immigrant groups

  10. Radiotherapy for bone metastases - Practice in Norway 1997 - 2007. A national registry-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sande Laugsand, Tonje [European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Univ. of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)], e-mail: tonje.laugsand@ntnu.no; Kaasa, Stein; Lund, Jo-Aasmund [European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Univ. of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Univ. Hospital of Trondheim, Trondheim (Norway); Romundstad, Paal [Dept. of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Univ. of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Johannesen, Tom Boerge [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-08-15

    Numerous randomised clinical trials have shown that the efficacy of single fraction radiotherapy for metastatic bone pain corresponds to that of multiple fractions of radiotherapy for the majority of patients. It is not clear to which extent single fraction radiotherapy has been implemented into clinical practice. Material and methods: A Norwegian national registry based study was conducted, including all radiotherapy schedules of 8 Gy x 1 and 3 Gy x 10 delivered to bone metastases in 1997 - 2007. Binomial regression analyses were used to study whether treatment centre, primary diagnosis, anatomical region irradiated, age, sex, and travel distance, were associated with the choice of fractionation. Results: A total of 14 380 radiotherapy episodes were identified. During the period 31% of the treatments were delivered as 8 Gy x 1. The proportion of single fraction treatments increased from 16% in 1997 to 41% in 2007. There were substantial differences in the proportion of single fraction treatments between the treatment centres (range 25 - 54%). These differences persisted after adjustment for sex, age, primary diagnosis, anatomical region, and travel distance. Conclusions: The study demonstrates an under utilisation of single fraction treatment for bone metastases in Norway during the study period.

  11. Marital transitions and life satisfaction: Evidence from longitudinal data from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Siri; Blekesaune, Morten; Jakobsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on three waves of data collected by the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. It investigates changes in life satisfaction associated with transition both into and out of marital unions (marriages and cohabitations). It provides longitudinal data on life satisfaction for a larger sample (N¼57,446), a longer age span (19–101 years) and over a longer observation period (22 years) than previously published research on this topic. The large sample permits interaction a...

  12. Inequalities in health: a comparative study between ethnic Norwegians and Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claussen Bjorgulf

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to observe the inequality in health from the perspective of socio-economic factors in relation to ethnic Pakistanis and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, Norway. Method Data was collected by using an open and structured questionnaire, as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. Accordingly 13581 ethnic Norwegians (45% of the eligible participated as against 339 ethnic Pakistanis (38% of the eligible. Results The ethnic Pakistanis reported a higher prevalence of poor self-rated health 54.7% as opposed to 22.1% (p Conclusion There is a large diversity of self-rated health, prevalence of diabetes and distress among the ethnic Pakistanis and Norwegians. Socio-economic status may partly explain the observed inequalities in health. Uncontrolled variables like genetics, lifestyle factors and psychosocial factors related to migration such as social support, community participation, discrimination, and integration may have contributed to the observed phenomenon. This may underline the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in future studies.

  13. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luz (Ana); M. Guèze (Maximilien); J. Paneque-Gálvez (Jaime); J. Pino (Joan); M. MacIá (Manuel); M. Orta-Martínez (Martí); V. Reyes-Garciá (Victoria)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife

  14. Switching statins in Norway after new reimbursement policy: a nationwide prescription study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Solveig; Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Rønning, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-10-01

    To assess the changes in prescribing of statins in Norway after implementation of the new reimbursement regulations for statins in June 2005. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database covering the total population in Norway (4.6 million). Outcome measures were the proportion of atorvastatin users switching to simvastatin and changes in the proportion of new statin users receiving simvastatin. Based on retail costs for all statin prescriptions dispensed in Norway, expenditure was measured in Norwegian currency. One-year prevalences of statin use increased from 6.3 to 6.8% for women and from 7.5 to 8.1% for men from the year before to the year after the new statin regulations. Of atorvastatin users (N = 131,222), 39% switched to simvastatin during the 13-month period after the implementation. The proportion of switching was higher in women (41%) than in men (36%). In May 2005, 48% of the new statin users received simvastatin. The proportion of new users receiving simvastatin increased rapidly after implementation of the new regulations to 68% in June 2005 and reached 92% in June 2006. Expenditure was reduced from 120 million to 95 million Euro when comparing the year before with the year after the new statin regulations. The new reimbursement policy for statins has had a great impact on physicians' prescribing of statins in Norway. Physicians in Norway acknowledge the importance of contributing to cost containment.

  15. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    This study analyses whether and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs in Mid-Norway are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. We also investigate if the electricity marked model EMPS gives us reasonable results also when run in a multi simulation mode without recalibration. Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by the weather, the system for energy production and transport, and by market mechanisms. In the region of Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities. Due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid the region experiences a deficit of electricity. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower and the transmission grid within and out of the region will probably be extended, so this situation might change. In addition climate change scenarios for the region agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain instead of snow, as well as we expect slightly higher wind speed and more storms during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity demand. EMPS is a tool for forecasting and planning in electricity markets, developed for optimization and simulation of hydrothermal power systems with a considerable share of hydro power. It takes into account transport constraints and hydrological differences between major areas or regional subsystems. During optimization the objective is to minimize the expected cost in the whole system subject to all constraints. Incremental water values (marginal costs for hydropower) are computed for each area using stochastic dynamic programming. A heuristic approach is used to treat the interaction between areas. In the simulation part of the model total system costs are minimized week by week for each climate scenario in a linear problem formulation. A detailed

  16. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    Full Text Available While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health.We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index.Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43 for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27 for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63.The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not

  17. Health-promoting collaboration in anesthesia nursing: a qualitative study of nurse anesthetists in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averlid, Gertrud; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2012-08-01

    Perceived stress of nurse anesthetists and their work environment has been the focus of several previous studies. This article presents a study of different factors that may contribute positively or negatively to the work environment of nurse anesthetists in Norway. It focuses on factors that nurse anesthetists perceive as health promoting at work and indicates how a healthy work environment can be created. A qualitative method was used, which included interviews with a strategic sample of 14 nurse anesthetists working in anesthesia departments. The data were collected in 2008. A grounded theory approach was used as the method of analysis. From the data analysis emerged 1 core category, Collaboration for better or worse-the fate of nurse anesthetists at the workplace. There were also 3 categories, Management as organizer of conditions, Well-being in an operating theater, and Clarity of role, and a number of subcategories. Collaboration through teamwork emerged as a crucial factor in the work environment of nurse anesthetists, while management was considered an important factor for creating a healthy work environment. Production pressure and communication difficulties were perceived as negative for the work environment. Management should therefore be actively involved and oriented toward creating favorable conditions for collaboration.

  18. The Northern Norway mother-and-child contaminant cohort study: implementation, population characteristics and summary of dietary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sofía Veyhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the essential features of a new Northern Norway mother-and-child contaminant cohort study called MISA, including its rationale, content, implementation and selected findings (mostly dietary. Study design. Cross-sectional with longitudinal aspects. Methods. Five hundred and fifteen eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy, with 391 completing the study protocol that included a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and donation of biological samples for contaminant analysis in the 2nd trimester, just after delivery, and 6 weeks postpartum. Macronutrient consumption was converted to energy intake, and the amounts of both macro- and micronutrients ingested were estimated. Some of the MISA findings were compared to data available in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN. Results. Compared to all 2004–2006 mothers in Northern Norway, the study cohort women were about 2 years older and smoked less; on average, they had close to 16 years of education. Parity, gestational age and birth weight of the newborn were comparable as well. The estimated average dietary intake of 8.1 MJ per day was less than that recommended by the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR, but the intake of micronutrients per MJ complied. Conclusions. Although the final cohort sample size was less than targeted, the generally good comparisons observed between MBRN-registered information for the study cohort and dropouts suggest that this occurrence introduced minimal bias. The agreement of the observed demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort women and newborns with all births in Northern Norway implied acceptable external validity. Also, the dietary findings aligned well with Norwegian national data and guidelines and other studies, as did the high prevalence of breastfeeding. The MISA database is considered suitable for exploring associations between contaminant exposure and diet, enhancing our knowledge of the

  19. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. Methods The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006–2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. Results In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Conclusions Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate

  20. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Synne Oien; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Zwart, John-Anker; Dyb, Grete

    2014-06-10

    Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006-2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate coping and recovery, it may be helpful to

  1. The Northern Norway mother-and-child contaminant cohort study: implementation, population characteristics and summary of dietary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Hansen, Solrunn; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    To describe the essential features of a new Northern Norway mother-and-child contaminant cohort study called MISA, including its rationale, content, implementation and selected findings (mostly dietary). Cross-sectional with longitudinal aspects. Five hundred and fifteen eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy, with 391 completing the study protocol that included a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and donation of biological samples for contaminant analysis in the 2nd trimester, just after delivery, and 6 weeks postpartum. Macronutrient consumption was converted to energy intake, and the amounts of both macro- and micronutrients ingested were estimated. Some of the MISA findings were compared to data available in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Compared to all 2004-2006 mothers in Northern Norway, the study cohort women were about 2 years older and smoked less; on average, they had close to 16 years of education. Parity, gestational age and birth weight of the newborn were comparable as well. The estimated average dietary intake of 8.1 MJ per day was less than that recommended by the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR), but the intake of micronutrients per MJ complied. Although the final cohort sample size was less than targeted, the generally good comparisons observed between MBRN-registered information for the study cohort and dropouts suggest that this occurrence introduced minimal bias. The agreement of the observed demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort women and newborns with all births in Northern Norway implied acceptable external validity. Also, the dietary findings aligned well with Norwegian national data and guidelines and other studies, as did the high prevalence of breastfeeding. The MISA database is considered suitable for exploring associations between contaminant exposure and diet, enhancing our knowledge of the interplay of the physiological changes that occur in mothers with

  2. Abscess infections and malnutrition--a cross-sectional study of polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeland, Mone; Wandel, Margareta; Böhmer, Thomas; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-01

    Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition. To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections. A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation. Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 μmol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low. The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.

  3. Health and unemployment: 14 years of follow-up on job loss in the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Silje L; Pape, Kristine; Vie, Gunnhild Å; Ose, Solveig O; Krokstad, Steinar; Gunnell, David; Bjørngaard, Johan H

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have investigated how unemployment influences health, less attention has been paid to the reverse causal direction; how health may influence the risk of becoming unemployed. We prospectively investigated a wide range of health measures and subsequent risk of unemployment during 14 years of follow-up. Self-reported health data from 36 249 participants in the Norwegian HUNT2 Study (1995-1997) was linked by a personal identification number to the National Insurance Database (1992-2008). Exact dates of unemployment were available. Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the association of unemployment with several health measures. Adjustment variables were age, gender, education, marital status, occupation, lifestyle and previous unemployment. Compared to reporting no conditions/symptoms, having ≥3 chronic somatic conditions (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.46-2.17) or high symptom levels of anxiety and depression (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.35-1.83) increased the risk of subsequent unemployment substantially. Poor self-rated health (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.24-1.51), insomnia (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.32), gastrointestinal symptoms (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.26), high alcohol consumption (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95-1.44) and problematic use of alcohol measured by the CAGE questionnaire (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17-1.48) were also associated with increased risk of unemployment. People with poor mental and physical health are at increased risk of job loss. This contributes to poor health amongst the unemployed and highlights the need for policy focus on the health and welfare of out of work individuals, including support preparing them for re-employment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Health and unemployment: 14 years of follow-up on job loss in the Norwegian HUNT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Kristine; Vie, Gunnhild Å.; Ose, Solveig O.; Krokstad, Steinar; Gunnell, David; Bjørngaard, Johan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many studies have investigated how unemployment influences health, less attention has been paid to the reverse causal direction; how health may influence the risk of becoming unemployed. We prospectively investigated a wide range of health measures and subsequent risk of unemployment during 14 years of follow-up. Methods: Self-reported health data from 36 249 participants in the Norwegian HUNT2 Study (1995–1997) was linked by a personal identification number to the National Insurance Database (1992–2008). Exact dates of unemployment were available. Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the association of unemployment with several health measures. Adjustment variables were age, gender, education, marital status, occupation, lifestyle and previous unemployment. Results: Compared to reporting no conditions/symptoms, having ≥3 chronic somatic conditions (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.46–2.17) or high symptom levels of anxiety and depression (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.35–1.83) increased the risk of subsequent unemployment substantially. Poor self-rated health (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.24–1.51), insomnia (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09–1.32), gastrointestinal symptoms (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08–1.26), high alcohol consumption (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95–1.44) and problematic use of alcohol measured by the CAGE questionnaire (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17–1.48) were also associated with increased risk of unemployment. Conclusion: People with poor mental and physical health are at increased risk of job loss. This contributes to poor health amongst the unemployed and highlights the need for policy focus on the health and welfare of out of work individuals, including support preparing them for re-employment. PMID:26715474

  5. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  6. [What do patients think of primary health care? A questionnaire study among patients in Northern Norway in 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, B; Aaraas, I; Forsdahl, A; Fønnebø, V; Fønnebø Knutsen, S; Lundevall, S; Melbye, H; Anvik, T

    1990-11-10

    Doctors and professional health administrators have been the principal decision-makers and the patients have hardly had any direct influence on the planning and organization of primary health care in Norway. In 1987, in order to draw attention to patient opinions, the Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, conducted a questionnaire survey among patients attending general practices in North Norway. The question were selected to cover issues in the contemporary debate on the ideology, organization and standards of services of general practitioners. 36 teaching practices in the region were included in the survey. Altogether 3,739 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of over 60%. The respondents reported more than 16,000 consultations during the last year. This paper presents the methods used and the main findings concerning the representativeness of the results and the potential for generalization. Subsequent publications will present detailed results from the study within the framework of patient experiences, preferences and expectations.

  7. Case Study: Crazy about Cryptids--An Ecological Hunt for Nessie and Other Legendary Creatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This hybrid case has three overarching and interrelated goals. First, it can be used to familiarize students with a range of ecological concepts and terms. Second, it is intended to engage students in…

  8. Income related inequalities in avoidable mortality in Norway: A population-based study using data from 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality in Norway over the period 1994-2011. We undertook a register-based population study of Norwegian residents aged 18-65 years between 1994 and 2011, using data from the Norwegian Income Register and the Cause of Death Registry. Concentration indices were used to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality for each year. We compared the trend in income-related inequality in avoidable mortality with the trend in income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient for income. Avoidable, amenable and preventable deaths in Norway have declined over time. There were persistent pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality, and the degree of inequality was larger in preventable mortality than in amenable mortality throughout the period. The income-avoidable mortality association was positively correlated with income inequalities in avoidable mortality over time. There was little or no relationship between variations in the Gini coefficient due to tax reforms and socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality. Income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality have remained relatively constant between 1994 and 2011 in Norway. They were mainly correlated with the relationship between income and avoidable mortality rather than with variations in the Gini coefficient of income inequality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking slope stability and climate change: the Nordfjord region, western Norway, case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasskog, K.; Waldmann, N.; Ariztegui, D.; Simpson, G.; Støren, E.; Chapron, E.; Nesje, A.

    2009-12-01

    Valleys, lakes and fjords are spectacular features of the Norwegian landscape and their sedimentary record recall past climatic, environmental and glacio-isostatic changes since the late glacial. A high resolution multi-proxy study is being performed on three lakes in western Norway combining different geophysical methods and sediment coring with the aim of reconstructing paleoclimate and to investigate how the frequency of hazardous events in this area has changed through time. A very high resolution reflection seismic profiling revealed a series of mass-wasting deposits. These events, which have also been studied in radiocarbon-dated cores, suggest a changing impact of slope instability on lake sedimentation since the late glacial. A specially tailored physically-based mathematical model allowed a numerical simulation of one of these mass wasting events and related tsunami, which occurred during a devastating rock avalanche in 1936 killing 74 persons. The outcome has been further validated against historical, marine and terrestrial information, providing a model that can be applied to comparable basins at various temporal and geographical scales. Detailed sedimentological and geochemical studies of selected cores allows characterizing the sedimentary record and to disentangle each mass wasting event. This combination of seismic, sedimentary and geophysical data permits to extend the record of mass wasting events beyond historical times. The geophysical and coring data retrieved from these lakes is a unique trace of paleo-slope stability generated by isostatic rebound and climate change, thus providing a continuous archive of slope stability beyond the historical record. The results of this study provide valuable information about the impact of climate change on slope stability and source-to-sink processes.

  10. Tailoring reablement: A grounded theory study of establishing reablement in a community setting in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Cathrine; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2018-01-01

    Reablement is an interprofessional, home-based rehabilitation service that aims to enable senior residents to cope with everyday life and to prevent functional impairments. Systematic accounts of what practitioners actually do when establishing reablement are lacking. This study aims to generate a grounded theory of practitioners' patterns of action when establishing reablement. The study is located in Norway, and grounded theory is the methodological approach. Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2016 through participant observations, focus group interviews and individual interviews. Informants are municipal healthcare employees in different organisational areas associated with the process of establishing reablement services (managers of conventional home care and representatives from the administration and service-provider offices). Altogether, 17 individuals are interviewed. The empirical data are analysed several times using open, selective and theoretical coding. The grounded theory, "tailoring reablement," includes three phases-replicating, adapting and establishing-and the strategies of collaborating, developing knowledge, habituating and filtering. The theory of tailoring reablement also includes the impact of the contextual factors. The study seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory of tailoring reablement emerges from an inductive approach and theorises participants' actions. The theory focuses on the phases from innovation to implementation. Establishing a new service model in a complex welfare setting requires a wide range of actors and agencies. Tailoring reablement also requires flexibility and professional autonomy. It is important to create terms and conditions for this within a stringent health and care service. The insights of this study have implications for practice development of reablement and can fit other public sector fields. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John

  11. The User Perspective in Performance Auditing--A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Arnfrid; Rydland, Lars Tore; Amundsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The user perspective is an important contextual factor for Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs). This article provides examples from performance audits in Norway and explores why the user perspective has become important in performance audit practices. It shows that user satisfaction can be employed as a key performance indicator of effectiveness of…

  12. Issues and Problems in the Organization of Children's Sport: A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirstad, Berit; Waddington, Ivan; Safvenbom, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the organization of children's sport in Norway. More specifically, the paper sets out to examine (i) the changing pattern of relationships, and in particular the changing balance of conflict and cooperation, between the several organizations with responsibility for children's sport, and (ii) how sport for children…

  13. Marginalisation Processes in Inclusive Education in Norway: A Longitudinal Study of Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelborg, Christian; Tossebro, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the classroom participation of primary school children with disabilities who attend regular schools in Norway; to explore how relations between children with disabilities and their environment change, and further to chart how schools act in response to such change. The analyses are based on a life course study…

  14. The Makah Whale Hunt: A Social Studies Symposium in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein-Grove, Matthew; Hamel, Fred L.

    2013-01-01

    The conversation starts quickly as two students come together in a 10th grade social studies classroom, half-way through a role play activity a symposium begins. Both students are sporting "Hello, my name is…" stickers on their shirts, and each attempts to speak in character. One represents an anti-whaling activist. Helen stands holding…

  15. Hunting or habitat? Drivers of waterbird abundance and community structure in agricultural wetlands of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramesh; Kumar, Ajith; Gopi Sundar, Kolla S; Bhalla, Ravinder Singh

    2017-09-01

    The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure. Species richness, density of piscivorous species, and medium-sized species (31-65 cm) were most affected by hunting. Out of 53 species recorded, 47 were hunted, with a preference for larger birds. Although illegal, hunting has increased in recent years and is driven by market demand. This challenges the widely held belief that waterbird hunting in India is a low intensity, subsistence activity, and undermines the importance of agricultural wetlands in waterbird conservation.

  16. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  17. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  18. Childhood otitis media is associated with dizziness in adulthood: the HUNT cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Hoffman, Howard J; Engdahl, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between otitis media in childhood and dizziness in adulthood. Longitudinal, population-based cohort study of 21,962 adults (aged 20-59 years, mean 40) who completed a health questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study was conducted. At 7, 10 and 13 years of age, the same individuals underwent screening audiometry in a longitudinal school hearing investigation. Children found with hearing loss underwent an ear, nose and throat specialist examination. Adults diagnosed with childhood chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 102) and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (n = 590) were significantly more likely to have increased risk of reported dizziness when compared to adults with normal hearing as children at the school investigation and also a negative history of recurrent otitis media (n = 21,270), p otitis media and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media are associated with increased risk of dizziness in adulthood. This might reflect a permanent effect of inflammatory mediators or toxins on the vestibular system. The new finding stresses the importance of treatment and prevention of these otitis media conditions.

  19. Intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma in Norwegian adults: the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although intake of multivitamin supplements is becoming increasingly popular, the relationship between intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma remains unclear. Prospective studies in adults with long-term follow-up are especially scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between intake of multivitamin supplements and asthma development in Norwegian adults. We followed 16 952 adult subjects from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995–1997 up to 2006–2008, who, at baseline, were free of asthma and provided information on their intake of multivitamin supplements and cod liver oil. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements or cod liver oil was defined as daily intake for ≥3 months during the year prior to baseline. Incident asthma was defined as reported new-onset asthma after the 11-year follow-up. Intake of multivitamin supplements only was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.12–2.13 after adjustment for a number of common confounding factors (model I. Similar odds ratios were found for intake of cod liver oil only and for intake of both supplements (1.59 and 1.73, respectively. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma in Norwegian adults.

  20. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1939 Honorary. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1933. Date of birth: 25 September 1866. Date of death: 4 December 1945. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  1. A Geospatial Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…

  2. Becoming Spatially Embedded: Findings from a Study on Rural Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Camilla Munkejord

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a nuanced understanding of (immigrant entrepreneurship as a socio-economic and spatially embedded practice by analysing data from a qualitative study in Finnmark, in northernmost Norway. Research Design & Methods: The article is based on a qualitative fieldwork including business visits and in-depth interviews. The transcripts from the interviews were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory approach (CGT. Findings: The article contributes to the entrepreneurship literature in general and to the immigrant entrepreneurship literature in particular by investigating mutual connections between immigrant entrepreneurs, place and community. The article firstly reveals that immigrants may be able to successfully create and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities literally from day one in the rural community in which they settle. Implications & Recommendations: This study notes that immigrant entrepreneurs may contribute to building the periphery. Hence, developing our knowledge of how to increase the feeling of local belonging of immigrants may be important for many rural regions. This is because, rural immigrants not only represent a much needed inflow of younger people in a typically decreasing and ageing population, but also entail cultural variation and job creation, thus contributing to place development. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this article is to investigate mutual connections between immigrant entrepreneurs, place and community, hence revealing how immigrants, when being supported by the rural community, may be able to successfully create and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities in rural communities, and, through entrepreneurship processes, may even contribute to (rebuild the rural areas.

  3. How older people with incurable cancer experience daily living: A qualitative study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Demarinis, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of older people are living with incurable cancer as a chronic disease, requiring palliative care from specialized healthcare for shorter or longer periods of time. The aim of our study was to describe how they experience daily living while receiving palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. We conducted a qualitative research study with a phenomenological approach called "systematic text condensation." A total of 21 participants, 12 men and 9 women, aged 70-88, took part in semistructured interviews. They were recruited from two somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. The participants experienced a strong link to life in terms of four subthemes: to acknowledge the need for close relationships; to maintain activities of normal daily life; to provide space for existential meaning-making and to name and handle decline and loss. In addition, they reported that specialized healthcare contexts strengthened the link to life by prioritizing and providing person-centered palliative care. Older people with incurable cancer are still strongly connected to life in their daily living. The knowledge that the potential for resilience remains despite aging and serious decline in health is considered a source of comfort for older people living with this disease. Insights into the processes of existential meaning-making and resilience are seen as useful in order to increase our understanding of how older people adapt to adversity, and how their responses may help to protect them from some of the difficulties inherent to aging. Healthcare professionals can make use of this information in treatment planning and for identification of psychosocial and sociocultural resources to support older people and to strengthen patients' life resources.

  4. Physical activity as a long-term predictor of peak oxygen uptake: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Nauman, Javaid; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Vatten, Lars Johan; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-09-01

    A physically active lifestyle and a relatively high level of cardiorespiratory fitness are important for longevity and long-term health. No population-based study has prospectively assessed the association of physical activity levels with long-term peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). 1843 individuals (906 women and 937 men) who were between 18 and 66 yr at baseline and were free from known lung or heart diseases at both baseline (1984-1986) and follow-up (2006-2008) were included in the study. Self-reported physical activity was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak) was measured at follow-up. The association of physical activity levels and VO(2peak) was adjusted for age, level of education, smoking status, and weight change from baseline to follow-up, using ANCOVA statistics. The level of physical activity at baseline was strongly associated with VO(2peak) at follow-up 23 yr later in both men and women (Ptrends active at baseline had higher (3.3 and 4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) VO(2peak) at follow-up. Women who were inactive at baseline but highly active at follow-up had 3.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) higher VO(2peak) compared with women who were inactive both at baseline and at follow-up. The corresponding comparison in men showed a difference of 5.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% confidence interval = 3.1-7.3) in VO(2peak). Physical activity level at baseline was positively associated with directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) 23 yr later. People who changed from low to high activity during the observation period had substantially higher V˙O(2peak) at follow-up compared with people whose activity remained low.

  5. Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Øverland, Simon; Hatch, Stephani L; Wessely, Simon; Mykletun, Arnstein; Hotopf, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association. A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected. Undertaking regular leisure-time exercise was associated with reduced incidence of future depression but not anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented if all participants had engaged in at least 1 hour of physical activity each week. The social and physical health benefits of exercise explained a small proportion of the protective effect. Previously proposed biological mechanisms, such as alterations in parasympathetic vagal tone, did not appear to have a role in explaining the protection against depression. Regular leisure-time exercise of any intensity provides protection against future depression but not anxiety. Relatively modest changes in population levels of exercise may have important public mental health benefits and prevent a substantial number of new cases of depression.

  6. Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Miriam; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Melkevik, Ole; Reneflot, Anne; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (≥30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution. Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile. Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  8. The Significance of Hunting : "The Bear" and "Delta Autumn"

    OpenAIRE

    海上, 順代; Nobuyo", "Unagami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the significance of hunting in "The Bear" and "Delta Autumn", the fifth and sixth stories in William Faulkner‟s Go Down, Moses (1942). In this paper, I would like to show that hunting plays an important role in Faulkner's Southern society, referring to the studies of Maria Mies, a German sociologist. In her view, hunting is useful to a patriarchal society, which strictly distinguishes men from women. As a part of a social system, hunting succeeds in g...

  9. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted

  10. Association between social support and depression in the general population: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Siv; Hellzèn, Ove; Romild, Ulla; Stordal, Eystein

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Overdose prevention training with naloxone distribution in a prison in Oslo, Norway: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Aase Grønlien; Madah-Amiri, Desiree

    2017-11-21

    Prison inmates face a ten times increased risk of experiencing a fatal drug overdose during their first 2 weeks upon release than their non-incarcerated counterparts. Naloxone, the antidote to an opioid overdose, has been shown to be feasible and effective when administered by bystanders. Given the particular risk that newly released inmates face, it is vital to assess their knowledge about opioid overdoses, as well as the impact of brief overdose prevention training conducted inside prisons. Prison inmates nearing release (within 6 months) in Oslo, Norway, voluntarily underwent a brief naloxone training. Using a questionnaire, inmates were assessed immediately prior to and following a naloxone training. Descriptive statistics were performed for main outcome variables, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the participants' two questionnaire scores from pre-and post-training. Participating inmates (n = 31) were found to have a high baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and care regarding opioid overdoses. Nonetheless, a brief naloxone training session prior to release significantly improved knowledge scores in all areas assessed (p < 0.001). The training appears to be most beneficial in improving knowledge regarding the naloxone, including its use, effect, administration, and aftercare procedures. Given the high risk of overdosing that prison inmates face upon release, the need for prevention programs is critical. Naloxone training in the prison setting may be an effective means of improving opioid overdose response knowledge for this particularly vulnerable group. Naloxone training provided in the prison setting may improve the ability of inmates to recognize and manage opioid overdoses after their release; however, further studies on a larger scale are needed.

  12. New malignancies after squamous cell carcinoma and melanomas: a population-based study from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robsahm, Trude E; Karagas, Margaret R; Rees, Judy R; Syse, Astri

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer survivors experience an increased risk for subsequent malignancies but the associated risk factors are poorly understood. This study examined the risk of a new primary cancer following an initial skin cancer and assessed risk factors associated with second primary cancers. All invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMM, N = 28 069) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, N = 24 620) diagnosed in Norway during 1955–2008 were included. Rates of new primary cancers in skin cancer survivors were compared to rates of primary malignancies in the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Discrete-time logistic regression models were applied to individual-level data to estimate cancer risk among those with and without a prior skin cancer, accounting for residential region, education, income, parenthood, marital status and parental cancer status, using a 20% random sample of the entire Norwegian population as reference. Further analyses of the skin cancer cohort were undertaken to determine risk factors related to subsequent cancers. During follow-up, 9608 new primary cancers occurred after an initial skin cancer. SIR analyses showed 50% and 90% increased risks for any cancer after CMM and SCC, respectively (p < 0.01). The logistic regression model suggested even stronger increase after SCC (130%). The highest risk was seen for subsequent skin cancers, but several non-skin cancers were also diagnosed in excess: oral, lung, colon, breast, prostate, thyroid, leukemia, lymphoma and central nervous system. Factors that were associated with increased risk of subsequent cancers include male sex, older age, lower residential latitude, being married and low education and income. Parental cancer did not increase the risk of a subsequent cancer after SCC, but was a significant predictor among younger CMM survivors. Our results provide information on shared environmental and genetic risk factors for first and later cancers and may help to identify

  13. Peer counselling for doctors in Norway: A qualitative study of the relationship between support and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson Rø, Karin; Veggeland, Frode; Aasland, Olaf G

    2016-08-01

    Peer support can entail collegial responsibility for counselling and support as well as reactions to academic or ethical failure. These considerations can be complementary, but also conflicting. This article focuses on how the peer support programme in Norway addresses these considerations. Focus group interviews held with Norwegian peer counsellors from August 2011 to June 2012 were analysed by a stepwise deductive-inductive method. Based on organisational theory, two "ideal types" of counsellors were identified from the data, and these were then used to reanalyse the text. We found that the organisational framework is associated with the peer counsellors' role conception and thereby the relationship between the counsellor and the help-seeking doctor. The relationship between informal frameworks like collegiality, confidence and discretion, and more formalized incentive-driven frameworks, appear to influence the accessibility to peer support, the mandate to provide relevant help and the understanding of what peer support represents. The study showed the need for a continuous awareness of a balance between the informal and the more formalized elements in the framework for peer support. This is of importance for how the service can contribute to better health among doctors and to secure quality and safety in the treatment of patients. The analysis can also be used to demonstrate the consequences of how the peer support program is designed - such as the degree of formalisation and the balance between "hard" and "soft" ways to regulate the interaction between peer counsellors and doctors - for the ability to achieve the stated objectives of the service. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities and mortality among disability pensioners in Norway – a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturla Gjesdal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the mortality related to disability pension (DP status in Norway during 1990-96 and investigated whether socioeconomic factors explained the increased mortality. Methods: A 10% random sample of the Norwegian population aged 30-59 years, 73,420 women and 75,500 men, were followed-up with respect to death or emigration in 1990-96. DP-status, age, gender, educational level and mean income before inclusion were used as explanatory variables in Cox’ regression analysis with death as endpoint. The analyses were stratified for gender and separately for persons who had obtained DP before 1985 (early and in 1985-1989 (late. Results: The majority of persons with DP had only basic education and belonged to the lowest income level. Among the women 6.2% in the DP-group died during follow-up compared to 1.2% of those in the non-DP group. The corresponding percentages for men were 14.5% and 2.3%. The age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 3.5 and 2.5 for women with early and late DP, and 4.3 and 3.3 among men. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, the HRs were 2.9 and 2.2 for women, and 2.2 and 1.9 for men. Conclusions: Nearly half of the excess mortality related to DP-status was explained by low socioeconomic status among the men. Among women, HR related to DP was not significantly reduced after the adjustments for socioeconomic variables. These findings indicate a strong impact of the medical factors underlying the DP decision, especially among women, but also an important role of the socioeconomic factors related to DP status.

  15. Quality of life in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in Norway: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Dheyauldeen, Sinan; Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Heimdal, Ketil

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare, autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of recurrent epistaxis and small characteristic malformations of the peripheral blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucosal linings. Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the lung, liver, and CNS are also known clinical findings. The purpose of this study was to examine quality of life (QoL) in patients with HHT in Norway. Sixty-six affected patients (39 women and 27 men) were included. QoL on overall-, health-related (HR-QoL), and disease-specific levels were measured with Cantril's Ladder (CL), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and a Symptom-specific QoL question in HHT patients (SFB-HHT-Q), respectively. Comparisons were made between patients and an age and gender adjusted normative sample from the Norwegian population (N = 990). Overall, the results reflected that several HHT disease-related variables were associated with reduced QoL on all three levels; overall QoL (CL), HR-QoL (SF36) as well as disease-specific QoL (SFB-HHT-Q), while demographic variables impacted HR-QoL in HHT patients. Compared to the normative sample, all subscales of SF36, but bodily pain, were significantly poorer in the HHT patients. HHT disease variables had the strongest association with QoL compared to demographic variables. The results substantiate that disease severity is associated with poorer QoL in this patients. Pain contributed independently to all levels of QoL. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Does 'existential unease' predict adult multimorbidity? Analytical cohort study on embodiment based on the Norwegian HUNT population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasdottir, Margret Olafia; Sigurdsson, Johann Agust; Petursson, Halfdan; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Ivar Lund Nilsen, Tom; Hetlevik, Irene; Getz, Linn

    2016-11-16

    Multimorbidity is prevalent, and knowledge regarding its aetiology is limited. The general pathogenic impact of adverse life experiences, comprising a wide-ranging typology, is well documented and coherent with the concept allostatic overload (the long-term impact of stress on human physiology) and the notion embodiment (the conversion of sociocultural and environmental influences into physiological characteristics). Less is known about the medical relevance of subtle distress or unease. The study aim was to prospectively explore the associations between existential unease (coined as a meta-term for the included items) and multimorbidity. Our data are derived from an unselected Norwegian population, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, phases 2 (1995-1997) and 3 (2006-2008), with a mean of 11 years follow-up. The analysis includes 20 365 individuals aged 20-59 years who participated in both phases and was classified without multimorbidity (with 0-1 disease) at baseline. From HUNT2, we selected 11 items indicating 'unease' in the realms of self-esteem, well-being, sense of coherence and social relationships. Poisson regressions were used to generate relative risk (RR) of developing multimorbidity, according to the respondents' ease/unease profile. A total of 6277 (30.8%) participants developed multimorbidity. They were older, more likely to be women, smokers and with lower education. 10 of the 11 'unease' items were significantly related to the development of multimorbidity. The items 'poor self-rated health' and 'feeling dissatisfied with life' exhibited the highest RR, 1.55 and 1.44, respectively (95% CI 1.44 to 1.66 and 1.21 to 1.71). The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with the number of 'unease' factors, from 26.7% for no factor to 49.2% for 6 or more. In this prospective study, 'existential unease' was associated with the development of multimorbidity in a dose-response manner. The finding indicates that existential unease increases people

  17. Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Jacinthe; Leclerc, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2017-01-01

    The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991-2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled cub survival before, during and after the mating season. We used three proxies to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in male turnover; distance and timing of the closest male killed and number of males that died around a female's home range centre. Male removal decreased cub survival only during the mating season, as expected in seasonal breeders with SSI. Cub survival increased with distance to the closest male killed within the previous 1·5 years, and it was lower when the closest male killed was removed 1·5 instead of 0·5 year earlier. We did not detect an effect of the number of males killed. Our results support the hypothesis that social restructuring due to hunting can reduce recruitment and suggest that the distribution of the male deaths might be more important than the overall number of males that die. As the removal of individuals through hunting is typically not homogenously distributed across the landscape, spatial heterogeneity in hunting pressure may cause source-sink dynamics, with lower recruitment in areas of high human-induced mortality. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  18. A comparative, simulation supported study on the diffusion of battery electric vehicles in Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Ginevra

    2017-01-01

    We are living at a point in history where global cost dynamics and specific political choices may lead to an integral transformation of the mobility system as we know it. After a century where the internal combustion engine vehicle dominated the scene, the battery electric vehicle (BEV) is making its way into the market- and in giant steps. The world’s transition to electricity and thereby a lower carbon future, depends heavily on electrifying road transportation. Norway and Sweden’s differen...

  19. Safe adventures. An ethnographic study of safety and adventure guides in Arctic Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Mats Hoel

    2016-01-01

    With numerous entrepreneurs already established within the area, adventure tourism is a growing industry within Arctic Norway. The continuously expanding interest for the phenomenon has gained universities’ attention with recent education programs for guides being established. A cultural change involving a more professionalized approach to adventure tourism has also been noticed. At the forefront of ensuring tourists’ safety are the guides, who work in the area. In former research on safety i...

  20. The impact of different prioritisation policies on waiting times: case studies of Norway and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januleviciute, Jurgita; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Kaarboe, Oddvar; Holmås, Tor Helge; Sutton, Matt

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the distributional consequences of two different waiting times initiatives, one in Norway, and one in Scotland. The primary focus of Scotland's recent waiting time reforms, introduced in 2003, and modified in 2005 and 2007, has been on reducing maximum waiting times through the imposition of high profile national targets accompanied by increases in resources. In Norway, the focus of the reform introduced in September 2004, has been on assigning patients referred to hospital a maximum waiting time based on disease severity, the expected benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the treatment. We use large, national administrative datasets from before and after each of these reforms and assign priority groups based on the maximum waiting times stipulated in medical guidelines. The analysis shows that the lowest priority patients benefited most from both reforms. This was at the cost of longer waiting times for patients that should have been given higher priority in Norway, while Scotland's high priority patients remained unaffected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Which young physicians are satisfied with their work? A prospective nationwide study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Oivind

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated personality and medical school variables in regard to job satisfaction after graduation. It is of great importance to investigate these factors because this information may be used in the recruitment/admittance process to medical schools, and possibly to improve medical education. Methods We conducted a nationwide prospective 10-year follow-up study of medical students at all medical schools in Norway. They were approached three times during their medical training: at very beginning (T1, in the middle (T2, in the last year of medical school (T3, and then four years after graduation (T4. There were 210 participants who responded on all four occasions. Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Scale, which was used as the outcome variable. In addition to conducting multiple regression analysis for the total sample, we also conducted similar analyses separately for men and women. Results Among the demographic and personality variables, 'having a father who is a physician' and 'interpersonal functioning (being withdrawn' were significantly associated with job satisfaction at T4. Among the medical school variables, 'well-being with peers', 'identification with the doctor's role at the end of curriculum', 'perceived medical school stress', and 'perceived clinical skills' were significantly associated with job satisfaction. In the multiple regression analysis only 'father as a physician' and 'perceived clinical skills' yielded an independent influence on the outcome variable in separate analyses within sub-groups of male and female students, 'perceived clinical skills' differentiated among woman only, while 'well-being with peers' differentiated only among men. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that the young physicians who are the most satisfied in their work are those whose fathers are physicians and those who have a high level of perceived clinical skills at the end of

  2. A serological study of canine herpesvirus-1 infection in a population of breeding bitches in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV1) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in neonatal puppies and is associated with infertility in female dogs. This study was conducted to assess the status of CHV1 infection in bitches in proestrus or estrus and to investigate possible risk factors by a detailed questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (n = 193) not vaccinated against CHV1, aged one year or older and admitted for estrus control to the Canine Reproductive Clinical Unit, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science. The serum samples were analysed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and serum titers were recorded as the reciprocal value of the highest dilution producing specific cell staining. Results Altogether, 85.5% of the dogs had CHV1 titers ≥ 80 and were classified as positive. Mean age for dogs included in the study was 4.2 years (95% CI 4.0-4.5), and there was no difference in age between seronegative dogs vs seropositive dogs. When grouping the seropositive dogs into three categories according to the magnitude of the titer, a total of 38.8% of the bitches displayed a weakly positive titer of 80, 44.8% had moderately positive titers of 160 or 320 and 16.4% of the dogs fell into the strongly positive category with titer of ≥640. No association was demonstrated when comparing CHV1 antibody titers to fertility parameters such as previous matings, pregnancies, whelpings, puppies born or condition of puppies. Further, there was no difference in seroprevalence between bitches that had been abroad for a period of time and dogs only living within a Norwegian environment. Samples from dogs collected in summer and fall displayed moderate to high antibody titers indicating recent infection with CHV1. Season, previous birth, and participation in competitions/shows explained 67-78% of the variation in antibody titer. Conclusions This study demonstrates that CHV1 infection is common in breeding bitches in the eastern part of Norway

  3. Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garåsen Helge

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of new tuberculosis cases in Norway occur among immigrants from high incidence countries. On arrival to the country all asylum seekers are screened with Mantoux test and chest x-ray aimed to identify cases of active tuberculosis and, in the case of latent tuberculosis, to offer follow-up or prophylactic treatment. We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment and follow-up of tuberculosis infection and disease in a cohort of asylum seekers. Methods Asylum seekers ≥ 18 years who arrived at the National Reception Centre from January 2005 to June 2006, were included as the total cohort. Those with a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm or positive x-ray findings were included in a study group for follow-up. Data were collected from public health authorities in the municipality to where the asylum seekers had moved, and from hospital based internists in case they had been referred to specialist care. Individual subjects included in the study group were matched with the Norwegian National Tuberculosis Register which receive reports of everybody diagnosed with active tuberculosis, or who had started treatment for latent tuberculosis. Results The total cohort included 4643 adult asylum seekers and 97.5% had a valid Mantoux test. At least one inclusion criterion was fulfilled by 2237 persons. By end 2007 municipal public health authorities had assessed 758 (34% of them. Altogether 328 persons had been seen by an internist. Of 314 individuals with positive x-rays, 194 (62% had seen an internist, while 86 of 568 with Mantoux ≥ 15, but negative x-rays (16% were also seen by an internist. By December 31st 2006, 23 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (prevalence 1028/100 000 and another 11 were treated for latent infection. Conclusion The coverage of screening was satisfactory, but fewer subjects than could have been expected from the national guidelines were followed up in the community and referred to an internist. To

  4. The hunt for axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Many theoretically well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of the axion and further ultralight axion-like particles. They may constitute the mysterious dark matter in the universe and solve some puzzles in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. There are new, relatively small experiments around the globe, which started to hunt for these elusive particles and complement the accelerator based search for physics beyond the Standard Model.

  5. The hunt for axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-06-15

    Many theoretically well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of the axion and further ultralight axion-like particles. They may constitute the mysterious dark matter in the universe and solve some puzzles in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. There are new, relatively small experiments around the globe, which started to hunt for these elusive particles and complement the accelerator based search for physics beyond the Standard Model.

  6. Differences in cervical cancer screening between immigrants and nonimmigrants in Norway: a primary healthcare register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møen, Kathy A; Kumar, Bernadette; Qureshi, Samera; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of cervical cancer is high among some groups of immigrants. Although there is evidence of low participation in cervical cancer screening programs among immigrants, studies have been subject to selection bias and accounted for few immigrant groups. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of several groups of immigrants versus nonimmigrants attending the cervical cancer-screening program in Norway. In addition, we aimed to study predictors for attendance to the screening program. Register-based study using merged data from four national registries. All Norwegian-born women (1 168 832) and immigrant women (152 800) of screening age for cervical cancer (25-69 years) registered in Norway in 2008 were included. We grouped the immigrants by world's geographic region and carried out descriptive analyses and constructed several logistic regression models. The main outcome variable was whether the woman was registered with a Pap smear in 2008 or not. Immigrants had lower rates of participation compared with Norwegian-born women; Western Europe [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 0.81-0.88], Eastern Europe (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.60-0.67), Asia (OR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.71-0.77), Africa (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.56-0.67) and South America (OR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Younger age, higher income, residence in rural areas, and having a female general practitioner (GP) were associated with Pap smear. Longer residential time in Norway and having a nonimmigrant GP were associated with screening for some immigrant groups. Appropriate interventions targeting both immigrants and GPs need to be developed and evaluated.

  7. Risk of breast cancer following fertility treatment--a registry based cohort study of parous women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Marte Myhre; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Myklebust, Tor Åge; Robsahm, Trude Eid; Oldereid, Nan Birgitte; Omland, Anne Katerine; Vangen, Siri; Brinton, Louise Annette; Storeng, Ritsa

    2015-03-01

    Despite increasing numbers of women availing themselves of assisted reproductive technology (ART), effects on cancer risk remain unresolved. Given hormonal exposures, breast cancer risk is of particular concern. The aim of this study is to investigate breast cancer risk amongst women giving birth following ART as compared to that amongst women who gave birth without ART. Data on all women who gave birth in Norway with or without ART, between 1984 and 2010 were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). 808,834 women eligible for study were linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Cox proportional models computed hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer between the two groups, adjusting for age, parity, age at first birth, calendar period and region of residence. In total, 8,037 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during the study period, 138 ART women and 7,899 unexposed. Total follow-up time was 12,401,121 person-years (median 16.0); median age at entry was 32.5 years (range 18.6-49.9) for ART women and 26.3 (range 10.5-54.6) for unexposed. Women exposed to ART had an elevated risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42). Subgroup analyses gave an HR of 1.30 (95% CI 1.07-1.57) for women treated with IVF and 1.35 (95 % CI 1.07-1.71) for women with follow-up >10 years, compared with controls. Our findings of increased risk in the study population warrant continued monitoring of women treated with ART as this population advances into more typical cancer age ranges. © 2014 UICC.

  8. An implementation study of the crisis resolution team model in Norway: Are the crisis resolution teams fulfilling their role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Sonia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of crisis resolution teams (CRTs is part of the national mental health policy in several Western countries. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of CRTs and their patients, explore the differences between CRTs, and examine whether the CRTs in Norway are organized according to the international CRT model. Methods The study was a naturalistic study of eight CRTs and 680 patients referred to these teams in Norway. Mental health problems were assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS, Global Assessment of Functioning Scales (GAF and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10. Results None of the CRTs operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week (24/7 availability or had gate-keeping functions for acute wards. The CRTs also treated patients who were not considered for hospital admission. Forty per cent of patients waited more than 24 hours for treatment. Fourteen per cent had psychotic symptoms, and 69% had affective symptoms. There were significant variations between teams in patients' total severity of symptoms and social problems, but no variations between teams with respect to patients' aggressive behaviour, non-accidental self-injury, substance abuse or psychotic symptoms. There was a tendency for teams operating extended hours to treat patients with more severe mental illnesses. Conclusions The CRT model has been implemented in Norway without a rapid response, gate-keeping function and 24/7 availability. These findings indicate that the CRTs do not completely fulfil their intended role in the mental health system.

  9. Patterns of pharmaceutical use for immigrants to Spain and Norway: a comparative study of prescription databases in two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Feliu, Luis Andres; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Revilla-López, Concha; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-02-24

    Although equity in health care is theoretically a cornerstone in Western societies, several studies show that services do not always provide equitable care for immigrants. Differences in pharmaceutical consumption between immigrants and natives are explained by variances in predisposing factors, enabling factors and needs across populations, and can be used as a proxy of disparities in health care use. By comparing the relative differences in pharmacological use between natives and immigrants from the same four countries of origin living in Spain and Norway respectively, this article presents a new approach to the study of inequity in health care. All purchased drug prescriptions classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system in Aragon (Spain) and Norway for a total of 5 million natives and nearly 100,000 immigrants for one calendar year were included in this cross-sectional study. Age and gender adjusted relative purchase rates for immigrants from Poland, China, Colombia and Morocco compared to native populations in each of the host countries were calculated. Direct standardisation was performed based on the 2009 population structure of the OECD countries. Overall, a significantly lower proportion of immigrants in Aragon (Spain) and Norway purchased pharmacological drugs compared to natives. Patterns of use across the different immigrant groups were consistent in both host countries, despite potential disparities between the Spanish and Norwegian health care systems. Immigrants from Morocco showed the highest drug use rates in relation to natives, especially for antidepressants, "pain killers" and drugs for peptic ulcer. Immigrants from China and Poland showed the lowest use rates, while Colombians where more similar to host countries. The similarities found between the two European countries in relation to immigrants' pharmaceutical use disregarding their host country emphasises the need to consider specific immigrant-related features

  10. Infertility experience and health differentials - a population-based comparative study on infertile and non-infertile women (the HUNT Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostad, Berit; Schmidt, Lone; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    between infertility and health and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based health study, conducted between 2006 and 2008. SETTING: All women in a county in Norway were invited. The current material is restricted to women aged 20-49 years. POPULATION: A total of 9200 women participated......OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that health complaints, distress and poor life satisfaction are associated with infertility experience. Research on health consequences of infertility experience in women has relied heavily on clinic-based samples. This population-based study investigates the association....... METHODS: Health measures were compared between women with infertility experience (infertile women) and women without infertility experience (non-infertile women). Disparities in health and life satisfaction among the infertile women were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported health, functional...

  11. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacDonald

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved.A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS. Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated.A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively. Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96, drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78, eating chicken (1.69, eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77, eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55, living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74, having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39, and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92.Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of

  12. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010–2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. Methods A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Results A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Conclusions Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to

  13. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; White, Richard; Mexia, Ricardo; Bruun, Tone; Kapperud, Georg; Lange, Heidi; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved. A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively). Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96), drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78), eating chicken (1.69), eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77), eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55), living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74), having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39), and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92). Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of water

  14. Consumer Profile Of Hunting Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the profileof hunting tourism consumers is particularly useful to the administrators ofhunting funds or natural parks, and of travel agencies that develop huntingtourism products for the hunting of large game for trophy, of small game asrecreational activity and also for the experienced hunting tourists who loveadventure and hunting with traditional weapons. The motivation for huntingconsists in the existing fauna in a certain area, but there are also cultural,historical reasons or spending time in the middle of nature. Consumers ofhunting tourism have a wide range of ages: hunting tourists prefer watching theanimals in their natural habitat and are less adventure-oriented, unlike trophyhunting tourists who are self-contended, travel much and wish to know thehistory, the culture and the behaviour of animals in protected areas. Theyprefer special accommodation and transport conditions and rely on largeincomes: they wish to get the rarest trophies to display back home as a symbolof their hunting skills and courage

  15. Do organisational constraints explain the use of restraint? A comparative ethnographic study from three nursing homes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øye, Christine; Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes; Mekki, Tone Elin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate (1) what kind of restraint is used in three nursing homes in Norway and (2) how staff use restraint under what organisational conditions. Restraint use in residents living with dementia in nursing homes is controversial, and at odds with fundamental human rights. Restraint is a matter of hindering residents' free movement and will by applying either interactional, physical, medical, surveillance or environmental restraint. Previous research has identified use of restraint related to individual resident characteristics such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. This model is embedded in an overall mixed-method education intervention design study called Modelling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in dementia care (MEDCED), applying ethnography postintervention to examine the use of restraint in 24 nursing homes in Norway. Based on restraint diversity measured in the trial, ethnographic investigation was carried out in three different nursing homes in Norway over a 10-month period to examine restraint use in relation to organisational constraints. Several forms of restraint were observed; among them, interactional restraint was used most frequently. We identified that use of restraint relates to the characteristics of individual residents, such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. However, restraint use should also be explained in relation to organisational conditions such as resident mix, staff culture and available human resources. A fluctuating and dynamic interplay between different individual and contextual factors determines whether restraint is used - or not in particular situations with residents living with dementia. Educational initiatives targeting staff to reduce restraint must be sensitive towards fluctuating organisational constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparing 15D Valuation Studies in Norway and Finland-Challenges When Combining Information from Several Valuation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Yvonne Anne; Augestad, Liv Ariane; Rand, Kim

    2018-04-01

    The 15D is a generic preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument developed in Finland. Values for the 15D instrument are estimated by combining responses to three distinct valuation tasks. The impact of how these tasks are combined is relatively unexplored. To compare 15D valuation studies conducted in Norway and Finland in terms of scores assigned in the valuation tasks and resulting value algorithms, and to discuss the contributions of each task and the algorithm estimation procedure to observed differences. Norwegian and Finnish scores from the three valuation tasks were compared using independent samples t tests and Lin concordance correlation coefficients. Covariance between tasks was assessed using Pearson product-moment correlations. Norwegian and Finnish value algorithms were compared using concordance correlation coefficients, total ranges, and ranges for individual dimensions. Observed differences were assessed using minimal important difference. Mean scores in the main valuation task were strikingly similar between the two countries, whereas the final value algorithms were less similar. The largest differences between Norway and Finland were observed for depression, vision, and mental function. 15D algorithms are a product of combining scores from three valuation tasks by use of methods involving multiplication. This procedure used to combine scores from the three tasks by multiplication serves to amplify variance from each task. From relatively similar responses in Norway and Finland, diverging value algorithms are created. We propose to simplify the 15D algorithm estimation procedure by using only one of the valuation tasks. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential utilization of primary health care services among older immigrants and Norwegians: a register-based comparative study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Kumar, Bernadette N

    2014-11-26

    Aging in an unfamiliar landscape can pose health challenges for the growing numbers of immigrants and their health care providers. Therefore, better understanding of how different immigrant groups use Primary Health Care (PHC), and the underlying factors that explain utilization is needed to provide adequate and appropriate public health responses. Our aim is to describe and compare the use of PHC between elderly immigrants and Norwegians. Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration database. All 50 year old or older Norwegians with both parents from Norway (1,516,012) and immigrants with both parents from abroad (89,861) registered in Norway in 2008 were included. Descriptive analyses were carried out. Immigrants were categorised according to country of origin, reason for migration and length of stay in Norway. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the utilization of PHC comparing Norwegians and immigrants, and to assess associations between utilization and both length of stay and reason for immigration, adjusting for other socioeconomic variables. A higher proportion of Norwegians used PHC services compared to immigrants. While immigrants from high-income countries used PHC less than Norwegians disregarding age (OR from 0.65 to 0.92 depending on age group), they had similar number of diagnoses when in contact with PHC. Among immigrants from other countries, however, those 50 to 65 years old used PHC services more often (OR 1.22) than Norwegians and had higher comorbidity levels, but this pattern was reversed for older adults (OR 0.56 to 0.47 for 66-80 and 80+ years respectively). For all immigrants, utilization of PHC increased with longer stay in Norway and was higher for refugees (1.67 to 1.90) but lower for labour immigrants (0.33 to 0.45) compared to immigrants for family reunification. However, adjustment for education and income levels reduced most

  18. Suicide among immigrant population in Norway: a national register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzo, Q; Mehlum, L; Qin, P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate differences in suicide risk among immigrant population in Norway compared with native Norwegians, with respect to associated country group of origin. Based on the entire national population, a nested case-control design was adopted using Norwegian national longitudinal registers to obtain 23 073 suicide cases having occurred in 1969-2012 and 373 178 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for suicide were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for socio-economic factors. Compared with native Norwegians, suicide risk was significantly lower in first- and second-generation immigrants but higher in Norwegian-born with one foreign-born parent and foreign-born individuals with at least one Norwegian-born parent. When stratifying data by country group of origin, first-generation immigrants had lower ORs in most of the strata. Subjects born in Asia and in Central and South America with at least one Norwegian-born parent had a significantly higher risk of suicide. The observed results remained mostly unchanged in the analyses controlled for socio-economic status. Suicide risk is lower in first- and second-generation immigrants but higher in subjects born in Norway with one foreign-born parent and those born abroad with at least one Norwegian-born parent, with notable differences by country group of origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Afforestation, seasalt episodes and acidification - A paired catchment study in western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Thorjorn; Holme, Jorun

    2006-01-01

    As acid deposition has declined during the past 15-20 years in western Norway, afforestation and episodic seasalt deposition have become factors of increasing importance in explaining the mobilization of toxic aluminum (Al n+ ) to rivers and lakes. We conducted a paired catchment at four sites in western Norway across a gradient in acid deposition to evaluate the importance of afforestation and seasalt episodes. Streamwater was sampled intensively before, during and after seasalt episodes over a three-year period. A seasalt episode in January 2003 caused considerable impact on the streamwater chemistry. pH dropped and concentrations of Al n+ increased due to cation exchange of Na + ions for H + and Al n+ in the soil. The response was larger in streams draining the catchments which receive high acid deposition and in those afforested with spruce as compared with adjacent catchments in native birch. The results indicate that acid pulses induced by episodic inputs of seasalts are exacerbated by land use change from native birch to planted spruce. - Seasalt episodes cause higher mobilization of toxic aluminum in sites afforested with spruce

  20. Immigrant general practitioners in Norway: a special resource? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Esperanza; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2011-05-01

    To explore whether and how immigrant general practitioners (GPs) in two major cities in Norway think that their own ethnic background affects their practices and their work. Qualitative focus group and individual interviews with seven immigrant GPs, five men and two women, age 36-65 years. Their clinical experience in Norwegian primary health care ranged from four to 30 years. Analysis was conducted by systematic text condensation. First, immigrant GPs described a gradual process of becoming bicultural: the GPs communicate with immigrant patients on their own terms and draw upon their special knowledge from abroad to help selected patients, while also adapting to Norwegian cultural expectations of the GP's role. Second, the GPs described being aware of cultural issues in consultations with immigrant and Norwegian patients, but rarely making these issues explicit. The GPs ventured that cultural awareness, together with their personal experience in their own countries and as immigrants in Norway, made them able to sometimes help immigrant patients better than Norwegian GPs. Third, immigrant GPs experienced a big workload related to immigrant patients, but they accepted this as a natural part of their work. Fourth, immigrant GPs felt that they had to work harder and be more careful than their Norwegian colleagues in order to avoid complaints from patients, and to be accepted by colleagues. Immigrant GPs express broad cultural competence and keen cultural awareness in their consultations. The immigrant background of these GPs could be considered as a special resource for clinical practice.

  1. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  2. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    Within hunting, wildlife populations are estimated to be too high in many countries which is assumed to be due to the market failure, that each hunter harvests too little compared to what the regulator wants. This may be due to the existing regulation which, among other things, requires knowledge...... by an individual, variable tax rate. The variable tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference in marginal value of the population between the hunter and the regulator. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum. Thus, the population tax is a good alternative...... to the existing regulation....

  3. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  4. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  5. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  6. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  7. Predictors of acculturative hassles among Vietnamese refugees in Norway: Results from a long-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingvold, Laila; Vaage, Aina Basilier; Allen, James; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; van Ta, Thong; Hauff, Edvard

    2015-10-01

    We investigated acculturative hassles in a community cohort of Vietnamese refugees in Norway (n = 61), exploring cross-sectional data and longitudinal predictors of acculturative hassles using data from their arrival in Norway in 1982 (T1), with follow up in 1985 (T2) and in 2005-2006 (T3). To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study of predictors of acculturative hassles in a refugee population. Results indicated that more communication problems and less Norwegian language competence were related to most hassles at T3. Higher psychological distress, lower quality of life, lower self-reported state of health, and less education at T3 were associated with higher levels of hassles at T3. More psychological distress at T2 and less education at arrival (T1) were significant predictors for more acculturative hassles at T3. These data suggest that addressing psychological distress during the early phase in a resettlement country may promote long-term refugee adjustment and, in particular, reduce exposure to acculturative hassles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Wolves on the hunt: The behavior of wolves hunting wild prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  9. Geoethical considerations in early warning of flooding and landslides: Case study from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoli, Graziella; Kleivane Krøgli, Ingeborg; Dahl, Mads Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Nykjær Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs the national early warning systems (EWS) for flooding and shallow landslides in Norway. The two EWSs have been operational since the late 1980s and 2013 respectively, and are based on weather forecasts, various hydro-meteorological prognosis and expert evaluation. Daily warning levels and related information to the public is prepared and presented through custom build internet platforms. In natural hazards sciences, the risk of a specific threat is defined as the product of hazard and consequence. In this context an EWS is intended to work as a mitigation measure in lowering the consequence and thus the risk of the threat. One of several factors determining the quality of such an EWS, is how warnings are communicated to the public. In contrary to what is common practice in some other countries, experts working with EWS in Norway cannot be held personally responsible for consequences of warnings being issued or not. However, the communication of warnings for flooding and landslides at NVE still implies many considerations of geoethical kind. Which are the consequences today for the forecasters when erroneous warning messages are sent because based on a poorly documented analysis? What is for example the most responsible way to describe uncertainties in warnings issued? What is the optimal compromise between avoiding false alarms and not sending out a specific warning? Is it responsible to rely on a "gut feeling"? Some authorities complain in receiving warning messages too often. Is it responsible to begin notifying these, only in cases of "high hazard level" and no longer in cases of "moderate hazard level"? Is it acceptable to issue general warnings for large geographical areas without being able to pinpoint the treat on local scale? What responsibility lies within the EWS in recommending evacuation or other practical measures to local authorities? By presenting how early warnings of flooding and

  10. Technological Innovation in the downstream gas market: Studying the economics of LNG distribution systems with a focus on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Jarlsby, Erik

    2005-01-01

    economical in a number of circumstances already today (in part because competing products are taxed, whereas LNG is not). Three interesting issues of our study on the prospects for LNG distribution schemes in Norway are related to competition: First, small- and medium-scale LNG distribution systems can lower existing market entry barriers for natural gas in the energy market. Second, traditional semi-public regional electricity companies, currently in the process of redefining and reshaping themselves as energy and multi-utility firms, very much dislike the prospect of having to cope with new players intruding the regional natural gas markets. Third, several large oil companies (including Statoil and Norsk Hydro) apparently want to play a role in this plot as well. Overall, the insights gained from the more general economic analysis, as well as the lessons that can be learned so far from studying the specific situation and current debate in Norway, seem to be interesting and useful for a large number of countries in the world. (Author)

  11. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Sagbakken, Mette; Kumar, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC) is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda - both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway's approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants' support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence permit is granted. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of the abandonment of FC among immigrants in Western countries.

  12. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth

    2015-01-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing r...... intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research....... research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has......Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing...

  13. Differences in primary health care use among sub-Saharan African immigrants in Norway: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Mbanya, Vivian N; Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-07-28

    Immigrants' utilization of primary health care (PHC) services differs from that of the host populations. However, immigrants are often classified in broad groups by continent of origin, and the heterogeneity within the same continent may hide variation in use among immigrant groups at a national level. Differences in utilization of PHC between sub-Saharan African immigrants have not received much attention. Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration. African immigrants and their descendants registered in Norway in 2008 (36,366 persons) where included in this study. Using χ 2 test and logistic regression models, we assessed the differences in the use of PHC, including general practitioner (GP) and emergency room (ER) services, and the distribution of morbidity burden for immigrants from Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Gambia. For the analyses, we used the number of visits and medical diagnoses from each consultation registered by the physician. Among the total studied population, 66.1% visited PHC within 1 year. The diagnoses registered were similar for all four immigrants groups, regardless of country of origin. Compared to immigrants from Somalia, the age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) for use of GP were significantly lower for Ethiopians (OR 0.91; 0.86-0.97), Eritreans (OR 0.85; 0.79-0.91), and Gambians (OR 0.88; 0.80-0.97). Similarly, we also observed lower use of ER among Ethiopians (OR 0.88; 0.81-0.95), Eritreans (OR 0.56; 0.51-0.62) and Gambians (OR 0.81; 0.71-0.92). However, immigrants from Somalia reduced their use of PHC with longer duration of stay in Norway. Differences between groups persisted after further adjustment for employment status. Despite the similarities in diagnoses among the sub-Saharan African immigrant groups in Norway, their use of PHC services differs by country of origin and length of stay. It is important to assess the reasons for the differences

  14. Seasonal variation in objectively assessed physical activity among children and adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Andersen, Lars B

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The literature on seasonality in children and youth's physical activity participation is inconsistent. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare physical activity across seasons and describe activity patterns within seasons, and 2) to determine compliance with current...... data were collected during winter, spring and fall. General linear models were used to study the associations between physical activity and season. RESULTS: Nine-year-old children had significantly higher mean physical activity levels in spring than in winter and fall. In the two latter seasons...... physical activity recommendations across seasons among 9- and 15-year-olds living in a climatically diverse country. METHODS: Participants were 2,299 9- and 15-year-olds from all regions in Norway. Physical activity was assessed using the Actigraph accelerometer for 4 consecutive days. Physical activity...

  15. How Has Living with Intimate Partner Violence Affected the Work Situation? A Qualitative Study among Abused Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone

    A qualitative study was conducted among 18 abused women from different parts of Norway to explore what paid work means for women exposed to partner violence and how living with an abusive partner affected their working life. Based on systematic text condensation analyses of their experiences as described in individual and focus group interviews, the study's findings reveal two major themes. The first is about recovery and survival, and the other about the spillover of problems caused by a violent partner into paid work. Work was important to the women, as it represented time off from violence, contact with others who cared for them, and maintenance of self-esteem and self-confidence. Having their own money provided security and strengthened the belief that they could manage on their own. The spillover of intimate partner violence problems appeared through feelings of fear, shame and guilt at work.

  16. A lonely life--A qualitative study of immigrant women on long-term sick leave in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Line; Lohne, Vibeke; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the everyday life of immigrant women with chronic pain on long-term sick leave in Norway. Research has shown that rehabilitation of immigrant women with chronic pain might be challenging both due to their lack of linguistic competence, due to lack of sufficient confidence/trust in their employers and in health personnel and lack of knowledge/skills among health care personnel in meeting immigrants' special needs. The objective of the study was to explore how immigrant women on long-term sick leave in Norway due to chronic pain experience their illness and their relationships at work and in the family. This article has a qualitative design, using participant observation and in-depth interviews. Participant observations were carried out in an outpatient clinic and qualitative interviews were conducted after the rehabilitation period. A hermeneutic approach was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. All the authors participated in the discussion of the findings, and consensus was obtained for each identified theme. The research was conducted at an outpatient clinic at a rehabilitation hospital in the southern part of Norway. The clinic offers wide-ranging, specialized, multidisciplinary patient evaluations that last between 24 and 48h, followed by advice and/or treatment either individually or in a group, i.e. in a rehabilitation course. Participants (immigrant women) who had been referred to the outpatient clinic and to a rehabilitation course were recruited. Fourteen African and Asian women were observed in two rehabilitation courses, and eleven of them agreed to be interviewed once or twice (3). The interpretation revealed the following two main themes: 'Shut inside the home' and 'Rejected at the workplace'. Based on the women's experiences, a new understanding emerged of how being excluded or not feeling sufficiently needed, wanted or valued by colleagues, employers or even by family members rendered their daily lives

  17. Iodine Deficiency in a Study Population of Norwegian Pregnant Women-Results from the Little in Norway Study (LiN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Wik Markhus, Maria; Sanchez, Perla Vanessa Roldan; Moe, Vibeke; Smith, Lars; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-20

    Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150⁻250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status in pregnant Norwegian women. The study comprises a cross-sectional population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women (Little in Norway (LiN)). Median UIC in 954 urine samples was 85 µg/L and 78.4% of the samples ( n = 748) were ≤150 µg/L. 23.2% ( n = 221) of the samples were ≤50 µg/L and 5.2% ( n = 50) were above the requirements of iodine intake (>250 µg/L). Frequent iodine-supplement users ( n = 144) had significantly higher UIC (120 µg/L) than non-frequent users (75 µg/L). Frequent milk and dairy product consumers (4⁻9 portions/day) had significantly higher UIC (99 µg/L) than women consuming 0⁻1 portion/day (57 µg/L) or 2⁻3 portions/day (83 µg/L). Women living in mid-Norway ( n = 255) had lowest UIC (72 µg/L). In conclusion, this study shows that the diet of the pregnant women did not necessarily secure a sufficient iodine intake. There is an urgent need for public health strategies to secure adequate iodine nutrition among pregnant women in Norway.

  18. A sociological study of visions and reality constructions related to the uses of natural gas in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoeen, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    The thesis has 8 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with the sociology of the energy society. In chapter 2 question for the following empirical chapters are developed. The presentation is divided in 2 parts. Firstly the vision concept as used in the scientific literature on business and technology is discussed. Secondly various controversy study treatments of the relationship between politics and science based knowledge are discussed. From these discussions problems for the study of visions where the relationship between knowledge and policy are derived and evaluated. In chapter 3 the use of a modified field method in the study of the visions for technology projects ''in the making'' is described. In chapter 4 a brief survey of the Norwegian gas history and previous visions for natural gas utilisation in Norway is presented. Central natural gas concepts and different ways natural gas may be used, how it may be distributed and which environmental arguments may be connected to the use in various sectors are surveyed. Finally some measures which the government used and may use in order to stimulate and set a framework for national gas activity are presented. Chapter 5 describes the demonstration project on natural gas busses in Trondheim in the period 1989 - 1994/95. Chapter 6 mainly surveys the story of how Gasnor ASA on Karmoey in Rogaland started the infrastructure project on delivery of natural gas to local industrial users in the period of 1989 - 194/95. Chapter 7 studies how the use of natural gas is dealt with politically in the period of 1993 - 1998. A brief account of further work after 1995 with distributing natural gas to the users in Mid-Norway and Rogaland is presented. In chapter 8 a brief abstract of the empirical accounts in chapters 5,6 and 7 is given. Furthermore the concept of visionary work as it is developed and presented in the thesis is discussed thus giving the concept a theoretical and analytical content

  19. Register study of migrants' hospitalization in Norway: world region origin, reason for migration, and length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2016-07-26

    The proportion of migrants and refugees increase in many populations. Health planners have to consider how migration will influence demand for health care. This study explores how migrants' geographical origin, reason for migration, and duration of residence are associated with admission rates to somatic hospitals in Norway. Sociodemographic information on all individuals residing in Norway at the start of 2008 was linked to data on all admissions to somatic hospitals during 2008-2011. Migrants, age 30-69, who had come to Norway during 1970-2007 (N = 217,907), were classified into seven world region origins and compared with native Norwegians of the same age (N = 2,181,948). Any somatic hospital stay 2008-2011 and number of hospital admissions 2008-2011 per 1000 personyears for a set of somatic diagnoses were analyzed by age and gender standardized rates, linear probability models, and Poisson regression. In the native Norwegian sample, 28.7 % had at least one admission 2008-2011, and there were 116 admissions per 1000 personyears. Corresponding age and gender adjusted figures for the migrant sample were 27.0 % and 103 admissions. Admission rates varied with migrants' geographical origin, with relatively many admissions among migrants from West and South Asia and relatively few admissions among migrants from Western, East European, and Other Asian countries. Hospitalization varied strongly with reason for migration, with low admission rates for recent work migrants and high admission rates for recent refugees. Admission rates tended to move towards the level among native Norwegians with increasing length of stay. Among longstanding migrants (arrival period 1970-1989), admission rates were close to the levels of native Norwegians for most analyzed migrant categories. Both world region origin, reason for migration, and duration of residence are important sources for variations in migrants' utilization of somatic hospitals. Forecasts about migrants' use of

  20. Treatment of fibromyalgia at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway. A six-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L B; Mikkelsen, K; Haugen, M; Pripp, A H; Førre, Ø T

    2009-01-01

    Treatments offered at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway are based on Maharishi Vedic medicine, which is also known as Maharishi Ayurveda. It is a consciousness based revival of the ancient Ayurvedic medicine tradition in India and is established by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique. To conduct a pilot study of the effect of the treatment program at the Health Centre on fibromyalgia patients. Thirty-one women with diagnosed fibromyalgia received an individually designed Maharishi Vedic physiological purification therapy. All subjects received personal advice on diet based on Ayurvedic principles, including a novel approach to food into-lerance, and daily routines. In addition they were offered instruction in TM (for stress and pain management and personal development) (four subjects started), and recommended Ayurvedic herbal food products for home treatment. A modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire included a visual analogue scale for each of the seven outcomes: working ability, generalised pain, tiredness, stiffness, tiredness on arising, anxiety and depression. Pre-treatment scores were compared with scores at six-month follow-up for levels of statistical significance. Twenty-eight subjects (90%) completed the follow-up. The outcome measures were reduced by 25 to 46% by the study's endpoint: working ability (pmeditating control group the TM-subgroup showed statistically significant improvements for all outcome measures except depression. In this pilot study fibromyalgia patients undergoing treatment at Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway showed significant improvements six months post treatment. Because fibromyalgia is considered a treatment-resistant condition, these encouraging results warrant further research.

  1. Emotional, physical and sexual violence among Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: The SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Astrid M A; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Javo, Cecilie; Schei, Berit

    2015-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and investigate ethnic differences of emotional, physical and sexual violence among a population of both Sami and non-Sami in Norway. Our study was based on the SAMINOR 2 study, a population-based survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Central and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,296 participants: 2197 (19.4%) Sami respondents and 9099 (80.6 %) non-Sami respondents. Almost half of the Sami female respondents and one-third of the non-Sami female respondents reported any violence (any lifetime experience of violence). Sami women were more likely to report emotional, physical and sexual violence than non-Sami women. More than one-third of the Sami men compared with less than a quarter of non-Sami men reported having experienced any violence in their life. Sami men were more likely to report emotional and physical violence than non-Sami men. However, ethnicity was not significantly different regarding sexual violence experienced among men. Violence was typically reported to have occurred in childhood. Sami participants were more likely to report having experienced violence in the past 12 months. For all types of violence, the perpetrator was typically known to the victim. Regardless of gender, Sami respondents were more likely to report interpersonal violence. The prevalence of any violence was substantial in both ethnic groups and for both genders; it was highest among Sami women. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  3. AHP 35: Tibetan Marmot Hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the hunting, cooking, and eating of marmots among pastoralists in Gcan tsha thang (Jianzhatan Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha County, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Folklore positing a connection between humans and marmots is discussed and Sangs rgyas bkra shis provides a story about local marmot hunters and gives accounts from his paternal grandmother (Pa 10 skyid, b. 1941 about marmot hunting in 1958. A conclusion suggests directions for future research. Accounts of marmot hunting and marmot product use from Yul shul (Yushu and Dkar mdzes (Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefectures, a map of Mtsho sngon, and six photographs provide further detail.

  4. A crisis resolution and home treatment team in Norway: a longitudinal survey study Part 2. Provision of professional services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Bengt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crisis resolution and home treatment (CRHT is an emerging mode of delivering acute mental health care in the community. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the workings of CRHT in the literature. This is the second paper in a series of three from the longitudinal survey of patients of a CRHT team in Norway, which was aimed at describing the characteristics of patients served, professional services provided, and clinical outcomes. This report focuses on the provision of professional services by the team. Methods The project was a descriptive, quantitative study based on the patient data from a longitudinal survey of one CRHT team in Norway. The participants of the survey, a total of 363 patients, constituted the complete registration of patients of this team in the period from February 2008 to July 2009. Results The average length of service by the team was about 15 days, and those with depression as the major symptom had the longest mean length of stay on the team. The team was engaged in providing a variety of services including individual treatments involving multiple professionals, group treatment meetings, and coordination activities involving external service sectors. While the type of professionals providing individual treatment was not associated with the severity level of clinical problems, those receiving various group treatment meetings had more serious level of clinical symptoms than those not receiving group treatment meetings. In addition coordination activities involving healthcare professionals and social services in the community were in line with the patients' clinical and social needs. The results of the study show that the team functioned effectively in addressing the general guidelines for the functioning of CRHT teams.

  5. Parental divorce in late adolescence does not seem to increase mental health problems: a population study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2013-04-30

    Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n = 1861), when the adolescents were 15/16 and 18/19 years-old, respectively. They answered self-administered questionnaires in both surveys of Young-HUBRO in Oslo. Early parental divorce was defined as that which occured before age 15/16 years, and late divorce occured between age 15/16 and 18/19. Internalized and externalized mental health problems were measured by the Hopkin's Symptom Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). After linear regression models were adjusted for gender, ethnicity, family economy, social support, and mental health problem symptoms measured at baseline before parental divorce occured, late parental divorce did not lead to significant increase in mental health problems among adolescents in the city of Oslo. Early parental divorce was associated with internal mental health problems among young adolescents when adjusted only for the first four possible confounders. It seems that parental divorce in late adolescence does not lead to mental health problems in Norway any more, as has been shown before, while such problems may prevail among young adolescents. This does not mean that parental divorce create less problems in late adolescence than before but these youths might have developed adjustment abilities against health effects as divorce have turned to be more common.

  6. Pattern of clefts and dental anomalies in six-year-old children: a retrospective observational study in western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæle, Paul; Østhus, Eirik; Ådalen, Sondre; Nasir, Elwalid F; Mustafa, Manal

    2017-03-01

    Clefts of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital disorders of the head and neck. In Norway, the incidence is 1.9/1000 live births. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of various types of clefts and dental anomalies in patients treated by the cleft lip and palate (CLP) team in Bergen, Norway. The material comprised the records of patients 6 years of age, examined by the CLP team in Bergen from spring 1993 to autumn 2012, incomplete records were excluded. The records of 989 patients were analysed, using frequencies and Chi-square test to compare differences in percentages between groups. The gender distribution was 58.8% male and 41.2% female. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was the most common condition (39.5%). Clefts of the lip, jaw and palate (CLP) constituted (30%) of cases and (30.5%) had isolated cleft lip (CL). The frequencies of agenesis, supernumerary and peg-shaped teeth were (36.5%), (17.8%) and (7.5%), respectively. Over 50% of the study population were diagnosed with one or more malocclusion. Of the CLP patients, 61.4% had Angle Class III occlusion. Statistical analysis disclosed a positive association of agenesis with Class III occlusion (OR =1.8, p≤ 0.001). The findings supported the hypothesis that the distribution of dental anomalies and occlusal disorders varied among patients with CL, CP and CLP. In patients with cleft, there is a twofold chance to get Class III malocclusion in the presence of agenesis.

  7. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., and by what means such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  8. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  9. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  10. Managers' experience of success criteria and barriers to implementing mobile radiography services in nursing homes in Norway: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelle, Elin; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Olerud, Hilde Merete; Myklebust, Aud Mette

    2018-04-25

    In order to meet the future challenges posed by ageing populations, new technology, telemedicine and a more personalized healthcare system are needed. Earlier research has shown mobile radiography services to be highly beneficial for nursing home residents in addition to being cost-effective. Despite the benefits, mobile radiography services are uncommon in Europe and Norway. The purpose of this study was to explore success criteria and barriers in the process of implementing mobile radiography services, from the point of view of the hospital and municipal managers. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from five hospitals and six municipalities in Norway where mobile radiography services had been implemented. Core issues in the interview guide were barriers and facilitators in the different phases of implementation. The framework method for thematic analysis was used for analysing the data inductively in a research team. Five main categories were developed through the success criteria and barriers experienced by the participants: national health policy, regional and municipal policy and conditions, inter-organizational implementation projects, experienced outcome, and professional skills and personal characteristics. The categories were allocated into three higher-order classifications: macro, meso and micro levels. The main barriers experienced by the managers were financial, procedural and structural. In particular, the reimbursement system, lack of management across healthcare levels and the lack of compatible information systems acted as barriers. The main facilitators were external funding, enthusiastic individuals in the organizations and good collaboration between hospitals and municipalities. The managers experienced financial, structural and procedural barriers. The main success criteria in the process were external funding, and the support and engagement from the individuals in the organizations. This commitment was mainly

  11. 'Trophy-hunting scripts' among male university students in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of AIDS Research ... Drawing on a multi-method qualitative study, this article examines 'trophy-hunting' scripts among male ... Keywords: attitudes, cultural factors, ethnography, gender issues, masculinity, sexuality, social ...

  12. Treatment of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    The effect of acyclovir-prednisone treatment in 80 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome was analyzed retrospectively at the Department of Otolaryngology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.

  13. Does health differ between participants and non-participants in the MRI-HUNT study, a population based neuroimaging study? The Nord-Trøndelag health studies 1984–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honningsvåg, Lasse-Marius; Linde, Mattias; Håberg, Asta; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Hagen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Bias with regard to participation in epidemiological studies can have a large impact on the generalizability of results. Our aim was to investigate the direction and magnitude of potential bias by comparing health-related factors among participants and non-participants in a MRI-study based on HUNT, a large Norwegian health survey. Of 14,033 individuals aged 50–65, who had participated in all three large public health surveys within the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT 1, 2 and 3), 1,560 who lived within 45 minutes of travel from the city of Levanger were invited to a MRI study (MRI-HUNT). The sample of participants in MRI-HUNT (n = 1,006) were compared with those who were invited but did not participate (n = 554) and with those who were eligible but not invited (n = 12,473), using univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses adjusting for age and education level. Self-reported health did not differ between the three groups, but participants had a higher education level and were somewhat younger than the two other groups. In the adjusted multivariate analyses, obesity was consistently less prevalent among participants. Significant differences in blood pressure and cholesterol were also found. This is the first large population-based study comparing participants and non-participants in an MRI study with regard to general health. The groups were not widely different, but participants had a higher level of education, and were less likely to be obese and have hypertension, and were slightly younger than non-participants. The observed differences between participants and non-invited individuals are probably partly explained by the inclusion criterion that participants had to live within 45 minutes of transport to where the MRI examination took place. One will expect that the participants have somewhat less brain morphological changes related to cardiovascular risk factors than the general population. Such consequences underline the crucial importance

  14. Liming the acid lake Hovvatn, Norway: a whole-ecosystem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raddum, G G; Brettum, P; Matzow, D; Nilssen, J P; Skov, A; Sveaelv, T; Wright, R F

    1986-12-01

    Hovvatn, a 1 sq. km. chronically-acidified lake in southernmost Norway, was treated with 200 tonne of powdered limestone in March 1981. An additional 40 tonne were added to a 0.046 sq km pond (Pollen) draining into Hovvatn. The lakes were stocked with brown trout in June 1981 and in each subsequent year. At ice-out pH rose from 4.4 to 6.3 (Hovvatn) and 7.5 (Pollen), Ca and alkalinity increased, and total Al decreased by 120 ..mu..g/l. None of the other major ions exhibited significant changes in concentration. Total organic C and P increased after liming. The phytoplankton community was dominated by chrysophytes and did not change significantly following liming. The zooplankton community was typical of acid lakes prior to liming. There was a clear succession in species dominance following treatment, although no new species immigrated to the lakes. Zoobenthos changed from a community characterized by low abundance and reduced number of species to increased abundance of oligochaetes, mayflies and chironomids. Hovvatn and Pollen were barren of fish prior to stocking. The stocked fish showed remarkably high growth rate during the first years. Liming apparently improved conditions for zoobenthos, enhancing the processing of fine detritus which in turn resulted in elevated levels of TOC and P in the lakewaters during the first year after liming. The oligotrophication process typical of acid lakes was temporarily reversed by liming. The interactions between groups of organisms in Hovvatn and Pollen indicates that many years are required before a new steady-state can be attained following liming. 61 references.

  15. The thrill of the chase: uncovering illegal sport hunting in Brazil through YouTube™ posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani R. El Bizri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy

  16. “100 percent fun”: A case study of benefits from cold water surfing in Jæren, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Elmahdy, Yasmine Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Norway is steadily progressing towards being a popular cold-water surf destination. The long Norwegian coastline is attracting an increasing number of surfers who surf year round in extreme weather conditions. The aim of this research is to identify the benefits acquired by Norwegian surfers surfing in cold water along the Jæren coast, south the city of Stavanger in Norway. This research adopted a phenomenological approach and q...

  17. George's cosmic treasure hunt

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...

  18. Leisure time physical activity and the risk of hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a population based cohort study (The HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Hellevik, Alf Inge; Baste, Valborg; Furnes, Ove; Langhammer, Arnulf; Flugsrud, Gunnar; Nordsletten, Lars; Zwart, John Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2016-02-16

    The relationship between leisure time physical activity (LPA) and hip and knee OA and subsequent joint replacement has not yet been clearly defined. Some studies have found the risk of knee replacement (TKR) to increase with high levels of LPA, while others have found no overall relationship to either TKR or hip replacement (THR). The aim was to investigate the association between LPA and the risk of severe end-stage OA, defined as THR or TKR due to primary OA, in a large population-based cohort. Participants in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) were followed prospectively to identify THR and TKR using the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Self-reported LPA was classified as inactive, low, moderate or high. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) according to levels of LPA with adjustments for confounding variables. Analyses were performed by age (<45, 45-59 and ≥60 years) and sex. A total of 66 964 participants (mean age 46.8 years (SD 16.3) were included in the analyses. We identified 1636 THRs and 1016 TKRs due to primary OA during 17.0 years (median) of follow-up. High LPA was significantly associated with THR for women <45 years (HR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.08-2.94) and men between 45-59 years (HR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.10-2.13) at baseline. A significant trend was found only among women < 45 years at baseline (p = 0.02). We found that LPA was significantly associated with TKR for women only (HR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.03-2.04). No measures of LPA were associated with TKR for men. In this population-based study, high level of LPA was associated with increased risk of THR where a significant trend of LPA was seen among women <45 years at baseline. For TKR, high LPA was associated with increased risk only in women. In contrast to previous studies, this study shows a possible association between high LPA and the risk of THR.

  19. Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescent girls and boys--family linkage data from the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasbøll, Jannike; Ranøyen, Ingunn; Nilsen, Wendy; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-08-22

    Parental chronic pain has been associated with adverse outcomes in offspring. However, knowledge on individual and family resilience factors in adolescent offspring of chronic pain sufferers is scarce. This study thus aimed to investigate the associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion levels reported by adolescent girls and boys. Based on cross-sectional surveys from the Nord Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT 3 study), the study used independent self-reports from adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (n = 3227) and their parents and conducted separate linear regression analyses for girls and boys. Concurrent maternal and paternal chronic pain was associated with reduced self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in girls. Moreover, maternal chronic pain was associated with higher social competence in boys and reduced self-esteem in girls. The majority of the observed associations were significantly different between girls and boys. Paternal chronic pain was not found to be associated with child outcomes. The findings indicate that the presence of both maternal and paternal chronic pain could be a potential risk factor for lower levels of individual and family resilience factors reported by girls. Further research on the relationship between parental pain and sex-specific offspring characteristics, including positive resilience factors, is warranted. The study demonstrates the importance of targeting the entire family in chronic pain care.

  20. Is there a U-shaped relationship between physical activity in leisure time and risk of chronic low back pain? A follow-up in the HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Heuch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity in leisure time is often considered to have favourable effects on the risk of low back pain (LBP, but demonstrating a definite association in epidemiological studies has proven difficult. The purpose of the present study was to explore associations between physical activity and risk of chronic LBP in an adult population and to investigate whether relationships are limited to certain age groups or to females or males. A particular objective was to determine whether support could be found for a U-shaped relationship, with both low and high activity levels carrying greater risk. Methods The relationship between physical activity and risk of chronic LBP was examined in a Norwegian prospective study using data from the community-based HUNT2 and HUNT3 surveys. Participants were 9616 women and 8452 men without LBP at baseline, who reported after 11 years whether they suffered from LBP. Associations between baseline physical activity in leisure time and risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up were evaluated by generalized linear modelling with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Significant associations between leisure time physical activity and risk were observed in both sexes after age adjustment, mainly suggesting inverse relationships. Women participating in hard physical activity 1–2 h per week had a relative risk (RR of chronic LBP of 0.81 (95 % CI 0.71–0.93 compared to those with only light physical activity less than 1 h per week. The corresponding RR in men was 0.71 (95 % CI 0.60–0.85. After adjustment for education, employment, occupational activity, body mass index (BMI and smoking, significant relationships could only be demonstrated in those aged 50 years or more at baseline. The associations differed between female educational groups, with more U-shaped relationships being observed among women with basic education only. Conclusion No strong support was found overall for U

  1. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellevik, Alf Inge; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Langhammer, Arnulf; Baste, Valborg; Furnes, Ove; Storheim, Kjersti; Zwart, John Anker; Flugsrud, Gunnar Birkeland; Nordsletten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) due to primary osteoarthritis. In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2) were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50-69.9 and ≥70 years) and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education. Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1%) were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9%) THRs and 1,111 (1.8%) TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk of THR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83). However, when including only participants whose exposure status did not change during follow-up, this protective association was no longer significant. Increased waist circumference was associated with increased risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.10-2.39) and 50-69.9 years (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.80). Hypertension significantly increased the risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.81), and this risk was greater for men. This study found an increased risk of TKR in men <50 years with hypertension and persons <70 years with increased waist circumference. Apart from this, neither metabolic syndrome nor its components were associated with increased risk of THR or TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.

  2. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  3. Barriers to and facilitators for implementing quality improvements in palliative care - results from a qualitative interview study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerbakk, Ragni; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Tjora, Aksel; Kaasa, Stein; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen

    2016-07-15

    Implementation of quality improvements in palliative care (PC) is challenging, and detailed knowledge about factors that may facilitate or hinder implementation is essential for success. One part of the EU-funded IMPACT project (IMplementation of quality indicators in PAlliative Care sTudy) aiming to increase the knowledge base, was to conduct national studies in PC services. This study aims to identify factors perceived as barriers or facilitators for improving PC in cancer and dementia settings in Norway. Individual, dual-participant and focus group interviews were conducted with 20 employees working in different health care services in Norway: two hospitals, one nursing home, and two local medical centers. Thematic analysis with a combined inductive and theoretical approach was applied. Barriers and facilitators were connected to (1) the innovation (e.g. credibility, advantage, accessibility, attractiveness); (2) the individual professional (e.g. motivation, PC expertise, confidence); (3) the patient (e.g. compliance); (4) the social context (e.g. leadership, culture of change, face-to-face contact); (5) the organizational context (e.g. resources, structures/facilities, expertise); (6) the political and economic context (e.g. policy, legislation, financial arrangements) and (7) the implementation strategy (e.g. educational, meetings, reminders). Four barriers that were particular to PC were identified: the poor general condition of patients in need of PC, symptom assessment tools that were not validated in all patient groups, lack of PC expertise and changes perceived to be at odds with staff's philosophy of care. When planning an improvement project in PC, services should pay particular attention to factors associated with their chosen implementation strategy. Leaders should also involve staff early in the improvement process, ensure that they have the necessary training in PC and that the change is consistent with the staff's philosophy of care. An important

  4. A population based validation study of self-reported pensions and benefits: the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtveit Solbjørg Makalani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of disability pensions, sickness certification and long-term health related benefits are often self-reported in epidemiological studies. Few studies have examined these measures, and the validity is yet to be established. We aimed to estimate the validity of self-reported disability pension, rehabilitation benefit and retirement pension and to explore the benefit status and basic characteristics of those not responding to these items. A large health survey (HUNT2 containing self-reported questionnaire data on sickness benefits and pensions was linked to a national registry of pensions and benefits, used as “gold standard” for the analysis. We investigated two main sources of bias in self-reported data; misclassification - due to participants answering questions incorrectly, and systematic missing/selection bias - when participants do not respond to the questions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predicative value, agreement and Cohen’s Kappa were calculated for each benefit. Co-variables were compared between non-responders and responders. Results In the study-population of 40,633, 9.2% reported receiving disability pension, 1.4% rehabilitation benefits and 6.1% retirement pension. According to the registry, the corresponding numbers were 9.0%, 1.7% and 5.4%. Excluding non-responders, specificity, NPV and agreement were above 98% for all benefits. Sensitivity and PPV were lower. When including non-responders as non-receivers, specificity got higher, sensitivity dropped while the other measures changed less. Between 17.7% and 24.1% did not answer the questions on benefits. Non-responders were older and more likely to be female. They reported more anxiety, more depression, a higher number of somatic diagnoses, less physical activity and lower consumption of alcohol (p  Conclusions The validity of self-reported data on disability pension, rehabilitation benefits and retirement pension is

  5. A delicate balance? : a study of work-life conflicts, work-life enrichment, and worklife balance among management consultants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Nabong, Tristán; Trønnes, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship among work-life balance, work-life enrichment, and work-life conflict by looking into the status, condition, and experiences of management consultants in Norway. The need to develop methods to achieve an optimal balance between employees’ productivity, work habits and personal life has sparked numerous studies investigating work-life balance in recent years. Because very few previous studies have dealt with work-life balance in the man...

  6. African wildlife conservation and the evolution of hunting institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Hunting regulation presents a significant challenge for contemporary global conservation governance. Motivated by various incentives, hunters may act legally or illegally, for or against the interests of conservation. Hunter incentives are shaped by the interactions between unevenly evolving formal and informal institutions, embedded in socio-ecological systems. To work effectively for conservation, regulatory interventions must take these evolving institutional interactions into account. Drawing on analytical tools from evolutionary institutional economics, this article examines the trajectory of African hunting regulation and its consequences. Concepts of institutional dynamics, fit, scale, and interplay are applied to case studies of rhinoceros and lion hunting to highlight issues of significance to conservation outcomes. These include important links between different forms of hunting and dynamic interplay with institutions of trade. The case studies reveal that inappropriate formal regulatory approaches may be undermined by adaptive informal market responses. Poorly regulated hunting may lead to calls for stricter regulations or bans, but such legal restrictions may in turn perversely lead to more intensified and organised illegal hunting activity, further undermining conservation objectives. I conclude by offering insights and recommendations to guide more effective future regulatory interventions and priorities for further research. Specifically, I advocate approaches that move beyond simplistic regulatory interventions toward more complex, but supportive, institutional arrangements that align formal and informal institutions through inclusive stakeholder engagement.

  7. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  8. The impact of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on survival in the general population – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorpen Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met which has been related to common diseases like cancer, psychiatric illness and myocardial infarction. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism is associated with survival has not been evaluated in the general population. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism on survival in a population-based cohort. Methods The sample comprised 2979 non-diabetic individuals who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in the period 1995–97. The subjects were followed up with respect to mortality throughout year 2004. Results 212 men and 183 women died during the follow up. No association between codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism and survival was found. The unadjusted relative risk of death by non-ischemic heart diseases with Met/Met or Met/Val genotypes was 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–9.00 compared to Val/Val genotype. When we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, coffee intake and body mass index the relative risk decreased to 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–8.00. Conclusion During 10 year of follow-up, the Val158Met polymorphism had no impact on survival in a general population. Difference in mortality rates from non-ischemic heart diseases may be incidental and should be evaluated in other studies.

  9. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-01-01

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin 2 for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110≤Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  10. Education, sense of mastery and mental health: results from a nation wide health monitoring study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Rune

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier studies have shown that people with low level of education have increased rates of mental health problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between level of education and psychological distress, and to explore to which extent the association is mediated by sense of mastery, and social variables like social support, negative life events, household income, employment and marital status. Methods The data for the study were obtained from the Level of Living Survey conducted by Statistics Norway in 2002. Data on psychological distress and psychosocial variables were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire, whereas socio-demographic data were based on register statistics. Psychological distress was measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 items. Results There was a significant association between low level of education and psychological distress in both genders, the association being strongest in women aged 55–67 years. Low level of education was also significantly associated with low sense of mastery, low social support, many negative life events (only in men, low household income and unemployment,. Sense of mastery emerged as a strong mediating variable between level of education and psychological distress, whereas the other variables played a minor role when adjusting for sense of mastery. Conclusion Low sense of mastery seems to account for much of the association between low educational level and psychological distress, and should be an important target in mental health promotion for groups with low level of education.

  11. Education, sense of mastery and mental health: results from a nation wide health monitoring study in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Rognerud, Marit; Johansen, Rune; Zahl, Per Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have shown that people with low level of education have increased rates of mental health problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between level of education and psychological distress, and to explore to which extent the association is mediated by sense of mastery, and social variables like social support, negative life events, household income, employment and marital status. Methods The data for the study were obtained from the Level of Living Survey conducted by Statistics Norway in 2002. Data on psychological distress and psychosocial variables were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire, whereas socio-demographic data were based on register statistics. Psychological distress was measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 items. Results There was a significant association between low level of education and psychological distress in both genders, the association being strongest in women aged 55–67 years. Low level of education was also significantly associated with low sense of mastery, low social support, many negative life events (only in men), low household income and unemployment,. Sense of mastery emerged as a strong mediating variable between level of education and psychological distress, whereas the other variables played a minor role when adjusting for sense of mastery. Conclusion Low sense of mastery seems to account for much of the association between low educational level and psychological distress, and should be an important target in mental health promotion for groups with low level of education. PMID:17519014

  12. Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen among employees in the National Hospital, Oslo, Norway: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovig, B; Rollag, H; Dahl, O

    1985-07-01

    During the last decade, several studies of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infections in hospital personnel have demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus (anti-HB) compared with the general population. Norway has a very low incidence rate of hepatitis B as seen on a global scale, and this study was performed to evaluate the infection risk by hospital workers in such environments. The employees, 2,546 (94.7% of the population), in the 800-bed National Hospital in Oslo were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in serum. Five per cent (128 persons) were anti-HBs-positive; this was only slightly higher than that in the general Norwegian population. Male employees were more often positive than females (7.0% vs. 4.4%). Staff more than 50 years of age or with 16 or more years of employment in the health services had a rate twice as high as the rest of the employees. Staff in the porter services (mostly men) had a higher rate than others, whereas the rates in the different professional groups showed no statistical differences. Contrary to many other studies, significant differences in prevalence according to frequency of patient contact or blood handling were not found.

  13. Ottoman Hunting Organization of Silistra Sanjak in The 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ALKAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While hunting in traditional societies, was most commonly practised as a profession, for food, sports or entertainment, it was fully a part of Ottoman State organization as a military exercise or war game. From the first Ottoman rulers, there has been hunting institution in the palace. An organized hunting institution, regular hunting practices and the number of hunted animals had been perceived as the symbols of power of the ruler. Hunting organization was instrumental in identifying the situations of the country and people, inspecting government officials and listening to people’s problems. In this respect, the meaning of hunting ceremony gains great importance. Hunting bird-growing organization in Ottoman Empire palace had been institutionalized since early years. Its provincial administration was created for particular sanjaks. The structure of provincial hunting organization was organized in the form of taşra doğancıları (provincial falconers or hawkers, sayyad (hunters, yavrucu (fledgeling careres, yuvacı (nest carers, kayacı (carer of nest rocks, görenceci (bird observers, tuzakçı (bird catchers. There are records in Ottoman archives about this units concerning their organization, numbers, how they were spread and how the duties were passed from father to son. In this study, in the 16th century provincial Ottoman hunting organization and services in Silistra has been throughly examined, using archive documents.

  14. Attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Johnsen, Roar; Risør, Mette Bech

    2014-08-27

    In the health and care sector, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are frequent phenomena and constitute a field in need of exploration. Attitudes towards sickness absence involve also attitudes towards sickness presenteeism, i.e. going to work while sick, confirmed by previous studies. Sickness behavior, reflecting attitudes on work absence, could differ between countries and influence absence rates. But little is known about attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. The aim of the present paper is therefore to explore attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees in both countries. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, the main attention of which was attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. FGDs were conducted in two nursing homes in Norway and two in Denmark, with different geographic locations: one in a rural area and one in an urban area in each country. FGDs were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis to identify major themes and explanatory patterns. Four major significant themes were identified from the FGDs: a) sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, b) acceptable causes of sickness absence, c) job identity, and d) organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace. Our analyses showed that social commitment and loyalty to residents and colleagues was important for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, as were perceived acceptable and non-acceptable reasons for sickness absence. Organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace were also found to have an influence on attitudes towards sickness absence. The general interpretation of the findings was that attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees were embedded in situational patterns of moral relationships and were

  15. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. The Growing Importance and Value Implications of Recreational Hunting Leases to Agricultural Land Investors in America

    OpenAIRE

    John S. Baen

    1997-01-01

    This study considers the evolution and explosion growth of recreational hunting leases in America. The traditional European practice of leasing rural lands for the exclusive rights of tenants to hunt and fish is now an important revenue source for American agricultural land investors/owners. Hunting lease income can enhance value to the point that recreation becomes the highest and best use of rural land for both the market and income approaches to valuation. This study offers new perspective...

  17. The political economy of corporate social responsibility and community development: a case study of Norway's Snoehvit natural gas complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klick, Matthew T

    2009-07-01

    This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company's stated 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snoehvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of 'socially responsible' approaches to development to internalize negative externalisation and promote positive 'spin-offs'. Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry. (Author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Tracking Legionella in air generated from a biological treatment plant: a case study of the outbreak of legionellosis in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet M.; Olsen, Jaran S.; Andreassen, Øyvind; Waagen, Viggo; Reif, Bjørn Anders P.

    2011-05-01

    Two outbreaks of legionellosis occurred in the Sarpsborg/Fredrikstad region southeast of Norway in 2005 and 2008 where more than 60 exposed individuals were infected and 10 case patients died. The air scrubber at Borregaard, a wood-based chemical factory, was identified as the outbreak source. High concentration levels of Legionella species, including the etiological agent L. pneumophila SG1 was found in the aeration ponds, which belongs to Borregaard's biological treatment plant. Results showed that these ponds were able to generate Legionella-containing aerosols that were transported by the wind as such aerosols were measured up to 200 meters downwind of the pond. Our studies did not detect L. pneumophila SG1 isolates, only L. pneumophila SG4 during the air sampling measurement campaign. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the air scrubber proved to be harsh for Legionella growth as the outbreak L. pneumophila strains were not able to grow at 45ºC and pH8 (conditions during the outbreaks). These results, together, lead us to suggest that the aeration pond should be regarded as the primary amplifier and disseminator of Legionella and L. pneumophila and thereby most likely being the outbreak source.

  19. The Effects of Skill Training on Social Workers' Professional Competences in Norway: Results of a Cluster-Randomised Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Natland, Sidsel; Tøge, Anne Grete; Hansen, Helle Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    Using a cluster-randomised design, this study analyses the effects of a government-administered skill training programme for social workers in Norway. The training programme aims to improve social workers' professional competences by enhancing and systematising follow-up work directed towards longer-term unemployed clients in the following areas: encountering the user, system-oriented efforts and administrative work. The main tools and techniques of the programme are based on motivational interviewing and appreciative inquiry. The data comprise responses to baseline and eighteen-month follow-up questionnaires administered to all social workers (n = 99) in eighteen participating Labour and Welfare offices randomised into experimental and control groups. The findings indicate that the skill training programme positively affected the social workers' evaluations of their professional competences and quality of work supervision received. The acquisition and mastering of combinations of specific tools and techniques, a comprehensive supervision structure and the opportunity to adapt the learned skills to local conditions were important in explaining the results. PMID:27559232

  20. 7th Higgs Hunting 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    A subject of major importance in fundamental physics is the investigation of the origin of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking. The mechanism of mass generation through the spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry is called the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism and is associated with the appearance of a physical scalar boson. The discovery announced at CERN on 4th July 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of a boson at a mass close to 125 GeV/c2, compatible with this scalar boson of the Standard Model, the so-called Higgs boson, mainly in γγ, ZZ and WW decay modes, with compatible evidence also found at Fermilab in the bb mode, changed the landscape. This important discovery was acknowledged as decisive for the attribution of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter Higgs . This 7th workshop of the "Higgs Hunting" series organized in Paris on August 31 - September 2, 2016 will discuss the developments of LHC run 2 analyses, detailed studies of the new boson and possible de...

  1. First-Trimester Maternal Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Infant Oral Clefts in Norway: A Population-based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoo, Lisa A.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Drevon, Christian A.; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2008-01-01

    Although alcohol is a recognized teratogen, evidence is limited on alcohol intake and oral cleft risk. The authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and oral clefts in a national, population-based case-control study of infants born in 1996–2001 in Norway. Participants were 377 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, 196 with cleft palate only, and 763 controls. Mothers reported first-trimester alcohol consumption in self-administered questionnaires com...

  2. Approaches to work and education over the life course. A two-cohort study of men skilled in male-dominated manual occupations in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Kristoffer Chelsom

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the approaches to work and education of men skilled in maledominated manual occupations in Norway. Its focus is on how their approaches to work and education have 1) changed over historical time and 2) developed over the life course. An empirical exploration of these questions provides the background for a number of contextualized contributions to wider debates about work and education in society. The study is based on a postal survey (N=144) and 28 life st...

  3. Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: a case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; Heinz Wilkes

    2006-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons ...

  4. Characteristics and outcome of unplanned out-of-institution births in Norway from 1999 to 2013: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Smárason, Alexander K; Skogvoll, Eirik; Fasting, Sigurd

    2014-10-01

    To study the incidence, maternal characteristics and outcome of unplanned out-of-institution births (= unplanned births) in Norway. Register-based cross-sectional study. All births in Norway (n = 892 137) from 1999 to 2013 with gestational age ≥22 weeks. Analysis of data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway from 1999 to 2013. Unplanned births (n = 6062) were compared with all other births (reference group). The annual incidence rate of unplanned births was 6.8/1000 births and remained stable during the period of study. Young multiparous women residing in remote municipalities were at the highest risk of experiencing unplanned births. The unplanned birth group had higher perinatal mortality rate for the period, 11.4/1000 compared with 4.9/1000 for the reference group (incidence rate ratio 2.31, 95% confidence interval 1.82-2.93, p life, compared with reference births in the same birthweight category. Unplanned births are associated with adverse outcome. Excessive mortality is possibly caused by reduced availability of necessary medical interventions for vulnerable newborns out-of-hospital. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  5. Body configuration as a predictor of mortality: comparison of five anthropometric measures in a 12 year follow-up of the Norwegian HUNT 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursson, Halfdan; Sigurdsson, Johann A; Bengtsson, Calle; Nilsen, Tom I L; Getz, Linn

    2011-01-01

    Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI) still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work. We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20-79, followed up for mortality from 1995-1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years) in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2). After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied. Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity.

  6. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-01-01

    The Yul shul (Yushu) Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  7. Marginalisation and cardiovascular disease among rural Sami in Northern Norway: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2013-05-29

    Like other indigenous peoples, the Sami have been exposed to the huge pressures of colonisation, rapid modernisation and subsequent marginalisation. Previous studies among indigenous peoples show that colonialism, rapid modernisation and marginalisation is accompanied by increased stress, an unhealthy cardiovascular risk factor profile and disease burden. Updated data on the general burden of cardiovascular disease among the Sami is lacking. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between marginalisation and self-reported lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD) by minority/majority status in the rural Sami population of Norway. A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study) was carried out in 2003-2004. The overall participation rate was 60.9% and a total of 4027 Sami individuals aged 36-79 years were included in the analyses. Data was collected by self-administrated questionnaires and a clinical examination. The logistic regression showed that marginalised Sami living in Norwegian dominated areas were more than twice as likely to report CVD as non-marginalised Sami living in Sami majority areas (OR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.40-3.14). No sex difference was found in the effects of marginalisation on self-reported life-time cardiovascular disease. Moderate to no intermediate effects were seen after including established CVD risk factors. This study showed that marginalised Sami living in Norwegian dominated areas were more than twice as likely as non-marginalised Sami from Sami majority areas to report lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate to no intermediate effects were seen after including established CVD risk factors, which suggest little difference in lifestyle related factors. Chronic stress exposure following marginalisation may however be a plausible explanation for some of the observed excess of CVD.

  8. Lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Markova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Refugees are at high risk for mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services to meet the needs of refugees from various regions, an understanding of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems is warranted. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway.Methods. The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the vignette character, completing the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10 were done separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies.Results. The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community rather than seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists. Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much and emotion (sadness, but not with biological mechanisms, and were thought to result from spiritual possessions, stress from social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independent of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. As participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the viewpoint of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be gatekeepers for access to mental health services. Conclusion. The results highlight that mental health programs for Somali refugees

  9. International students as part-time tourists: A case study from Stavanger, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Leparskas, Vaidas

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management The reasons that motivate students to study abroad are important to the tourism industry. This study has a descriptive research design. To answer the main research question the study uses a quantitative methodology. The research question is: What is the main motivation for students to study abroad: to study or to travel? The identified study abroad motives reflect students’ needs for education, cross-cultural, novelty seeking, s...

  10. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  11. Psychosocial work stress, leisure time physical exercise and the risk of chronic pain in the neck/shoulders: Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanavoll, Rannveig; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holtermann, Andreas; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic neck/shoulder pain is associated with work stress and job control, and to assess if physical exercise modifies these associations. The study population comprised 29 496 vocationally active women and men in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study) without chronic pain at baseline in 1984-1986. Chronic neck/shoulder pain was assessed during a follow-up in 1995-1997. A generalized linear model (Poisson regression) was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs). Work stress was dosedependently associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain (ptrend stressful "almost all the time" had multi-adjusted RRs = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.47) and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.46-2), respectively, referencing those with no stressful work. Work stress interacted with sex (p pain among the women (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92-1.19) nor the men (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.95-1.26). Combined analyses showed an inverse dose-dependent association between hours of physical exercise/week and the risk of neck/shoulder pain in the men with no stressful work (ptrend = 0.05) and among the men who perceived their work as "rarely stressful" (ptrend stress. Work stress is an independent predictor of chronic neck/shoulder pain and the effect is stronger in men than in women. Physical exercise does not substantially reduce the risk among the persons with frequent exposure to work stress. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  13. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  14. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances in adolescents in northern Norway: Lifestyle and dietary predictors. The Tromsø study, Fit Futures 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averina, Maria; Brox, Jan; Huber, Sandra; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2018-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely used in many consumer products due to water and oil proofing and fire-resistant properties. Several PFASs are recognized as environmental pollutants. This study investigated serum concentrations of 18 different PFASs and their associations with diet and lifestyle variables in 940 adolescents (age 15-19 years) who participated in the Fit Futures 1 study in the Troms arctic district of Norway. Serum concentrations of PFASs were analyzed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). The most abundant PFASs in this population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) that were found in 99% of the participants. Perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) was found in 98% of the participants. Median concentrations were: PFOS 6.20 ng/mL, PFOA 1.92 ng/mL, PFHxS 0.71 ng/mL, PFNA 0.50 ng/mL, PFDA 0.21 ng/mL and PFHpS 0.15 ng/mL. Median of PFASs sum concentration (∑PFAS) was 10.7 ng/mL, the concentration range was 2.6-200.8 ng/mL. Intake of fat fish, fish liver, seagull eggs, reindeer meat and drinks with sugar were the main dietary predictors of several PFASs. Intake of junk food (pizza, hamburger, sausages) was positively associated with PFNA, intake of canned food was positively associated with PFHxS. Intake of fruits and vegetables, milk products, snacks and candy was not associated with PFASs concentrations. Lean fish intake was positively associated with PFUnDA, but not with other PFASs. There was a positive association of ∑PFAS, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA with chewed tobacco use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Breath-taking jobs: a case-control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, A K; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, P K; Svendsen, M V; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-09-01

    The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16-50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: 'Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?' Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The 'breath-taking jobs' were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  18. Post epidemic giardiasis and gastrointestinal symptoms among preschool children in Bergen, Norway. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A surprisingly low number of children became ill with giardiasis during the large waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia in Bergen, Norway during autumn 2004. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of giardiasis among exposed children one year after an outbreak and compare faecal carriage of Giardia and abdominal symptoms among exposed versus unexposed children one year after the epidemic. Methods Children between 1 and 6 years old were recruited from the local health care centres in Bergen municipality in the period between June 2005 and January 2006. One faecal sample per child was collected and examined for presence of Giardia with a rapid immunoassay antigen test, and parents were asked to answer a questionnaire. A total of 513 children participated, 378 in the group exposed to contaminated water, and 135 in the in the group not exposed. Results In the exposed group eleven children had been treated for giardiasis during the epidemic and none in the unexposed group. Giardia positive faecal tests were found in six children, all in the exposed group, but the difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance. All six Giardia positive children were asymptomatic. No differences were found between the groups regarding demographic data, nausea, vomiting, different odour from stools and eructation. However, the reported scores of abdominal symptoms (diarrhoea, bloating and stomach ache during the last year were higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. Conclusions A low prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia infection (1.7% was found among exposed children around one year after the epidemic (1.2% overall prevalence in the study. In the present setting, pre-school children were therefore unlikely to be an important reservoir for continued transmission in the general population.

  19. Application of the anthropogenic allee effect model to trophy hunting as a conservation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard B; Cooney, Rosie; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2013-10-01

    Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, increasing concerns that such hunting may undermine rather than enhance conservation efforts. We question the appropriateness of uncritically applying the AAE model to trophy hunting for 4 reasons. First, the AAE assumes an open-access resource, which is a poor characterization of most trophy-hunting programs and obscures the potential for state, communal, or private-property use rights to generate positive incentives for conservation. Second, study results that show the price of hunting increases as the rarity of the animal increases are insufficient to indicate the presence of AAE. Third, AAE ignores the existence of biological and behavioral factors operating in most trophy-hunting contexts that tend to regulate the effect of hunting. We argue that site-specific data, rather than aggregated hunting statistics, are required to demonstrate that patterns of unsustainable exploitation can be well explained by an AAE model. Instead, we suggest that conservation managers seeking to investigate and identify constraints that limit the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, should focus on the critical governance characteristics that shape the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, such as corruption, insecure property rights, and inadequate sharing of benefits with local people. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. The effect of foetal growth restriction on the development of migraine and tension-type headache in adulthood. The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Børte

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge about how factors early in life affect the development of migraine and tension-type headache. We aimed to examine whether growth restriction in utero is associated with development of migraine and frequent tension-type headache in adults.The population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3 contained a validated headache questionnaire, which differentiated between migraine and tension-type headache. These data were linked to information on weight and gestational age at birth from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. In total 4557 females and 2789 males, aged 19-41 years, were included in this registry-based study. Participants were categorized as appropriate for gestational age (AGA, 10th-90th percentile, small for gestational age (SGA, 3rd-10th percentile or very small for gestational age (VSGA, < 3rd percentile. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI for migraine and tension-type headache, with exposure being growth restriction at birth.The effect of growth restriction on migraine was modified by sex, with a significant association in males (p<0.001, but not in females (p = 0.20. In particular, males born VSGA were at increased risk of developing migraine (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.63-4.58, p<0.001, with an intermediate risk among those born SGA (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96-2.35, p = 0.08 compared to those born AGA. There was no significant association between growth restriction and frequent TTH (p = 0.051.Growth restriction was associated with increased risk of migraine in adulthood among males, but not among females. This suggests that migraine might, in part, be influenced by early life events, and that males seem to be particularly vulnerable.

  1. Leisure time activities in adolescence in the presence of susceptibility genes for obesity: risk or resilience against overweight in adulthood? The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuypers Koenraad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environment, health behavior, and genetic background are important in the development of obesity. Adolescents spend substantial part of daily leisure time on cultural and social activities, but knowledge about the effects of participation in such activities on weight is limited. Methods A number of 1450 adolescents from the Norwegian HUNT study (1995–97 were followed-up in 2006–08 as young adults. Phenotypic data on lifestyle and anthropometric measures were assessed using questionnaires and standardized clinical examinations. Genotypic information on 12 established obesity-susceptibility loci were available for analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations between cultural and social activities in adolescence and adiposity measures in young adulthood. In addition, interaction effects of a genetic predisposition score by leisure time activities were tested. Results In girls, participation in cultural activities was negatively associated with waist circumference (WC (B = −0.04, 95%CI: -0.08 to −0.00 and with waist-hip ratio (WHR (B = −0.058, 95%CI: -0.11 to −0.01. However, participation in social activities was positively associated with WC (B = 0.040, CI: 0.00 to 0.08 in girls and with BMI (B = 0.027, CI: 0.00 to 0.05 in boys. The effect of the obesity-susceptibility genetic variants on anthropometric measures was lower in adolescents with high participation in cultural activities compared to adolescents with low participation. Conclusion This study suggests that the effects of cultural activities on body fat are different from the effects of participation in social activities. The protective influence of cultural activities in female adolescents against overweight in adulthood and their moderating effect on obesity-susceptibility genes suggest that even cultural activities may be useful in public health strategies against obesity.

  2. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  3. Cute as candy: a qualitative study of perceptions of snus branding and package design among youth in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2017-04-03

    Snus use has increased among youth in Norway in recent years and is now more prevalent than smoking. Concurrently, a range of new products and package designs have been introduced to the market. The aim of this study was to explore how youth perceive snus branding and package design, and the role, if any, of snus packaging on perceptions of appeal and harm of snus among youth. Adolescent tobacco users and non-users (N=35) ages 15-17 years. We conducted interviews among 6 focus groups (each with 4-7 participants). Participants were shown snus packages with a variety of designs and with different product qualities (flavour additives, slim, regular, white and brown sachets) and group discussions focused on how they perceived packages and products. The focus group discussions were semistructured using a standard guide, and analysed thematically. The participants in the focus groups narrated distinct images of snus brands and associated user identities. Package design elements such as shapes, colours, images and fonts were described as guiding these perceptions. Packaging elements and flavour additives were associated with perceptions of product harm. The appeal of flavoured snus products and new types of snus sachets seemed to blend in with these processes, reinforcing positive attitudes and contributing to the creation of particular identities for products and their users. The findings indicate that packaging is vital to consumer's identification with, and differentiation between, snus brands. In view of this, snus branding and packaging can be seen as fulfilling a similar promotional role as advertising messages: generating preferences and appeal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Caught in suffering bodies: a qualitative study of immigrant women on long-term sick leave in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Line; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Kumar, Bernadette N; Lohne, Vibeke

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the issues faced by immigrant women on long-term sick leave due to chronic pain, focusing on their personal perspectives on their daily lives, their bodies and their pain. An increasing number of immigrants in Norway present a challenge to the public health service, above all in relation to the health needs of immigrant women, many of whom risk having to take long-term sick leave due to chronic pain. This study has a qualitative design, with participant observation and in-depth interviews. Participant observations were carried out from a sample of fourteen immigrant women in an outpatient clinic at a rehabilitation hospital. In addition, qualitative interviews were conducted after the rehabilitation period. A hermeneutic approach was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. The analysis revealed one main theme, 'Bodies marked by onerous experiences', as well as two subthemes: 'It is in my body' and 'Invisible pain'. The immigrant women struggled with invisible, chronic pain, which they blamed on physically tiring workdays and stressful life situations. Furthermore, they felt that their experiences of discriminative attitudes at the workplace worsened their suffering. The chronic pain made the immigrant women suffer, because they experienced it as a threatening, incomprehensible and unreal force, without meaning or the ability to be controlled. Their own psychological distress exacerbated their pain. Immigrant women on long-term sick leave are likely to need special approaches that are closely adapted to their different backgrounds and their unique personal experiences. We recommend culturally appropriate family counselling and collaboration with employers at the women's workplaces. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cute as candy: a qualitative study of perceptions of snus branding and package design among youth in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Snus use has increased among youth in Norway in recent years and is now more prevalent than smoking. Concurrently, a range of new products and package designs have been introduced to the market. The aim of this study was to explore how youth perceive snus branding and package design, and the role, if any, of snus packaging on perceptions of appeal and harm of snus among youth. Participants Adolescent tobacco users and non-users (N=35) ages 15–17 years. Design We conducted interviews among 6 focus groups (each with 4–7 participants). Participants were shown snus packages with a variety of designs and with different product qualities (flavour additives, slim, regular, white and brown sachets) and group discussions focused on how they perceived packages and products. The focus group discussions were semistructured using a standard guide, and analysed thematically. Results The participants in the focus groups narrated distinct images of snus brands and associated user identities. Package design elements such as shapes, colours, images and fonts were described as guiding these perceptions. Packaging elements and flavour additives were associated with perceptions of product harm. The appeal of flavoured snus products and new types of snus sachets seemed to blend in with these processes, reinforcing positive attitudes and contributing to the creation of particular identities for products and their users. Conclusions The findings indicate that packaging is vital to consumer's identification with, and differentiation between, snus brands. In view of this, snus branding and packaging can be seen as fulfilling a similar promotional role as advertising messages: generating preferences and appeal. PMID:28373248

  6. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Value of electroneurography as a prognostic indicator for recovery in acute severe inflammatory facial paralysis: a prospective study of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hayoung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Chung, Kyu Whan; Hwang, Soojin; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of electroneuronography (ENoG) in acute severe inflammatory facial paralysis, including Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). Prospective observational study. Patients with acute severe facial paralysis of House-Brackmann (H-B) grade IV or worse and diagnosed with Bell's palsy or RHS were enrolled from August 2007 to July 2011. After treatment with oral corticosteroid, antiviral agent, and protective eye care, patients were followed up until recovery or 12 months from onset. Sixty-six patients with Bell's palsy and 22 with RHS were included. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant effect of ENoG value on recovery in both Bell's palsy and RHS. Values of ENoG were significantly worse in RHS than Bell's palsy. Chance of early recovery within 6 weeks after correction of ENoG effect was still significantly worse in RHS. Logistic regression analysis showed 90% chance of recovery within 6 months, expected with ENoG values of 69.2% degeneration (Bell's palsy) and 59.3% (RHS). The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed ENoG values of 82.5% (Bell's palsy) and 78.0% (RHS) as a critical cutoff value of nonrecovery until 1 year, with the best sensitivity and specificity. A higher chance of recovery was expected with better ENoG in Bell's palsy and RHS. Based on our data, nonrecovery is predicted in patients with ENoG value greater than 82.5% in Bell's palsy, and 78% in RHS. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. The influence of social capital on self-rated health and depression – The Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Sund

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and two health outcomes: selfrated health and depression. A total of 42,571 individuals aged 30–67 years participated in a cross-sectional total population health study in Nord-Trøndelag in 1995–1997 (HUNT II and were investigated using multilevel modelling. Aims were, first, to investigate potential area effects after accounting for the characteristics of individuals in the neighbourhoods (N = 155, and, second, to explore the relationships between contextual social capital (the level of trust at the neighbourhood level and the level of local organizational activity and the two health measures. Models with stepwise inclusion of individual level factors attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health (PCV: 41% and depression (PCV: 43%. The inclusion of the two contextual social capital items attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health and depression, however to varying degrees. At the individual level, contextual social capital was associated with both self-rated health and depression. Individuals living in wards with a low level of trust experienced an increased risk of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 for poor self-rated health compared to individuals in wards with a high level of trust. For depression, this effect was even stronger (OR 1.52, 1.23-1.87. The associations with the level of organizational activity were inconsistent and weaker for both health outcomes. It was concluded that geographical variations in self-rated health and depression are largely due to the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. Nevertheless, contextual social capital, expressed as the level of trust, was found to be associated with depression and self-rated health at individual level.

  9. Occupational Therapy Students in Norway: Do Their Approaches to Studying Vary by Year In the Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Bonsaksen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to studying may be influenced by students’ age, maturity, and experience in higher education. Students’ approaches to studying may develop toward deep and/or strategic approaches and away from a surface approach as they move through the curriculum, which is generally considered a positive development. This study aimed to identify differences in approaches to studying among first-, second-, and third-year students enrolled in an occupational therapy program. Three cohorts of students (n = 160 from one university college completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST along with sociodemographic information. One-way analyses of variance were used to identify differences in approaches to studying among the student cohorts. The scores on the ASSIST were largely similar between the cohorts. However, first-year students had higher scores on the surface approach and on syllabus-boundness, compared to third-year students. There was a linear trend of decreasing scores on these two scales: from highest among first-year students to lowest among third-year students. With few exceptions, students in three cohorts showed similar levels of deep, strategic, and surface approaches to studying. More efforts should be placed on assisting students to adopt a deep and/or strategic approach to studying and to reduce a surface approach.

  10. Dietary study and whole body measurements in selected groups in Norway 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerlie, A.A.; Boee, E.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1994-12-01

    This study is a continuation of a study that started in 1987. The main sources to the radiocesium intake in the different groups are almost the same compared to the previous years. The radiation dose burden to which the Norwegian population is subjected shows great variations and is dependent on the types of foods eaten. The consumption of reindeer meat and freshwater fish is of major importance. 6 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Spirituality and caring in old age and the significance of religion - a hermeneutical study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykkje, Linda L R; Eriksson, Katie; Raholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    Spirituality is an important part of caring for the whole human being. However, there is lack of consensus about the concept parameter, and there is an ongoing discussion in nursing regarding the relation between religion and spirituality. Spirituality and religion is found to support health and well-being in old age, and this article portrays how older Norwegians understand religion and religious support as part of spirituality and caring. The theoretical framework in this study is Eriksson's caritative caring theory, and the research aim is to broaden the understanding of spirituality from a caring science perspective. The methodology is hermeneutical according to Gadamer. The study is based upon qualitative content analysis of 30 interviews with 17 participants above 74 years, six men and 11 women. The findings portray connectedness with a Higher power, including how Christianity has influenced upon the philosophy of life of the participants, wonders about the end of life/afterlife, and the meaning of religious symbols and rituals. The study also portrays how religious support may foster dignity, especially near the end of life, and experiences and opinions regarding support from nursing personnel. The study concludes that religiousness cannot be separated from spirituality, and that nurses should be able to provide spiritual care to a certain extent. Spiritual care including religious support according to patients' desires may foster health and preserve human dignity. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Pre-purchase customer experience : multiple case study of leading service providers in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Lisanna Carolina; Citic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    The theory of experience economy presents customer experience as a form of new economic offering and stresses the importance of customer experience for companies that are trying to differentiate from the competitors. Many service providers are increasing their focus on customer experience by putting the customer in the center of their business. This study investigates how experience centricity and customer centricity can be enhanced at prepurchase level. Nowadays, customer a...

  13. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    ,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = 929,458; Sweden n = 1,761,562). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Slope index of inequality (SII) and mean differences in birthweight for gestational age, SII and risk differences in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. RESULTS: In all countries....... CONCLUSION: The economic recession in Denmark in the 1980s was concurrent with an increase in disparities in fetal growth, whereas the economic recession in Finland and Sweden in the early 1990s did not substantially increase the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth. The economic growth in the later part...... of the 1990s may have diminished the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth in Finland, Norway, and Sweden....

  15. Psychotropic drug use among persons with mental distress symptoms: a population-based study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Anne M; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Rosvold, Elin O; Bramness, Jørgen G; Furu, Kari

    2007-01-01

    To explore psychotropic drug use in the general population and in particular among non-institutionalized persons with mental distress symptoms. A total of 14,139 women and 11,665 men participating in the Oslo Health Study or the Oppland/Hedmark Study 2000-2001 submitted a self-administered questionnaire on health status and drug use, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Respondents using antidepressants, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics during the last four weeks were defined as users. A high Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 score indicated mental distress. The 15% with the highest score in each gender and age group (adults: 30/40/45 years; elderly: 60 years) were studied. The prevalence of antidepressant use among those with mental distress was, for women: adults 21%; elderly 30%; and for men, adults 15%; elderly 15%. These figures were nearly four times higher than in the general population. Not participating in the labour market was the main factor associated with use of antidepressants for subjects with mental distress: adult women (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-5.0); elderly women (OR 5.2; CI 2.7-10.2); adult men (OR 4.7; CI 3.0-7.3); and elderly men (OR 2.9; CI 1.4-6.0). Use of analgesics was the main factor associated with use of anxiolytics/hypnotics: adult women (OR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.4); elderly women (OR 2.3; CI 1.4-3.8); adult men (OR 2.1; CI 1.3-3.3); and elderly men (OR 3.4; CI 1.9-6.0). Among individuals with mental distress, not participating in the labour market and regular use of analgesics were the main factors associated with use of psychotropics in both genders regardless of age.

  16. Spectral differences of the functional crown parts and status of Norway spruce trees studied using remote sensing information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Clevers, J G P W.; Arkima, H.; Kuosmanen, V.; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 207-210 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * stress response * remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  17. Child witch hunts in contemporary Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has investigated the phenomenon. In this case study, the persecution of child witches in Ghana is studied to explore the nature and patterns of witch hunts against children in the West African nation. There are no reliable national data on child abuse related to witchcraft accusations in Ghana. For this study, 13 cases of child witch hunts appearing in the local media during 1994-2009 were analyzed. Case summaries were constructed for each incident to help identify the socio-demographic characteristics of assailants and victims, victim-offender relationships, the methods of attacks, the spatial characteristics, as well as the motivations for the attacks. Children branded as witches ranged in age from 1-month-old to 17-years-old, were primarily from poor backgrounds, and lived in rural areas of the country. Accusations of witchcraft and witch assaults were lodged by close family members often through the encouragement of, or in concert with Christian clergymen and fetish priests. Accused witches were physically brutalized, tortured, neglected, and in two cases, murdered. For school-aged children, imputations of witchcraft contributed to stigmatization in both the community and at school, resulting in dropping out. The most frequently expressed reason for persecution of the child was suspicion that the child had used witchcraft to cause the death or illness of family relations or someone in the community. Another reason was suspicion that the child was responsible for the business failure or financial difficulties of a perceived victim. The results of this research are consistent with findings in the witchcraft literature suggesting that seemingly

  18. "Inclusive working life in Norway": a registry-based five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Line; Gravseth, Hans Magne; Kristensen, Petter; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Skyberg, Knut

    2013-07-08

    In 2001, the Norwegian authorities and major labour market partners signed an agreement regarding 'inclusive working life' (IW), whereby companies that participate are committed to reducing sickness absence. Our main aim was to determine the effect of the IW program and work characteristics by gender on long-term (>8 weeks) sickness absence (LSA). Self-reported data on work characteristics from the Oslo Health Study were linked to registry-based data on IW status, education and LSA. From 2001-2005, 10,995 participants (5,706 women and 5,289 men) aged 30, 40, 45 and 60 years were followed. A Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) for LSA risk. The cohort was divided into an IW group (2,733 women and 2,058 men) and non-IW group (2,973/3,231). 43.2% and 41.6% of women and 22.3%/24.3% of men (IW / non-IW, respectively) experienced at least one LSA. In a multivariate model, statistically significant risk factors for LSA were low education (stronger in men), shift work/night work or rotating hours (strongest in men in the non-IW group), and heavy physical work or work involving walking and lifting (men only and stronger in the non-IW group). Among men who engaged in shift work, the LSA risk was significantly lower in the IW group. Our results could suggest that IW companies that employ many men in shift work have implemented relevant efforts for reducing sickness absence. However, this study could not demonstrate a significant effect of the IW program on the overall LSA risk.

  19. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  20. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  1. Symptom clusters predict mortality among dialysis patients in Norway: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Amin; Waldum, Bård; von der Lippe, Nanna; Brekke, Fredrik Barth; Dammen, Toril; Miaskowski, Christine; Os, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis have reduced survival rates compared with the general population. Symptoms are frequent in dialysis patients, and a symptom cluster is defined as two or more related co-occurring symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between symptom clusters and mortality in dialysis patients. In a prospective observational cohort study of dialysis patients (n = 301), Kidney Disease and Quality of Life Short Form and Beck Depression Inventory questionnaires were administered. To generate symptom clusters, principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used on 11 kidney-specific self-reported physical symptoms. A Beck Depression Inventory score of 16 or greater was defined as clinically significant depressive symptoms. Physical and mental component summary scores were generated from Short Form-36. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used for the survival analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank statistics were applied to compare survival rates between the groups. Three different symptom clusters were identified; one included loading of several uremic symptoms. In multivariate analyses and after adjustment for health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms, the worst perceived quartile of the "uremic" symptom cluster independently predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.44-4.22, P = 0.001) compared with the other quartiles during a follow-up period that ranged from four to 52 months. The two other symptom clusters ("neuromuscular" and "skin") or the individual symptoms did not predict mortality. Clustering of uremic symptoms predicted mortality. Assessing co-occurring symptoms rather than single symptoms may help to identify dialysis patients at high risk for mortality. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Siri Løvsjø; Terragni, Laura; Granheim, Sabrina Ionata

    2016-08-01

    To identify the use of ultra-processed foods - vectors of salt, sugar and fats - in the Norwegian diet through an assessment of food sales. Sales data from a representative sample of food retailers in Norway, collected in September 2005 (n 150) and September 2013 (n 170), were analysed. Data consisted of barcode scans of individual food item purchases, reporting type of food, price, geographical region and retail concept. Foods were categorized as minimally processed, culinary ingredients, processed products and ultra-processed. Indicators were share of purchases and share of expenditure on food categories. Six geographical regions in Norway. The barcode data included 296 121 observations in 2005 and 501 938 observations in 2013. Ultra-processed products represented 58·8 % of purchases and 48·8 % of expenditure in 2013. Minimally processed foods accounted for 17·2 % of purchases and 33·0 % of expenditure. Every third purchase was a sweet ultra-processed product. Food sales changed marginally in favour of minimally processed foods and in disfavour of processed products between 2005 and 2013 (χ 2 (3)=203 195, Pprocessed products accounted for the majority of food sales in Norway, indicating a high consumption of such products. This could be contributing to rising rates of overweight, obesity and non-communicable diseases in the country, as findings from other countries indicate. Policy measures should aim at decreasing consumption of ultra-processed products and facilitating access (including economic) to minimally processed foods.

  3. Geophysical and geological investigations of subsurface reservoirs : case studies of Spitsbergen, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelum, Karoline

    2011-07-01

    The thesis gives a description of the subsurface and outcrop geology at a number of localities on Svalbard through a selection of various geophysical and geological methods. The localities represent a series of geological settings of varying scale, from near surface paleokarst and glacial environments to large scale geological features such as fault zones, grabens and dolerite intrusions. The geophysical and geological methods deployed likewise represent both detailed small scale investigations such as Lidar, radar and geoelectric investigations on and near the surface, and seismic investigations covering larger areas to a depth of several kilometers. The overall aim for all the studies has been to better understand reservoir and cap rock/ice systems in a barren arctic desert characterized by a frozen ground that challenges common geophysical methods. The investigations undertaken in connection with this thesis cover several areas The first part addresses the Billefjorden fault zone (BFZ) with its eastern hanging wall classic rift-basin. This fault zone can be traced for more than 200 km as a lineament that runs almost the entire length of Spitsbergen, from Wijdefjorden in the north to Storfjorden in the south. The seismic data along with surface observations and Lidar scans illustrate the long and complicated history of the BFZ and associated basin, from the initial formation via linkage of reverse faults in the Devonian, through Carboniferous reactivation as a normal fault with adjacent rift-basin in an extensional tectonic regime, to finally Tertiary contraction seen as fault reactivation and basin inversion in connection with the formation of the west-coast fold and thrust-belt. Especially the development of the Carboniferous rift-basin is of interest. An integrated study by seismic and georadar mapping, and Lidar data interpretation combined with outcrop analysis of faults and sedimentary succession, have shed new, detailed information on the good sandstone

  4. Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts for urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, G.; Brattebo, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the urban water and wastewater network is directly related to both the quantity and the desired quality of the supplied water/treated wastewater - in other words, to the level of service provided to consumers. The level of service is dependent on not just the quantity and quality of the water but also the state of the infrastructure. Maintaining the infrastructure so as to be able to provide the required high level of service also demands energy. Apart from being a significant operational cost component, energy use also contributes to life-cycle environmental impacts. This paper studies the direct energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the water and wastewater system in Oslo; and presents a break-up among the different components of the network, of quantities, costs and environmental impacts. Owing to the diversity in the periods of time for which comprehensive data for the whole system are available, the study period is restricted to years 2000-2006. The per-capita annual consumption of energy in the operational phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh; and per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. The energy consumed on the upstream, per unit volume water supplied was around 0.4 kWh on average, while the corresponding value for the downstream was 0.8 kWh per cubic metre wastewater treated. The upstream Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged between 70 and 80 g per cubic metre of water supplied, about 22% greater on average than the corresponding specific GHG emissions on the downstream. -- Research highlights: → Annual per-capita energy consumption in the Operation and Maintenance (O and M) phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh. → Annual per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. → Upstream O and M energy consumption per

  5. Prevalence of factors associated with malnutrition among acute geriatric patients in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv Lærum; Brovold, Therese; Bergland, Astrid; Bye, Asta

    2016-09-06

    Data on acute geriatric patients' nutritional status are lacking, and the associations among physical function, sarcopenia, health status and nutritional status are not sufficiently investigated in this population. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) nutritional status and sarcopenia in a group of acute geriatric patients, (2) the association between nutritional status, physical function and sarcopenia in acute geriatric patients, controlling for health status. A cross-sectional study. Two acute geriatric hospital wards in Norway. This study included 120 patients with a mean age of 82.6±8 years. The following inclusion criteria were used: age ≥65 years and admitted to an acute geriatric ward. The exclusion criteria included terminal illness, Mini-Mental State Examination Physical function was measured using the Barthel activities of daily life index and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the mid-arm muscle circumference, gait speed and grip strength, in accordance with the EWGSOP algorithm. Diseases are organised by organ system classification. On the basis of the MNA classification, nearly one in two patients were at risk of malnutrition, while one in four were malnourished. Sarcopenia was present in 30% of the patients. A multivariate linear regression model was estimated and showed significant independent associations between SPPB score (β 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90), sarcopenia (β -3.3, 95% CI -4.9 to -1.7), pulmonary disease (β -2.1, 95% CI -3.7 to -0.46), cancer (β -1.7, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.033) and nutritional status. Our study shows a high prevalence of risk of malnutrition, malnutrition and sarcopenia. Further, the results indicate that a low total SPPB score, sarcopenia, cancer and pulmonary disease are significantly associated with declines in nutritional status, as measured by the MNA, in acute geriatric patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  6. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-01-01

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to mental accouting'' in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the true'' values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-12-31

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to ``mental accouting`` in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the ``true`` values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. The EU electricity disclosure from the business perspective-A study from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aasen, M.; Westskog, H.; Wilhite, H.; Lindberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    The EU Electricity Directive requires that consumers be provided information about the sources from which the electricity is produced, as well as about the CO 2 emissions and the radioactive waste resulting from production sources. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of this information strategy based on a case study focusing on Norwegian enterprises. We explore the views of selected companies on the electricity disclosure scheme. We examine how effective the disclosure scheme is in informing and stimulating companies to buy green electricity products, and link this to what we know about the effects of information disclosure from the literature. Our results show that the information disclosed does to a little extent reach the businesses, and that firms express distrust in the system of Guarantees of Origin (GoO), which leads to distrust in the relevance of the information given through the disclosure scheme. - Research highlights: →The information disclosed does to a little extent reach the businesses and catch their interest. →Firms express distrust in the Guarantees of Origin System (GoO), which leads to distrust in the relevance of the information given through the disclosure system. →Many firms point out that the absence of a mechanism to convert GoO revenue to investment in new green production weakens the legitimacy of the disclosure system.

  9. Hearing loss and work participation: a cross-sectional study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinndal, Elisabeth Vigrestad; Solheim, Jorunn; Rise, Marit By; Jensen, Chris

    2018-04-27

    To study work participation of persons with hearing loss, and associations with hearing disabilities, self-reported workability, fatigue and work accommodation. Cross-sectional internet-based survey. A total of 10,679 persons with hearing loss within working-age were invited to answer the survey, where 3330 answered (35.6%). Degree of hearing loss was associated with low workability, fatigue and work place accommodation, while sick leave was associated with fatigue. Degree of hearing loss was positively associated with being unemployed (p part-time work (p < .01) (often combined with disability benefits) for women. Work place accommodation was more frequently provided among respondents working with sedentary postures, high seniority, long-term sick leave or low workability. Additional unfavourable sensory conditions were associated with decreased employment (p < .001) and workability, and an increase in sick leave (p < .01) and fatigue (p < .001). Hearing loss seemed to influence work participation factors negatively; particularly, for moderate hearing loss and for women, even though the degree of employment was high. A lack of work place accommodation when there was a need for such was found. This implies increased attentiveness towards individual needs concerning the experienced disability a hearing loss may produce. A more frequent use of hearing disability assessment is suggested.

  10. Gamma Knife Treatment of Growing Vestibular Schwannoma in Norway: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, Jobin Kotakkathu; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Pedersen, Paal-Henning; Mahesparan, Ruby; Lund-Johansen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been increasingly used in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Very few studies relate tumor control and post-treatment growth rates to pretreatment growth rates. Methods and Materials: We prospectively included 45 consecutive VS patients who were initially treated conservatively and then received GKRS between 2000 and 2007 because of demonstrated tumor growth. Pretreatment and post-treatment tumor volumes were estimated. Patients underwent audiograms, reported their symptoms, and responded to the Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire on each visit. Results: Volume doubling times before and after treatment were 1.36 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.14-1.68) and −13.1 years (95% confidence intervals, −111.0 to −6.94), respectively. Tumor control, defined as a post-GKRS growth rate ≤0, was achieved in 71.1% of patients, with highest odds for tumor control among older patients and those with larger tumors. The 5-year retreatment-free survival rate was 93.9% (95% confidence intervals, 76.5-98.5). None of the clinical endpoints investigated showed statistically significant changes after GKRS, but improvement was seen in a few SF-36 parameters. Conclusions: GKRS alters the natural course of the tumor by reducing growth. Mathematic models yield poorer tumor control rates than those found by clinical assessment. Symptoms were unaffected by treatment, but quality of life was improved.

  11. Gamma Knife Treatment of Growing Vestibular Schwannoma in Norway: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varughese, Jobin Kotakkathu, E-mail: jobinv@gmail.com [Institute of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Wentzel-Larsen, Tore [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo (Norway); Pedersen, Paal-Henning [Institute of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Mahesparan, Ruby [Department of Neurosurgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Lund-Johansen, Morten [Institute of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been increasingly used in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Very few studies relate tumor control and post-treatment growth rates to pretreatment growth rates. Methods and Materials: We prospectively included 45 consecutive VS patients who were initially treated conservatively and then received GKRS between 2000 and 2007 because of demonstrated tumor growth. Pretreatment and post-treatment tumor volumes were estimated. Patients underwent audiograms, reported their symptoms, and responded to the Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire on each visit. Results: Volume doubling times before and after treatment were 1.36 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.14-1.68) and -13.1 years (95% confidence intervals, -111.0 to -6.94), respectively. Tumor control, defined as a post-GKRS growth rate {<=}0, was achieved in 71.1% of patients, with highest odds for tumor control among older patients and those with larger tumors. The 5-year retreatment-free survival rate was 93.9% (95% confidence intervals, 76.5-98.5). None of the clinical endpoints investigated showed statistically significant changes after GKRS, but improvement was seen in a few SF-36 parameters. Conclusions: GKRS alters the natural course of the tumor by reducing growth. Mathematic models yield poorer tumor control rates than those found by clinical assessment. Symptoms were unaffected by treatment, but quality of life was improved.

  12. Familial aggregation of anxiety and depression in the community: the role of adolescents' self-esteem and physical activity level (the HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranøyen, Ingunn; Stenseng, Frode; Klöckner, Christian A; Wallander, Jan; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated in parents and children, but few studies have examined associations between recurrent parental problems and offspring symptoms, and fathers have rarely been included in these studies. Additionally, few have investigated factors that may protect against familial aggregation of anxiety and depression. The aims of the present study are to examine the associations between recurrent parental anxiety/depression over a ten-year time span and offspring anxiety/depression in adolescence and to test whether two factors proposed to be inversely related to anxiety and depression, namely, adolescent self-esteem and physical activity, may moderate and mediate the transmission of anxiety/depression. This study used data from two waves of a Norwegian community study (the HUNT study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents, ages 13-18, (mean age = 15.8, 50.3% girls) who had one (N = 1,761 mothers; N = 742 fathers) or both parents (N = 3,229) participating in the second wave. In the first wave, 78% of the parents also participated. The adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires on self-esteem, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression, whereas parents reported on their own anxiety/depressive symptoms. The data were analysed with structural equation modeling. The presence of parental anxiety/depression when offspring were of a preschool age predicted offspring anxiety/depression when they reached adolescence, but these associations were entirely mediated by current parental symptoms. Self-esteem partly mediated the associations between anxiety/depression in parents and offspring. No sex differences were found. Physical activity moderated the direct associations between anxiety/depression in mothers and offspring, whereas no moderating effect was evident with regard to paternal anxiety/depression. These findings suggest that children of parents with anxiety/depression problems are at a sustained risk for

  13. Body configuration as a predictor of mortality: comparison of five anthropometric measures in a 12 year follow-up of the Norwegian HUNT 2 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfdan Petursson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work. METHODS: We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20-79, followed up for mortality from 1995-1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity.

  14. Effects of Uncertainties in Hydrological Modelling. A Case Study of a Mountainous Catchment in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Steinsland, Ingelin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how the inclusion of uncertainties in inputs and observed streamflow influence the parameter estimation, streamflow predictions and model evaluation. In particular we wanted to answer the following research questions: • What is the effect of including a random error in the precipitation and temperature inputs? • What is the effect of decreased information about precipitation by excluding the nearest precipitation station? • What is the effect of the uncertainty in streamflow observations? • What is the effect of reduced information about the true streamflow by using a rating curve where the measurement of the highest and lowest streamflow is excluded when estimating the rating curve? To answer these questions, we designed a set of calibration experiments and evaluation strategies. We used the elevation distributed HBV model operating on daily time steps combined with a Bayesian formulation and the MCMC routine Dream for parameter inference. The uncertainties in inputs was represented by creating ensembles of precipitation and temperature. The precipitation ensemble were created using a meta-gaussian random field approach. The temperature ensembles were created using a 3D Bayesian kriging with random sampling of the temperature laps rate. The streamflow ensembles were generated by a Bayesian multi-segment rating curve model. Precipitation and temperatures were randomly sampled for every day, whereas the streamflow ensembles were generated from rating curve ensembles, and the same rating curve was always used for the whole time series in a calibration or evaluation run. We chose a catchment with a meteorological station measuring precipitation and temperature, and a rating curve of relatively high quality. This allowed us to investigate and further test the effect of having less information on precipitation and streamflow during model calibration, predictions and evaluation. The results showed that including uncertainty

  15. Comparative studies on storage and drying of chips and chunks in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoelsjoe, S. (Norwegian Forest Research Inst. (Norway))

    1988-11-01

    Knowledge of sporulation and alteration in moisture content and dry-matter content is essential when trying to determine optimal conditions for storage of wood fuel. The object of this experiment has been to study the progression of these variables in wood fuel of varying sizes. The material used was debranched stemwood of birch. The wood was comminuted up and stored in three different sizes. The sizes were chips (length approx. 3 cm), chunkwood (approx. 8 cm) and firewood (approx. 15 cm). The fuelwood was stored in bines of 10 m{sup 3} with netting floor and netting walls. Six of the bins were covered, the remaining six were without cover. The highest temperature increase was found in chips, particularly during the first stages of storage when temperature reached approximately 30 C. The other fuel sizes had temperature close to ambient temperature. At the start of the test, moisture content was approximately 40 %. By the end of the test the moisture content was below 20% for firewood and chunkwood under cover. The moisture was measured 50 cm from the top and 50 cm from the sidewall of the bin. Whilst chips without cover had a moisture content of more than 60%. Storage under cover resulted in a higher reduction of moisture content than storage without cover. The smaller sizes exhibited the greatest difference in moisture content. The highest dry-matter loss during the storage time was found in chips stored under cover, approximately 1.2% per month. Dry-matter loss was lowest in firewood stored under cover 0.07% per month. Dry-matter loss decreased with increasing size. Spores and dust particles had the highest concentrations in chips and lowest in firewood. (12 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.) (au).

  16. Work participation among the morbidly obese seeking bariatric surgery: an exploratory study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Andersen, John R; Norheim, Ole F; Våge, Villy

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the rate of work participation and disability pension, and identify predictors for sickness absence and disability pension, among morbidly obese individuals. The data were collected from the Obesity Surgery Registry at Førde Central Hospital and consists of patients undergoing bariatric surgery between April 2001 and February 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of sickness absence and disability pension. The sample consisted of 576 patients (63.9 % females) with a mean (range, SD) age of 41.7 (18-66, 10.6) and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 47.7 (32.5-80.8, 7.7). Patients working full- or part-time comprised 55.6 % of the sample and 29.7 % received a disability pension; only 46.4 % of the sample received an income from paid work without additional benefits. Having a BMI above 50, lower levels of education, and suffering from four or more comorbidities were significant predictors of sickness absence. Female gender, psychiatric disorders, lower levels of education, asthma, heart failure and suffering from four or more comorbidities were significant predictors of disability pension. The proportion of the work participation and disability pension among this morbidly obese population is of substantial concern, as work participation has proven important for the health-related quality of life. This, combined with the fact that these patients are significantly less educated than the general population, can potentially have grave socioeconomic consequences. Increased knowledge of obesity development and the work history of these patients are needed to implement policies that ensure increased rates of work participation.

  17. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m 3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  19. Co-morbidity and drug treatment in Alzheimer's disease. A cross sectional study of participants in the Dementia Study in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorsen Dag S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate medical treatment of co-morbidities in Alzheimer's disease (AD is an increasing concern in geriatric medicine. The objective of this study was to compare current drug use related to co-morbidity between individuals with a recent diagnosis of AD and a cognitively healthy control group in a population based clinical trial in Northern Norway. Methods Setting: Nine rural municipalities with 70 000 inhabitants in Northern Norway. Participants: Participants with and without AD recruited in general practice and by population based screening. 187 participants with a recent diagnosis of AD were recruited among community dwellers. Of 791 respondents without cognitive symptoms, 500 were randomly selected and invited to further clinical and cognitive testing. The final control group consisted of 200 cognitively healthy individuals from the same municipalities. Demographic characteristics, data on medical history and current medication were included, and a physical and cognitive examination was performed. The statistical analyses were carried out by independent sample t-test, chi-square, ANCOVA and logistic regression. Results A co-morbidity score was significantly higher in AD participants compared to controls. The mean number of drugs was higher for AD participants compared to controls (5.1 ± 3.6 and 2.9 ± 2.4 respectively, p Conclusions AD participants were treated with a significantly higher number of drugs as compared to cognitively healthy controls, even after adjustment for co-morbidity. An inappropriate use of anticholinergic and sedative drugs was identified, especially among nursing home residents with AD. The drug burden and the increased risk of adverse reactions among individuals suffering from AD need more attention from prescribing doctors.

  20. Psychosocial work stress, leisure time physical exercise and the risk of chronic pain in the neck/shoulders: Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannveig Fanavoll

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic neck/shoulder pain is associated with work stress and job control, and to assess if physical exercise modifies these associations. Material and Methods: The study population comprised 29 496 vocationally active women and men in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study without chronic pain at baseline in 1984–1986. Chronic neck/shoulder pain was assessed during a follow-up in 1995–1997. A generalized linear model (Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs. Results: Work stress was dosedependently associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain (ptrend < 0.001 in both sexes. The women and men who perceived their work as stressful “almost all the time” had multi-adjusted RRs = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1–1.47 and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.46–2, respectively, referencing those with no stressful work. Work stress interacted with sex (p < 0.001. Poor job control was not associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain among the women (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92–1.19 nor the men (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.95–1.26. Combined analyses showed an inverse dose-dependent association between hours of physical exercise/week and the risk of neck/shoulder pain in the men with no stressful work (ptrend = 0.05 and among the men who perceived their work as “rarely stressful” (ptrend < 0.02. This effect was not statistically significant among the women or among men with more frequent exposure to work stress. Conclusions: Work stress is an independent predictor of chronic neck/shoulder pain and the effect is stronger in men than in women. Physical exercise does not substantially reduce the risk among the persons with frequent exposure to work stress.

  1. Quantifying the scale and socioeconomic drivers of bird hunting in Central African forest communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whytock, Robin C.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Awa, Taku; Bekokon, Zacharie; Abwe, Ekwoge A.; Buij, Ralph; Virani, Munir; Vickery, Juliet A.; Bunnefeld, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Global biodiversity is threatened by unsustainable exploitation for subsistence and commerce, and tropical forests are facing a hunting crisis. In Central African forests, hunting pressure has been quantified by monitoring changes in the abundance of affected species and by studying wild meat

  2. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little

  3. Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; M'soka, Jassiel; Dröge, Egil; Rosenblatt, Eli; Becker, Matthew S; Matandiko, Wigganson; Simpamba, Twakundine

    2016-10-01

    While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects of lion hunting, but this recommendation was based on a population model parameterized with data from a well-protected and growing lion population. Here, we used demographic data from lions subject to more typical conditions, including source-sink dynamics between a protected National Park and adjacent hunting areas in Zambia's Luangwa Valley, to develop a stochastic population projection model and evaluate alternative harvest scenarios. Hunting resulted in population declines over a 25-yr period for all continuous harvest strategies, with large declines for quotas >1 lion/concession (~0.5 lion/1,000 km 2 ) and hunting of males younger than seven years. A strategy that combined periods of recovery, an age limit of ≥7 yr, and a maximum quota of ~0.5 lions shot/1,000 km 2 yielded a risk of extirpation lion trophy hunting with a combination of regulations. To implement sustainable trophy hunting while maintaining revenue for conservation of hunting areas, our results suggest that hunting fees must increase as a consequence of diminished supply. These findings are broadly applicable to hunted lion populations throughout Africa and to inform global efforts to conserve exploited carnivore populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: MRI appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.; Sawhney, S.; Koul, R. L.; Chand, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A review of MRI findings in seven patients with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was carried out. Seven patients presented with unilateral painful ophthalmoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were carried out to evaluate the cavernous sinuses and orbits. Coronal fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted images and fat-saturated T 1 -weighted coronal and transverse images with and without contrast enhancement were obtained for the cavernous sinuses and orbits. All patients showed focal-enhancing masses expanding the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. In one patient the mass was extending to the orbital apex and intraorbital. All patients recovered on corticosteroid therapy and resolution of the masses was documented on follow-up MRI studies in five patients. One patient had a relapse of symptoms after discontinuing therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of the cavernous sinus and orbital apex show high sensitivity for the detection and follow up of inflammatory mass lesions in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging should be the initial screening study in these patients.

  5. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  6. Meeting sexual partners online: associated sexual behaviour and prevalent chlamydia infection among adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravningen, Kirsten; Aicken, Catherine Rh; Schirmer, Henrik; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-03-01

    Evidence is mixed as to whether meeting sexual partners online ('internet-partners') is associated with risky sexual behaviour and/or sexually transmitted infection transmission. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of reporting various online romantic and sexual activities among Norwegian adolescents, including internet-partners, and the reason for meeting them and to examine differences in sexual behaviour, partnership characteristics and chlamydia infection prevalence among those reporting internet-partners versus those reporting only offline partners. Population-based cross-sectional survey among sexually experienced girls and boys, 15-20 years, using electronic questionnaires and collecting urine samples for Chlamydia trachomatis PCR testing (79% provided both, n=1023). We used logistic regression to examine associations, adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Overall, 30% of both genders reported internet-partners (ever). Boys (but not girls) with internet-partners had higher chlamydia prevalence than those reporting meeting sexual partners only offline (8.1%, 95% CI 4.3% to 13.7% vs 1.6%, 0.5% to 3.7%). Two-thirds of girls and 37% of boys reported meeting their most recent internet-partner to start a romantic relationship, while the remainder did so with the specific intention of having sex. Among both genders, reporting sexual (vs romantic) reasons for meeting their most recent internet-partners was associated with reporting several risky sexual behaviours, including multiple recent sex partners (adjusted OR girls: 3.27, boys: 2.48) and three-fold higher chlamydia prevalence. This population-based study suggests that internet-partners are common among adolescents in Norway, and the reason for meeting them was more strongly associated with additionally reporting sexual risk behaviours and prevalent chlamydia infection than the internet itself as a meeting venue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  7. Chain of care for patients who have attempted suicide: a follow-up study from Bærum, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals who have attempted suicide are at increased risk of subsequent suicidal behavior. Since 1983, a community-based suicide prevention team has been operating in the municipality of Bærum, Norway. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the team's interventions in preventing repeated suicide attempts and suicide deaths, as part of a chain of care model for all general hospital treated suicide attempters. Methods Data has been collected consecutively since 1984 and a follow-up was conducted on all individuals admitted to the general hospital after a suicide attempt. The risk of repeated suicide attempt and suicide were comparatively examined in subjects who received assistance from the suicide prevention team in addition to treatment as usual versus those who received treatment as usual only. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyze the data. Results Between January 1984 and December 2007, 1,616 subjects were registered as having attempted suicide; 197 of them (12%) made another attempt within 12 months. Compared to subjects who did not receive assistance from the suicide prevention team, individuals involved in the prevention program did not have a significantly different risk of repeated attempt within 6 months (adjusted OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.66-1.74), 12 months (adjusted OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.57-1.30), or 5 years (adjusted RR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.67-1.22) after their first recorded attempt. There was also no difference in risk of suicide (adjusted RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.46-1.57). Previous suicide attempts, marital status, and employment status were significantly associated with a repeated suicide attempt within 6 and 12 months (p suicide attempts were significantly associated with a repeated attempt within 5 years (p 0.05). With each year of age, the risk of suicide increased by 3% (p suicidal behavior between subjects who received treatment as usual combined with community assistance versus subjects who received only

  8. More mental health problems after divorce in couples with high pre-divorce alcohol consumption than in other divorced couples: results from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognmo, Kamilla; Torvik, Fartein A; Idstad, Mariann; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-09-17

    Divorce is associated with mental health problems, and heavy drinking is related to higher risk of divorce. Less is known about the effects of divorce in couples where one or both drinks heavily. There are, however, reasons to expect different consequences of divorce in heavy risk using couples compared to other couples. Spouses of abusers may experience the divorce as a relief, whereas abusers may find it extra difficult to be left single. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of divorce on mental health in heavy drinking couples to the effect in couples who drink less. Registry data were matched with data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1 (T1) and 2 (T2)), enabling longitudinal analyses of approximately 11,000 couples. Interaction terms between 1) alcohol use on T1 and divorce between T1 and T2 (11 year time lag), and 2) alcohol use on T1 and time since divorce at T2 for all divorced couples were tested to examine changes in mental health between T1 and T2 for a) spouses of high-risk compared to low-risk users, and b) high-risk compared to low-risk users themselves. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. There was a general effect of divorce on change in mental health between T1 and T2. We observed a significantly stronger worsening in mental health in female high-risk users and their spouses than in divorced low-risk users and their spouses. The results also suggest that the strain after divorce lasts longer in women with a high alcohol consumption and their spouses. Divorce seems to affect couples where one or both drink heavily more than couples with a low consumption. Also there was some evidence of a slower healing of mental health problems after divorce in alcohol exposed couples than in other couples. The results only reached significance for female high consumers and their spouses, but due to limited statistical power, safe conclusions about gender specific effects cannot be drawn.

  9. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  10. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind). Report on findings 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bevanger, Kjetil Modolv; Berntsen, Finn Erik Harald; Clausen, Stig Morten; Dahl, Espen Lie; Flagstad, Øystein; Follestad, Arne; Halley, Duncan John; Hanssen, Frank Ole; Johnsen, Lars; Kvaløy, Pål; Lund-Hoel, Pernille*; May, Roelof Frans; Nygård, Torgeir; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Reitan, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Bevanger, K., Berntsen, F., Clausen, S., Dahl, E.L., Flagstad, Ø. Follestad, A., Halley, D., Hanssen, F., Johnsen, L., Kvaløy, P., Lund-Hoel, P., May, R., Nygård, T., Pedersen, H.C., Reitan, O., Røskaft, E., Steinheim, Y., Stokke, B. & Vang, R. 2010. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind). Report on findings 2007-2010. – NINA Report 620. 152 pp. The BirdWind project (2007-2010) is now concluded. This report summarises th...

  11. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315

  12. Utilization of Radiation Therapy in Norway After the Implementation of The National Cancer Plan—A National, Population-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åsli, Linn M.; Kvaløy, Stein O.; Jetne, Vidar; Myklebust, Tor Å.; Levernes, Sverre G.; Tveit, Kjell M.; Green, Tor O.; Johannesen, Tom B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate actual utilization rates of radiation therapy (RT) in Norway, describe time trends (1997-2010), and compare these estimates with corresponding optimal RT rates. Methods and Materials: Data from the population-based Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all patients diagnosed with cancer and/or treated by RT for cancer in 1997-2010. Radiation therapy utilization rates (RURs) were calculated as (1) the proportion of incident cancer cases who received RT at least once within 1 year of diagnosis (RUR 1Y ); and (2) the proportion who received RT within 5 years of diagnosis (RUR 5Y ). The number of RT treatment courses per incident cancer case (TCI) was also calculated for all cancer sites combined. The actual RURs were compared with corresponding Australian and Canadian epidemiologic- and evidence-based model estimates and criterion-based benchmark estimates of optimal RURs. The TCIs were compared with TCI estimates from the 1997 Norwegian/National Cancer Plan (NCP). Joinpoint regression was used to identify changes in trends and to estimate annual percentage change (APC) in actual RUR 1Y and actual TCI. Results: The actual RUR 5Y (all sites) increased significantly to 29% in 2005 but still differed markedly from the Australian epidemiologic- and evidence-based model estimate of 48%. With the exception of RUR 5Y for breast cancer and RUR 1Y for lung cancers, all actual RURs were markedly lower than optimal RUR estimates. The actual TCI increased significantly during the study period, reaching 42.5% in 2010, but was still lower than the 54% recommended in the NCP. The trend for RUR 1Y (all sites) and TCI changed significantly, with the annual percentage change being largest during the first part of the study period. Conclusions: Utilization rates of RT in Norway increased after the NCP was implemented and RT capacity was increased, but they still seem to be lower than optimal levels

  13. A comparative study of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, with special emphasis on policy measures for nonindustrial private forests in Norway and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berit Hauger. Lindstad

    2002-01-01

    In recognition of the cultural, economic, and ecological importance of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, this paper compares forest resource data, ownership patterns, management issues, and the impact the forest sector has on the national economies of these four countries. There is particular emphasis on the analysis of policy measures that...

  14. Ethical aspects of hunting tourism in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Prentović Risto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary moral controversies about hunting tourism in Serbia in the context of defined value orientations and norms of ethics of hunting tourism, as a branch of applied ethics. On the one hand, this paper summarizes conceptual definitions and specificities of hunting tourism, as a special form of tourism, and the crucial value postulates derived from the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development and biodiv...

  15. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundmark PO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter Optometri, Rjukan, Norway Purpose: The increasing demand for primary eye care due to an aging population implicates an enhanced role of optometrists in the communities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the rate of referrals and returning medical reports between optometrists and health care professionals in Norway. The secondary objectives were to investigate the conformity of diagnoses in referrals and medical reports, the extent of optometric follow-up examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs in optometric practice.Materials and methods: This study is an ongoing prospective electronic survey administered on the Internet between November 2014 and December 2017. Optometrists in private optometric practice are eligible. Participants register data for up to 1 year, including examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs; referrals, including International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2 codes; medical reports, including the ICD-10 codes; and optometric follow-up enquiries. Analysis of agreement between referred and diagnosed conditions was made possible by encoding patients’ ID.Results: Seventeen months into the study, 67 optometrists were included (Female: 60%, mean age: 41 years.. There were 49,510 registered examinations (60% general, 28% contact lens, 12% auxiliary. Diagnostic drugs were used in 4% of these and in 14% of the examinations that resulted in a referral. There were 1,779 referrals (97% to ophthalmologists. Top three diagnoses were cataract (36%, glaucoma (11%, and age-related macular degeneration (7%. There were 1,036 returned medical reports, of which 76% could be linked with registered referrals. Diagnostic agreement was observed in 80% of the cases (74% for

  16. Hunting and hallucinogens: The use psychoactive and other plants to improve the hunting ability of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Alarcón, Rocío

    2015-08-02

    Cultures throughout the world give plants to their dogs in order to improve hunting success. These practices are best developed in lowland Ecuador and Peru. There is no experimental evidence for the efficacy of these practices nor critical reviews that consider possible pharmacological effects on dogs based on the chemistry of the ethnoverterinary plants. This review has three specific aims: (1) determine what plants the Ecuadorian Shuar and Quichua give to dogs to improve their hunting abilities, (2) determine what plants other cultures give to dogs for the same purpose, and (3) assess the possible pharmacological basis for the use of these plants, particularly the psychoactive ones. We gathered Shuar (Province of Morona-Santiago) and Quichua (Napo and Orellano Provinces) data from our previous publications and field notes. All specimens were vouchered and deposited in QCNE with duplicates sent to NY and MO. Data presented from other cultures derived from published studies on ethnoveterinary medicine. Species names were updated, when necessary, and family assignments follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121). Chemical data were found using PubMed and SciFinder. The Shuar and Quichua of Ecuador use at least 22 species for ethnoveterinary purposes, including all but one of their principal hallucinogens. Literature surveys identified 43 species used in other cultures to improve hunting ability. No published studies have examined the pharmacological active of these plant species in dogs. We, thus, combined phytochemical data with the ethnobotanical reports of each plant and then classified each species into a likely pharmacological category: depuratives/deodorant, olfactory sensitizer, ophthalmic, or psychoactive. The use of psychoactive substances to improve a dog׳s hunting ability seems counterintuitive, yet

  17. Immigrants' utilization of specialist mental healthcare according to age, country of origin, and migration history: a nation-wide register study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Lien, Lars; Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2017-06-01

    As the immigrant population rises in Norway, it becomes ever more important to consider the responsiveness of health services to the specific needs of these immigrants. It has been questioned whether access to mental healthcare is adequate among all groups of immigrants. This study aims to examine the use of specialist mental healthcare services among ethnic Norwegians and specific immigrants groups. Register data were used from the Norwegian Patient Registry and Statistics Norway. The sample (age 0-59) consisted of 3.3 million ethnic Norwegians and 200,000 immigrants from 11 countries. Poisson regression models were applied to examine variations in the use of specialist mental healthcare during 2008-2011 according to country of origin, age group, reason for immigration, and length of stay. Immigrant children and adolescents had overall significantly lower use of specialist mental healthcare than ethnic Norwegians of the same age. A distinct exception was the high utilization rate among children and youth from Iran. Among adult immigrants, utilization rates were generally lower than among ethnic Norwegians, particularly those from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Adult immigrants from Iraq and Iran, however, had high utilization rates. Refugees had high utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare, while labour immigrants had low use. Utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare are lower among immigrants than Norwegians. Immigrants from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam, had generally quite low rates, while immigrants from Iran had high utilization rates. The findings suggest that specialist mental healthcare in Norway is underutilized among considerable parts of the immigrant population.

  18. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myklebust LH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars Henrik Myklebust,1 Knut Sørgaard,1,2 Rolf Wynn21Psychiatric Research Centre of North Norway, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, NorwayObjectives: In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care.Methods: Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays.Results: The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized, a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays.Conclusion: Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.Keywords: psychiatry, hospitalization, decentralization, outpatients, continuity of care, health service research, affective

  19. Assessment of aggregate quality and petrographic properties' influence on rock quality: A case study from Nordland county, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve Keiding, Jakob; Erichsen, Eyolf; Heldal, Tom; Aslaksen Aasly, Kari

    2017-04-01

    Good access to construction materials is crucial for future infrastructure development and continued economic growth. In Norway >80 % of construction materials come from crushed aggregates and represent an growing share of the consumption. Although recycling to some extend can cover the need for construction materials, economic growth, increasing population and urbanization necessitates exploitation of new rock resources in Norway as well as many other parts of the world. Aggregates must fulfill a number of technical requirements to ensure high quality and long life expectancy of new roads, buildings and structures. Aggregates also have to be extracted near the consumer market. Particularly for road construction strict criteria are in place for wearing course for roads with high traffic density. Thus knowledge of mechanical rock quality is paramount for both exploitation as well as future resource and land-use planning but is often not assessed or mapped beyond the quarry scale. The Geological survey of Norway runs a database with information about crushed aggregate deposits from >1500 Norwegian quarries and sample sites. Here we use mechanical test analyses from the database to assess the aggregate quality in the Nordland county, Norway. Maps have been produced linking bed rock geology with rock quality parameters. The survey documents that the county is challenged in meeting the requirements for roads with high traffic density and especially in the middle parts of the county many samples have weak mechanical properties. This to some degree reflect that weak Cambro-Silurian rocks like phyllite, schist, carbonate and greenstone are abundant in Nordland. Typically mechanically stronger rock types such as gabbro, monzonite and granite are also exposed in large parts of the county, but are also characterized by relative poor or very variable mechanical test quality. Preliminary results indicate that many intrinsic parameters influence the mechanical rock strength, but

  20. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed, possessed, sold...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on... Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird...

  1. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  2. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1995-01-01

    Review of activities and objectives in the area of creating operator support systems in nuclear power plants in Norway is presented. Development of a computerised alarm system for HAMMLAB (CASH) is described. A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state is discussed

  3. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  4. Trophy Hunting and Trophy Size in Ugalla Game Reserve, Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trophy Hunting and Trophy Size in Ugalla Game Reserve, Western Tanzania. ... hunted in the Ugalla Game Reserve (UGR) of western Tanzania, in relation to hunting success (animals shot species-1 quota-1). ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  6. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000 of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2 that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2, the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2. We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of

  7. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  8. Shape of the association between income and mortality: a cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1995 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Rehnberg, Johan; Dahl, Espen; Diderichsen, Finn; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Martikainen, Pekka; Rehkopf, David; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Fritzell, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prior work has examined the shape of the income–mortality association, but work has not compared gradients between countries. In this study, we focus on changes over time in the shape of income–mortality gradients for 4 Nordic countries during a period of rising income inequality. Context and time differentials in shape imply that the relationship between income and mortality is not fixed. Setting Population-based cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Participants We collected data on individuals aged 25 or more in 1995 (n=12.98 million individuals, 0.84 million deaths) and 2003 (n=13.08 million individuals, 0.90 million deaths). We then examined the household size equivalised disposable income at the baseline year in relation to the rate of mortality in the following 5 years. Results A steep income gradient in mortality in men and women across all age groups except the oldest old in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. From the 1990s to 2000s mortality dropped, but generally more so in the upper part of the income distribution than in the lower part. As a consequence, the shape of the income gradient in mortality changed. The shift in the shape of the association was similar in all 4 countries. Conclusions A non-linear gradient exists between income and mortality in most cases and because of a more rapid mortality decline among those with high income the income gradient has become steeper over time. PMID:28011804

  9. Families in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Teams in Norway: A Cross-Sectional Study on Relatives' Experiences of Involvement and Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimand, B M; Israel, P; Ewertzon, M

    2017-11-10

    International research shows that relatives of people with mental illness are rarely involved by mental health services. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) has been recently implemented in Norway. The experience of relatives of ACT users is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore relatives' experience with ACT-teams in Norway. Data were collected using the family involvement and alienation questionnaire, consisting of experiences of approach, and alienation from the provision of professional care. 38 Relatives participated in this study. A majority experienced a positive approach (openness, confirmation, and cooperation) from the ACT teams, which also was considered better compared to previous services. They considered openness and cooperation as essential aspects from the professionals. Almost half did not feel alienated (powerlessness and social isolation). Higher level of being approached positively was significantly associated with lower level of feeling alienated. The knowledge of what constituted relatives' positive experiences with the ACT teams should be transferred into practice regarding how to form a positive alliance with relatives.

  10. Vitamin D status in patients with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and headache: a cross-sectional descriptive study in a multi-ethnic general practice in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Kirsten Valebjørg; Brekke, Mette; Gjelstad, Svein; Lagerløv, Per

    2010-09-01

    To investigate vitamin D levels in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headache, and fatigue. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A health center in Oslo, Norway, with a multi-ethnic population. A total of 572 patients referred by a general practitioner (GP) for an examination of hypovitaminosis D who reported musculoskeletal pain, headache, or fatigue. The patients' native countries were: Norway (n = 249), Europe, America, and South-East Asia (n = 83), and the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia (n = 240). Both genders and all ages were included. Vitamin D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D) in nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxyvitamin D prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headache, or fatigue for whom the GP had suspected a low vitamin D level. Hypovitaminosis D was not restricted to immigrant patients. These results indicate that GPs should maintain awareness of hypovitaminosis D and refer patients who report headaches, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain with minimal sun exposure and a low dietary vitamin D intake for assessment.

  11. A One Year Study on the Concentrations of Norovirus and Enteric Adenoviruses in Wastewater and A Surface Drinking Water Source in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl-Rosado, Ricardo C; Yarovitsyna, Ekaterina; Trettenes, Elin; Myrmel, Mette; Robertson, Lucy J

    2014-12-01

    Enteric viruses transmitted via the faecal-oral route occur in high concentrations in wastewater and may contaminate drinking water sources and cause disease. In order to quantify enteric adenovirus and norovirus genotypes I and II (GI and GII) impacting a drinking source in Norway, samples of surface water (52), wastewater inlet (64) and outlet (59) were collected between January 2011 and April 2012. Samples were concentrated in two steps, using an electropositive disc filter and polyethylene glycol precipitation, followed by nucleic acid extraction and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Virus was detected in 47/52 (90.4%) of surface water, 59/64 (92%) of wastewater inlet and 55/59 (93%) of wastewater outlet samples. Norovirus GI occurred in the highest concentrations in surface water (2.51e + 04) and adenovirus in wastewater (2.15e + 07). While adenovirus was the most frequently detected in all matrices, norovirus GI was more frequently detected in surface water and norovirus GII in wastewater. This study is the first in Norway to monitor both sewage and a drinking water source in parallel, and confirms the year-round presence of norovirus and adenovirus in a Norwegian drinking water source.

  12. Pelvic girdle pain affects the whole life--a qualitative interview study in Norway on women's experiences with pelvic girdle pain after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeset, Jorun; Stuge, Britt; Fegran, Liv

    2014-10-03

    The aim of this study was to explore how pelvic girdle pain after delivery influences women's daily life in Norway. Knowledge about living with post-partum pelvic girdle pain is lacking. A phenomenological-hermeneutical design with qualitative semi-structured interviews was used. A strategic selection procedure was chosen to recruit participants from physiotherapy clinics and a regional hospital in Norway. Five women with clinically verified pelvic girdle pain after delivery were included. Data were imported into NVivo9 and analysed in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding of the text. Three themes influencing the women's daily life were identified: 1) activity and pain, 2) lack of acknowledgment of pain and disability, and 3) changed roles. A daily life with pain and limited physical activity was difficult to accept and made some of the women feel discouraged, isolated and lonely. Despite this, the women had a positive attitude to their problems, which may have positively increased their ability to cope. The findings also revealed the importance of a reciprocal influence between the woman and her environment, and that social support was crucial. Pelvic girdle pain may influence women's lives for months and years after delivery. Health care professionals should appreciate and focus on the patient's knowledge and skills. Understanding the daily experiences of women with pelvic girdle pain might help improve rehabilitation strategies for these patients.

  13. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  14. Hunting Motifs in Situla Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Preložnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Situla art developed as an echo of the toreutic style which had spread from the Near East through the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans as far as the Veneti, Raeti, Histri, and their eastern neighbours in the region of Dolenjska (Lower Carniola. An Early Iron Age phenomenon (c. 600—300 BC, it rep- resents the major and most arresting form of the contemporary visual arts in an area stretching from the foot of the Apennines in the south to the Drava and Sava rivers in the east. Indeed, individual pieces have found their way across the Alpine passes and all the way north to the Danube. In the world and art of the situlae, a prominent role is accorded to ani- mals. They are displayed in numerous representations of human activities on artefacts crafted in the classic situla style – that is, between the late 6th  and early 5th centuries BC – as passive participants (e.g. in pageants or in harness or as an active element of the situla narrative. The most typical example of the latter is the hunting scene. Today we know at least four objects decorat- ed exclusively with hunting themes, and a number of situlae and other larger vessels where hunting scenes are embedded in composite narratives. All this suggests a popularity unparallelled by any other genre. Clearly recognisable are various hunting techniques and weapons, each associated with a particu- lar type of game (Fig. 1. The chase of a stag with javelin, horse and hound is depicted on the long- familiar and repeatedly published fibula of Zagorje (Fig. 2. It displays a hound mauling the stag’s back and a hunter on horseback pursuing a hind, her neck already pierced by the javelin. To judge by the (so far unnoticed shaft end un- der the stag’s muzzle, the hunter would have been brandishing a second jave- lin as well, like the warrior of the Vače fibula or the rider of the Nesactium situla, presumably himself a hunter. Many parallels to his motif are known from Greece, Etruria, and

  15. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Budal, Elisabeth Berge; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Skar, Robert; Mæhle, Bjørn Ove; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav Karsten

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followe...

  16. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis

    2012-10-02

    Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and

  17. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Fita Dídac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg. The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by

  18. LNG imports from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is organized as follows: The first section outlines Norway's petroleum reserves and relates reserves of natural gas to potential markets. Then the paper focuses on specific fields or areas that could be devoted partly or mainly to service the US natural gas market. Finally, some indications are given of costs involved in field development, liquefaction and transportation and some very preliminary conclusions are arrived upon

  19. Nursing education in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkjebø, Jane Mikkelsen; Mekki, Tone Elin; Hanestad, Berit Rokne

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe nursing education in Norway and some essential questions and challenges regarding the undergraduate and newly graduated nurses' competencies and functionally preparedness. The first formal training of nurses in Norway started in Oslo in 1886. Since then the education has changed considerably. As long as society is changing, and nurses are going to meet and adapt to societies needs, the education of nurses will also have to change continuously. The present general plan of nursing education has gone through a long process. The discussions have concerned the content of medical and natural science subjects, the practical part of the training and the relation between theory and practice. There are challenges in nursing education in Norway today. We have seen that recruitment has decreased, and that nurses seek jobs where they are better paid. To increase the accessibility distance and part-time education has been established. The theory-practice gap will always exist. Therefore we should aim to prepare the students to minimize this gap in a way that they can combine training of nursing with training in improvement. The demand of a masters degree to be a nursing teacher has reduced the teachers' ability to keep up their practical skills. The government pays nursing teachers who want to practice as nurses for several months to maintain their salary level during that period. There are many possibilities to improve nursing education in Norway. We are on our way with highly qualified teachers and students, and we still have enough good applicants. The new general plan and new law for universities and university colleges offer great opportunities. However, the shortage of nurses is a great challenge for further quality improvement both in clinical practice and in education.

  20. Pentraxin 3, ficolin-2 and lectin pathway associated serine protease MASP-3 as early predictors of myocardial infarction - the HUNT2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vengen, Inga Thorsen; Enger, Tone Bull; Videm, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The lectin complement pathway is suggested to play a role in atherogenesis. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated serine protease-3 (MASP-3) and MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) are molecules related to activation of the lectin...... complement pathway. We hypothesized that serum levels of these molecules may be associated with the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). In a Norwegian population-based cohort (HUNT2) where young to middle-aged relatively healthy Caucasians were followed up for a first-time MI from 1995-1997 through 2008...... compared to the traditional Framingham risk score alone (AUC increased from 0.64 to 0.68, p = 0.006). These results support the role of complement-dependent inflammation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease....

  1. Pharmacological studies of 'sapo' from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor skin: a drug used by the Peruvian Matses Indians in shamanic hunting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erspamer, V; Erspamer, G F; Severini, C; Potenza, R L; Barra, D; Mignogna, G; Bianchi, A

    1993-09-01

    The dried skin secretion from Phyllomedusa bicolor, 'sapo', is used by the Matses Indians of the Northern Peru, in shamanic rites mainly designed to improve luck in hunting. When rubbed into burned, exposed areas of the skin, the drug causes the prompt appearance of violent peripheral gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects soon followed by remarkable central effects (increase in physical strength, heightening of senses, resistance to hunger and thirst, exalted capacity to face stress situations). All the peripheral and most of the central effects of 'sapo' can be ascribed to the exceptionally high content of the drug (up to 7% of its weight) in potently active peptides, easily absorbed through the burned, inflamed areas of the skin. The concentration in 'sapo' of the single peptides (phyllocaerulein, phyllomedusin, phyllokinin, demorphins and deltorphins) has been determined by bioassay, and peptide contents were correlated with the different symptoms of the 'sapo' intoxication.

  2. Treatment of fibromyalgia at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway II--a 24-month follow-up pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lars Bjørn; Mikkelsen, Knut; Haugen, Margaretha; Pripp, Are H; Fields, Jeremy Z; Førre, Øystein T

    2012-05-01

    Treatments offered at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway are based on Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM). MVM is a consciousness-based revival by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program of the ancient Ayurvedic medicine tradition in India. To extend from 6 to 24 months, a pilot study of the effects of the treatment program at the Health Centre on fibromyalgia. Retesting 2 years after a clinical trial. In this intention to treat study, 31 women with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia received an individually tailored program of (1) physiological purification therapy (Maharishi Panchakarma) and (2) Ayurvedic recommendations regarding daily routine and diet including a novel approach to food intolerance. Five subjects chose to learn TM for stress reduction, pain management and personal development. All were recommended Ayurvedic herbal products for follow-up treatment. A modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) that included seven dimensions. Scores at 24 months follow-up were compared with pre-treatment scores. At 24-months follow-up, there were significant reductions (26% to 44%) in six of the seven fibromyalgia dimensions: impairment of working ability, pain, tiredness, morning tiredness, stiffness and anxiety. The 7th, depression, decreased 32% (borderline significant). At 24 months, the four subjects who continued practising TM, had almost no symptoms and significantly lower FIQ change scores (-92% to 97%) than the non-meditators on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests that the treatments and health promotion programs offered at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway lead to long-term reductions in symptoms of fibromyalgia, which is considered a treatment-resistant condition, and further studies are warranted.

  3. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Berntsen, F.; Clausen, S.; Dahl, E.L.; Flagstad, Oe.; Follestad, A.; Halley, D.; Hanssen, F.; Hoel, P.L.; Johnsen, L.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Steinheim, Y.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    The project is named Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind). BirdWind is approaching its finalization; with 2010 as the last ordinary year where data-collecting activities takes place. In 2009 the project was significantly strengthened through a new PhD-position. The overall aim of the work conducted by the PhD-student is to model the future white-tailed eagle (WTE) population development based on reproduction and mortality data. Weekly searches with dogs for birds killed within the wind-power plant have been carried out throughout the year; in general searches are conducted every 7 days. 25 'primary turbines' are selected and searched together with one of two dogs. A full search of all turbines is performed at larger intervals. In 2009 31 specimens of at least 8 species have been re-corded. The most frequent victims are willow ptarmigan and WTE with 10 and 7 carcasses, respectively. Of waders 3 common snipes have been recorded. Five carcasses were recorded of hooded crow, and single carcasses of parrot crossbill, northern wheat ear, teal and mallard. Some records from earlier years have been revised as collision victims or not. Also in 2009 censuses for willow ptarmigan have been carried out in spring and autumn on Smoela and Hitra. The preliminary results do not indicate any obvious differences between the two areas, but autumn density in the wind-power plant area seems to be more stable compared to the control area. Interestingly the higher density within the wind-power plant area in autumn is evened out in spring each year, so also in spring 2009. To obtain data on habitat selection, movements, collision risks, survival of eggs, chicks and adults and general population dynamic parameters, willow ptarmigan specimen have been radio-tagged in 2008-2009. The activities regarding breeding waders and small birds (mainly passerines) have this year focused on the EIA-activities on Hitra in

  4. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  5. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  7. Telephone triage by nurses in primary care out-of-hours services in Norway: an evaluation study based on written case scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elisabeth Holm; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2011-05-01

    The use of nurses for telephone-based triage in out-of-hours services is increasing in several countries. No investigations have been carried out in Norway into the quality of decisions made by nurses regarding our priority degree system. There are three levels: acute, urgent and non-urgent. Nurses working in seven casualty clinics in out-of-hours districts in Norway (The Watchtowers) were all invited to participate in a study to assess priority grade on 20 written medical scenarios validated by an expert group. 83 nurses (response rate 76%) participated in the study. A one-out-of-five sample of the nurses assessed the same written cases after 3 months (n = 18, response rate 90%) as a test-retest assessment. Among the acute, urgent and non-urgent scenarios, 82%, 74% and 81% were correctly classified according to national guidelines. There were significant differences in the proportion of correct classifications among the casualty clinics, but neither employment percentage nor profession or work experience affected the triage decision. The mean intraobserver variability measured by the Cohen kappa was 0.61 (CI 0.52 to 0.70), and there were significant differences in kappa with employment percentage. Casualty clinics and work experience did not affect intrarater agreement. Correct classification of acute and non-urgent cases among nurses was quite high. Work experience and employment percentage did not affect triage decision. The intrarater agreement was good and about the same as in previous studies performed in other countries. Kappa increased significantly with increasing employment percentage.

  8. The cost of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, B; Myhr, K-M; Nyland, H; Aarseth, J H

    2012-02-01

    Health economic aspects have been increasingly important during introduction of new treatments for multiple sclerosis. As a partial response for Norway, a cost-of-illness study was carried out to estimate the yearly cost of the illness to society and relate costs and patients' quality of life to illness severity. Estimated cost to society was Euro 439 million in 2002 exclusive of the cost of reduced quality of life. The cost per patient was close to Euro 65,000. Account taken of methodological differences, the results compare to results for Sweden, Norway's closest neighboring country. The illness reduced patients' quality of life with 0.26. More patients were early retired because of their MS in Norway than in any of nine other European countries comprised by a recent European study, illustrating a liberal practice in Norway. The Norwegian cost of unpaid assistance was almost identical to the Swedish cost that was the lowest found across the countries in the European study. When related to illness severity, the cost per patient increased, and the patients' experienced quality of life decreased with increasing EDSS levels in line with what has been found for other countries. Cost-of-MS studies have been carried out for a number of countries. Together they contribute to our understanding of the economic consequences of multiple sclerosis and, if their results are related to illness severity, also provide valuable information for further economic analyses of treatment and medication. Our study adds to this.

  9. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by

  10. Disturbed security in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lieder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the article is an attempt to determine the course and consequences of terrorist attacks that took place in 2010 in Sweden and 2011 in Norway. A Comparative Study includes responses of societies and political elites of both countries.

  11. A hedonic analysis of the complex hunting experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, the right to hunt is vested with the land owner but can be transferred to others and is traded on a well-established market. The dominant form of hunting leases is time limited contract transferring the hunting rights on a piece of land to one or more persons. We analyze this market...... for hunting leases using the hedonic method on a rich set of data obtained from Danish hunters. We hypothesize and show that the price of a hunting lease reflects that hunting is a composite experience; and also reflects aspects relating to the landowners cost of leasing out hunting. Thus, the value...

  12. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  13. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2, which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  14. Drivers of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of zoonoses in Nigerian hunting communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagan Friant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1 quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2 identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3 identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4 measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%, being injured (14%, using body parts for traditional medicine (19%, collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%, and keeping as pets (16%. Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%, ungulates (93%, carnivores (93%, primates (87%, and bats (42%, among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that

  15. Analysis strategies for combining continuous and episodic GNSS for studies of neo-tectonics in Northern-Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulf, Halfdan Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Crustal deformation in the seismically active Nordland area in Northern Norway is estimated based on a combination of data from local episodic epGNSS campaigns (three 5-day campaigns in 1999, 2008 and 2015) and continuously operating cGNSS stations in the area that were mainly established in 2008 and in 2009. To establish a local long-term stable reference frame, which is consistent both with the epGNSS network and the network of newer cGNSS, a three-step procedure for reference frame realization is used to get consistent results from all the stations in the area. Analysis of the main error sources shows that uncertainties for the episodic epGNSS stations are around 0.2 mm/yr in the horizontal components and 0.5 mm/yr in the vertical component. The results support earlier findings that Ranafjord area of the Nordland is undergoing crustal spreading with horizontal displacement velocities of ca. 1.0 ± 0.2 mm/yr, predominantly in the east-west direction. The results also show a gradient in the uplift along the coast of Nordland that is larger than predicted by existing glacial isostatic adjustment models.

  16. Trace metal pollution in Eastern Finnmark, Norway and Kola Peninsula, Northwestern Russia as evidenced by studies of lake sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Appleby, P.G.; Dauvalter, V.; Traaen, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The eastern part of Finnmark county in Northern Norway borders against the northwestern part of Russia. On the Russian side are the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company. Sediment cores from two lakes, Hundvatn on the Norwegian side and Shuonijarvi on the Russian side, were analysed as described in the present report. Caesium from Chernobyl was detected in Shuonijarvi sediment. Americium distribution in the sediment was consistent with {sup 210}Pb dating chronology. The last century has seen increased concentrations and fluxes of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Except for Pb, all the fluxes are highest northeast of Nikel. Together with other data this indicates that the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company have been a major source of metal pollution since their start-up. No regional pollution of the metals except Pb is evident in sediment prior to the 20th century. The histories of Pb fluxes and concentrations indicate a pollution history probably exceeding 2000 years. 17 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The study of the European Union from outside: European integration studies in Norway and Iceland 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Eliassen, Kjell; Marino, Marit Sjøvaag; Bergmann, Eirikur

    2012-01-01

    This is a working paper version of a paper written for SENT - The Network of European Studies. The aim of this chapter is to map the research on European integration carried out by Norwegian and Icelandic researchers and research institutions in the period 1990–2010. This study covers research of central aspects of the European Union itself: institutions, decision-making processes, policies, actors and the relationship to other countries, global and regional institutions and local and regiona...

  18. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  20. The relation between birthweight, childhood body mass index, and overweight and obesity in late adolescence: a longitudinal cohort study from Norway, The Tromsø Study, Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Elin; Emaus, Nina; Kokkvoll, Ane; Wilsgaard, Tom; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Skeie, Guri

    2017-06-22

    Childhood overweight/obesity is associated with later overweight/obesity. However, the association between birth weight and later overweight/obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between both birth weight and childhood body mass index (BMI), and adolescent overweight/obesity in a Norwegian population. The Tromsø Study - Fit Futures is a population-based cohort study conducted in 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 in Tromsø, Norway. A representative sample of 961 adolescents participated. Longitudinal anthropometric data were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, childhood health records at 2-4 and 5-7 years of age, and repeated measurements at 15-18 and 18-20 years of age. Outcome was defined as normal weight (adult BMI obese (adult BMI ≥2 5 kg/m 2 ) at 15-20 years of age according to international age- and sex-specific cut-off values for children. Associations were investigated using generalised estimating equations. In adjusted analyses, a 1-SD (586 g) higher birth weight was associated with a higher OR for overweight/obesity at 15-20 years of age (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.48). Childhood BMI was also associated with overweight/obesity at 15-20 years of age: a 1-SD (1.35 kg/m 2 ) increase in BMI at age 2-4 years rendered an OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.96); a 1-SD (1.83 kg/m 2 ) increase in BMI at age 5-7 years rendered an OR of 3.23 (95% CI 2.56 to 4.07). When compared with normal-weight children, those with severe overweight/obesity in childhood (adult BMI ≥27 kg/m 2 ) showed stronger associations with overweight/obesity at 15-20 years of age: OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.47 to 6.18) and OR 11.51 (95% CI 6.63 to 19.99) at ages 2-4 and 5-7, respectively. Associations between birth weight and overweight/obesity at 15-20 years of age were modest, whereas the influence of BMI at 2-4 and 5-7 years on overweight/obesity at 15-20 years was moderate to strong. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  1. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  2. Sustainable use of forest and hunting resources

    OpenAIRE

    Danilović Milorad; Gačić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the issue of the use of forest and hunting resources in Serbia, with special emphasis on their sustainability. The use of modern technological solutions in terms of sustainable use of forest and hunting resources should be seen through an analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts. The existing machinery used in Serbian forestry cannot respond to the current demands of forestry production. However, the current unfavourable conditio...

  3. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  4. Automated Glacier Mapping using Object Based Image Analysis. Case Studies from Nepal, the European Alps and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatle, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent and up-to-date glacier outlines are needed for many applications of glaciology, not only glacier area change analysis, but also for masks in volume or velocity analysis, for the estimation of water resources and as model input data. Remote sensing offers a good option for creating glacier outlines over large areas, but manual correction is frequently necessary, especially in areas containing supraglacial debris. We show three different workflows for mapping clean ice and debris-covered ice within Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA). By working at the object level as opposed to the pixel level, OBIA facilitates using contextual, spatial and hierarchical information when assigning classes, and additionally permits the handling of multiple data sources. Our first example shows mapping debris-covered ice in the Manaslu Himalaya, Nepal. SAR Coherence data is used in combination with optical and topographic data to classify debris-covered ice, obtaining an accuracy of 91%. Our second example shows using a high-resolution LiDAR derived DEM over the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria. Breaks in surface morphology are used in creating image objects; debris-covered ice is then classified using a combination of spectral, thermal and topographic properties. Lastly, we show a completely automated workflow for mapping glacier ice in Norway. The NDSI and NIR/SWIR band ratio are used to map clean ice over the entire country but the thresholds are calculated automatically based on a histogram of each image subset. This means that in theory any Landsat scene can be inputted and the clean ice can be automatically extracted. Debris-covered ice can be included semi-automatically using contextual and morphological information.

  5. Breast cancer incidence and menopausal hormone therapy in Norway from 2004 to 2009: a register-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhrke, Pål; Zahl, Per-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In Norway, the breast cancer incidence increased by 50% in the 1990s, during a period with initiation of mammography screening as well as a fourfold increase in use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT). After 2002, the HT use has dropped substantially; however, the breast cancer incidence has declined only marginally. How much mammography screening contributed to the breast cancer incidence increase in the 1990s compared with HT use and specifically different types of HT use, has thus been discussed. Whether HT affects the incidence of subtypes of breast cancer differently has also been questioned. We have linked individual data from several national registries from 2004 to 2009 on 449,717 women aged 50–65 years. 4597 cases of invasive cancer and 681 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were included in the analysis. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratio (HR) as a measure of the relative risk of breast cancer associated with use of HT. The HRs associated with prescriptions of HT for more than 1 year were 2.06 (1.90–2.24) for estrogen and progesterone combinations, 1.03 (0.85–1.25) for systemic estrogens, and 1.23 (1.01–1.51) for tibolone. Invasive lobular carcinoma was more strongly associated with use of estrogen and progesterone combinations, HR = 3.10 (2.51–3.81), than nonlobular carcinoma, HR = 1.94 (1.78–2.12). The corresponding value for DCIS was 1.61 (1.28–2.02). We estimated the population attributable fraction to 8.2%, corresponding to 90 breast cancer cases in 2006 indicating that HT use still caused a major number of breast cancer cases

  6. The relation of early experienced negative life events and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2012-03-01

    Negative life events have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life events associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life events on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life events. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life event among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life events were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life events and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life events at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  8. Wildlife Hunting in Eastern Mongolia: Economic and Demographic Factors Influencing Hunting Behavior of Herding Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Olson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of Mongolia’s rangelands are under state control and managed via traditional land use practices and are habitat for numerous wildlife species harvested for their meat and fur. Political and economic transformations that have been occurring since the early 1990’s continues to affect all aspects of Mongolian society. To cope during periods of economic hardship, many turned to harvesting wildlife resources for income and subsistence and this resulted in precipitous declines of some populations, marmots for example. Interviews with herding households in Mongolia’s eastern steppe region were conducted to better determine how wildlife resources (Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, red foxes, corsac foxes, and gray wolf are utilized and valued by herding families. Hunting, carried out by 65% of interviewees, returned an average of $103±172 dollars per household. The number of individuals hunted of any particular species during the previous year ranged widely - 46% of households hunted an average of 8±9 Mongolian gazelles (the equivalent of a small cow, 31% hunted 5±5 corsac foxes, 29% hunted 42±47 marmots, 22% hunted 3±3 red foxes, and 17% hunted 3±2 gray wolves. Differences in mean annual income between hunting and non-hunting households were similar ($1,292±1,132 vs. $1,080±1,196 however the median difference was greater ($1,009 vs $749. However, non-hunting households owned significantly more livestock than hunting households (168±183 vs. 93±92 Livestock Units, and the proportion of hunting households living below the poverty line was higher. Households that were larger or had few numbers of livestock were more likely to engage in hunting than smaller households with more livestock. Household and livestock variables were also significant predictors of a households likelihood of hunting Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, and corsac fox, but not for red fox or gray wolf. Wildlife management policies will likely receive greater

  9. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  10. Environmental consequences associated with a large-scale blowout of oil in the former disputed area between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Sigve Evenssønn

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology The former disputed area between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea is of increasing interest when it comes to oil and gas exploration and production. The area is likely to open for exploration in the near future as the maritime delimitation and cooperation agreement between Norway and Russia concerning the Barents Sea were ratified by the Russian State Duma and signed by Russian President Dmitri Medvedev during the spring of 2011. The impact o...

  11. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  14. The European Gas and Oil Market: The Role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbo, F.

    2008-01-01

    The research question of this paper is related to the role of Norway in the European gas and oil market. This study aims to give a presentation of the energy policy in Norway and Norwegian participation at the European level. The first chapter will introduce Norwegian relations with Europe. For the purpose of my research, I will focus mainly on Norwegian energy policy in the second chapter, presenting Norway's oil industry in chapter 2.1.; Norwegian gas production in chapter 2.2.; and the Norwegian electrical power system in chapter 2.3. The sub-chapter 2.4. will analyse in detail the activity of the largest Norwegian oil and gas company, StatoilHydro. The third chapter will be dedicated to Norway's green energy policy (wind, sun and water), etc. The fourth chapter looks at the European perspective and will examine the European strategic gas and oil market in a globalized world. The fifth chapter will present Norway's participation in the European gas and oil market. Such strategic research must also include a look at the European Union's (EU) energy market development between Russia and Norway, which will be presented in chapter six. And finally, Norway's contribution to the development of an EU energy policy in fighting climate change will be emphasised in chapter seven. This research will analyse the following central issues: - Norwegian oil industry, - Norwegian gas production, - Norwegian electrical power system, - Norwegian challenges in the European gas and oil market. (author)

  15. Exploitation of Hunting and Fishing Tourism in Galați County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camară Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Galați county is a geographical area that is less valued in terms of tourism, but which benefits by a natural tourism potential. The aim of this study is to identify the potential and the activities of the hunting and fishing tourism. Exploitation of hunting and fishing activities in touristic aim is only partial because of the lack of touristic infrastructure and the lack of collaboration with various travel agencies from this branch of tourism. Proposals that would help the future development and improvement of tourism activity are from “wildlife watching tourism” domain: capturing images with the camera, observing the behavior of hunting species without affecting them, providing information for those interested in the hunting behavior and life fauna, creating a wildlife museum and last but not least, upgrading the transport infrastructure.

  16. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, John M; Lemke, Ashley K; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P; Reynolds, Robert G; Abbott, Brian D

    2014-05-13

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters.

  17. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Convention and the subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian...

  18. Hunting for Conservation? The Re-introduction of Sport Hunting in Uganda Examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, A.; Ahebwa, W.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    Uganda reintroduced sport hunting in 2001. The policy was piloted around Lake Mburo National Park and later replicated around other protected areas. This chapter analyses the development, implementation and impact of sport hunting policy in Uganda. We do so through literature review, document

  19. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ..., carriage, or export of any * * * bird, or any part, nest, or egg'' of migratory game birds can take place... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird...

  20. The Quabbin controlled deer hunt 1991 - 2001: limitations of a controlled hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth E. Cohen; David K. Loomis

    2003-01-01

    The Quabbin Reservoir, built in the 1930's as a water supply for Boston, is an unfiltered source of water. The agency responsible for managing the reservoir wants it to remain unfiltered. As a result, human activity is kept to a minimum, including (until recently) a prohibition on hunting. The lack of natural predators and the ban on recreational hunting allowed...

  1. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  2. Drivers of change in hunter offtake and hunting strategies in Sendje, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David J C; Fa, John E; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F

    2012-12-01

    Economic development in Africa is expected to increase levels of bushmeat hunting through rising demand for meat and improved transport infrastructure. However, few studies have tracked long-term changes in hunter behavior as a means of testing this prediction. We evaluated changes in hunter behavior in a rural community in Equatorial Guinea over a period of rapid national economic growth, during which time road access to the regional capital greatly improved. We conducted offtake surveys (Supporting Information) over 3 7-week periods at the same time of year in 1998, 2003, and 2010 and conducted hunter and household interviews (Supporting Information) in 2003 and 2010. We tested whether relations existed among catch, hunting effort, hunting strategy, and income earned through hunting and other livelihoods in 2003 and 2010. Although village offtake increased from 1775 kg in 1998 to 4172 kg in 2003, it decreased in 2010 to 1361 kg. Aggregate catch per unit effort (i.e., number of carcasses caught per hunter and per trap) decreased from 2003 to 2010, and the majority of hunters reported a decrease in abundance of local fauna. Although these results are indicative of unsustainable hunting, cumulative changes in offtake and catch per unit effort were driven by a contraction in the total area hunted following an out-migration of 29 of the village's hunters, most of whom left to gain employment in the construction industry, after 2003. Hunters operating in both 2003 and 2010 hunted closer to the village because an increased abundance of elephants posed a danger and because they desired to earn income through other activities. Our study provides an example of national economic development contributing to a reduction in the intensity and extent of hunting. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1993-01-01

    The only activity in Norway that is directly relevant for the present CRP is performed by Institutt for energiteknikk, the Norwegian Energy Research Institute. This institute is responsible for conducting the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This research project has as one of its main items a programme on ''Man-Machine Systems Research (MMSR)''. The main objective with this programme is to improve operational safety and efficiency of nuclear plants through introduction of new technology in the control room. This activity is divided into four main chapters; Development of computerised operator support systems; development of advanced control rooms; human factors activities related to introduction of new technology in the control room; software verification and validation. All these activities are relevant to the present CRP. A short description of each item is therefore given. 1 fig

  4. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  5. Enhanced MRI in patients with Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Ushiro, Koichi; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami; Katoh, Tsutomu

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced MRI was performed in 14 patients with Ramsay-Hunt,s syndrome to investigate the pathogenesis of this syndrome. All MRI studies were performed on a 0.5T superconductivity MRI system using a head coil with Gd-DTPA. Enhancement was observed in the areas of the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment in many patients, and was especially prominent in patients suffering from vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In some patients it involved not only the facial nerve of the internal auditory canal but also the cochlear nerve and vestibular nerves. Since histological changes of the facial nerve in patients with Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome are assumed to occur in the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment, which is more proximal than the geniculate ganglion, and the possibility is suggested that inflammation may be spread to the vestibular and cochlear nerve via the internal auditory canal. (14 refs., 2 figs.)

  6. Enhanced MRI in patients with Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Ushiro, Koichi; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami [Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Katoh, Tsutomu [Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced MRI was performed in 14 patients with Ramsay-Hunt,s syndrome to investigate the pathogenesis of this syndrome. All MRI studies were performed on a 0.5T superconductivity MRI system using a head coil with Gd-DTPA. Enhancement was observed in the areas of the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment in many patients, and was especially prominent in patients suffering from vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In some patients it involved not only the facial nerve of the internal auditory canal but also the cochlear nerve and vestibular nerves. Since histological changes of the facial nerve in patients with Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome are assumed to occur in the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment, which is more proximal than the geniculate ganglion, and the possibility is suggested that inflammation may be spread to the vestibular and cochlear nerve via the internal auditory canal. (14 refs., 2 figs.).

  7. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paul Kirsner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or ‘mean’ just 2.7 NM (nautical miles from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor’s reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013. The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  8. Sustainable Development Discourse in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Audun

    2009-01-01

    Norway represents the case of an early-mover transforming into a recalcitrant average player. There is currently no active public SD debate, and if any, the environmental dimension remains the most prevalent. Climate change is the core issue. In spite of this political focus and new, ambitious objectives (i.e. that Norway is to be carbon neutral by 2030), and despite the fact that Norway has huge potentials for renewable energy production and export to Europe, there are few indications of any more substantial policy changes at a sectoral level

  9. The magnitude and selectivity of natural and multiple anthropogenic mortality causes in hunted brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Richard; Swenson, Jon E; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Mysterud, Atle; Gimenez, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    1. The population dynamic and evolutionary effects of harvesting are receiving growing attention among biologists. Cause-specific estimates of mortality are necessary to determine and compare the magnitude and selectivity of hunting and other types of mortalities. In addition to the logistic and financial constraints on longitudinal studies, they are complicated by the fact that nonhunting mortality in managed populations usually consists of a mix of natural and human-caused factors. 2. We used multistate capture-recapture (MCR) models to estimate cause-specific survival of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in two subpopulations in Sweden over a 23-year period. In our analysis, we distinguished between legal hunting and other sources of mortality, such as intraspecific predation, accidents, poaching, and damage control removals. We also tested whether a strong increase in harvest quotas after 1997 in one of the subpopulations affected vulnerability to legal hunting. 3. Although only a fraction of mortalities other than legal hunting could be considered natural, this group of causes showed a general pattern of demographic selectivity expected from natural mortality regimes in populations of long-lived species, namely greater vulnerability of young animals. On the other hand, demographic effects on hunting vulnerability were weak and inconsistent. Our findings support the assumption that hunting and other mortalities were additive. 4. As expected, an increase in hunting pressure coincided with a correspondingly large increase in vulnerability to hunting in the affected subpopulation. Because even unbiased harvest can lead to selective pressures on life-history traits, such as size at primiparity, increasing harvest quotas may not only affect population growth directly, but could also alter optimal life-history strategies in brown bears and other carnivores. 5. Legal hunting is the most conveniently assessed and the most easily managed cause of mortality in many wild

  10. Use of alcohol and drugs among health professionals in Norway: a study using data from questionnaires and samples of oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Karinen, Ritva; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2014-03-10

    Working under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol may affect safety and job performance. However, the size of this possible problem among health professionals (HPs) is unknown. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to analyze samples of oral fluid and self-reported data from questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among a sample of HPs in Norway, (ii) to study self-reported absence from or impairment at work due to alcohol and/or drug use, and (iii) to examine whether such use and absence/impairment due to such use depend on socio-demographic variables.A total of 916 of the 933 invited HPs from hospitals and pharmacies participated in the study (participation rate = 98.2%), and 81.1% were women. Associations were analyzed in bi-variate cross tables with Chi-square statistics to assess statistical significance.Alcohol was not detected in any of the samples. Ethyl glucuronide, a specific alcohol metabolite, was found in 0.3% of the collected samples. Illicit drugs and medicinal drugs were identified in 0.6% and 7.3% of the samples, respectively. Both analytical results and self-reported use of alcohol and drugs during the past 12 months indicate that recent and past year alcohol and drug use was lower among HPs than among workers in other business areas in Norway, Europe and US. Nevertheless, several HPs reported absence from work due to alcohol (0.9%) and medicinal drug use (0.8%) during the past 12 months. A substantial part (16.7%) of the self-reported medicinal drug users reported absence from work because of use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months, and more than 1/4 of those reported in-efficiency at work because of the use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months. Reduced efficiency at work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months was reported by 12.2%.This sample of HPs seldom used illicit drugs, few had a high level of alcohol consumption, and few tested positive for medicinal drugs. Absence or hangover related

  11. Future Manufacturing Systems in Norway – Strategy, Architecture and Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the suitability of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) in Norwegian manufacturing industries and its implementation. This study explores the research and innovation needs in Norway which will be given as inputs to Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) 2030 of European Commission to share future manufacturing strategies in Norway. The objectives of the research are to identifying the opportunities and challenges of CPS, developing a feasible reference architecture of CPS which benef...

  12. Is the relationship between smoking and mental health influenced by other unhealthy lifestyle factors? Results from a 3-year follow-up study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Sagatun, Ase; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Bjertness, Espen

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have confirmed that smoking is a risk factor for depression in adolescence. These studies have not controlled for other lifestyle factors. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relationship between smoking and depressive symptoms, controlling for other lifestyle factors. This school-based longitudinal self-report survey was conducted among 15- and 18-year-old students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed up after 3 years and completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mental distress was assessed with Hopkins Symptom Checklist, version 10. There was a statistically significant association between daily smoking at age 15 and mental distress at age 18 for girls, but not for boys (odds ratio [OR]=2.0 [1.5-2.8] and 1.3 [0.7-2.4], respectively). In girls, the association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables and several lifestyle factors. In an analysis of 15-years-old "never smokers," a statistically significant association was found between smoking and mental distress for both genders at age 18. Mentally distressed adolescents at age 15 did not show a higher proportion of smoking at age 18 compared with those not distressed. In addition to supporting earlier findings that smoking seems to be causally related to depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, the contribution of this study is that this association only to some extent is confounded by other unhealthy lifestyle habits.

  13. Children with congenital limb deficiency in Norway: issues related to school life and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Heidi; Dammann, Brede; Øinæs Andersen, Liv; Andresen, Inger-Lise

    2016-09-01

    To describe clinical features, issues related to school life and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children with congenital limb deficiency (CLD) and compare these children to Norwegian school children on HRQOL. Cross-sectional study. In 2010, a postal questionnaire, designed for this study and the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), was sent to 154 eligible parents of children with CLD, aged 6-18 years and registered at TRS National Resource Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Response rate 44% (n = 67), median age 11 years, 42% were girls. Of the total group, 46 had unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) and 21 had multiple/lower limb deficiency (MLD/LLD). The most common UULD was below-elbow deficiency, of these, 65% used grip-improving devices, and 35% used prostheses. Children with UULD-reported PedsQL score similar to Norwegian schoolchildren (NSC). The MLD/LLD group was heterogeneous; most had below-elbow/knee deficiency. In this group, PedsQL scores were reduced for physical and social functioning compared with NSC. Compared with children with UULD, more children with MLD/LLD were restricted in participation because of pain and fewer participated in physical education with peers. Most children with CLD participated with their peers and managed well in everyday life. Children with MLD/LLD seemed to have more challenges than children with UULD. Approximately one-third of all the children had assistive devices and/or practical assistance in school. Implications for Rehabilitation Most children with upper-limb deficiency (UULD) in Norway manage well in everyday life and have HRQOL equal to other Norwegian children. Many choose grip-improving devices instead of prostheses. Their preferences should be respected and taken into account as the need for new assistive devices arise. For children with pronounced disabilities, access to, and use of, assistive devices, adaptions and practical assistance may be important for participation

  14. Orbital phlebography in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome in comparison with normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, J.; Ericson, K.; Bergstrand, G.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1984-01-01

    Orbital phlebography has been reported to be pathologic in some patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome (recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia). A systematic study of the phlebographic findings in Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome in comparison with a normal material seems not to have been performed. In this investigation, orbital phlebography was performed in 19 patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome and in a reference group of 23 persons without the disease. In 13 of 19 patients (68%) with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome, the phlebography was pathologic (narrowing or occlusion of particularly the third segment of the superior ophthalmic vein, partial occlusion of the cavernous sinus). Orbital phlebography was normal in all but one of the subjects in the reference group. The medical history of this subject in retrospect revealed symptoms other than painful ophthalmoplegia commonly found in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome, suggesting that he suffered from a variant of the disease causing the syndrome. In one patient with recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia a biopsy from an eye muscle showed venous vasculitis, probably indicating the basic pathology behind the phlebographic changes in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome. (orig.)

  15. The impacts of emission trends of POPs on human concentration dynamics: Lessons learned from a longitudinal study in Norway (1979-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Breivik, Knut

    2017-06-01

    In this short communication, our focus is on the relationship between human concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and environmental emissions. It is based on a longitudinal study (1979-2007) conducted in Norway. Our aim was to extract general insights from observed and predicted temporal trends in human concentrations of 49 POPs to assist in the design and interpretation of future monitoring studies. Despite considerable decline for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) since 1986, the sum of the targeted POPs increased from 1979 until 2001, with per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) dominating recent blood burden measurements. Specifically, the time trends in serum concentrations of POPs, exemplified by PCB-153, 1,1'-(2,2,2-Trichloroethane-1,1-diyl)bis(4-chlorobenzene) (DDT) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), resembled the trends in available data on their emissions, production or use. These observations suggest that interpretations of human biomonitoring data on persistent compounds must consider historic emissions, which likely vary spatially across the globe. Based on the different temporal trends observed across POP groups, it is evident that generalizations regarding temporal aspects have limitations. The discussion herein underscores the importance of understanding temporal variations in environmental emissions when designing and interpreting human biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Palestine Saw-scaled Vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Søvika; Henrik Underthun Irgens; Janne Molnes; Jørn V. Sagena; Lise Bjørkhaug; Helge Ræder; Anders Molveng; Pål R. Njølstad

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3) were detected in a...

  18. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  19. Dialogic action in climate change discussions: An international study of high school students in China, New Zealand, Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J. Arya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014. This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141. Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999, we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.

  20. The impact of methicillin-resistant S. aureus on length of stay, readmissions and costs: a register based case-control study of patients hospitalized in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elizabeth S. Andreassen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA are thought to incur additional costs for hospitals due to longer stay and contact isolation. The aim of this study was to assess the costs associated with MRSA in Norwegian hospitals. Methods Analyses were based on data fromSouth-Eastern Norway for the year 2012 as registered in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and the Norwegian Patient Registry. We used a matched case-control method to compare MRSA diagnosed inpatients with non-MRSA inpatients in terms of length of stay, readmissions within 30 days from discharge, as well as the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG based costs. Results Norwegian patients with MRSA stayed on average 8 days longer in hospital than controls, corresponding to a ratio of mean duration of 2.08 (CI 95%, 1.75–2.47 times longer.A total of 14% of MRSA positive inpatients were readmitted compared to 10% among controls. However, the risk of readmission was not significantly higher for patients with MRSA. DRG based hospital costs were 0.37 (95% CI, 0.19–0.54 times higher among cases than controls, with a mean cost of EUR13,233(SD 26,899 and EUR7198(SD 18,159 respectively. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that Norwegian patients with MRSA have longer hospital stays, and higher costs than those without MRSA.

  1. What is important in the surroundings in order to extend the healthy life period? A regional study of 19 older women in a northern part of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minde, Gunn-Tove; Sæterstrand, Torill M

    2013-01-01

    Participating in a community with other retired individuals to increase life quality can be possible for the older persons. Cultural and ethnical background is important for their social identity. To identify what the informants think is important in their surroundings in order to extend their healthy life period. A structured questionnaire developed by the OCIN network. Nineteen elderly women aged 75 years or more were interviewed. This regional survey is a pilot study in Norway. The data were collected during 2 periods, in 2009 and 2010. The data are analyzed using a result scheme prepared by the network OCIN. Our findings show that this is a group of elderly women that are concerned with promoting their own health. The participants wish to take care of themselves, so they do not become a burden for society and the local authorities. The findings of this study suggest that participation in the local context is important for promoting health and well-being among elderly in all ethnicities. For the Sami elderly, this is particularly important because meeting equal-minded people helps them maintain their Sami identity. In the Sami culture and among the Sami elderly, it is important to be "strong" and "healthy". Due to these norms, the elderly Sami women try to live with their illnesses and are less eager to go to the doctor when they are seriously ill.

  2. Analyzing Seasonal Variations in Suicide With Fourier Poisson Time-Series Regression: A Registry-Based Study From Norway, 1969-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Walby, Fredrik A; Morken, Gunnar; Røislien, Jo

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variation in the number of suicides has long been acknowledged. It has been suggested that this seasonality has declined in recent years, but studies have generally used statistical methods incapable of confirming this. We examined all suicides occurring in Norway during 1969-2007 (more than 20,000 suicides in total) to establish whether seasonality decreased over time. Fitting of additive Fourier Poisson time-series regression models allowed for formal testing of a possible linear decrease in seasonality, or a reduction at a specific point in time, while adjusting for a possible smooth nonlinear long-term change without having to categorize time into discrete yearly units. The models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion and analysis of variance. A model with a seasonal pattern was significantly superior to a model without one. There was a reduction in seasonality during the period. Both the model assuming a linear decrease in seasonality and the model assuming a change at a specific point in time were both superior to a model assuming constant seasonality, thus confirming by formal statistical testing that the magnitude of the seasonality in suicides has diminished. The additive Fourier Poisson time-series regression model would also be useful for studying other temporal phenomena with seasonal components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ramsay Hunt syndrome with severe dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Crystal; Fozo, Michael; Rubin, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome, first described by J. Ramsay Hunt in 1907, encompassed the symptoms of otalgia, erythematous vesicular rash on the auricle, and facial paralysis. Although rare, in some cases, the varicella zoster virus responsible for the illness can also be associated with involvement of cranial nerves III-XII, cervical nerves, aseptic meningitis, and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome involving the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, X, and, possibly, XII. Pharyngeal wall and vocal fold paralysis, and severely reduced laryngeal elevation, resulted in such significant dysphagia that percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was required. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The hunting season’s over

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of Internet users from across the globe have been scouring the Computer Centre for LEGO figurines in recent weeks (see here). The time has come to announce the results…   We’ve received nearly 5,000 screen-shots, the precious trophies gleaned from hours of virtual scavenging through the CERN Computing Centre, and we’re pleased to see our hunt raised so much interest. Unfortunately, rules being rules, we have to choose the two winners by drawing lots, so prizes will be winging their way to… Sarah Charley (CERN) Stefan Hayes We kindly thank everyone who took part in the hunt with so much gusto and hope you all had as much fun as we did! You can discover all the figurines here: http://lego-scavenger-hunt.web.cern.ch/ The CERN Bulletin team

  5. International Student Migration to Norway. Who stays and who leaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Lea Nga Thanh

    2014-01-01

    International student migration to Norway has markedly increased during the past 20 years. This inflow has caused the Norwegian authorities to shed light on the topic. Until 2001, it was expected from the Norwegian authorities that international students return home after graduation. After the 21th century several policy changes occurred to attract more international students to Norway, and making it easier for international students to obtain a work permit after their studies. This thesis an...

  6. Organizational Actively Management for Opportunity Hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Fegh-hi FARAHMAND

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Actively Management (OAM is the responsibility of every manager. Because, an approach for OAM is becoming more widely accepted is a community-based development approach. In Opportunity Hunting Approach (OHA, OAM is the responsibility of every manager for his/her actions. OAM is using from top to bottom development model. According to the survey of market and customers, after understand customers’ needs, organization then decide how the quality policy and target will develop, from there the actively management system can be developed. The aim of this study in field of organizational actively management and policy of it can provide the specific process required for setting up and monitoring the actively target. As it also is customer-oriented, it aims to improve customer satisfaction. In addition, the actively target should be set up and implemented within every organization department and at each level, in accordance with actively policy. Furthermore, organization should develop the actively management system, in order to conform to general requirements and actively target.

  7. Small forest holdings could be combined for hunting leases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls

    1969-01-01

    Most forest land acreage in the South is in small holdings. Much-needed hunting land, and income for rural landowners, could be provided by combining small forest holdings into large units and teasing the hunting rights.

  8. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  9. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  10. Is recreational hunting important for landscape multi-functionality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Recreational hunting may be important to the shaping of the agricultural landscape. Land owners who hunt or lease out hunting rights have an incentive to promote landscapes that contain wildlife biotopes, which may serve wider societal values, such as landscape aesthetics, biodiversity, and prese......Recreational hunting may be important to the shaping of the agricultural landscape. Land owners who hunt or lease out hunting rights have an incentive to promote landscapes that contain wildlife biotopes, which may serve wider societal values, such as landscape aesthetics, biodiversity......, and preservation of valued and/or threatened animal and plant species. Recreational hunting may thus contribute to preserve and enhance landscape multifunctionality. Yet, little is known about the importance of hunting interests in motivating such landscape management. In this article, we seek to shed light...

  11. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  12. Game consumption and attitudes to hunting in the Netherlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game consumption and attitudes to hunting in the Netherlands. ... share of this game. Anti-hunting activism is a potential threat for the supply of game and therefore, to this part of restaurant business. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Walk-In Hunting Access (WIHA) Fall 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2010 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...

  14. Walk-In Hunting Access (WIHA) Fall 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2009 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...

  15. Walk-In Hunting Access (WIHA) Fall 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2008 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...

  16. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesboe, Heidi B.; Enden, Tone; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Paal Aksel

    2017-01-01

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. (orig.)

  17. The political economy of corporate social responsibility and community development: a case study of Norway's Snoehvit natural gas complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klick, Matthew T.

    2009-07-01

    This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company's stated 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snoehvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of 'socially responsible' approaches to development to internalize negative externalisation and promote positive 'spin-offs'. Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry. (Author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesboe, Heidi B.; Enden, Tone [Oslo University Hospital, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Gaarder, Christine [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Naess, Paal Aksel [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. (orig.)

  19. Utilization of Higher Education : A Review of Employment Challenges and Job Practice among Refugees in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Boayue, Kou Glaymehn

    2011-01-01

    Master i flerkulturell og internasjonal utdanning Purpose of the study: If refugees from Africa and Asia are able to use their foreign higher education in the labor market of Norway is the main topic of this study. Thus, the study explores the impact of Norwegian language training, foreign higher education recognition, NAV job seeker courses, service/job provision by employers, further higher education in Norway, etc., on the labor market outcomes of 18 refugees who fled to Norway with ter...

  20. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  1. Does Parental Divorce Increase Risk Behaviors among 15/16 and 18/19 year-old Adolescents? A Study from Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Espen; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO surveys in Oslo, Norway. All 15/16 year-old 10(th) grade students who participated in the first survey in the school year 2000/01 were followed-up in 2004 when they were 18/19 year-olds. The follow-up rate was 68%. The prospective study investigated the influence of late parental divorce that occurred between the age of 15/16 and 18/19. In the cross-sectional study we focused on early parental divorce that occurred before the participants were 15/16 year-old. In the prospective study we could not discern a significant association between experiencing late parental divorce and an increase in risk behaviors among 18/19 year-old adolescents. In the cross-sectional study parental divorce was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and using doping agents. Parental divorce that occurs when the children of divorced parents are 15/16 year-old or younger is associated with an increase in cigarette smoking and use of doping agents. However, no evidence of significant association is found between experience of late parental divorce and risk behaviors in late adolescence.

  2. Postpartum Depression Among Somali Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvlie, Astrid Louise; Madar, Ahmed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been described as the most common complication experienced postpartum, affecting about 10-15 % of all new mothers. Factors like a history of mental illness, and experienced recent adverse life events has been associated with an increased risk for developing PPD. Immigrant women in Western countries have been found to have a marked higher prevalence of PPD compared to the general population. In Norway the prevalence of PPD in the general population has been found to be around 8-10 %, and among Pakistani immigrants a rate of 7.6 % was found. Somali people in Norway are the second largest immigrant group in Norway with a non-Western background. No study on PPD and associated factors among Somali women has been found in the literature. The aim of the study was to assess PPD and associated factors among Somali women in greater Oslo region, Norway. A cross-sectional survey was conducted; recruiting new mothers through all maternity wards in the Oslo region. Data was collected with interview-administrated questionnaires. PPD was assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), defining those scoring ≥10 to have a possible PPD. Of the 80 eligible women identified, 39 (49 %) consented to participate, and completed the study. Of the 39 respondents 3 (7.7 %) were assessed to have a possible PPD. Most important associated factors found were history of mental illness, having experienced technical assistance during delivery, self-rated health and experienced economical problems last 12 months. A low prevalence of PPD was found, and both the prevalence and its associated factors should be interpreted with caution. The associated factors do not have enough power to give any strength to the associations. However, some of the results can be used in develop new hypotheses with regard to PPD among Somali women as immigrants in a Western society.

  3. Spinal cord injuries among paragliders in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekand, T; Schaanning, E E; Varga, V; Schattel, U; Gronning, M

    2008-06-01

    A national retrospective descriptive study. To study the clinical effects of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by paragliding accidents in Norway. Spinal cord units at Haukeland University Hospital, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and St Olav Hospital in Norway. We studied the medical files for nine patients with SCI caused by paragliding accidents to evaluate the circumstances of the accidents, and clinical effects of injury. We obtained the data from hospital patient files at all three spinal units in Norway and crosschecked them through the Norwegian Paragliding Association's voluntary registry for injuries. All patients were hospitalized from 1997 to 2006, eight men and one woman, with mean age 30.7 years. The causes of the accidents were landing problems combined with unexpected wind whirls, technical problems and limited experience with unexpected events. All patients contracted fractures in the thoracolumbal junction of the spine, most commonly at the L1 level. At clinical follow-up, all patients presented clinically incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association impairment scores B-D). Their main health problems differed widely, ranging from urinary and sexual disturbances to neuropathic pain and loss of motor functioning. Only three patients returned to full-time employment after rehabilitation. Paragliding accidents cause spinal fractures predominantly in the thoracolumbal junction with subsequent SCIs and increased morbidity. All patients experienced permanent health problems that influenced daily activities and required long-time clinical follow-up and medical intervention. Better education in landing techniques and understanding of aerodynamics may reduce the risk of paragliding accidents.

  4. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  5. AHP 10: Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།

    2011-01-01

    The Yul shul (Yushu) ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  6. Hunting and fishing trends in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. John Charbonneau; James R. Lyons

    1980-01-01

    Trends in hunting and fishing participation are evaluated on the basis of responses to a telephone survey of the U.S. population conducted as a part of the 1975 National Hunting and Fishing Survey. Probability of participation in hunting and fishing is a function of the respondent's age, sex, income, place of residence, and a number of supply characteristics. The...

  7. Selection and Interpretation of Scientific Evidence in Preparation for Policy Decisions: A Case Study Regarding Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine Into National Immunization Programs in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry St-Martin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs (NIPs worldwide. Nordic countries are usually considered comparable in terms of demographics and health-care services and have comparable rotavirus disease burden. Nevertheless, the countries have reached different decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine: Norway and Finland have already introduced rotavirus vaccines into their NIPs and Sweden is currently changing its recommendation and vaccines will now be introduced on a national scale while Denmark has decided against it. This study focuses on the selection and interpretation of medical and epidemiological evidence used during the decision-making processes in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark. The so-called “severity criteria” is identified as one of the main reasons for the different policy decisions reached across the Nordic countries.

  8. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  9. Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events

  10. Childhood violence and adult chronic pain among indigenous Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: a SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. A. Eriksen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population. Objective: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences. Design: The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5% and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%. Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence. Results: Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model, and higher pain intensity. Conclusion: Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity.

  11. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth; Smide, Bibbi; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sigurdardottir, Arun K

    2016-06-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. These searches were limited to studies published between 1979 and 2009 that had an abstract available in English or a Nordic language. Two researchers independently selected studies for analysis, leading to the inclusion of 164 relevant publications for analysis. In summary, Nordic nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised in networks in order to share knowledge and expertise across national groups and borders, (ii) more multidisciplinary collaborations in order to promote patient-centred care and (iii) further research directed towards improving the dissemination and implementation of research findings. Using complex intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  13. Hunting: Death and the signs of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2013-01-01

    In this essay I have reworked the question of death in hunting by defining it as an activity whose nature implies a relation of being by living the death of the animal. Once this relation is understood more fully, it becomes obvious that the animal is not an isolated totality of relations...

  14. Hunting the Shadow, Catching the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    From 28 October to 6 November 2009 twenty-one 3rd year students in interior design from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), School of Architecture, Beijing participated in the workshop Hunting the Shadow - Catching the Light. The workshop was conceived and led by the Danish architects Torben Nie...

  15. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  16. An Interview About Hunting a Black Bear

    OpenAIRE

    G.yu lha

    2009-01-01

    The respondent describes the first time he killed a black bear while hunting. The fifty one audio and nine video files in this collection include: villages’ life stories, circle-dancing songs and performance, local history, folk tales, and interviews from Siyuewu Village, Puxi Township, Rangtang County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. World Oral Literature Project

  17. Sustainable use of forest and hunting resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the issue of the use of forest and hunting resources in Serbia, with special emphasis on their sustainability. The use of modern technological solutions in terms of sustainable use of forest and hunting resources should be seen through an analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts. The existing machinery used in Serbian forestry cannot respond to the current demands of forestry production. However, the current unfavourable conditions can be significantly improved with appropriate measures. The planning of a network of roads including a number of factors that directly and indirectly affect sustainable use is of great importance for the development of forestry and hunting. Wood biomass in Serbian forests should be used in the manner and to the extent that ensures the sustainability of ecosystems and the production of large quantities of energy. In recent years, non-timber forest products have gained importance, so that the income generated from their use is growing. The impact of newly adopted laws and bylaws in the field of forestry, hunting and the protection of nature and environment will depend primarily on their application, control, execution and possible amendments and adjustments.

  18. MAP SERVICES FOR MANAGEMENT OF HUNTING ORGANIZATIONS (THE CASE OF HUNTING ORGANIZATION “MEDVEDICA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zaichenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state map support of the system of hunting management requires updating an information database and the creation of new schemes of hunting organization. In this case the beneficial is using of satellite imagery data for the mapping and also for important environmental research. Presentation of the results in the form of Internet web services provides broad benefits to the paper version of the maps.

  19. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  20. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  1. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  2. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  3. Timing of probiotic milk consumption during pregnancy and effects on the incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Mahsa; Jacobsson, Bo; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Nilsson, Staffan; Sengpiel, Verena

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the timing of probiotic milk intake before, during early or late pregnancy influences associations with preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, between 1999 and 2008. Participants 70 149 singleton pregnancies resulting in live-born babies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (no chronic disease, answered questionnaires, no placenta previa/cerclage/serious malformation of fetus, first enrolment pregnancy). Only nulliparous women (n=37 050) were included in the preeclampsia analysis. Both iatrogenic and spontaneous preterm delivery (between gestational weeks 22+0 and 36+6) with spontaneous term controls (between gestational weeks 39+0 and 40+6) were included in the preterm delivery analysis resulting in 34 458 cases. Main outcome measures Adjusted OR for preeclampsia and preterm delivery according to consumption of probiotic milk at three different time periods (before pregnancy, during early and late pregnancy). Results Probiotic milk intake in late pregnancy (but not before or in early pregnancy) was significantly associated with lower preeclampsia risk (adjusted OR: 0.80 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.94) p-value: 0.007). Probiotic intake during early (but not before or during late pregnancy) was significantly associated with lower risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 0.79 (0.64 to 0.97) p-value: 0.03). Conclusions In this observational study, we found an association between timing of probiotic milk consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia and preterm delivery. If future randomised controlled trials could establish a causal association between probiotics consumption and reduced risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery, recommending probiotics would be a promising public health measure to reduce these adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:29362253

  4. What are the key contextual factors when preparing for successful implementation of assistive living technology in primary elderly care? A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjestsen, Martha Therese; Wiig, Siri; Testad, Ingelin

    2017-09-07

    To identify contextual factors at different organisational levels to guide the implementation of an assistive living technology intervention in Norwegian primary home care. A single embedded case study design was carried out in an urban municipality in Western Norway to get an overview of key contextual factors from the municipality's perspective. The data collection was based on a triangulation of methods involving document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews and focus group interviews to get a broad insight when preparing for an intervention. Data were collected on three levels of the healthcare system: (1) national policy documents and regulations (macro), (2) five individual interviews with senior managers and municipal strategy documents (meso) and (3) two focus group interviews with nurses and nurse managers in direct patient care (micro). The Model for Understanding Success in Quality framework was used as a guide in the data analysis. The main contextual factors identified were external motivators and project sponsorship (macro level); leadership, workforce focus and maturity (meso level);and motivation to change and maturity (micro level). Strategies developed in policy documents affected upper management in the municipality, but healthcare personnel at the micro level were not so familiar with strategies and emphasis on assistive living technologies. Healthcare personnel in our study were motivated to use technological solutions, but lack of data infrastructure and resource availability hindered this. Aligning interests across multiple stakeholders remain a challenge when planning for an assistive living technology intervention in primary care. In the studied municipality, integration of technological solutions into healthcare services was more a vision than a reality because of a low level of organisational readiness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  5. Seizure-related factors and non-verbal intelligence in children with epilepsy. A population-based study from Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høie, B; Mykletun, A; Sommerfelt, K; Bjørnaes, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Waaler, P E

    2005-06-01

    To study the relationship between seizure-related factors, non-verbal intelligence, and socio-economic status (SES) in a population-based sample of children with epilepsy. The latest ILAE International classifications of epileptic seizures and syndromes were used to classify seizure types and epileptic syndromes in all 6-12 year old children (N=198) with epilepsy in Hordaland County, Norwa