WorldWideScience

Sample records for hunt study norway

  1. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups.

  2. Tobacco consumption in adolescence: Age and regional trends - The Young HUNT Study, Norway (1995-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Thoen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to describe the trends of smoking and snuff consumption in adolescents in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, in the period from 1995/97 to 2006/08, with special emphasize on regional and gender differences.Method: We used data from all three waves of the Young-HUNT study, the youth part (ages 13-19 yrs of the HUNT study, Nord- Trøndelag County, Norway. Young-HUNT 1 was conducted in 1995-97 (N=9131, 90% response rate, Young-HUNT 2 in 1999-2000 (N=2808, 80% response rate and Young-HUNT 3 in 2006-08 (N=8601.Results: Fewer adolescents had tried smoking in Young-HUNT 3 (40.6% compared to Young-HUNT 1 (56.5%, while the prevalence of adolescents who had tried snuff increased in the same period from 17.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of adolescents who smoked daily or occasionally decreased between Young- HUNT 1 (girls 23.8%, boys 19.8% and Young-HUNT 3 (girls: 14.6%, boys: 12.1%, while the prevalence of daily or occasionally snuffing increased (girls: 3.4% to 13.0% and boys: 20.2% to 23.1%. This constitutes a fourfold increase of the number of young female snuff users in little more than a decade. Occasional snuff use increased most in girls while daily snuff use increased most in boys. The same tendency was seen inn all regions, but the prevalence of tobacco use varied.Conclusion: The results demonstrate a shift from cigarette smoking to snuff use in the adolescent population between 1995 and 2008. Although a decrease in cigarette smoking occurred, the increasing snuff use makes the total tobacco consumption nearly constant

  3. Cohort profile: the Health and Memory Study (HMS): a dementia cohort linked to the HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Sverre; Holmen, Jostein; Gabin, Jessica; Stordal, Eystein; Fikseaunet, Arvid; Selbæk, Geir; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Langballe, Ellen M; Tambs, Kristian

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the Health and Memory Study (HMS) of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, was primarily to establish a database suitable as basis for a large number of studies on dementia. Data from the HMS study were collected via questionnaires and examinations during the period from 1995 to 2011. The dementia panel consists of 620 participants residing in nursing homes and 920 participants referred to memory clinics of Nord-Trøndelag. Data from this dementia panel may be linked to the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT study), three large population based health surveys that took place in 1984-86 (HUNT1), 1995-97 (HUNT2) and 2006-08 (HUNT3). Data collection is complete and the participation rate in the HUNT1 for patients diagnosed with dementia was 86%. The sub-studies in the HMS are focused on examining risk factors, caregiver burden, healthcare consumption and economic consequences of treating and having dementia. Researchers interested in the HMS study are invited to contact HUNT at hunt@medisin.ntnu.no. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with myocardial infarction: the HUNT2 study in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Thorsen Vengen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL and ficolins activate the complement cascade, which is involved in atherogenesis. Based on a pilot study, we hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the MBL gene (MBL2 leading to dysfunctional protein are related to development of myocardial infarction (MI. The aim of the present study was to study polymorphisms in MBL2 and ficolin genes in relation to the risk of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the population-based HUNT Study in Norway, 57,133 persons were followed up for a first-time MI from 1995-1997 until the end of 2008. The 370 youngest MI patients were matched by age (range 29-62 years and gender to 370 controls. A younger population was selected because disease in this group might be less dependent on non-genetic risk factors. The study size was based on power calculation. Polymorphisms in MBL2 and in the genes of ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were genotyped by pyrosequencing and related to the risk of MI, estimated as odds ratios (OR. Functional haplotypes were analyzed and stringent alpha levels of significance were set by permutation testing. Variant MBL2 haplotypes causing MBL deficiency were associated with a two-fold higher risk of MI (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.29-3.24. Adjustments for conventional cardiovascular risk factors did not substantially influence the association. The ficolins were not associated with MI risk. CONCLUSION: In a young to middle aged and relatively healthy Caucasian population, MBL2 variants related to functional MBL deficiency were associated with a doubling of the risk for MI, independent of conventional risk factors. This supports that MBL deficiency may lead to increased atherosclerosis or development of vulnerable plaques.

  5. Does Death of a Family Member Moderate the Relationship between Religious Attendance and Depressive Symptoms? The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Sørensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The death of a family member is a stressful life event and can result in an increased level of depressive symptoms. Previous American research has shown inverse relationships between religious involvement and depression. European investigations are few and findings inconsistent; different contexts may have an important influence on findings. We therefore investigated the relationship between attendance at church/prayer house and depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship was moderated by the death of a close family member, in Norway. Methods. A population-based sample from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway (HUNT 3, N=37,981, was the population examined. Multiple regression and interaction tests were utilised. Results. Religious attendees had lower scores on depressive symptoms than non-attendees; death of a close family member moderated this relationship. The inverse relationships between attendance at church/prayer house and depressive symptoms were greater among those experiencing the death of an immediate family member in the last twelve months compared to those without such an experience, with men's decrease of depressive symptoms more pronounced than women's. Conclusion. In a population-based study in Norway, attendance at church/prayer house was associated with lower depressive symptoms, and the death of a close relative and gender moderated this relationship.

  6. Hearing loss and the risk of disability pension in Norway: the Hunt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Krokstad, Steinar; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-12-01

    The purpose was to explore the possible associations between measured hearing thresholds and work related disability pension granted for other medical reasons in a Norwegian population. This study included 25,537 persons from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) aged 20-54 years at baseline in HUNT1 (1984-1986) who also participated in the follow-up study 11 years later, HUNT2 (1995-1997) that included a hearing examination. Logistic regression analyses of disability pension granted up to 1996 or earlier in life were conducted for men and women separately and in two age strata. Effects of low, middle and high-frequency hearing thresholds were explored, adjusting the effects of each hearing frequency for each other. Further adjustment was made for educational level, category of work (seven categories) and general health in HUNT1. In all, 0.4% (16 of 4306) of the disability pensions granted up to 1996 was due to hearing related diagnoses. The risk of being granted disability pension up to 1996 with registered diagnoses not related to hearing loss increased with degree of loss of low-frequency hearing in young and middle-aged men and middle-aged women (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.25-2.37; OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.30; OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23). Hearing loss diagnoses are rarely reported as main causes in disability statistics, however, degree of hearing loss increased the risk of being granted with disability pensioning with diagnoses not related to hearing loss.

  7. Farmers' mental health: A longitudinal sibling comparison - the HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the mental health of farmers have been largely cross-sectional and possibly confounded. We performed a prospective cohort study as well as a sibling comparison to control for unmeasured confounding. Our study included 76 583 participants aged ≥19 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008)]. We used the Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of mental distress. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between occupation at baseline and symptoms of mental distress 11 years later and fixed effects conditional logistic regression to compare farmers with their siblings working in other occupations. In the prospective cohort study, farmers had similar odds of having symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety as other manual occupational groups. Among all the occupational groups in the study, farmers had the highest odds of having symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.55, reference group: higher grade professionals]. Compared with their farming brothers and sisters, siblings in other occupations had lower odds of having high depression (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89) and anxiety (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00) scores in 2006-2008. Farmers had higher odds of having high depression scores compared to both other occupational groups and their siblings who were not working as farmers, suggesting that working in agriculture may impact mental health.

  8. The association between vascular factors and subjective memory impairment in older people: The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Melbye Langballe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Subjective memory impairment (SMI is often considered an early sign of dementia. This study investigates the relationship between SMI and dementia-related vascular factors in older people.Method: This study was based on data from 12,255 individuals, 65 years and older, participating in the Nord-Trøndelag health study, third survey 2006-08 (HUNT3. SMI, vascular diseases, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption were self-reported. Blood pressure, cholesterol and body mass index (BMI were clinically measured. SMI were predicted using linear regression analysis.Results: Stroke and heart disease were associated with SMI. High exercise intensity was associated with less SMI. Respondents with high systolic blood pressure (SBP reported less SMI than those with moderate SBP. In men, low SBP was associated with significantly more SMI compared to those with moderate SBP. In women, moderate alcohol consumption compared to low alcohol consumption was associated with significantly more SMI.Conclusion: SMI was positively associated with stroke and heart disease in this study. For the other investigated vascular factors, we did not find strong relationships with SMI. However, for preventive and treatment purposes, it is noteworthy that high exercise intensity and high systolic blood pressure was associated with less SMI in both genders.

  9. Associations of Insomnia Symptoms With Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: The HUNT Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauan, Marianne; Strand, Linn B; Laugsand, Lars E

    2016-10-11

    Although elevated heart rate and blood pressure might represent biologically plausible links for the association of insomnia symptoms with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), few large studies have investigated the associations of insomnia symptoms with these factors. Our aim was to investigate the associations of self-reported insomnia symptoms with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate in a large population-based study. Self-reported information on insomnia symptoms, including sleep initiation problems, frequent awakening and early awakenings during night, and measurements of resting heart rate and blood pressure were collected from a total of 50,806 men and women who participated in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT-3) in 2006-2008. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, established CVD risk factors, and snoring or breathing pauses. Compared to participants reporting none of the insomnia symptoms, those having all three insomnia symptoms several times a week had lower diastolic blood pressure (-0.80 [95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14] mmHg, p = 0.02), lower systolic blood (-1.69 [95% CI: -2.76 to -0.63) mmHg, p heart rate (0.83 [95% CI: 0.11 to 1.55] beats/minute, p = 0.02). We found a modest positive association of insomnia symptoms with resting heart rate, and a modest inverse association of insomnia with blood pressure. However, the actual differences were small, and likely of less clinical importance. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether the potential link between insomnia and CVD is mediated through changes in heart rate and/or blood pressure.

  10. Physical activity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Ben M; Langhammer, Arnulf; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Chen, Yue; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the associations of physical activity and change in physical activity with incident asthma in a cohort of Norwegian adults. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study using data on self-reported physical activity from 3 waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Physical activity was reported at the first and second surveys (1985–1986 and 1995–1997). Physical activity was defined from the second survey as inactive or active and the active group was further defined as very low, low, moderate and high. Change in physical activity was defined from the first and second surveys. Setting A large population-based health survey in Norway. Participants We followed 18 894 adults over 11 years who were free from asthma at baseline in 1995–1997. Outcome Incident asthma was reported in the third survey (2006–2008). Results The cumulative incidence of asthma was 3.6% over the 11 years. The adjusted OR for incident asthma among active participants compared with inactive participants was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.34). The adjusted OR for those who were active in the first or second survey versus those who were inactive in both surveys was 0.64 (95% CI 0.34 to 1.38); however, this association was strongly attenuated in sensitivity analysis (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.38 to 3.09). Conclusions We did not observe statistically significant associations of physical activity or change in physical activity with incident asthma in adults over the 11-year follow-up. PMID:27864254

  11. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  12. Predicting VO2peak from Submaximal- and Peak Exercise Models: The HUNT 3 Fitness Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Loe

    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak is seldom assessed in health care settings although being inversely linked to cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to develop VO2peak prediction models for men and women based on directly measured VO2peak from a large healthy population.VO2peak prediction models based on submaximal- and peak performance treadmill work were derived from multiple regression analysis. 4637 healthy men and women aged 20-90 years were included. Data splitting was used to generate validation and cross-validation samples.The accuracy for the peak performance models were 10.5% (SEE = 4.63 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 11.5% (SEE = 4.11 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 for men and women, respectively, with 75% and 72% of the variance explained. For the submaximal performance models accuracy were 14.1% (SEE = 6.24 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 14.4% (SEE = 5.17 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 for men and women, respectively, with 55% and 56% of the variance explained. The validation and cross-validation samples displayed SEE and variance explained in agreement with the total sample. Cross-classification between measured and predicted VO2peak accurately classified 91% of the participants within the correct or nearest quintile of measured VO2peak.Judicious use of the exercise prediction models presented in this study offers valuable information in providing a fairly accurate assessment of VO2peak, which may be beneficial for risk stratification in health care settings.

  13. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m(2) higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Trace elements in early phase type 2 diabetes mellitus-A population-based study. The HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ailin Falkmo; Simić, Anica; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Midthjell, Kristian; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder

    2017-03-01

    Differences in trace elements levels between individuals with type 2 diabetes and controls have been reported in several studies in various body fluids and tissues, but results have been inconsistent. In order to examine trace element levels in the early phase of type 2 diabetes, we investigated the association between whole blood levels of 26 trace elements and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed, screening-detected type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted as a case-control study nested within the third survey of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 Survey). Among participants without previously known diabetes, 128 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in people with a high diabetes risk score (FINDRISC≥15), and frequency-matched for age and sex with 755 controls. Blood samples were analyzed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between trace element levels and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes were evaluated with multivariable conditional logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, education, income, smoking and family history of diabetes. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased across tertiles/quartiles for cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, silver and zinc, and decreased with increasing quartiles of bromine (Ptrendzinc in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Leisure-time physical activity and disability pension: 9 years follow-up of the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimland, M S; Vie, G; Johnsen, R; Nilsen, T I L; Krokstad, S; Bjørngaard, J H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension, as well as risk of disability pension because of musculoskeletal or mental disorders in a large population-based cohort. Data on participants aged 20-65 years in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 (HUNT2) were linked to the National Insurance Database. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for disability pension across physical activity categories. During a follow-up of 9.3 years and 235,657 person-years, 1266 of 13,823 men (9%) and 1734 of 14,531 women (12%) received disability pension. Compared with individuals in the inactive group, those in the highly active group had a 50% lower risk of receiving disability pension (HR for men: 0.50, 0.40-0.64; women: 0.50, 0.39-0.63). After comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, the risk remained 32-35% lower (HR for men: 0.68, 0.53-0.86; women: 0.65, 0.51-0.83). The associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders than mental disorders. In summary, we observed strong inverse associations between leisure-time physical activity and disability pension. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity may be important for occupational health in reducing disability pension.

  16. Reading and writing difficulties in adolescence and later risk of welfare dependence. A ten year follow-up, the HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmen Turid L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Welfare dependence and low work participation among young people have raised concern in many European countries. Reading and writing difficulties (RWD might make young people vulnerable to work integration problems and welfare dependence through negative influences on education and health. Our main objective of this study was to examine if RWD in adolescence affected the risk of welfare dependence in young adulthood. Methods Baseline information on self-reported RWD, health and family was obtained for 8950 school-attending adolescents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, participating in the Young-HUNT1 survey, 1995-97. All individuals were linked to biological parents to identify siblings and parental education from national registers. Welfare dependence was assessed by the reception of social benefits (medical and economic from the national social insurance database (1998-2007. Only long-term benefits (> 180 days were included. Results The adolescents who reported RWD at baseline were more likely to receive medical or social benefits during follow-up compared with those who did not report RWD. In girls with RWD, the adjusted 5-year risk (at age 24 to 28 for receiving medical benefits was 0.20 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.26, compared with 0.11 (0.09-0.12 in girls without RWD. In boys the corresponding risks were 0.13 (0.09-0.17 and 0.08 (0.07-0.09. Conclusions The associations between RWD in adolescence and welfare dependence later in life suggest that increased attention should be paid to these problems when discussing the public health aspects of work integration, since there might be a potential for prevention.

  17. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik Reidar; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-01-01

    Background Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. Methods This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006–08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-pe...

  18. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-06-10

    Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.

  19. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangul Vegar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Methods Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3, we included 1869 individuals (838 males participating in Young-HUNT (1995–97, aged 13–19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006–08, aged 23–31. Self-reported physical activity (PA, mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, total cholesterol (TC, HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers. Results Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC

  20. Being Normal Weight but Feeling Overweight in Adolescence May Affect Weight Development into Young Adulthood—An 11-Year Followup: The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenraad Cuypers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]. Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a “healthy” body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.

  1. Medical benefits in young Norwegians and their parents, and the contribution of family health and socioeconomic status. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Kristine; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; De Ridder, Karin A A; Westin, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Krokstad, Steinar

    2013-07-01

    Family and intergenerational perspectives might contribute to a better understanding of why young people in many European countries experience work impairment and end up being dependent on public benefits for life sustenance. The aim of this cohort study was to explore the relationship between the receipt of medical benefits in parents and their young adult offspring and the contributions of family health and family socioeconomic status. Baseline information on the health of 7597 adolescents and their parents who participated in the HUNT Study 1995-1997 was linked to national registers to identify long-term receipt of medical benefits for parents (1992-1997) and adolescents as they entered adulthood (1998-2008). We used logistic regression to explore the association between parent and offspring receipt of medical benefits, adjusting for family health and socioeconomic status. Among adolescents, 13% received medical benefits from age 20-29. Adolescents whose parents had received medical benefits (26%) were more likely to receive such benefits themselves from age 20-29 compared with adolescents without benefit-receiving parents (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.86-2.49). Adjustment for family health reduced this estimate considerably (to OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99), whereas adjustment for family socioeconomic status had less impact. Adolescents whose parents receive medical benefits enter adult working life with an elevated risk of health-related work exclusion. Family health vulnerability appears to be a key to understanding this association, suggesting that more attention to intergenerational continuities of health could be a way to prevent welfare dependence in future generations.

  2. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-11-02

    Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995-97) aged 20-61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25,521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  4. Mid-Norway power study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    This report documents the results of a four months study by Shell in relation to the request from the Petroleum and Energy Minister to evaluate the viability of developing a gas fired power plant in the Nyhamna area. The power plant sizes studied are 50, 200, 430 and 860 MW nominal output, both with and without a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facilities and with an earliest start up of 2014. The power supply and demand balance is evaluated to investigate the case for building a power plant depending on demand development in the mid-Norway region. The report concludes that there is a deficit in the region which will probably be addressed through a combination of planned measures, including the planned 400 MW capacity transmission line (Oerskog to Fardal) and temporary power plants at Tjebegodden and Nyhamna together with an assumed new 2 TWh/yr capacity small hydro and wind power projects. However, a commercial sized power plant (400 MW or larger) could provide a more robust means of supply as well as provide the potential for further demand growth. The study has evaluated technical and commercial concepts for the different sized power plants with considerable experience drawn from Shell's earlier involvement in the Halten CO{sub 2} project. Order of magnitude cost estimates have been developed based on the current market outlook, for the power plant cases and the associated carbon capture facilities, including CO{sub 2} transportation pipeline and disposal wells. The carbon capture design has been based on state of the art amine technology. An economic model was developed specifically for this study for a power plant using a range of assumptions for gas, electricity and carbon credit prices. The model includes optimisation of income based on positive 'sparkspread'. The conclusion from the evaluations shows that there is a substantial gap between the likely economics and the economics that would be required for a commercial company to make an

  5. The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhammer Arnulf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.

  6. Social and spatial patterns of obesity diffusion over three decades in a Norwegian county population: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokstad, Steinar; Ernstsen, Linda; Sund, Erik R; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Langhammer, Arnulf; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Holmen, Jostein; Thoen, Håvard; Westin, Steinar

    2013-10-19

    In order to develop effective preventive strategies, knowledge of trends in socioeconomic and geographical differences in risk factor levels is important. The objective of this study was to examine social and spatial patterns of obesity diffusion in a Norwegian population during three decades. Data on adults aged 30-69 years from three cross-sectional health surveys eleven years apart in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway, HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) were utilized. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of obesity. Height and weight were measured clinically. Age standardized prevalences, absolute prevalence differences and ratios, prevalence odds ratios for BMI and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated. Multilevel statistical models were fitted for analysing geographical patterns. The prevalence of obesity was systematically higher in groups with lower socio-economic status and increased successively in all groups in the population during the three decades. The relative socioeconomic inequalities in obesity measured by level of education did not change substantially in the period. In HUNT1 (1984-86) obesity was most prevalent among low educated women (14.1%) and in HUNT3 (2006-08) among low educated men (30.4%). The RII for men changed from 2.60 to 1.91 and 2.36 in HUNT1, HUNT2 and HUNT3. In women the RIIs were 1.71, 2.28 and 2.30 correspondingly. However, the absolute obesity prevalence inequalities increased, and a geographical diffusion from central to distal districts was observed from HUNT2 to HUNT3. The prevalence of obesity increased in all socioeconomic groups in this Norwegian adult county population from the 1980ies up to present time. The data did not suggest increasing relative inequalities, but increasing absolute socioeconomic differences and a geographical diffusion towards rural districts. Public health preventive strategies should be oriented to counteract the obesity epidemic in the

  7. Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Naess, Marit; Langhammer, Arnulf; Forsmo, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women’s fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. Methods This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study—a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20–49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). Results Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). Conclusion Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles. PMID:26291617

  8. Interpersonal violence and overweight in adolescents: the HUNT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stensland, Synne; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2014-01-01

    Aims:Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are major public health challenges associated with psychosocial adversity and unfavourable lifestyle. Exposure to interpersonal violence, such as sexual abuse, violence and bullying, could represent precursors, accelerating or sustaining factors. Methods: The Young-HUNT 3 study, 2006–2008, is a population-based, cross-sectional, cohort study of Norwegian youth that includes self-report data on exposure to interpersonal violence; pube...

  9. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  10. Anxiety, depression and behavioral problems among adolescents with recurrent headache: the Young-HUNT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are

  11. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  12. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  13. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  14. Estimating the prevalence of chronic pain: validation of recall against longitudinal reporting (the HUNT pain study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Kaasa, Stein

    2012-07-01

    Methods for classifying chronic pain in population studies are highly variable, and prevalence estimates ranges from 11% to 64%. Limited knowledge about the persistence of pain and the validity of recall questions defining chronic pain make findings difficult to interpret and compare. The primary aim of the current study was to characterize the persistence of pain in the general population and to validate recall measures against longitudinal reporting of pain. A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 study in Norway) was invited to report pain on the SF-8 verbal pain rating scale every 3 months over a 12-month period and to report pain lasting more than 6 months at 12-month follow-up. Complete data were obtained from 3364 participants. Pain reporting was highly stable (intraclass correlation 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.67), and the prevalence of chronic pain varied considerably according to level of severity and persistence: 31% reported mild pain or more, whereas 2% reported severe pain on 4 of 4 consecutive measurements. When defined as moderate pain or more on at least 3 of 4 consecutive measurements, the prevalence was 26%. Compared with the longitudinal classification, a cross-sectional measure of moderate pain or more during the last week on the SF-8 scale presented a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 84%, and a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90% when combined with a 6-month recall question. Thus pain reporting in the general population is stable and cross-sectional measures may give valid prevalence estimates of chronic pain.

  15. Insomnia Symptoms and Risk for Unintentional Fatal Injuries—The HUNT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B.; Vatten, Lars J.; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Setting: Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Participants: A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Conclusion: Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries. Citation: Laugsand LE, Strand LB, Vatten LJ, Janszky I, Bjørngaard JH. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries—the HUNT Study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1777-1786. PMID:25364073

  16. Importance of length and external diameter in left ventricular geometry. Normal values from the HUNT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støylen, Asbjørn; Mølmen, Harald E; Dalen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to study left ventricular (LV) geometry assessed by length (LVWL), external diameter (LVEDD) and relative wall thickness (RWT) in relation to age, body size and gender in healthy individuals. Methods 1266 individuals underwent echocardiography in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), Norway. Septum thickness (IVS), posterior wall thickness (LVPWd) and end-diastolic internal diameter (LVIDD) were measured in M-mode, and LVEDD was calculated as the sum. Myocardial wall lengths were measured in a straight line from apex to the mitral ring in apical views at end diastole and averaged to LVWL. RWT ([IVSd+LVPWd]/LVIDD) and the ratio between length and diameter (L/D) were calculated. Results Normal age-related and gender-related values are provided. Conventional measures conform to previous studies. All measures correlated with body surface area (BSA) (r 0.29–0.60), and BSA indexed values were higher in women. Wall thickness (WT) and LVEDD, but not LVIDD, were higher with higher age. LVWL and L/D were lower with increasing age, but L/D was independent of BSA and similar in women and men (1.41 vs 1.40). RWT correlated with BSA and age (r 0.17 and 0.34). Conclusions LV WT increases and LVWL decreases with higher age. Excluding length in LV mass calculations increasingly overestimates mass with ageing. L/D is a BSA independent measure of LV age-related geometry and may be useful as a body size independent measure in LV hypertrophy. RWT depends on body size and age, and a single cut-off value is not warranted. PMID:27752332

  17. Self-reported visual impairment, physical activity and all-cause mortality: The HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunes, Audun; Flanders, W Dana; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations of self-reported visual impairment and physical activity (PA) with all-cause mortality. This prospective cohort study included 65,236 Norwegians aged ⩾20 years who had participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995-1997). Of these participants, 11,074 (17.0%) had self-reported visual impairment (SRVI). The participants' data were linked to Norway's Cause of Death Registry and followed throughout 2012. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed using Cox regression analyses with age as the time-scale. The Cox models were fitted for restricted age groups (visual impairment, the multivariable hazard ratios among adults with SRVI were 2.47 (95% CI 1.94-3.13) in those aged <60 years, 1.22 (95% CI 1.13-1.33) in those aged 60-84 years and 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15) in those aged ⩾85 years. The strength of the associations remained similar or stronger after additionally controlling for PA. When examining the joint associations, the all-cause mortality risk of SRVI was higher for those who reported no PA than for those who reported weekly hours of PA. We found a large, positive departure from additivity in adults aged <60 years, whereas the departure from additivity was small for the other age groups. Adults with SRVI reporting no PA were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. The associations attenuated with age.

  18. Norwegian adolescents, physical activity and mental health: The Young-HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Slettbakk Fløtnes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of physical activity, sport participation, and body composition on the risk of symptoms of mental health problems in a large population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents.Methods: Analyses were based on 4-year longitudinal data from the Young-HUNT studies in Norway among 2000 adolescents aged 13-19 years. We calculated relative risks of anxiety/depression symptoms, as well as of feeling downhearted and dissatisfied with life, in relation to various measures of physical activity, sports participation, anthropometric measures, and body image.Results: Overall, physical activity was inversely associated with the risk for anxiety/depression in boys (Ptrend, 0.02, but not in girls (P-trend, 0.34. Girls who considered themselves “very fat/chubby” had a higher risk than those who considered themselves as “about the same as others” (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7, whereas in boys, the risk was highest for those who considered themselves as “thin/very thin” (RR, 1.7; 95% CI,1.1-2.7. Analysis of the risk of feeling downhearted or dissatisfied with life showed an inverse association for physical activity, both in girls and boys, and there was also a U-shaped association with body image.Conclusion: Physical activity was inversely related to risk of anxiety/depression in boys, but not in girls, and inversely related to the risk of feeling downhearted and dissatisfied with life in both genders. Body image was strongly associated with symptoms of anxiety/depression and measures of well-being, whereas body size showed no clear associations. These results suggest that self-perception of appearance are moreimportant for mental health in adolescents than the actual body composition, and that being physically active may be beneficial, especially among boys.

  19. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  20. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  1. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  2. Co-benefit and co-control studies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Sivertsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In both developing and industrialized countries, abatement of air pollution and mitigation of climate change have generally been treated separately. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change related policies are often addressed on national or supra-national level, to document that costs of policies are acceptable, especially when ancillary benefits are considered. On local or regional level, the focus until now has been mainly on air quality management, not considering benefits for climate change mitigation. Today’s air quality management requires integrated and coordinated measures where urban air quality planning includes also greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and climate change issues. The tools available for investigating scenarios for reducing local impacts and health effect improvements can also be used to investigate cost effective actions aimed at reducing GHG emissions. This approach would lead to identification of strategies that consider co-benefits of climate and local air quality measures, and would both improve the health of people and give climate benefits at best possible costs. Approaches based on an existing air quality management tool, prepared for co-benefit studies in Norway as well as plans for co-control projects in China are presented in this paper. These approaches have the potential to focus on issues not included in traditional air pollution abatement studies.

  3. Risk factors of admission for acute colonic diverticulitis in a population-based cohort study: The North Trondelag Health Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Talabani, Aras; Lydersen, Stian; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Endreseth, Birger Henning; Edna, Tom-Harald

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess risk factors of hospital admission for acute colonic diverticulitis. METHODS The study was conducted as part of the second wave of the population-based North Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2), performed in North Trondelag County, Norway, 1995 to 1997. The study consisted of 42570 participants (65.1% from HUNT2) who were followed up from 1998 to 2012. Of these, 22436 (52.7%) were females. The cases were defined as those 358 participants admitted with acute colonic diverticulitis during follow-up. The remaining participants were used as controls. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses was used for each sex separately after multiple imputation to calculate HR. RESULTS Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that increasing age increased the risk of admission for acute colonic diverticulitis: Comparing with ages 70 years, HR = 6.19, P diverticulitis. CONCLUSION The risk of hospital admission for acute colonic diverticulitis increased with increasing age, in obese individuals, in ever cigarette smoking females and in males living in rural areas. PMID:28082819

  4. Assessing gene-environment interaction effects of FTO, MC4R and lifestyle factors on obesity using an extreme phenotype sampling design: Results from the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnland, Thea; Langaas, Mette; Grill, Valdemar; Mostad, Ingrid Løvold

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the influence of age, gender and lifestyle factors on the effect of the obesity-promoting alleles of FTO and MCR4. The HUNT study comprises health information on the population of Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. Extreme phenotype participants (gender-wise lower and upper quartiles of waist-hip-ratio and BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) in the third survey, HUNT3 (2006-08), were genotyped for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO) and rs17782313 (MC4R); 25686 participants were successfully genotyped. Extreme sampling was chosen to increase power to detect genetic and gene-environment effects on waist-hip-ratio and BMI. Statistical inference was based on linear regression models and a missing-covariate likelihood approach for the extreme phenotype sampling design. Environmental factors were physical activity, diet (artificially sweetened beverages) and smoking. Longitudinal analysis was performed using material from HUNT2 (1995-97). Cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects indicated stronger genetic associations with obesity in young than in old, as well as differences between women and men. We observed larger genetic effects among physically inactive compared to active individuals. This interaction was age-dependent and seen mainly in 20-40 year olds. We observed a greater FTO effect among men with a regular intake of artificially sweetened beverages, compared to non-drinkers. Interaction analysis of smoking was mainly inconclusive. In a large all-adult and area-based population survey the effects of obesity-promoting minor-alleles of FTO and MCR4, and interactions with life style factors are age- and gender-related. These findings appear relevant when designing individualized treatment for and prophylaxis against obesity.

  5. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  6. Case study of rainfall induced debris flows in Veikledalen, Norway, 10th of June 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    On 10th of June 2011 a high amount of precipitation fell on southern Norway, the result of this precipitation in a combination with increased snowmelt cause a flood, the aspects of the flooding will not be discussed here because it has already been documented by others. The precipitation event triggered landslides in southern Norway, and caused several important roads to close. Six landslides were identified in the study area of Veikledalen; several other landslides in the area were obser...

  7. Generations, reproduction and birth outcome. A registry-based cohort study in Norway 1967-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nordtveit, Tone Irene

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Our aim was to describe associations between birth outcomes across two generations. Hypotheses were proposed about how genetic and environmental, behavioural and socioeconomic factors may act on reproduction and birth outcomes through generations. Methods. Population-based cohort studies for two generations. Data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) based on all births in Norway between 1967 and 2006 (Paper I 1967-2004), more than 2.3 million b...

  8. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (males, in November

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in November 2009.November is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  9. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Hopf Bifurcation and Limit Cycles of Railway Vehicle Hunting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Jing; Zhang Weihua; Shen Zhiyun

    1996-01-01

    The nonlinear hunting stability of railway vehicles is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The Hopf bifurcation point is determined through calculating the eigenvalues of the system linearization equations incorporating with the golden cut method. The bifurcated limit cycles are computed by use of the shooting method to solve the boundary value problem of the system differential equations. Experimental validation to the numerical results is carricd out by utilizing the full scale roller test rig.

  11. A comparative study of hepatic trace element levels in wild moose, roe deer, and reindeer from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikoren, Turid; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Lierhagen, Syverin; Handeland, Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 μg Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 μg Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 μg Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 μg Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 μg Cu/g) and reindeer (105 μg Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.

  12. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  13. Insomnia and endothelial function - the HUNT 3 fitness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn B Strand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insomnia is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined insomnia in relation to endothelial function, an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the association of insomnia with endothelial function in a large population based study of healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 4 739 participants free from known cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, cancer, and sarcoidosis, and who were not using antihypertensive medication were included in the study. They reported how often they had experienced difficulties falling asleep at night, repeated awakenings during the night, early awakenings without being able to go back to sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Endothelial function was measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD derived from the brachial artery. RESULTS: We found no consistent association between the insomnia symptoms and endothelial function in multiadjusted models, but individual insomnia symptoms may be related to endothelial function. Among women who reported early awakenings, endothelial function may be lower than in women without this symptom (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided no evidence that endothelial function, an early indicator of atherosclerosis, is an important linking factor between insomnia and CHD. Further studies are needed to explore the complex interrelation between sleep and cardiovascular pathology.

  14. Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Tamarac...

  15. Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Bosnes, Ole; Bosnes, Ingunn; Stordal, Eystein

    2017-05-09

    Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Acid precipitation--a new study from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.N.B.

    1981-07-16

    Public concern over acid rain has nowhere been more evident than in Norway, where in the mountainous regions of the south, an accelerating decline in fish stocks has led to the extinction of fish populations in an area over 13,000 km/sup 2/, with severe problems over another 20,000 km/sup 2/. This has stimulated the establishment of a major Norwegian interdisciplinary research program into the biological effects of acid precipitation, which has recently terminated after 8 years. The numerous reports published on the findings of the project have now been summarized in ''Acid precipitation - effects on forest and fish'', by Overrein, Seip, and Tollan. This summary report is briefly discussed and reviewed. (JMT)

  17. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Sara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. Methods A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995–97 (HUNT 2. Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale, anxiety (21-integer scale and depression (21-integer scale, which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. Results The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one’s partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5–0.8 in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient. A one-year increase in a couple’s average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6–1.8 in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient. There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. Conclusions We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on

  18. WILD PIG HUNTING IN PETUNGKRIONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujo Semedi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists have been studying hunting from the economic, ecological, and symbolical perspectives. The third perspective has been used to comprehend the hunting activities among the farmers of Petungkriono who have used hunting to show masculinity. Further investigation has revealed that the arena is created as a compensation for the fragile position of the local male inhabitants in the household social economic condition as connected to the matrilinear land inheritance system.

  19. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  20. Moisture in untreated, a cetylated, and furfurylated Norway spruce studied during drying using time domain NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisabeth G. Thygesen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Using time domain NMR, the moisture in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) sapwood subjected to four different treatments (never-dried, dried and remoistened, acetylated, and furfurylated) was studied during drying at 40°C, at sample average moisture contents above fiber saturation. Spin-spin relaxation time distributions were derived from CPMG...

  1. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  2. Hunting Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jishan

    2006-01-01

    @@ 4.13 million college graduates areexpected to join the job-hunting army,putting additional pressure on China'sclimbing jobless rate. Some peoplemight blame the difficulties graduatesface in finding jobs on the expandedenrolment policy, which was introducedin 1999.

  3. Hunting Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Frank

    Eleven stories describe traditional practices and true adventures of the Tlingit hunters of Southeast Alaska. The stories are accompanied by learning activities and discussion questions for students and are arranged under the headings of bear, mountain goat and deer, and seal and sea lion. Topics include hunting weapons and strategies, bravery,…

  4. Undertreatment before the award of a disability pension for mental illness: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Krokstad, Steinar; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2007-11-01

    Mental illnesses are consistently underrecognized and undertreated, leading to underestimations of the societal burden of mental illness as a contributor to disability benefit expenditures. This study examined the extent of undertreatment before disability pensions for mental illness were awarded. Norwegian National Insurance Administration data were linked to data from the HUNT-2 study, a population-based health survey, and 403 persons awarded a disability pension for mental illness in the five years before the health survey were identified. The extent of help seeking for any mental illness before the pension was awarded was examined. Of the 403 adults who were pensioned out of the workforce for a disability involving mental illness, 128 (32%, 95% confidence interval=27%-36%) reported never having sought help for any mental health problem. Although self-report of receipt of treatment is a limitation of the study, the results suggest a potential for preventing permanent work-related disability through improved access to effective treatment.

  5. Educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction incidence in Norway: a nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Igland

    Full Text Available Increasing differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality across levels of education have been reported in Norway. The aim of the study was to investigate educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence and whether such inequalities have changed during the past decade using a nationwide longitudinal study design.Data on 141 332 incident (first AMIs in Norway during 2001-2009 were obtained through the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway (CVDNOR project. Educational inequalities in AMI incidence were assessed in terms of age-standardised incidence rates stratified on educational level, incidence rate ratios (IRR, relative index of inequality (RII and slope index of inequality (SII. All calculations were conducted in four gender and age strata: Men and women aged 35-69 and 70-94 years.AMI Incidence rates decreased during 2001-2009 for all educational levels except in women aged 35-69 among whom only those with basic education had a significant decrease. In all gender and age groups; those with the highest educational level had the lowest rates. The strongest relative difference was found among women aged 35-69, with IRR (95% CI for basic versus tertiary education 3.04 (2.85-3.24 and RII (95% CI equal to 4.36 (4.03-4.71. The relative differences did not change during 2001-2009 in any of the four gender and age groups, but absolute inequalities measured as SII decreased among the oldest men and women.There are substantial educational inequalities in AMI incidence in Norway, especially for women aged 35-69. Relative inequalities did not change from 2001 to 2009.

  6. MRSA infections in Norway: A study of the temporal evolution, 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnholt, Jørgen Vildershøj; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Moen, Aina E. Fossum; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2017-01-01

    Background Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology. Methods We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR) of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs. Norwegian background and domestic vs. imported infections, stratified by age groups. Findings A total of 5289 MRSA infections were reported during the study period, of which 2255 (42·6%) were acquired in Norway, 1370 (25·9%) abroad, and 1664 (31·5%) with an unknown place of acquisition. Overall, the monthly NR increased significantly from 2006 to 2015 (+0·8% each month). The monthly increase in immigrants (+1·3%) was steeper than that in people with a Norwegian background (+0·6%). There was a significant growth (+0·4%) in the rate of domestically acquired infections, however, the NR of infections acquired abroad increased faster (+0·8%). For both imported and domestic infections, the increase occurred in persons aged < 70 years. Interpretation Our analysis suggests that immigration and importation, especially among persons aged < 40 years, represent important factors for the increasing notification rate of MRSA infections in Norway. PMID:28640901

  7. TREASURE HUNT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Chinese NGO aims to develop a model for recovering Chinese cultural treasures overseas On May 9, the first group of Chinese collectors taking part in an "Overseas Treasure Hunting Activity" arrived back in Beijing after a one-week trip to Japan. On their visit to Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka, they found about 20 rare Chinese cultural relics of significant value. Since the Opium War in 1840, large quantities of Chinese treasures have been taken abroad. According to statistics from the China ...

  8. Refugees 's experiences across a life span : a qualitative study of perceived resources and demands among Iranian refugees in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarzadeh, Solmaz

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of Iranian refugees across their life span in Norway. More specifically, the aim was to identify what resources and demands were encountered in each period of the asylum seeking, the resettlement, and the present life of Iranian refugees and how participants perceived and experienced these resources and demands. A qualitative approach, was used to capture in detail the life experiences of individuals. Nine Iranian refugees coming to Norway as asylum seekers...

  9. Register study of migrants’ hospitalization in Norway: world region origin, reason for migration, and length of stay

    OpenAIRE

    Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of migrants and refugees increase in many populations. Health planners have to consider how migration will influence demand for health care. This study explores how migrants’ geographical origin, reason for migration, and duration of residence are associated with admission rates to somatic hospitals in Norway. Methods Sociodemographic information on all individuals residing in Norway at the start of 2008 was linked to data on all admissions to somatic hospitals durin...

  10. Psychosocial factors are strongly associated with insomnia in users and nonusers of prescribed sleep medication: evidence from the HUNT3 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andenæs R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Randi Andenæs, Sølvi Helseth, Nina Misvær, Milada C Småstuen, Lis Ribu Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how neuroticism, stressful life events, self-rated health, life satisfaction, and selected lifestyle factors were related to insomnia both by sex and among users and nonusers of prescribed sleep medication (PSM.Design: Cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–2008, a population-based health survey, were linked to individual data from the Norwegian Prescription Database.Methods: Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between the selected variables and insomnia in both males and females and among subjects using and not using PSM. Individuals were considered to have a presumptive diagnosis of insomnia disorder if they reported difficulty with sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, or early morning awakening several days per week for the last 3 months. PSMs were categorized as anxiolytics or hypnotics; the dose was estimated according to defined daily dose (DDD.Results: Of the total 50,805 participants, 6,701 (13.2% used PSM. The proportions of PSM users were larger among elderly participants. Increased risk of insomnia was strongly associated with poor self-rated health and higher level of neuroticism. These associations were evident for both sexes and were similar among both users and nonusers of PSM. Low satisfaction with life was strongly related to insomnia, but only among nonusers of PSM. Increased doses of PSM were not associated with reduced likelihood of insomnia.Conclusion: Insomnia is a problem among both users and nonusers of PSM and is associated with psychosocial factors. Our findings suggest that successful treatment for sleep problems should take individual variation into account, such as age

  11. Association between blood pressure measures and recurrent headache in adolescents: cross-sectional data from the HUNT-Youth study

    OpenAIRE

    Tronvik, Erling; Zwart, John-Anker; Hagen, Knut; Dyb, Grete; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between blood pressure and headache in youth has not been explored and the objective of the present study was to provide data on this association in an adolescent population. Cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey, the Young-HUNT study, on 5,847 adolescents were used to evaluate the association between blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial and pulse pressure) and recurrent headache, including migraine and tension-type headache. Increasing pulse...

  12. Anxiety and depressive symptoms related to parenthood in a large Norwegian community sample: the HUNT2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Wallander, Jan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The study compared anxiety and depression prevalence between parents and non-parents in a society with family- and parenthood-friendly social politics, controlling for family status and family history, age, gender, education and social class. METHODS: All participants aged 30-49 (N = 24,040) in the large, non-sampled Norwegian HUNT2 community health study completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. RESULTS: The slightly elevated anxiety and depression among non-parents...

  13. The relationship between headache and religious attendance (the Nord-Trøndelag health study-HUNT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tronvik, Erling; Sørensen, Torgeir; Linde, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Religious belief can be used as a pain coping strategy. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between headache and religious activity using prospective data from a large population-based study. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study used data from two consecutive surveys...... activity. Frequent religious attendees (fRA) (used as a marker of stronger religious belief than average) were defined as those who had been to church/prayer house at least once monthly during the last six months. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for known potential confounders, individuals...... in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 2 and 3) performed in 1995-1997; and 2006-2008. Among the 51,383 participants aged ≥ 20 years who answered headache questions at baseline, 41,766 were eligible approximately 11 years later. Of these, 25,177 (60%) completed the question in HUNT 3 regarding religious...

  14. Sources of knowledge used by intensive care nurses in Norway: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringsvor, Heidi B; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Berland, Astrid

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the sources of knowledge that intensive care nurses used in their daily nursing practice. It used a qualitative design based on four focus group interviews with 20 intensive care nurses, from four intensive care units in Norway. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. The following condensed meaning units were identified: research, theoretical knowledge, experiential knowledge, work place culture, clinical expertise and patient participation. This study illustrates the complexity and variety of the knowledge bases of intensive care nurses. Despite some variation in nurses' familiarity with research literature, nursing interventions found by research to be useful were given priority, and research affected daily practice through changes in guidelines and procedures.

  15. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  16. General and abdominal obesity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Ben; Langhammer, Arnulf; Romundstad, Pål; Chen, Yue; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference define general obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. While high BMI has been established as a risk factor for asthma in adults, waist circumference has seldom been investigated. To determine the association between BMI, waist circumference and incident asthma in adults, we conducted a prospective study (n=23,245) in a population living in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway in 1995-2008. Baseline BMI and waist circumference were measured and categorised as general obesity (BMI ≥30.0 kg·m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥88 cm in females and ≥102 cm in males). Incident asthma was self-reported new-onset cases during an 11-yr follow-up period. Odds ratios for asthma associated with obesity were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. General obesity was a risk factor for asthma in females (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.52-2.52) and males (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59). In females, after additional adjustment for BMI, abdominal obesity remained a risk factor for asthma development (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05). Abdominal obesity seems to increase the risk of incident asthma in females in addition to BMI, indicating that using both measures of BMI and waist circumference in females may be a superior clinical assessment for asthma risk than any measure alone.

  17. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  18. Immigrants’ use of emergency primary health care in Norway: a registry-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandvik Hogne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emigrants are often a selected sample and in good health, but migration can have deleterious effects on health. Many immigrant groups report poor health and increased use of health services, and it is often claimed that they tend to use emergency primary health care (EPHC services for non-urgent purposes. The aim of the present study was to analyse immigrants’ use of EPHC, and to analyse variations according to country of origin, reason for immigration, and length of stay in Norway. Methods We conducted a registry based study of all immigrants to Norway, and a subsample of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Iraq and Somalia, and compared them with native Norwegians. The material comprised all electronic compensation claims for EPHC in Norway during 2008. We calculated total contact rates, contact rates for selected diagnostic groups and for services given during consultations. Adjustments for a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were done by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Immigrants as a whole had a lower contact rate than native Norwegians (23.7% versus 27.4%. Total contact rates for Polish and German immigrants (mostly work immigrants were 11.9% and 7.0%, but for Somalis and Iraqis (mostly asylum seekers 31.8% and 33.6%. Half of all contacts for Somalis and Iraqis were for non-specific pain, and they had relatively more of their contacts during night than other groups. Immigrants’ rates of psychiatric diagnoses were low, but increased with length of stay in Norway. Work immigrants suffered less from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, but had more injuries and higher need for sickness certification. All immigrant groups, except Germans, were more often given a sickness certificate than native Norwegians. Use of interpreter was reduced with increasing length of stay. All immigrant groups had an increased need for long consultations, while laboratory tests were most often used

  19. [Role of modern hunting in wildlife management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi; Zhou, Xue-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Although modern hunting is different from traditional hunting, it remains a controversial topic. A large number of scholars in the world have studied the effects of hunting on wild animals from an ecological, ethological, genetic and economic aspect. This paper reviewed the role of controlled hunting in wildlife production from population dynamics, behavior, genetic and a phenotypic level, and by integrating a large number of domestic and foreign literatures. Many studies have shown that regulated hunting is an efficient approach in managing wildlife populations, which could be beneficial to the recovery and possibly even growth of wildlife populations. Meanwhile, over-exploitation or inappropriate hunting could affect the sex, birth and mortality ratios of wildlife populations, change foraging behavior and socio-spatial behavior and generate artificial selection of their genotype and phenotype. To apply modern hunting properly to wildlife management, China could learn from successful hunting programs implemented in many other countries, which are based on ecological and economic principles to formulate scientifically determined hunting quotas and set up an effective system to regulate and manage the hunting of wildlife populations.

  20. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.

  1. Attitudes towards recreational hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    What is the attitude of the general public towards hunting? As a recreational activity, hunting stands apart from other forms of outdoor recreation like birdwatching in that it involves the pursuit and killing of wild animals. Today, it is in a tight spot. It has been criticized from animal ethics......, hunting organized as a group hunt, and single day leases of hunting grounds. Respondents with a “mutualist” wildlife value orientation had the most negative attitude towards hunting (39%), “distanced” respondents were the most indifferent (44%), and “utilitarians” were the most positive (61%). Assessing...

  2. Modelling the effects of climate change on the energy system-A case study of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, Pernille, E-mail: Pernille.Seljom@ife.no [Department of Energy Systems, Institute of Energy Technology (IFE), PO Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun [Department of Energy Systems, Institute of Energy Technology (IFE), PO Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Haugen, Jan Erik [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, PO Box 43 Blindern, NO-0313 Oslo (Norway); Meir, Michaela; Rekstad, John [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (UiO), PO Box 1072 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Jarlset, Thore [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), PO Box 5091 Majorstua, NO-0301 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of this work is to identify the effects of climate change on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. Changes in the future wind- and hydro-power resource potential, and changes in the heating and cooling demand are analysed to map the effects of climate change. The impact of climate change is evaluated with an energy system model, the MARKAL Norway model, to analyse the future cost optimal energy system. Ten climate experiments, based on five different global models and six emission scenarios, are used to cover the range of possible future climate scenarios and of these three experiments are used for detailed analyses. This study indicate that in Norway, climate change will reduce the heating demand, increase the cooling demand, have a limited impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro-power potential. The reduction of heating demand will be significantly higher than the increase of cooling demand, and thus the possible total direct consequence of climate change will be reduced energy system costs and lower electricity production costs. The investments in offshore wind and tidal power will be reduced and electric based vehicles will be profitable earlier. - Highlights: > Climate change will make an impact on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. > An impact is lower Norwegian electricity production costs and increased electricity export. > Climate change gives earlier profitable investments in electric based vehicles. > Climate change reduces investments in offshore wind and tidal power.

  3. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study Among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.

  4. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  5. Cursed sites and cursed practices, treasure hunting at haunted places: A case study from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumarianou Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain why such a widespread practice as treasure hunting is related to narratives of cursed and haunted places. The reasons are many: a the intermingling of official and folk religious elements in Orthodox Christian tradition that also serves the Greek nationalistic idea of continuity from Antiquity, b the existence of evil spirits gives sufficient justification to despair, failure and ill health, by aligning otherness with misfortune, c such narratives constitute patterns of behaviour, as they offer the terms for comprehensive oral dialogue between notions of good and evil, religious beliefs and skepticism.

  6. Stochastics of environmental and financial economics Centre of Advanced Study, Oslo, Norway, 2014-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Nunno, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings offer a selection of peer-reviewed research and survey papers by some of the foremost international researchers in the fields of finance, energy, stochastics and risk, who present their latest findings on topical problems. The papers cover the areas of stochastic modeling in energy and financial markets; risk management with environmental factors from a stochastic control perspective; and valuation and hedging of derivatives in markets dominated by renewables, all of which further develop the theory of stochastic analysis and mathematical finance. The papers were presented at the first conference on “Stochastics of Environmental and Financial Economics (SEFE)”, being part of the activity in the SEFE research group of the Centre of Advanced Study (CAS) at the Academy of Sciences in Oslo, Norway during the 2014/2015 academic year.

  7. Communicable disease control in a migrant seasonal workers population: a case study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, P J; Vold, L; Aavitsland, P

    2005-03-01

    Reliable data on the health status of migrant seasonal workers in Europe is scarce. Access to public health care for this population depends on national regulations, and their legal status in host countries. In this manuscript we describe a case study of a salmonellosis outbreak that occurred in Norway, and highlight the difficulties encountered in applying control measures in a population of seasonal migrant farm workers. Surveillance and control of infectious diseases need to be supported by legislation which makes implementation of control measures possible. Efforts have been made to improve the rights for migrants in Europe with regard to healthcare, but seasonal migrant workers still remain largely outsiders where these measures are concerned. Special attention should be given to this disadvantaged group in terms of social rights and healthcare. Preparedness plans should be improved to deal with contagious pathogens involving the seasonal migrant population.

  8. Gammaherpesvirus infection in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): a cross-sectional serological study in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses that primarily affect domestic and wild ruminants. A serological study using cELISA was performed on a total of 3339 apparently healthy semi-domesticated reindeer (R. t. tarandus) from Finnmark County, Norway, sampl...

  9. Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

  10. Job satisfaction among hospital doctors in Norway and Germany. A comparative study on national samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf G

    2009-07-01

    To compare German and Norwegian hospital doctors on 10 different aspects of job satisfaction and general life satisfaction. The study population consisted of a representative sample of 1,448 German and 484 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 33-65 years (n = 1,932), selected from nationwide postal surveys in 2006. The questionnaires contained items on subjective life satisfaction and the validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale. Each item was scored on a seven-point Likert scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). A mean sum score was calculated, ranging from 1 to 7. Regression analyses and generalized-linear-model-estimated means controlled for age and gender with 95% confidence intervals were used for comparison. Norwegian hospital doctors had significantly higher life satisfaction (mean 5.31 vs. 5.15) and job satisfaction (mean 5.09 vs. 4.55) than their German colleagues. Item by item, doctors in Norway were significantly more content with seven aspects of their work: "Freedom to choose your own methods of working'' (mean 5.00 vs. 4.72), "opportunities to use your skills'' (mean 5.49 vs. 5.01), "physical working conditions'' (mean 4.62 vs. 4.08), "recognition you get for good achievements'' (mean 4.83 vs. 4.26), "overall job situation'' (mean 5.57 vs. 4.64), "work hours'' (mean 4.39 vs. 3.39), "ate of pay'' (mean 4.70 vs. 3.70). General life satisfaction and age, but not gender, were positively associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Norwegian hospital doctors enjoy a higher level of life and job satisfaction than German hospital doctors. The most likely reasons for this are more acceptable work hours, salary and control over clinical work in Norway.

  11. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Diaz

    Full Text Available As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations.This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique.Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37-0.39 for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57-0.59 for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66-0.68 for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages.Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of multimorbidity patterns for some immigrant groups

  12. Radiotherapy for bone metastases - Practice in Norway 1997 - 2007. A national registry-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sande Laugsand, Tonje [European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Univ. of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)], e-mail: tonje.laugsand@ntnu.no; Kaasa, Stein; Lund, Jo-Aasmund [European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Univ. of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Univ. Hospital of Trondheim, Trondheim (Norway); Romundstad, Paal [Dept. of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Univ. of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Johannesen, Tom Boerge [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-08-15

    Numerous randomised clinical trials have shown that the efficacy of single fraction radiotherapy for metastatic bone pain corresponds to that of multiple fractions of radiotherapy for the majority of patients. It is not clear to which extent single fraction radiotherapy has been implemented into clinical practice. Material and methods: A Norwegian national registry based study was conducted, including all radiotherapy schedules of 8 Gy x 1 and 3 Gy x 10 delivered to bone metastases in 1997 - 2007. Binomial regression analyses were used to study whether treatment centre, primary diagnosis, anatomical region irradiated, age, sex, and travel distance, were associated with the choice of fractionation. Results: A total of 14 380 radiotherapy episodes were identified. During the period 31% of the treatments were delivered as 8 Gy x 1. The proportion of single fraction treatments increased from 16% in 1997 to 41% in 2007. There were substantial differences in the proportion of single fraction treatments between the treatment centres (range 25 - 54%). These differences persisted after adjustment for sex, age, primary diagnosis, anatomical region, and travel distance. Conclusions: The study demonstrates an under utilisation of single fraction treatment for bone metastases in Norway during the study period.

  13. The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benítez-López, A.; Alkemade, R.; Schipper, A.M.; Ingram, D.J.; Verweij, P.A.; Eikelboom, J.A.J.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Hunting is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but a systematic large-scale estimate of hunting-induced defaunation is lacking. We synthesized 176 studies to quantify hunting-induced declines of mammal and bird populations across the tropics. Bird and mammal abundances declined by 58% (25 to

  14. Smartphone, an Evolving Payment Gateway: A Study on Mobile Payment and Related Infrastructures in Norway and China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Monan

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to study mobile payment in Norway and China from the perspective of infrastructures. To gain a deep understanding of mobile payment, my journey started from the understanding of preceding payment methods and relevant monetary history. Using the Information infrastructure theory as a theoretical framework, analytical model was invented for classifying and comparing technologies from an infrastructure point of view. An intrinsic multi-case study is conducted in th...

  15. Parental divorce in late adolescence does not seem to increase mental health problems: a population study from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2013-01-01

    Background Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. Methods In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n =...

  16. Education of the deaf in Australia and Norway: a comparative study of the interpretations and applications of inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Merv; Ohna, Stein Erik; Hjulstadt, Oddvar

    Inclusion is a term and process that is culturally, politically, medically, philosophically, and historically relative in its interpretations in the education of the deaf. The present study is a comparative analysis of two substantially different education systems for deaf students, those of Norway and Australia. The study objective was to elucidate the sources of some of these differences and to examine the interpretations and applications of inclusion that are inherent in the two countries' policies and practices, and in recent research evaluations. Significant differences exist in the national contexts and in the manner in which inclusion is understood and applied in Norway and Australia; the study reports on recent research examinations of inclusion in the two countries and finds that the transitions from policy to practice seem questionable.

  17. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    This study analyses whether and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs in Mid-Norway are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. We also investigate if the electricity marked model EMPS gives us reasonable results also when run in a multi simulation mode without recalibration. Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by the weather, the system for energy production and transport, and by market mechanisms. In the region of Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities. Due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid the region experiences a deficit of electricity. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower and the transmission grid within and out of the region will probably be extended, so this situation might change. In addition climate change scenarios for the region agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain instead of snow, as well as we expect slightly higher wind speed and more storms during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity demand. EMPS is a tool for forecasting and planning in electricity markets, developed for optimization and simulation of hydrothermal power systems with a considerable share of hydro power. It takes into account transport constraints and hydrological differences between major areas or regional subsystems. During optimization the objective is to minimize the expected cost in the whole system subject to all constraints. Incremental water values (marginal costs for hydropower) are computed for each area using stochastic dynamic programming. A heuristic approach is used to treat the interaction between areas. In the simulation part of the model total system costs are minimized week by week for each climate scenario in a linear problem formulation. A detailed

  18. The epidemiology of medical emergency contacts outside hospitals in Norway - a prospective population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of epidemiological knowledge on medical emergencies outside hospitals in Norway. The aim of the present study was to obtain representative data on the epidemiology of medical emergencies classified as "red responses" in Norway. Method Three emergency medical dispatch centres (EMCCs) were chosen as catchment areas, covering 816 000 inhabitants. During a three month period in 2007 the EMCCs gathered information on every situation that was triaged as a red response, according to The Norwegian Index of Medical Emergencies (Index). Records from ground ambulances, air ambulances, and the primary care doctors were subsequently collected. International Classification of Primary Care - 2 symptom codes (ICPC-2) and The National Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) Score System were given retrospectively. Results Total incidence of red response situations was 5 105 during the three month period. 394 patients were involved in 138 accidents, and 181 situations were without patients, resulting in a total of 5 180 patients. The patients' age ranged from 0 to 107 years, with a median age of 57, and 55% were male. 90% of the red responses were medical problems with a large variation of symptoms, the remainder being accidents. 70% of the patients were in a non-life-threatening situation. Within the accident group, males accounted for 61%, and 35% were aged between 10 and 29 years, with a median age of 37 years. Few of the 39 chapters in the Index were used, A10 "Chest pain" was the most common one (22% of all situations). ICPC-2 symptom codes showed that cardiovascular, syncope/coma, respiratory and neurological problems were most common. 50% of all patients in a sever situation (NACA score 4-7) were > 70 years of age. Conclusions The results show that emergency medicine based on 816 000 Norwegians mainly consists of medical problems, where the majority of the patients have a non-life-threatening situation. More focus on the emergency system outside hospitals

  19. Intensive care nurses' encounters with multicultural families in Norway: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Sevald; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units in Norwegian hospitals. Immigrants from non-Western countries make up 6.1% of the population in Norway. When a person suffers an acute and critical illness the person's family may experience crises. Nurses' previous experiences of caring for culturally diverse patients and families is challenging due to linguistic differences, and contextual factors. Family members should be near their critically ill spouse to reduce the impact from a frightening environment. The study had a descriptive exploratory qualitative design with a retrospective focus. Three multistage focus groups consisting of 16 nurses were set up in intensive care units. The data were analysed by interpretive content analysis. The theme 'Cultural diversity and workplace stressors' emerged. This theme was characterised by four categories: 'impact on work patterns'; 'communication challenges'; 'responses to crises' and 'professional status and gender issues'. In conclusion, nurses' perception of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units seem to be ambiguous with challenges in interaction, and the nurses' stressors emanating from linguistic, cultural and ethnic differentness. To diminish cultural diversity the nurses strive for increased knowledge of different cultures and religions.

  20. The impact of different prioritisation policies on waiting times: case studies of Norway and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januleviciute, Jurgita; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Kaarboe, Oddvar; Holmås, Tor Helge; Sutton, Matt

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the distributional consequences of two different waiting times initiatives, one in Norway, and one in Scotland. The primary focus of Scotland's recent waiting time reforms, introduced in 2003, and modified in 2005 and 2007, has been on reducing maximum waiting times through the imposition of high profile national targets accompanied by increases in resources. In Norway, the focus of the reform introduced in September 2004, has been on assigning patients referred to hospital a maximum waiting time based on disease severity, the expected benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the treatment. We use large, national administrative datasets from before and after each of these reforms and assign priority groups based on the maximum waiting times stipulated in medical guidelines. The analysis shows that the lowest priority patients benefited most from both reforms. This was at the cost of longer waiting times for patients that should have been given higher priority in Norway, while Scotland's high priority patients remained unaffected.

  1. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks.

  2. Bioaccumulation of PCBs from microplastics in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus): An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Lisa I; De Witte, Bavo; Vethaak, A Dick; Hostens, Kris; Leslie, Heather A

    2017-07-25

    Plastic debris acts as a sorbent phase for hydrophobic organic compounds like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Chemical partitioning models predict that the ingestion of microplastics with adsorbed chemicals in the field will tend not to result in significant net desorption of the chemical to the organism's tissues. This is expected due to the often limited differences in fugacity of the chemical between the indigestible plastic materials and the tissues, which are typically already exposed in the same environment to the same chemicals as the plastic. However laboratory trials validating these model predictions are scarce. In this study, PCB-loaded microplastics were offered to field-collected Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) during in vivo feeding laboratory experiments. Each ingestion experiment was repeated with and without loading a mixture of ten PCB congeners onto plastic microspheres (MS) made of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) with diameters of either 500-600 μm or 6 μm. We observed that the presence of chemicals adsorbed to ingested microplastics did not lead to significant bioaccumulation of the chemicals in the exposed organisms. There was a limited uptake of PCBs in Nephrops tail tissue after ingestion of PCB-loaded PE MS, while almost no PCBs were detected in animals exposed to PS MS. In general, our results demonstrated that after 3 weeks of exposure the ingestion of plastic MS themselves did not affect the nutritional state of wild Nephrops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lay Explanatory Models of Depression and Preferred Coping Strategies among Somali Refugees in Norway. A Mixed-Method Study

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Markova; Gro Mjeldheim Sandal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. ...

  4. Dietary patterns in the population living in the Sami core areas of Norway--the SAMINOR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brustad, Magritt; Parr, Christine L; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify dietary patterns and to investigate their association with selected life-style and demographic factors, ethnicity and self-perceived health. Study design. Population-based cross-sectional design, using food frequency questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 12,811 subjects aged 36-79 years participated from the municipalities in Norway where more than 5-10% of the population reported to be Simi in the 1970 Census, in addition to some selected districts. The data were colle...

  5. Hunting for Ecological Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…

  6. Final Report : Relative Effectiveness of No. 4 Steel and No. 6 Lead Shot for Hunting Ducks : The Lacassine Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report analyzes the effectiveness of No. 4 and No. 6 lead shot for hunting ducks on Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge between 1980 and 1982. Relative...

  7. Linking slope stability and climate change: the Nordfjord region, western Norway, case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasskog, K.; Waldmann, N.; Ariztegui, D.; Simpson, G.; Støren, E.; Chapron, E.; Nesje, A.

    2009-12-01

    Valleys, lakes and fjords are spectacular features of the Norwegian landscape and their sedimentary record recall past climatic, environmental and glacio-isostatic changes since the late glacial. A high resolution multi-proxy study is being performed on three lakes in western Norway combining different geophysical methods and sediment coring with the aim of reconstructing paleoclimate and to investigate how the frequency of hazardous events in this area has changed through time. A very high resolution reflection seismic profiling revealed a series of mass-wasting deposits. These events, which have also been studied in radiocarbon-dated cores, suggest a changing impact of slope instability on lake sedimentation since the late glacial. A specially tailored physically-based mathematical model allowed a numerical simulation of one of these mass wasting events and related tsunami, which occurred during a devastating rock avalanche in 1936 killing 74 persons. The outcome has been further validated against historical, marine and terrestrial information, providing a model that can be applied to comparable basins at various temporal and geographical scales. Detailed sedimentological and geochemical studies of selected cores allows characterizing the sedimentary record and to disentangle each mass wasting event. This combination of seismic, sedimentary and geophysical data permits to extend the record of mass wasting events beyond historical times. The geophysical and coring data retrieved from these lakes is a unique trace of paleo-slope stability generated by isostatic rebound and climate change, thus providing a continuous archive of slope stability beyond the historical record. The results of this study provide valuable information about the impact of climate change on slope stability and source-to-sink processes.

  8. The User Perspective in Performance Auditing--A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Arnfrid; Rydland, Lars Tore; Amundsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The user perspective is an important contextual factor for Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs). This article provides examples from performance audits in Norway and explores why the user perspective has become important in performance audit practices. It shows that user satisfaction can be employed as a key performance indicator of effectiveness of…

  9. Towards a New Professionalism in School? A Comparative Study of Teacher Autonomy in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoy, Ingrid; Homme, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Local autonomy is one of the recent trends in reforms of compulsory education. However, several parallel trends such as individual accountability, performance and visibility challenge professional autonomy. The aim of this article is to explore how accountability and transparency reforms affect teacher autonomy in Norway and Sweden. The authors…

  10. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  11. Issues and Problems in the Organization of Children's Sport: A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirstad, Berit; Waddington, Ivan; Safvenbom, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the organization of children's sport in Norway. More specifically, the paper sets out to examine (i) the changing pattern of relationships, and in particular the changing balance of conflict and cooperation, between the several organizations with responsibility for children's sport, and (ii) how sport for children…

  12. Effects of Fishing Tourism in a Coastal Municipality: a Case Study from Risør, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Moksness

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recreational fishing has become an important part of the Norwegian tourist industry. The coastal municipality of Risør, southern Norway, is considering further development of its marine fishing tourism to increase local economic benefits, but they also want to limit negative effects on the local ecosystem and for the inhabitants. We developed an integrated model with ecosystem and socioeconomic components to evaluate these trade-offs. We chose the status of the local cod (Gadus morhua stock as an indicator of the marine ecosystem condition. Cod is a highly valued species in tourist and recreational fisheries throughout Norway, and also supports an important commercial fishery. Five management scenarios are presented and compared to the status quo. Our research illustrates how an ecosystem model can assist local authorities in making rational coastal zone management decisions. Our study also revealed a lack of management instruments for local authorities to develop natural resource-based tourism in Norway, and thus the need for the municipality to cooperate and coordinate with other management units and levels.

  13. North Atlantic Ocean deep-water processes and depositional environments: A study of the Cenozoic Norway Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline Hjelstuen, Berit; Andreassen, Elin V.

    2015-04-01

    Despite the enormous areas deep-water basins occupy in modern oceans, our knowledge about them remains poor. At depths of greater than 2000 m, the Cenozoic Norway Basin in the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, is one such basin. Interpretation of 2D multichannel seismic data suggests a three-stage evolution for the Norway Basin. (1) Eocene-Pliocene. This time period is characterised by deposition of ooze-rich sediments in a widening and deepening basin. (2) Early-Middle Pleistocene. A significant shift in sedimentary processes and depositional environments took place in the Early Pleistocene. Mass failures initiated on the Norwegian continental slope, and three Early and Middle Pleistocene slide debrites, with maximum thicknesses of 600 m and sediment volumes of up to 25000 km3, were deposited. With ages estimated at c. 2.7-1.7 Ma, 1.7-1.1 Ma and 0.5 Ma, these slide deposits are among the largest identified worldwide, and among the oldest mapped along the entire NE Atlantic continental margin. (3) Late Pleistocene-Present. Since c. 0.5 Ma the Norway Basin has been effected by glacigenic debris flows, the Storegga Slide and hemipelagic-glacimarine sedimentation. These sedimentary processes were active during a time of repeated shelf-edge ice advances along the NE Atlantic continental margin. This study shows that deep-water basins represent dynamic depositional environments reflecting regional tectonic and climatic changes trough time.

  14. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  15. Effects of uncertainties in hydrological modelling. A case study of a mountainous catchment in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Steinsland, Ingelin; Johansen, Stian Solvang; Petersen-Øverleir, Asgeir; Kolberg, Sjur

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we explore the effect of uncertainty and poor observation quality on hydrological model calibration and predictions. The Osali catchment in Western Norway was selected as case study and an elevation distributed HBV-model was used. We systematically evaluated the effect of accounting for uncertainty in parameters, precipitation input, temperature input and streamflow observations. For precipitation and temperature we accounted for the interpolation uncertainty, and for streamflow we accounted for rating curve uncertainty. Further, the effects of poorer quality of precipitation input and streamflow observations were explored. Less information about precipitation was obtained by excluding the nearest precipitation station from the analysis, while reduced information about the streamflow was obtained by omitting the highest and lowest streamflow observations when estimating the rating curve. The results showed that including uncertainty in the precipitation and temperature inputs has a negligible effect on the posterior distribution of parameters and for the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency for the predicted flows, while the reliability and the continuous rank probability score (CRPS) improves. Less information in precipitation input resulted in a shift in the water balance parameter Pcorr, a model producing smoother streamflow predictions, giving poorer NS and CRPS, but higher reliability. The effect of calibrating the hydrological model using streamflow observations based on different rating curves is mainly seen as variability in the water balance parameter Pcorr. When evaluating predictions, the best evaluation scores were not achieved for the rating curve used for calibration, but for rating curves giving smoother streamflow observations. Less information in streamflow influenced the water balance parameter Pcorr, and increased the spread in evaluation scores by giving both better and worse scores.

  16. Sympathetic innervation of the spleen in male Brown Norway rats: a longitudinal aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sam D; Silva, Dorian; Millar, Ashley Brooke; Molinaro, Christine A; Carter, Jeff; Bassett, Katie; Lorton, Dianne; Garcia, Paola; Tan, Laren; Gross, Jonathon; Lubahn, Cheri; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan; Bellinger, Denise L

    2009-12-11

    Aging leads to reduced cellular immunity with consequent increased rates of infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmunity in the elderly. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates innate and adaptive immunity via innervation of lymphoid organs. In aged Fischer 344 (F344) rats, noradrenergic (NA) nerve density in secondary lymphoid organs declines, which may contribute to immunosenescence with aging. These studies suggest there is SNS involvement in age-induced immune dysregulation. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally characterize age-related change in sympathetic innervation of the spleen and sympathetic activity/tone in male Brown Norway (BN) rats, which live longer and have a strikingly different immune profile than F344 rats, the traditional animal model for aging research. Splenic sympathetic neurotransmission was evaluated between 8 and 32 months of age by assessing (1) NA nerve fiber density, (2) splenic norepinephrine (NE) concentration, and (3) circulating catecholamine levels after decapitation. We report a decline in NA nerve density in splenic white pulp (45%) at 15 months of age compared with 8-month-old (M) rats, which is followed by a much slower rate of decline between 24 and 32 months. Lower splenic NE concentrations between 15 and 32 months of age compared with 8M rats were consistent with morphometric findings. Circulating catecholamine levels after decapitation stress generally dropped with increasing age. These findings suggest there is a sympathetic-to-immune system dysregulation beginning at middle age. Given the unique T-helper-2 bias in BN rats, altered sympathetic-immune communication may be important for understanding the age-related rise in asthma and autoimmunity.

  17. HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located

  18. Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Cozzi

    Full Text Available Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using data from hyenas monitored before and during carcass availability via GPS radio-collars and camera traps, we investigated changes in ranging and feeding behavior over time. Carcass availability influenced hyenas' ranging behavior for an average of 10-12 days, after which their movements returned to patterns observed before carcass availability. In particular, we observed an increased spatial clustering of locations and reduced speeds (up to 15% less between successive locations with carcass availability. Consistent feeding at carcasses during the first two weeks was typical, and some individuals fed from elephant carcasses for as long as 50 days. The impact and conservation value of hunting are often assessed based solely on the effects on the hunted species. Our results show that hunting remains can influence other species and suggest that such extra food could have important effects on critical life history processes and ultimately population dynamics. We recommend conservationists and wildlife managers evaluate management strategies and hunting practices regarding carcass disposal in order to incorporate the potential collateral impacts of hunting on non-hunted species in the same community.

  19. Effects of Trophy Hunting Leftovers on the Ranging Behaviour of Large Carnivores: A Case Study on Spotted Hyenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabriele; Börger, Luca; Hutter, Pascale; Abegg, Daniela; Beran, Céline; McNutt, J. Weldon; Ozgul, Arpat

    2015-01-01

    Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using data from hyenas monitored before and during carcass availability via GPS radio-collars and camera traps, we investigated changes in ranging and feeding behavior over time. Carcass availability influenced hyenas’ ranging behavior for an average of 10–12 days, after which their movements returned to patterns observed before carcass availability. In particular, we observed an increased spatial clustering of locations and reduced speeds (up to 15% less) between successive locations with carcass availability. Consistent feeding at carcasses during the first two weeks was typical, and some individuals fed from elephant carcasses for as long as 50 days. The impact and conservation value of hunting are often assessed based solely on the effects on the hunted species. Our results show that hunting remains can influence other species and suggest that such extra food could have important effects on critical life history processes and ultimately population dynamics. We recommend conservationists and wildlife managers evaluate management strategies and hunting practices regarding carcass disposal in order to incorporate the potential collateral impacts of hunting on non-hunted species in the same community. PMID:25793976

  20. Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabriele; Börger, Luca; Hutter, Pascale; Abegg, Daniela; Beran, Céline; McNutt, J Weldon; Ozgul, Arpat

    2015-01-01

    Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using data from hyenas monitored before and during carcass availability via GPS radio-collars and camera traps, we investigated changes in ranging and feeding behavior over time. Carcass availability influenced hyenas' ranging behavior for an average of 10-12 days, after which their movements returned to patterns observed before carcass availability. In particular, we observed an increased spatial clustering of locations and reduced speeds (up to 15% less) between successive locations with carcass availability. Consistent feeding at carcasses during the first two weeks was typical, and some individuals fed from elephant carcasses for as long as 50 days. The impact and conservation value of hunting are often assessed based solely on the effects on the hunted species. Our results show that hunting remains can influence other species and suggest that such extra food could have important effects on critical life history processes and ultimately population dynamics. We recommend conservationists and wildlife managers evaluate management strategies and hunting practices regarding carcass disposal in order to incorporate the potential collateral impacts of hunting on non-hunted species in the same community.

  1. Spring hunting of European roe deer in Vojvodina: Age structure and trophy value

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Trophies of the European roe deer are the main source of income in Vojvodina hunting grounds managed by hunting associations. The specificity of site conditions (agro-biotope) aggravates the hunting, especially regarding the assessment of the age and trophy value, so the best males are hunted before they reach the culmination of trophy development. The aim of this study is to define reliably the age of males in spring hunting and to analyze their trophy structure. The study results show that,...

  2. The association between school class composition and suicidal ideation in late adolescence: Findings from the Young-HUNT 3 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalen Joakim D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have explored the association between social context and suicidal ideation using multilevel models. This study examines how suicidal ideation in adolescence is related to school class composition. Methods Data were obtained from the Young-HUNT 3 study (2006–2008, a population study of adolescents attending secondary school in the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The final sample included 2923 adolescents distributed among 379 school classes in 13 schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the contribution of various factors at the individual and school class levels. Results The results indicate that 5.3 percent of the variation in suicidal ideation can be attributed to differences between school classes. However, a substantial part of this variation can be explained by an unequal distribution of students at risk as a result of individual factors. After controlling for individual-level variables, the results show a higher probability of suicidal ideation in school classes having higher proportions of girls as well as in those following a vocational education programme. Conclusion Targeting classes that either follow a vocational education programme or have a high proportion of girls can be an effective approach to intervention because such classes may include a greater number of students at risk for having suicidal thoughts compared to classes with a high proportion of boys or classes following a general education programme.

  3. ATTAC Norway : an anthropological study of the Norwegian branch of a transnational social movement

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Monica Sydgård

    2002-01-01

    ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens) is a fast growing transnational movement that mainly aims towards democratic control over the financial markets. ATTAC was founded in France in 1998 and has now spread to more than 35 countries in Europe, Latin- America, Asia and Africa. ATTAC Norway (ATTAC Norge/Noreg) was formally established in of May 2001. The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate the identification processes that legitimat...

  4. Understanding resistance to change in different national context : a comparative study between China and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yonglian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has objective of finding out how the phenomenon of resistance to change manifest differently in China and Norway. Research probes the national context of these two countries in terms of culture, political-economic framework and corporate governance mechanism. Taking the national paradigms as departure point, analysis focuses on their influence on ordinary people’s attitude and behavior towards change, to be specific, why employees choose to oppose change, how the...

  5. The introduction of algebra : comparative studies of textbooks in Finland, Norway, Sweden and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardtsen, Jorunn

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is a comparative analysis of textbooks from four different countries, Finland, Norway, Sweden and USA (California), concerning the introduction of algebra. The topic for this research was inspired and initiated in connection with the international project VIDEOMAT, which I have been involved with since its planning phase. Following the design of this project, two mathematics textbooks of two consecutive grades from the four different countries have been analyzed. The focus ...

  6. Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Kvaløy

    Full Text Available The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally.Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97 and HUNT3 (2006-08 surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood.The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10(-4, adj. P = 0.015. DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980 was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10(-3, adj. P = 0.019 and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10(-4, adj. P = 0.003. When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5 was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10(-7, adj. P = 0.001. Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important.DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to

  7. Equality of Opportunity in Education: A Case Study of Chile and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pedro GARCES-VOISENAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One of the most important determinants of the distribution of income and life opportunities is education. Increasing levels of formal schooling have contributed to raise standards of living and eradicate extreme poverty worldwide in recent decades. However, inequality in the distribution of income –which is the single most important indicator of relative access to material well-being- remains stubbornly high in most regions of the world. In this paper, I focus on two countries, Chile and Norway, which have very different educational systems, and follow the same analytical methodology of Schütz et al (2008 to detect differences in equality of opportunity between the two countries. In a slight variation, the family-background effect here is represented by a larger number of variables –including household income-, in order to pinpoint the specific characteristics that it comprises in each country. Surprisingly, I find that the family-background effect is stronger in Norway than in Chile, which would denote a potential higher inequality. However the higher achievement inequality in Chile is determined by other factors, which need urgent reform.Keywords. Chile, Norway, education, inequality, equality of opportunity.JEL. O15, I24, I25.

  8. Treatment preferences of deep carious lesions in mature teeth: Questionnaire study among dentists in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangvaltaite, Lina; Kundzina, Rita; Eriksen, Harald M; Kerosuo, Eero

    2013-11-01

    To investigate preferred treatment methods of deep carious lesions in mature permanent teeth among dentists in Northern Norway. The survey included all 437 general dental practitioners in Northern Norway working in the private or the public dental health service. The participants received an invitation with a radiograph and a clinical picture of a deep carious lesion in a mature permanent tooth and a questionnaire asking about demographic characteristics and their preferred treatment methods related to different clinical deep caries diagnoses. The response rate was 56%. There was an over-representation of publicly employed dentists among the respondents; otherwise no systematic bias related to non-responders was detected. In the absence of carious exposure and no symptoms, total caries excavation was the preferred treatment method (49%) followed by stepwise excavation (45%). In cases of deep caries and no exposure with symptoms, the preferences were equally distributed between root canal treatment (39%) and stepwise excavation (38%). In the presence of carious exposure but no symptoms, the preferred treatment method was direct pulp capping (51%) and in carious exposure with symptoms root canal treatment was the preferred treatment method (91%). There is no uniform treatment method of deep carious lesions among dentists in Northern Norway.

  9. The epidemiology of traumatic cervical spine fractures: a prospective population study from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredø Hege Linnerud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of traumatic cervical spine fractures (CS-fx in a general population. Background The incidence of CS-fx in the general population is largely unknown. Methods All CS-fx (C0/C1 to C7/Th1 patients diagnosed with cervical-CT in Southeast Norway (2.7 million inhabitants during the time period from April 27, 2010-April 26, 2011 were prospectively registered in this observational cohort study. Results Over a one-year period, 319 patients with CS-fx at one or more levels were registered, constituting an estimated incidence of 11.8/100,000/year. The median age of the patients was 56 years (range 4–101 years, and 68% were males. The relative incidence of CS-fx increased significantly with age. The trauma mechanisms were falls in 60%, motorized vehicle accidents in 21%, bicycling in 8%, diving in 4% and others in 7% of patients. Neurological status was normal in 79%, 5% had a radiculopathy, 8% had an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI, 2% had a complete SCI, and neurological function could not be determined in 6%. The mortality rates after 1 and 3 months were 7 and 9%, respectively. Among 319 patients, 26.6% were treated with open surgery, 68.7% were treated with external immobilization with a stiff collar and 4.7% were considered stable and not in need of any specific treatment. The estimated incidence of surgically treated CS-fx in our population was 3.1/100,000/year. Conclusions This study estimates the incidence of traumatic CS-fx in a general Norwegian population to be 11.8/100,000/year. A male predominance was observed and the incidence increased with increasing age. Falls were the most common trauma mechanism, and SCI was observed in 10%. The 1- and 3-month mortality rates were 7 and 9%, respectively. The incidence of open surgery for the fixation of CS-fx in this population was 3.1/100,000/year. Level of evidence This is a prospective observational cohort study and level II-2

  10. Which young physicians are satisfied with their work? A prospective nationwide study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Oivind

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated personality and medical school variables in regard to job satisfaction after graduation. It is of great importance to investigate these factors because this information may be used in the recruitment/admittance process to medical schools, and possibly to improve medical education. Methods We conducted a nationwide prospective 10-year follow-up study of medical students at all medical schools in Norway. They were approached three times during their medical training: at very beginning (T1, in the middle (T2, in the last year of medical school (T3, and then four years after graduation (T4. There were 210 participants who responded on all four occasions. Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Scale, which was used as the outcome variable. In addition to conducting multiple regression analysis for the total sample, we also conducted similar analyses separately for men and women. Results Among the demographic and personality variables, 'having a father who is a physician' and 'interpersonal functioning (being withdrawn' were significantly associated with job satisfaction at T4. Among the medical school variables, 'well-being with peers', 'identification with the doctor's role at the end of curriculum', 'perceived medical school stress', and 'perceived clinical skills' were significantly associated with job satisfaction. In the multiple regression analysis only 'father as a physician' and 'perceived clinical skills' yielded an independent influence on the outcome variable in separate analyses within sub-groups of male and female students, 'perceived clinical skills' differentiated among woman only, while 'well-being with peers' differentiated only among men. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that the young physicians who are the most satisfied in their work are those whose fathers are physicians and those who have a high level of perceived clinical skills at the end of

  11. Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garåsen Helge

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of new tuberculosis cases in Norway occur among immigrants from high incidence countries. On arrival to the country all asylum seekers are screened with Mantoux test and chest x-ray aimed to identify cases of active tuberculosis and, in the case of latent tuberculosis, to offer follow-up or prophylactic treatment. We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment and follow-up of tuberculosis infection and disease in a cohort of asylum seekers. Methods Asylum seekers ≥ 18 years who arrived at the National Reception Centre from January 2005 to June 2006, were included as the total cohort. Those with a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm or positive x-ray findings were included in a study group for follow-up. Data were collected from public health authorities in the municipality to where the asylum seekers had moved, and from hospital based internists in case they had been referred to specialist care. Individual subjects included in the study group were matched with the Norwegian National Tuberculosis Register which receive reports of everybody diagnosed with active tuberculosis, or who had started treatment for latent tuberculosis. Results The total cohort included 4643 adult asylum seekers and 97.5% had a valid Mantoux test. At least one inclusion criterion was fulfilled by 2237 persons. By end 2007 municipal public health authorities had assessed 758 (34% of them. Altogether 328 persons had been seen by an internist. Of 314 individuals with positive x-rays, 194 (62% had seen an internist, while 86 of 568 with Mantoux ≥ 15, but negative x-rays (16% were also seen by an internist. By December 31st 2006, 23 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (prevalence 1028/100 000 and another 11 were treated for latent infection. Conclusion The coverage of screening was satisfactory, but fewer subjects than could have been expected from the national guidelines were followed up in the community and referred to an internist. To

  12. Hyperemesis gravidarum in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway – a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanes Åse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valid registration of medical information is essential for the quality of registry-based research. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting, weight loss and electrolyte imbalance starting before 22nd gestational week. Given the fact that HG is a generally understudied disease which might have short- and long- term health consequences for mother and child, it is of importance to know whether potential misclassification bias influences the results of future studies. We therefore assessed the validity of the HG-registration in the in Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN using hospital records. Methods The sample comprised all women registered in MBRN with HG and who delivered at Ullevål and Akershus hospitals in 1.1.-31.3.1970, 1.4.-30.6.1986, 1.7.-30.9.1997 and 1.10.-31.12.2001. A random sample of 10 women per HG case, without HG according to MBRN, but who delivered during the same time periods at the same hospitals was also collected. The final sample included 551 women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV were estimated using strict and less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, indicating severe and mild HG, respectively. Hospital journals were used as gold standard. Results Using less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 83.9% (95% CI: 67.4-92.9, 96.0% (95% CI: 93.9-97.3, 55.3% (95% CI: 41.2-68.6 and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6, respectively. For strict diagnostic criteria, being hospitalised due to HG the corresponding values were 64% (95% CI: 38.8-87.2, 92% (95% CI: 90.2-94.6, 18.6% (95% CI: 10.2-31.9 and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6. Conclusions The results from our study are comparable to previous research on disease registration in MBRN, and show that MBRN can be considered valid for mild HG but not for severe HG.

  13. An implementation study of the crisis resolution team model in Norway: Are the crisis resolution teams fulfilling their role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Sonia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of crisis resolution teams (CRTs is part of the national mental health policy in several Western countries. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of CRTs and their patients, explore the differences between CRTs, and examine whether the CRTs in Norway are organized according to the international CRT model. Methods The study was a naturalistic study of eight CRTs and 680 patients referred to these teams in Norway. Mental health problems were assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS, Global Assessment of Functioning Scales (GAF and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10. Results None of the CRTs operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week (24/7 availability or had gate-keeping functions for acute wards. The CRTs also treated patients who were not considered for hospital admission. Forty per cent of patients waited more than 24 hours for treatment. Fourteen per cent had psychotic symptoms, and 69% had affective symptoms. There were significant variations between teams in patients' total severity of symptoms and social problems, but no variations between teams with respect to patients' aggressive behaviour, non-accidental self-injury, substance abuse or psychotic symptoms. There was a tendency for teams operating extended hours to treat patients with more severe mental illnesses. Conclusions The CRT model has been implemented in Norway without a rapid response, gate-keeping function and 24/7 availability. These findings indicate that the CRTs do not completely fulfil their intended role in the mental health system.

  14. Study on nutritional potential of trees and complementary food during winter - spring, summer - autumn in hunting fund no.20 Higeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Craciunescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation of complementary food needs for animal species, which live in the hunting fund no.20 Higeg. This calculation is absolutely necessary to be predetermined and properly distributed, so that in winter, the animals have required amount of food to survive, in order to develop and reproduce normally. Supplementary food is given only in winter, especially when snow prevents hunting to feed. Complementary food comes, as the name implies, to complement the very poor diet of the animals. The amount of complementary food is based on its quality of each species.

  15. Risk Factors for Sporadic Domestically Acquired Campylobacter Infections in Norway 2010-2011: A National Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacDonald

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food- and waterborne infection in Norway. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway in order to identify areas where control and prevention measures could be improved.A national prospective case-control study of factors associated with Campylobacter infection was conducted from July 2010 to September 2011. Cases were recruited from the Norwegian Surveillance System of Communicable Diseases (MSIS. Controls were randomly selected from the Norwegian Population Registry. Cases and controls were mailed a paper questionnaire with a prepaid return envelope. Univariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted for all exposures. A final parsimonious multivariable model was developed using regularized/penalized logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated.A total of 995 cases and 1501 controls were included in the study (response proportion 55% and 30%, respectively. Exposures that had significant increases in odds of Campylobacter infection in multivariable analysis were drinking water directly from river, stream, or lake (OR: 2.96, drinking purchased bottled water (OR: 1.78, eating chicken (1.69, eating meat that was undercooked (OR: 1.77, eating food made on a barbecue (OR: 1.55, living on a farm with livestock (OR: 1.74, having a dog in the household (OR: 1.39, and having household water supply serving fewer than 20 houses (OR: 1.92.Consumption of poultry and untreated water remain important sources of Campylobacter infection in Norway, despite ongoing control efforts. The results justify the need for strengthening education for consumers and food handlers about the risks of cross-contamination when preparing poultry and with consuming raw or undercooked chicken. The public should also be reminded to take precautions when drinking untreated water in nature and ensure continued vigilance in order to protect and maintain the quality of

  16. Do organisational constraints explain the use of restraint? A comparative ethnographic study from three nursing homes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øye, Christine; Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes; Mekki, Tone Elin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate (1) what kind of restraint is used in three nursing homes in Norway and (2) how staff use restraint under what organisational conditions. Restraint use in residents living with dementia in nursing homes is controversial, and at odds with fundamental human rights. Restraint is a matter of hindering residents' free movement and will by applying either interactional, physical, medical, surveillance or environmental restraint. Previous research has identified use of restraint related to individual resident characteristics such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. This model is embedded in an overall mixed-method education intervention design study called Modelling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in dementia care (MEDCED), applying ethnography postintervention to examine the use of restraint in 24 nursing homes in Norway. Based on restraint diversity measured in the trial, ethnographic investigation was carried out in three different nursing homes in Norway over a 10-month period to examine restraint use in relation to organisational constraints. Several forms of restraint were observed; among them, interactional restraint was used most frequently. We identified that use of restraint relates to the characteristics of individual residents, such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. However, restraint use should also be explained in relation to organisational conditions such as resident mix, staff culture and available human resources. A fluctuating and dynamic interplay between different individual and contextual factors determines whether restraint is used - or not in particular situations with residents living with dementia. Educational initiatives targeting staff to reduce restraint must be sensitive towards fluctuating organisational constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Eirin Holde

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design: Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79 and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world. Results: From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3% people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3% were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3% and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%. There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001 and education level (p < 0.001. The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion: The TOHNN

  18. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Tromstannen-Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20-79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20-34, 35-49, 50-64 and 65-79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20-34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. The TOHNN study has the potential to generate new knowledge on a wide range of oral health

  19. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luz (Ana); M. Guèze (Maximilien); J. Paneque-Gálvez (Jaime); J. Pino (Joan); M. MacIá (Manuel); M. Orta-Martínez (Martí); V. Reyes-Garciá (Victoria)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife

  20. HUNTING PHENOMENON STUDY OF RAILWAY CONVENTIONAL TRUCK ON TANGENT TRACKS DUE TO CHANGE IN RAIL WHEEL GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIM H. ALI ABOOD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical dynamic model of railway conventional truck is presented with 12 degrees of freedom equations of motion. The presented dynamic system consists of conventional truck attached with two single wheelsets in which equipped with lateral, longitudinal and vertical linear stiffness and damping primary and secondary suspensions. This investigated model governs lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll yaw angles of each of wheelset and the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll and yaw angle of conventional truck. Kalker's linear theory has been adopted to evaluate the creep forces which are introduced on rail wheels due to rail wheel contact. The railway truck mathematical equations of motion are solved using fourth order Rung-Kutta method which requires that differential equations to be transformed into a set of first order differential equations. The transformed state space equations are simulated with computer aided simulation to represent the dynamic behavior and time solution of dynamics of conventional truck moving on tangent tracks. Influences of the geometric parameters of the rail wheel such as wheel conicity and nominal rolling radius on the dynamic stability of the system are investigated. It is concluded that the geometric parameters of the rail wheel have different effects on the hunting instability and on the change of the critical hunting velocity of the system. In addition critical hunting velocity of rail trucks is proportional inversely with the square roots of wheel conicity but high critical hunting velocity obtained by increasing the nominal rolling radius of the rail wheel.

  1. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Clausen, S.; Dahl, E.L.; Flagstad, Oe.; Follestad, A.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Halley, D.; Hanssen, F.; Hoel, P.L.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Johnsen, L.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Steinheim, Y.; Vang, R.

    2008-12-15

    The NFR-funded project Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway is about to end its second year of activities, and as such it has reached a stage of intensive fieldwork and data collection. Monitoring of bird mortality within the wind power plant area takes place on a weekly basis assisted by special trained dogs. So far in 2008 (as of December 1) 9 white-tailed sea eagles (WTSE) and 7 willow ptarmigans have been recorded. Another 4 common snipes, 2 hooded crow, 2 golden plovers, 2 greylag goose, one grey heron, one kittiwake, one herring/greater black-backed gull, one merlin and one red- shank have been collected; i.e. a total of 31 victims so far in 2008. The willow ptarmigan population have been monitored in spring and autumn and 6 willow ptarmigans were trapped and radio-tagged (in January-March). The trapping efforts have now been resumed and another 8 birds have been radio-tagged (up to December 1). A new activity on eagle owl, funded by the Directorate for Nature Management, is included in the project. The objectives with this project are, among other things, to collect mortality data using radio telemetry. However additional funding is needed. With respect to waders and smaller passerines the field work in 2008 was performed at a planned wind power plant site in Northern Norway, Andoeya, to document the breeding bird status prior to the construction. The project still concentrates heavily on WTSE research, and this summer another 9 nestlings were equipped with radio transmitters, of which 3 have quit transmitting. Feather samples for DNA-analyses are collected, and when the samples of 6 WTSE adult collision victims recorded in 2008 were compared ta 2006/2007 samples, it turned out that they matched two territorial birds with territories approximately 1.5 and 8 km from the wind power plant, respectively. A Master Thesis at the University of Science and Technology in Trondheim (NTNU) focusing possible

  2. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    Full Text Available While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health.We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index.Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43 for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27 for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63.The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not

  3. Spring hunting of European roe deer in Vojvodina: Age structure and trophy value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophies of the European roe deer are the main source of income in Vojvodina hunting grounds managed by hunting associations. The specificity of site conditions (agro-biotope aggravates the hunting, especially regarding the assessment of the age and trophy value, so the best males are hunted before they reach the culmination of trophy development. The aim of this study is to define reliably the age of males in spring hunting and to analyze their trophy structure. The study results show that, in the majority of the study hunting grounds, spring (May hunting was performed correctly and professionally, and the age structure and trophy value of the males were very favorable. The males that are considered as mature for shooting account for one half of the total spring hunting, while their percentage is even higher in the so-called "trophy hunting" (60.7%, which results in a high percentage of trophies in medals (21.5%.

  4. Marked effects of intracranial volume correction methods on sex differences in neuroanatomical structures: a HUNT MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Wolfgang S Pintzka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are

  5. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Olafia Tomasdottir

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE. Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood.We included 37 612 participants, 30-69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006-8. Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from 'very good' to 'very difficult'. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups.Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a 'good' or 'very good' childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% 'difficult' and 0.8% 'very difficult'. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63-7.11. Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05 as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups.We found a general, graded association between self-reported childhood difficulties on the one hand and multimorbidity, individual

  6. 捕猎%HUNTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆(译)

    2012-01-01

    Do you think it' s right to hunt wild animals? Why? Why not? What are the different reasons modern humans hunt? Have you ever been hunting? If so, what was it like? If not, what do you think it would be like? Do you think it' s more ethical to kill animals for meat yourself rather than buying pre-packaged meat from a shop?%在过去。捕猎是很常见的事。因为这是人类的求生手段。如今。捕猎已成为一种休闲运动项目,对此。有人支持。有人反对。你是怎么看的呢?欢迎来信与我们分享。

  7. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  8. Anxiety mediates the effect of smoking on insomnia in people with asthma: evidence from the HUNT3 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andenæs R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Randi Andenæs,1 Carolyn E Schwartz1–31Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2DeltaQuest Foundation, Inc., Concord, 3Departments of Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Tufts University Medical School, Boston, MA, USAObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate factors related to insomnia in a cohort of people with asthma.Design: This secondary analysis utilized cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, a population-based health survey (n=50,807.Participants: We used self-reported data from 1,342 men and women with a physician-confirmed asthma diagnosis ranging in age from 19.5 to 91 years.Measurements: Data on sleep, lifestyle variables (smoking and exercise, anxiety, and depression were included. An insomnia scale and asthma impact scale were constructed using factor analysis. Hierarchical series of multiple regression models were used to investigate direct and mediational relationships between the study variables and insomnia.Results: The hierarchical models revealed significant independent contributions of female sex, higher age, not exercising, asthma impact, anxiety, and depression on insomnia (R2=25.2%. Further, these models suggested that the impact of smoking on insomnia was mediated by anxiety, and that the beneficial impact of exercise was mitigated by depression symptoms.Conclusion: Smokers with asthma have more insomnia, and this relationship may be mediated by anxiety. Further, people with asthma who experience depression symptoms are less likely to benefit from physical exercise as a method to enhance sleep quality. Our findings would suggest that helping smokers to manage their anxiety and depression through behavioral methods may reduce their insomnia symptoms, and enable them to engage in other health-enhancing pursuits, such as physical exercise.Keywords: insomnia, asthma, anxiety

  9. TOLOSA HUNT SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS is a painful ophthalmoplegi a caused by nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus or superior orbi tal fissure. The syndrome consists of periorbital or hemicranial pain, combined with ipsilat eral ocular motor nerve palsies, oculosympathetic paralysis, and sensory loss in the distribution of the ophthalmic and occasionally the maxillary division of the trigemin al nerve. Although they have relapsing and remitting course, they respond promptly to systemic co rticosteroid therapy. The diagnostic eponym Tolosa-Hunt syndrome has been applied to these patients and it is this entity which forms the basis of this review

  10. Case Study: Crazy about Cryptids--An Ecological Hunt for Nessie and Other Legendary Creatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This hybrid case has three overarching and interrelated goals. First, it can be used to familiarize students with a range of ecological concepts and terms. Second, it is intended to engage students in…

  11. Case Study: Crazy about Cryptids--An Ecological Hunt for Nessie and Other Legendary Creatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This hybrid case has three overarching and interrelated goals. First, it can be used to familiarize students with a range of ecological concepts and terms. Second, it is intended to engage students in…

  12. Geoethical considerations in early warning of flooding and landslides: Case study from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoli, Graziella; Kleivane Krøgli, Ingeborg; Dahl, Mads Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Nykjær Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs the national early warning systems (EWS) for flooding and shallow landslides in Norway. The two EWSs have been operational since the late 1980s and 2013 respectively, and are based on weather forecasts, various hydro-meteorological prognosis and expert evaluation. Daily warning levels and related information to the public is prepared and presented through custom build internet platforms. In natural hazards sciences, the risk of a specific threat is defined as the product of hazard and consequence. In this context an EWS is intended to work as a mitigation measure in lowering the consequence and thus the risk of the threat. One of several factors determining the quality of such an EWS, is how warnings are communicated to the public. In contrary to what is common practice in some other countries, experts working with EWS in Norway cannot be held personally responsible for consequences of warnings being issued or not. However, the communication of warnings for flooding and landslides at NVE still implies many considerations of geoethical kind. Which are the consequences today for the forecasters when erroneous warning messages are sent because based on a poorly documented analysis? What is for example the most responsible way to describe uncertainties in warnings issued? What is the optimal compromise between avoiding false alarms and not sending out a specific warning? Is it responsible to rely on a "gut feeling"? Some authorities complain in receiving warning messages too often. Is it responsible to begin notifying these, only in cases of "high hazard level" and no longer in cases of "moderate hazard level"? Is it acceptable to issue general warnings for large geographical areas without being able to pinpoint the treat on local scale? What responsibility lies within the EWS in recommending evacuation or other practical measures to local authorities? By presenting how early warnings of flooding and

  13. Current status of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray-Pedersen, B; Jenum, P

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports previous epidemiologic data obtained in Norway and describes briefly the design of a prospective study of primary toxoplasma infection which will be carried out among pregnant women in Norway in the period 1992-1994.

  14. The Makah Whale Hunt: A Social Studies Symposium in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein-Grove, Matthew; Hamel, Fred L.

    2013-01-01

    The conversation starts quickly as two students come together in a 10th grade social studies classroom, half-way through a role play activity a symposium begins. Both students are sporting "Hello, my name is…" stickers on their shirts, and each attempts to speak in character. One represents an anti-whaling activist. Helen stands holding…

  15. The Makah Whale Hunt: A Social Studies Symposium in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein-Grove, Matthew; Hamel, Fred L.

    2013-01-01

    The conversation starts quickly as two students come together in a 10th grade social studies classroom, half-way through a role play activity a symposium begins. Both students are sporting "Hello, my name is…" stickers on their shirts, and each attempts to speak in character. One represents an anti-whaling activist. Helen stands holding…

  16. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in consumer products in Norway - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzke, Dorte; Olsson, Elisabeth; Posner, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in numerous industrial and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water and oil. A broad variety of PFAS have been introduced into the Norwegian market through industrial use (e.g. via fire fighting foams and paints) as well as in treated customer products such as textiles and coated paper. Our present knowledge of the exact chemical PFAS compositions in preparations using perfluorinated compounds is limited. This lack of knowledge means that it is difficult to provide an accurate assessment of human exposure to these compounds or to the amount of waste that may contain treated products. It is a growing concern that these potentially harmful compounds can now be found throughout the global environment. Samples of consumer products and preparations were collected in Norway, with supplemental samples from Sweden. In 27 of the 30 analyzed consumer products and preparations a number of polyfluorinated substances that were analyzed were detected but this does not exclude the occurrence of unknown PFAS. Notable was that perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), which has been strictly regulated in Norway since 2007, was found in amounts close to or exceeding the EU regulatory level in 4 of the 30 analyzed products, all within the leather or carpet product groups. High amounts of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were found in waterproofing agents, carpets and textiles, consistent with earlier findings by Fiedler et al. (2010). The presence of PFAS in a broad range of consumer products can give rise to a constant diffuse human exposure that might eventually result in harm to humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted

  18. Childhood otitis media is associated with dizziness in adulthood: the HUNT cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Hoffman, Howard J; Engdahl, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between otitis media in childhood and dizziness in adulthood. Longitudinal, population-based cohort study of 21,962 adults (aged 20-59 years, mean 40) who completed a health questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study was conducted. At 7, 10 and 13 years of age, the same individuals underwent screening audiometry in a longitudinal school hearing investigation. Children found with hearing loss underwent an ear, nose and throat specialist examination. Adults diagnosed with childhood chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 102) and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (n = 590) were significantly more likely to have increased risk of reported dizziness when compared to adults with normal hearing as children at the school investigation and also a negative history of recurrent otitis media (n = 21,270), p otitis media and childhood hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media are associated with increased risk of dizziness in adulthood. This might reflect a permanent effect of inflammatory mediators or toxins on the vestibular system. The new finding stresses the importance of treatment and prevention of these otitis media conditions.

  19. The management of hunting of Anatidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Birkan, Marcel

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of harvest management for members of family Anatidae typically involve the size of the harvested population and the size of the harvest. Hunting regulations are the primary tool used to try to achieve the objectives of harvest management. Informed harvest management thus requires a knowledge of the relationship between hunting regulations and both Anatid abundance and harvest. Results of retrospective studies in North America provide evidence that generally restrictive regulations produce lower harvest rates than generally liberal regulations. However, such studies have provided little evidence that specific hunting regulations designed to produce a change in the relative harvest rates of different species, or of the sexes within a species, have been successful in 'directing' harvest toward specific groups of birds and away from other groups. Estimates of the strength of the relationship between harvest mortality rates and annual survival rates of Anatidae have ranged from weak to strong. Thus, the key relationships for harvest management of Anatidae, those between hunting regulations and the size of both the subsequent harvest and the subsequent population, are not 'known' but are characterized by uncertainty. In the United States, this uncertainty led to a risk-aversive conservatism that characterized the setting of hunting regulations during the last decade. Recently, managers have begun to consider using hunting regulations themselves as a means to better understand the system being managed. This approach, referred to as active adaptive management, attempts to balance short-term demands for hunting opportunity with the learning needed to improve long-term management performance. Learning is accomplished by periodically comparing observed system response, as estimated by ongoing survey and data collection programs, with predictions of competing models. These periodic comparisons lead to changes in measures of credibility associated with the

  20. Circulating microRNAs and aerobic fitness--the HUNT-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bye

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, is a good indicator of cardiovascular health, and a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Biomarkers associated with low VO2max may therefore represent potential early markers of future cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to assess whether circulating microRNAs (miRs are associated with VO2max-level in healthy individuals. In a screening study, 720 miRs were measured in serum samples from healthy individuals (40-45 yrs with high (n = 12 or low (n = 12 VO2max matched for gender, age and physical activity. Candiate miRs were validated in a second cohort of subjects with high (n = 38 or low (n = 38 VO2max. miR-210 and miR-222 were found to be higher in the low VO2max-group (p<0.05. In addition, miR-21 was increased in male participants with low VO2max (p<0.05. There were no correlations between traditional risk factors for CVD (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking habit, or obesity and miR-21, miR-210 and miR-222. DIANA-mirPath identified 611 potential gene-targets of miR-21, miR-210 and miR-222, and pathway analysis indicated alterations in several important signaling systems in subjects with low VO2max. Potential bias involve that blood was collected from non-fasting individuals, and that 8 performed exercise within 24 h before sampling. In conclusion, we found that miR-210, miR-21, and miR-222 were increased in healthy subjects with low VO2max. The lack of association between these three miRs, and other fitness related variables as well as traditional CVD risk factors, suggests that these miRs may have a potential as new independent biomarkers of fitness level and future CVD.

  1. Hunting the parent of the Orphan stream. II. The first high-resolution spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Keller, Stefan C.; Da Costa, Gary; Maunder, Elizabeth [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frebel, Anna, E-mail: andrew.casey@anu.edu.au [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study on the Orphan stream for five stream candidates, observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The targets were selected from the low-resolution catalog of Casey et al.: three high-probability members, one medium, and one low-probability stream candidate were observed. Our analysis indicates that the low- and medium-probability targets are metal-rich field stars. The remaining three high-probability targets range over ∼1 dex in metallicity, and are chemically distinct compared to the other two targets and all standard stars: low [α/Fe] abundance ratios are observed, and lower limits are ascertained for [Ba/Y], which sit well above the Milky Way trend. These chemical signatures demonstrate that the undiscovered parent system is unequivocally a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, consistent with dynamical constraints inferred from the stream width and arc. As such, we firmly exclude the proposed association between NGC 2419 and the Orphan stream. A wide range in metallicities adds to the similarities between the Orphan stream and Segue 1, although the low [α/Fe] abundance ratios in the Orphan stream are in tension with the high [α/Fe] values observed in Segue 1. Open questions remain before Segue 1 could possibly be claimed as the 'parent' of the Orphan stream. The parent system could well remain undiscovered in the southern sky.

  2. Analyzing and modeling CRE in a changing climate and energy system - a case study from Mid-Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Sauterleute, Julian F.; Kolberg, Sjur A.; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by both weather, the system for energy transport and market mechanisms. In the COMPLEX-project, Mid-Norway is a case study where we analyze co-fluctuations between wind and hydropower resources; how co-fluctuations may change in the long-term; which effects this has on the power generation; and how the hydropower system can be operated optimally in this context. In the region Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities, and the region experiences a deficit of electricity. This is both due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid system. In periods of low inflow and situations with high electricity demand (i.e. winter), power must be imported from neighboring regions. In future, this situation might change with the development of renewable energy sources. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower. In relation to the deployment of wind power and small-scale hydropower and security of supply, the transmission grid within and out of the region is extended. With increasing production of intermittent energy sources as wind and small-scale hydro, dependencies and co-fluctuations between rain and wind are to be analyzed due to spatial and temporal scale, in the present and a future climate. Climate change scenarios agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain in this region, and the average wind speed as well as the frequency of storms along the coast is expected to increase slightly during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity needs, as electricity is the main source for heating in Norway. It's important to study if and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. The case study includes down-scaling of climate

  3. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide—An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Carslake, David; Lund Nilsen, Tom Ivar; Linthorst, Astrid C. E.; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health. Methods We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index. Results Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27) for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63). Conclusion The present study’s results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index

  4. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-01-01

    ...) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires...

  5. Off-Range Beaked Whale Studies (ORBS): Baseline Data and Tagging Development for Northern Bottlenose Whales (Hyperoodon ampulatus) off Jan Mayen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Off-Range Beaked Whale Studies (ORBS): Baseline Data...and Tagging Development for Northern Bottlenose Whales (Hyperoodon ampulatus) off Jan Mayen, Norway Patrick Miller Sea Mammal Research Unit... whales are affected by naval sonar is important for the US Navy as information is required for accurate environmental assessments. A number of recent

  6. Infertility experience and health differentials - a population-based comparative study on infertile and non-infertile women (the HUNT Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostad, Berit; Schmidt, Lone; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that health complaints, distress and poor life satisfaction are associated with infertility experience. Research on health consequences of infertility experience in women has relied heavily on clinic-based samples. This population-based study investigates the association...... between infertility and health and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based health study, conducted between 2006 and 2008. SETTING: All women in a county in Norway were invited. The current material is restricted to women aged 20-49 years. POPULATION: A total of 9200 women participated....... METHODS: Health measures were compared between women with infertility experience (infertile women) and women without infertility experience (non-infertile women). Disparities in health and life satisfaction among the infertile women were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported health, functional...

  7. Catchment Hydrology during Winter and Spring and the Link to Soil Erosion: A Case Study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Starkloff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries, soil erosion rates in winter and early spring can exceed those at other times of the year. In particular, snowmelt, combined with rain and soil frost, leads to severe soil erosion, even, e.g., in low risk areas in Norway. In southern Norway, previous attempts to predict soil erosion during winter and spring have not been very accurate owing to a lack of catchment-based data, resulting in a poor understanding of hydrological processes during winter. Therefore, a field study was carried out over three consecutive winters (2013, 2014 and 2015 to gather relevant data. In parallel, the development of the snow cover, soil temperature and ice content during these three winters was simulated with the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW model for two different soils (sand, clay. The field observations carried out in winter revealed high complexity and diversity in the hydrological processes occurring in the catchment. Major soil erosion was caused by a small rain event on frozen ground before snow cover was established, while snowmelt played no significant role in terms of soil erosion in the study period. Four factors that determine the extent of runoff and erosion were of particular importance: (1 soil water content at freezing; (2 whether soil is frozen or unfrozen at a particular moment; (3 the state of the snow pack; and (4 tillage practices prior to winter. SHAW performed well in this application and proved that it is a valuable tool for investigating and simulating snow cover development, soil temperature and extent of freezing in soil profiles.

  8. Perceived quality of an alternative to acute hospitalization: an analytical study at a community hospital in Hallingdal, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappegard, Øystein; Hjortdahl, Per

    2014-10-01

    There is growing international interest in the geography of health care provision, with health care providers searching for alternatives to acute hospitalization. In Norway, the government has recently legislated for municipal authorities to develop local health services for a selected group of patients, with a quality equal to or better than that provided by hospitals for emergency admissions. General practitioners in Hallingdal, a rural district in southern Norway, have for several years referred acutely somatically ill patients to a community hospital, Hallingdal sjukestugu (HSS). This article analyzes patients' perceived quality of HSS to demonstrate factors applicable nationally and internationally to aid in the development of local alternatives to general hospitals. We used a mixed-methods approach with questionnaires, individual interviews and a focus group interview. Sixty patients who were taking part in a randomized, controlled study of acute admissions at HSS answered the questionnaire. Selected patients were interviewed about their experiences and a focus group interview was conducted with representatives of local authorities, administrative personnel and health professionals. Patients admitted to HSS reported statistically significant greater satisfaction with several care aspects than those admitted to the general hospital. Factors highlighted by the patients were the quiet and homelike atmosphere; a small facility which allowed them a good overall view of the unit; close ties to the local community and continuity in the patient-staff relationship. The focus group members identified some overarching factors: an interdisciplinary and holistic approach, local ownership, proximity to local general practices and close cooperation with the specialist health services at the hospital. Most of these factors can be viewed as general elements relevant to the development of local alternatives to acute hospitalization both nationally and internationally. This

  9. A crisis resolution and home treatment team in Norway: a longitudinal survey study Part 2. Provision of professional services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Bengt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crisis resolution and home treatment (CRHT is an emerging mode of delivering acute mental health care in the community. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the workings of CRHT in the literature. This is the second paper in a series of three from the longitudinal survey of patients of a CRHT team in Norway, which was aimed at describing the characteristics of patients served, professional services provided, and clinical outcomes. This report focuses on the provision of professional services by the team. Methods The project was a descriptive, quantitative study based on the patient data from a longitudinal survey of one CRHT team in Norway. The participants of the survey, a total of 363 patients, constituted the complete registration of patients of this team in the period from February 2008 to July 2009. Results The average length of service by the team was about 15 days, and those with depression as the major symptom had the longest mean length of stay on the team. The team was engaged in providing a variety of services including individual treatments involving multiple professionals, group treatment meetings, and coordination activities involving external service sectors. While the type of professionals providing individual treatment was not associated with the severity level of clinical problems, those receiving various group treatment meetings had more serious level of clinical symptoms than those not receiving group treatment meetings. In addition coordination activities involving healthcare professionals and social services in the community were in line with the patients' clinical and social needs. The results of the study show that the team functioned effectively in addressing the general guidelines for the functioning of CRHT teams.

  10. Galaxy 'Hunting' Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    new stars and qualifying as 'starburst galaxies'." "We discovered that the galaxies located near the quasar sightlines are forming stars at a prodigious rate, equivalent to 20 suns per year," adds team member Celine Péroux. These findings represent a big leap forward in the field, setting the stage for a very promising era of galaxy 'hunting'. The astronomers now plan to use SINFONI to study in more detail each of these galaxies, by measuring their internal motions. Note SINFONI is a combination of a novel infrared 'integral field spectrometer' (SPIFFI) and a special adaptive optics module (MACAO). The integral field module SPIFFI gives detailed colour, or spectral, information for each of 2000 spatial points on the sky, arranged over a contiguous two dimensional field of 32 times 64 pixels. SINFONI was developed and built by an international consortium consisting of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany, ESO, and NOVA, Leiden, the Netherlands (see ESO PR 21/04).

  11. Reactivation of intrabasement structures during rifting: A case study from offshore southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas B.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.; Fossen, Haakon

    2016-10-01

    Pre-existing structures within crystalline basement may exert a significant influence over the evolution of rifts. However, the exact manner in which these structures reactivate and thus their degree of influence over the overlying rift is poorly understood. Using borehole-constrained 2D and 3D seismic reflection data from offshore southern Norway we identify and constrain the three-dimensional geometry of a series of enigmatic intrabasement reflections. Through 1D waveform modelling and 3D mapping of these reflection packages, we correlate them to the onshore Caledonian thrust belt and Devonian shear zones. Based on the seismic-stratigraphic architecture of the post-basement succession, we identify several phases of reactivation of the intrabasement structures associated with multiple tectonic events. Reactivation preferentially occurs along relatively thick (c. 1 km), relatively steeply dipping (c. 30°) structures, with three main styles of interactions observed between them and overlying faults: i) faults exploiting intrabasement weaknesses represented by intra-shear zone mylonites; ii) faults that initiate within the hangingwall of the shear zones, inheriting their orientation and merging with said structure at depth; or iii) faults that initiate independently from and cross-cut intrabasement structures. We demonstrate that large-scale discrete shear zones act as a long-lived structural template for fault initiation during multiple phases of rifting.

  12. The impact of the asylum process on mental health: a longitudinal study of unaccompanied refugee minors in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Meyer DeMott, Melinda Ashley; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Heir, Trond

    2017-06-21

    To examine the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors prospectively during the asylum-seeking process, with a focus on specific stages in the asylum process, such as age assessment, placement in a supportive or non-supportive facility and final decision on the asylum applications. This was a2½ year follow-up study of unaccompanied minors (UM) seeking asylum in Norway. Data were collected within three weeks (n=138) and at 4 months (n=101), 15 months (n=84) and 26 months (n=69) after arrival. Initially in an observation and orientation centre for unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents, and subsequently wherever the UM were located in other refugee facilities in Norway. Male UM from Afghanistan, Somalia, Algeria and Iran. Mental health symptoms assessed by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. At the group level, the young asylum seekers reported high levels of psychological distress on arrival and symptom levels that stayed relatively unchanged over time. According to age-assessment procedures, 56% of the population were not recognised as minors. Subsequent placement in a low-support facility was associated with higher levels of psychological distress in the follow-up period. Those who were placed in a reception centre for adults had higher levels of psychological distress symptoms both after 15 months and 26 months compared with the remaining participants who were placed in reception centres for youth. Refusal of asylum was highly associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Mental health trajectory of young asylum seekers appears to be negatively affected by low support and refusal of asylum. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. A hedonic analysis of big game hunting club dues in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Mingie; Neelam C. Poudyal; J. M.  Bowker; Michael T.  Mengak; Jacek P.  Siry

    2017-01-01

    Hunting lease revenue can be a reliable supplemental income for forest landowners. Although studies have examined factors influencing per acre lease rates, little is known about how various characteristics are capitalized in hunting club dues. The objective of this study was to conduct a hedonic analysis of big game hunting club dues in Georgia, USA using a variety of...

  14. The hunt for axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-06-15

    Many theoretically well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of the axion and further ultralight axion-like particles. They may constitute the mysterious dark matter in the universe and solve some puzzles in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. There are new, relatively small experiments around the globe, which started to hunt for these elusive particles and complement the accelerator based search for physics beyond the Standard Model.

  15. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1,2 Mette Sagbakken,1,2 Bernadette Kumar2 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Norwegian Centre for Minority Health Research, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda – both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway’s approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants’ support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence

  16. 狩猎权法律问题初探%Preliminary study on Legal Problems of hunting rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良宏; 刘建中

    2011-01-01

    Hunting right refers to the right,made in accordance with legal procedures,of hunting non-key protected wild animals and owning them by natural or juridical persons and other organizations.There are three functions of establishing the right legally,namely the foundation of rights,ecological environment protection and the stimulation of economy.The right,which belongs to "the property right in special law" and bears characteristics of both public and private law,is limited and its setting should be realized through ways of marketing,such as auction and so on.%狩猎权是自然人、法人或其他组织依照法定程序取得,在特定狩猎场所猎捕非国家重点保护野生动物并取得猎获物所有权的权利。在法律上确立狩猎权具有权利创设、生态保护和经济激励三重功能。狩猎权属于"特别法上的物权",兼具公法和私法的双重性质,其权利的行使受到限制,权利的设定应主要采用拍卖等市场化方式。

  17. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Sagbakken, Mette; Kumar, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC) is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda – both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway’s approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants’ support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence permit is granted. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of the abandonment of FC among immigrants in Western countries. PMID:26648760

  18. Consumer Profile Of Hunting Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the profileof hunting tourism consumers is particularly useful to the administrators ofhunting funds or natural parks, and of travel agencies that develop huntingtourism products for the hunting of large game for trophy, of small game asrecreational activity and also for the experienced hunting tourists who loveadventure and hunting with traditional weapons. The motivation for huntingconsists in the existing fauna in a certain area, but there are also cultural,historical reasons or spending time in the middle of nature. Consumers ofhunting tourism have a wide range of ages: hunting tourists prefer watching theanimals in their natural habitat and are less adventure-oriented, unlike trophyhunting tourists who are self-contended, travel much and wish to know thehistory, the culture and the behaviour of animals in protected areas. Theyprefer special accommodation and transport conditions and rely on largeincomes: they wish to get the rarest trophies to display back home as a symbolof their hunting skills and courage

  19. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  20. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  1. Hunting plan amendment: Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment allows the hunting plan for Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge to add raccoon and opossum hunting to the existing small game hunting program.

  2. Wolves on the hunt: The behavior of wolves hunting wild prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  3. Illegal hunting and law enforcement during a period of economic decline in Zimbabwe: A case study of northern Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Prins, H.H.T.; Leeuwis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Illegal hunting of wildlife, or top-down harvesting, is a major issue in today's society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. There has been widespread concern about increasing illegal hunting of wildlife in most conservation areas in Zimbabwe following the political instability and economic declin

  4. No association between chronic musculoskeletal complaints and Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stovner Lars

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met, that has been found to influence human pain perception. In one study fibromyalgia was less likely among those with Val/Val genotype. Methods In the 1995–97 Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, the association between Val/Met polymorphism at the COMT gene and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs was evaluated in a random sample of 3017 individuals. Results The distribution of the COMT Val158Met genotypes and alleles were similar between controls and the twelve different chronic MSCs groups. Even when the Met/Met and Val/Met genotypes were pooled, the distribution of the Val/Val genotype and other genotypes were similar between controls and the chronic MSCs groups. Conclusion In this population-based study, no significant association was found between Val/Met polymorphism at the COMT gene and chronic MSCs.

  5. Trends in long-term carbon and water fluxes - a case study from a temperate Norway spruce site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Lüers, Johannes; Hübner, Jörg; Serafimovich, Andrei; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse eddy-covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour from 18 years at Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen (DE-Bay), a Norway spruce forest site in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany. Standard flux partitioning algorithms have been applied for separation of net ecosystem exchange NEE into gross ecosystem uptake GEE and ecosystem respiration Reco, and gap-filling. The annual NEE shows a positive trend, which is related to a strong increase in GEE, while Reco enhances slightly. Annual evapotranspiration increases as well, while atmospheric demand, i.e. potential evapotranspiration, shows inter-annual variability, but no trend. Comparisons with studies from other warm temperate needle-leaved forests show, that NEE is at the upper range of the distribution, and evapotranspiration in Budyko space is in a similar range, but with a large inter-annual variability. While this trends are generally in agreement with findings from other locations and expectations to climate change, the specific history at this site clearly has a large impact on the results: The forest was in the first years very much affected due to forest decline and convalesced after a liming. In the last ten years the site was much affected by beetles and windthrow. Thus the more recent positive trends may be related to increased heterogeneity at the site. As FLUXNET stations, built 10-20 years ago, often started with "ideal forest sites", increasing heterogeneity might be a more general problem for trend analysis of long-term data sets.

  6. The Hunt Is Not On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s ban on trophy hunting remains despite calls for a relaxation WDulan,a small town in northwest China’s Qinghai Province, would have been an unfamiliar name to most Chinese, if not for the recent high-profile debate regarding the possible relaxation of a six-year ban on hunting in the vicinity of the town.

  7. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  8. SINDROM RAMSAY HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Indri Astari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sindrom Ramsay Hunt atau herpes  zoster  otikus merupakan neuropati akut  saraf  fasialis perifermengenai daun telinga, liang telinga dan atau mukosa orofaring. Terjadinya infeksi pada gangliongenikulatum oleh human herpes virus 3 atau varicella-zoster virus. Insiden sindrom Ramsay Huntsekitar 10-15% dari seluruh kasus paralisis  fasialis akut. Dilaporkan satu kasus sindrom RamsayHunt dengan paresis nervus fasialis sinistra lesi setinggi ganglion genikulatum, saat datang kekuatanmotorik 20% dengan House Brackmann IV. Penderita diberi terapi metilprednisolon, mekobalamin,betahistin mesilat, flunarizin. Bagian kulit kelamin memberikan terapi asam mefenamat, kompresNacl  0,9%,  dan  gentamisin  salep. Fisioterapi  oleh  bagian  rehabilitasi medis. Terapi  bagian Mataantara  lain  tarsoterapi  temporer,  gentamisin  salep mata,  dan  cendo  lyters  tetes mata.  Setelahmendapatkan terapi selama hampir 2 bulan, didapatkan perbaikan dengan kekuatan motorik 76%dengan House Brackmann II. [MEDICINA 2014;45:199-203].

  9. HUNTing the Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, Costin; Parry, Husbands; Hargrove, Paul

    2005-07-08

    Hiding communication latency is an important optimization for parallel programs. Programmers or compilers achieve this by using non-blocking communication primitives and overlapping communication with computation or other communication operations. Using non-blocking communication raises two issues: performance and programmability. In terms of performance, optimizers need to find a good communication schedule and are sometimes constrained by lack of full application knowledge. In terms of programmability, efficiently managing non-blocking communication can prove cumbersome for complex applications. In this paper we present the design principles of HUNT, a runtime system designed to search and exploit some of the available overlap present at execution time in UPC programs. Using virtual memory support, our runtime implements demand-driven synchronization for data involved in communication operations. It also employs message decomposition and scheduling heuristics to transparently improve the non-blocking behavior of applications. We provide a user level implementation of HUNT on a variety of modern high performance computing systems. Results indicate that our approach is successful in finding some of the overlap available at execution time. While system and application characteristics influence performance, perhaps the determining factor is the time taken by the CPU to execute a signal handler. Demand driven synchronization at execution time eliminates the need for the explicit management of non-blocking communication. Besides increasing programmer productivity, this feature also simplifies compiler analysis for communication optimizations.

  10. Determination of appropriate education program for participation of local authorities for controlling of hunting and game management: A case study on East Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the village headmen who are legally responsible in the Eastern Anatolian Region have sufficient knowledge regarding the follow-up of closed seasons or not, and to create an appropriate training program for the target audience, which would ensure more efficient control in rural areas and the village headmen’s efficient participation in the sustainability of hunting-wildlife. The study includes the Ardahan, Kars, Igdir, Agri, Van, Hakkari, Bitlis, Mus, Bingol, Elazig, Malatya, Tunceli, Erzincan and Erzurum provinces. Data collected with surveys through face to face interviews to be made with 346 people in 146 villages in total. The level of knowledge of the village headmen, members of board of alderman and, village watchmen on the issues such as wildlife, protection-control, legislation and public relations questioned, and a training program appropriate for the abovementioned audience created.

  11. Tracking Legionella in air generated from a biological treatment plant: a case study of the outbreak of legionellosis in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet M.; Olsen, Jaran S.; Andreassen, Øyvind; Waagen, Viggo; Reif, Bjørn Anders P.

    2011-05-01

    Two outbreaks of legionellosis occurred in the Sarpsborg/Fredrikstad region southeast of Norway in 2005 and 2008 where more than 60 exposed individuals were infected and 10 case patients died. The air scrubber at Borregaard, a wood-based chemical factory, was identified as the outbreak source. High concentration levels of Legionella species, including the etiological agent L. pneumophila SG1 was found in the aeration ponds, which belongs to Borregaard's biological treatment plant. Results showed that these ponds were able to generate Legionella-containing aerosols that were transported by the wind as such aerosols were measured up to 200 meters downwind of the pond. Our studies did not detect L. pneumophila SG1 isolates, only L. pneumophila SG4 during the air sampling measurement campaign. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the air scrubber proved to be harsh for Legionella growth as the outbreak L. pneumophila strains were not able to grow at 45ºC and pH8 (conditions during the outbreaks). These results, together, lead us to suggest that the aeration pond should be regarded as the primary amplifier and disseminator of Legionella and L. pneumophila and thereby most likely being the outbreak source.

  12. Effect of the Landscape Types on Hunting Selection in Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus, Linnaeus 1758 Trophies in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engan Jens H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic has a long tradition of hunting, and trophy hunting is important to manage game populations. In this study data was analysed from the five last trophy exhibitions in Czech Republic. Namely, hunter selection, compensatory selection, management selection, hunting pressure selection and depletion selection was tested in different landscape types. In compensatory hunting there is a difference between the landscape types; apparent differences exist between the landscape type with respect to hunting pressure. There was no hunter selection, or depletion selection, and no differences in management between landscape types. This study suggests that the landscape composition has an effect on selective hunting in Czech Republic.

  13. Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltman, David W; O'Donoghue, Paul; Jorgenson, Jon T; Hogg, John T; Strobeck, Curtis; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2003-12-11

    Phenotype-based selective harvests, including trophy hunting, can have important implications for sustainable wildlife management if they target heritable traits. Here we show that in an evolutionary response to sport hunting of bighorn trophy rams (Ovis canadensis) body weight and horn size have declined significantly over time. We used quantitative genetic analyses, based on a partly genetically reconstructed pedigree from a 30-year study of a wild population in which trophy hunting targeted rams with rapidly growing horns, to explore the evolutionary response to hunter selection on ram weight and horn size. Both traits were highly heritable, and trophy-harvested rams were of significantly higher genetic 'breeding value' for weight and horn size than rams that were not harvested. Rams of high breeding value were also shot at an early age, and thus did not achieve high reproductive success. Declines in mean breeding values for weight and horn size therefore occurred in response to unrestricted trophy hunting, resulting in the production of smaller-horned, lighter rams, and fewer trophies.

  14. Analysis on the Gap between Chinese and American Head-hunting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2014-01-01

    Although headhunter entered China more than twenty years, researches on it are far from enough. Current researches on human resource mainly focus on labor market and on-line job hunting. However, as a national strategic industry, develop-ment path of head-hunting industry deserves in-depth research. Based on previous studies and the status quo of domestic head-hunting industry, the below statements tries to analyze the domestic head-hunting industry and find out the gap between Chinese and American head-hunting industry.

  15. Rat-atouille: A Mixed Method Study to Characterize Rodent Hunting and Consumption in the Context of Lassa Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwitt, Jesse; Kelly, Ann H; Ansumana, Rashid; Agbla, Schadrac; Sahr, Foday; Saez, Almudena Mari; Borchert, Matthias; Kock, Richard; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic hemorrhagic illness predominant in areas across Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and southern Mali. The reservoir of Lassa virus is the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), a highly commensal species in West Africa. Primary transmission to humans occurs through direct or indirect contact with rodent body fluids such as urine, feces, saliva, or blood. Our research draws together qualitative and quantitative methods to provide a fuller and more nuanced perspective on these varied points of human-animal contact. In this article, we focus on the hunting, preparation, and consumption of rodents as possible routes of exposure in Bo, Sierra Leone. We found that the consumption of rodents, including the reservoir species, is widespread and does not neatly tally against generational or gender lines. Further, we found that the reasons for rodent consumption are multifactorial, including taste preferences, food security, and opportunistic behavior. We argue that on certain topics, such as rodent consumption, establishing trust with communities, and using qualitative research methods, is key to investigate sensitive issues and situate them in their wider context. To conclude, we recommend ways to refine sensitization campaigns to account for these socio-cultural contexts.

  16. Echolocation behaviour of Megaderma lyra during typical orientation situations and while hunting aerial prey: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Yapa, Wipula; Grunwald, Jan-Eric

    2011-05-01

    Bats modify the structure and emission pattern of their calls to cope with the functional constraints of a given echolocation situation. As a consequence, the flexibility in sonar call use affects the potential niche use of a species. The present paper addresses call use in Megaderma lyra, a species with a short, broadband multiharmonic basic call, in typical orientation situations, when emerging from and re-entering a day roost, in cruising flight and when passing through vegetation, and during the pursuit of tethered, flying insects. While call duration and emission rate were adapted to the four orientation situations, call spectral composition was similar in these situations, except that bats emitted calls containing more harmonics when re-entering the roost. These moderate call modifications may be accounted for by the observation that M. lyra stayed close to landscape elements even in open habitats. Although M. lyra is a typical gleaner, all tested bats approached flying insects, guided by sonar calls of significantly decreasing duration and pulse interval, and of increasing sweep rate. Before capture, peak frequency was lowered from call to call. The spontaneous approaches towards flying insects with systematic changes in call pattern suggest regular aerial hunting in this species.

  17. Role of diagnoses and socioeconomic status in mortality among disability pensioners in Norway--a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesdal, Sturla; Maeland, John Gunnar; Svedberg, Pia; Hagberg, Jan; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have shown increased mortality among disability pensioners. This study attempted to determine the causes of such an increase. A population-based study was carried out with 148,942 persons followed between 1990 and 1996 in Norway. Of this total, 6285 women and 4113 men [corrected] were on a disability pension at baseline. A Cox proportional hazards analysis was carried out separately for the women and men in which all-cause mortality was the outcome variable. Disability pension status, disability pension diagnosis, age, educational level, and mean annual income were entered as explanatory variables. Persons on a disability pension had a strongly increased mortality rate. The age-adjusted hazard ratio was 3.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.4-3.8] for the women and 3.4 (95% CI 2.8-4.1) for the men on a disability pension, when they were compared with those not on a disability pension. When adjusted for education and income levels, the hazard ratios (HR) decreased significantly for the men, to 2.0 (95% CI 1.8-2.4), but not so for women (HR 2.5, 95% CI 2.2-2.9). Except for the men with musculoskeletal diagnoses, all of the diagnostic groups had hazard ratios above unity also after the adjustments were made. The study confirmed high early mortality among Norwegian disability pensioners in the period 1990-1996. The medical condition seemed to contribute more to the increased mortality among the women, whereas a low socioeconomic status was more important for the men.

  18. Prevalence of factors associated with malnutrition among acute geriatric patients in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv Lærum; Brovold, Therese; Bergland, Astrid; Bye, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Data on acute geriatric patients' nutritional status are lacking, and the associations among physical function, sarcopenia, health status and nutritional status are not sufficiently investigated in this population. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) nutritional status and sarcopenia in a group of acute geriatric patients, (2) the association between nutritional status, physical function and sarcopenia in acute geriatric patients, controlling for health status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Two acute geriatric hospital wards in Norway. Participants This study included 120 patients with a mean age of 82.6±8 years. The following inclusion criteria were used: age ≥65 years and admitted to an acute geriatric ward. The exclusion criteria included terminal illness, Mini-Mental State Examination Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the mid-arm muscle circumference, gait speed and grip strength, in accordance with the EWGSOP algorithm. Diseases are organised by organ system classification. Results On the basis of the MNA classification, nearly one in two patients were at risk of malnutrition, while one in four were malnourished. Sarcopenia was present in 30% of the patients. A multivariate linear regression model was estimated and showed significant independent associations between SPPB score (β 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90), sarcopenia (β −3.3, 95% CI −4.9 to −1.7), pulmonary disease (β −2.1, 95% CI −3.7 to −0.46), cancer (β −1.7, 95% CI −3.4 to −0.033) and nutritional status. Conclusions Our study shows a high prevalence of risk of malnutrition, malnutrition and sarcopenia. Further, the results indicate that a low total SPPB score, sarcopenia, cancer and pulmonary disease are significantly associated with declines in nutritional status, as measured by the MNA, in acute geriatric patients. PMID:27601491

  19. Sami Culture and Values: A Study of the National Mathematics Exam for the Compulsory School in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Norway ratified the ILO convention 169 concerning indigenous and tribal people in independent countries in 1990. In accordance with the convention the education programs for the Sami shall address their value systems and their cultural aspirations. Our aim is to investigate the implementation of this convention. The focus is on how Sami values are…

  20. Lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Markova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Refugees are at high risk for mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services to meet the needs of refugees from various regions, an understanding of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems is warranted. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway.Methods. The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the vignette character, completing the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10 were done separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies.Results. The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community rather than seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists. Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much and emotion (sadness, but not with biological mechanisms, and were thought to result from spiritual possessions, stress from social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independent of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. As participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the viewpoint of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be gatekeepers for access to mental health services. Conclusion. The results highlight that mental health programs for Somali refugees

  1. Lay Explanatory Models of Depression and Preferred Coping Strategies among Somali Refugees in Norway. A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Valeria; Sandal, Gro M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. Methods: The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101). Respondents were asked to give advice to the vignette character and complete the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10) were conducted separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and the preferred coping strategies. Results: The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community, rather than by seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists). Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much) and emotion (sadness), but not to biological mechanisms, and they were thought to result from spiritual possession, stress as a result of social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independently of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. Because participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the views of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be "gatekeepers" for access to mental health services. Conclusion: The results highlight that mental health

  2. Lay Explanatory Models of Depression and Preferred Coping Strategies among Somali Refugees in Norway. A Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Valeria; Sandal, Gro M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. Methods: The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101). Respondents were asked to give advice to the vignette character and complete the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10) were conducted separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and the preferred coping strategies. Results: The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community, rather than by seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists). Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much) and emotion (sadness), but not to biological mechanisms, and they were thought to result from spiritual possession, stress as a result of social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independently of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. Because participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the views of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be “gatekeepers” for access to mental health services. Conclusion: The results highlight that mental

  3. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates--A Study in Brown Norway Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B

    2015-05-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant.

  4. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds...

  5. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  6. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  7. Post epidemic giardiasis and gastrointestinal symptoms among preschool children in Bergen, Norway. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A surprisingly low number of children became ill with giardiasis during the large waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia in Bergen, Norway during autumn 2004. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of giardiasis among exposed children one year after an outbreak and compare faecal carriage of Giardia and abdominal symptoms among exposed versus unexposed children one year after the epidemic. Methods Children between 1 and 6 years old were recruited from the local health care centres in Bergen municipality in the period between June 2005 and January 2006. One faecal sample per child was collected and examined for presence of Giardia with a rapid immunoassay antigen test, and parents were asked to answer a questionnaire. A total of 513 children participated, 378 in the group exposed to contaminated water, and 135 in the in the group not exposed. Results In the exposed group eleven children had been treated for giardiasis during the epidemic and none in the unexposed group. Giardia positive faecal tests were found in six children, all in the exposed group, but the difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance. All six Giardia positive children were asymptomatic. No differences were found between the groups regarding demographic data, nausea, vomiting, different odour from stools and eructation. However, the reported scores of abdominal symptoms (diarrhoea, bloating and stomach ache during the last year were higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. Conclusions A low prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia infection (1.7% was found among exposed children around one year after the epidemic (1.2% overall prevalence in the study. In the present setting, pre-school children were therefore unlikely to be an important reservoir for continued transmission in the general population.

  8. A petrological and geochemical study of the Surna Nappe (Seve Nappe Complex?) in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Silvia; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Gasser, Deta

    2016-04-01

    The Seve Nappe Complex, mainly outcropping and investigated in Sweden, comprises relics of Ordovician HP and UHP metamorphic rocks, which were overprinted by upper amphibolite facies metamorphism and anataxis during the Silurian. In Norway, in the hinterland of the Caledonian orogen, rocks of the Surna and Blåhø nappes are generally correlated with the Seve Nappe Complex. However, no detailed metamorphic studies are available from these units to compare it with the Seve Nappe Complex. The Surna and Blåhø nappes are located between the oceanic-derived Støren nappe and the continentally-derived Sætra nappe. Due to a strong post-Caledonian extensional and transtensional overprint and a close proximity to the MTFC (Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex, a prominent post-Caledonian strike-slip fault complex) investigations of the early metamorphic history of the Surna and Blåhø nappes are challenging. In this contribution we present the results of a petrological and geochemical study of the Surna Nappe, from a ca. 10 km wide transect across this nappe west of Trondheim in Norway. The nappe is lithologically very heterogenous, consisting of quartz-rich mica-schists, amphibole-garnet-mica-schists, amphibolites, calcsilicates as well as pegmatites. Geochemically, the whole rock compositions vary from ultrabasic to acidic, but a distinction between metavolcanic and metasedimentary origin of the lithologies is not always straightforward. Although there are metabasic rocks present they do not show a mineral assemblage with a relic eclogite facies. Garnet occurs in several lithologies and is used together with plagioclase and biotite for conventional geothermobarometry using the TWQ and PET software tools. Additionally, Zr-in-rutile and garnet-biotite thermometers were applied. PT calculations from 18 different samples reveal PT conditions of 600 to 700°C and pressures of 10 to 16 kbar. The elevated phengite content in muscovite (Si up to 3.28) in a few samples may indicate

  9. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia.

  10. Cute as candy: a qualitative study of perceptions of snus branding and package design among youth in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Snus use has increased among youth in Norway in recent years and is now more prevalent than smoking. Concurrently, a range of new products and package designs have been introduced to the market. The aim of this study was to explore how youth perceive snus branding and package design, and the role, if any, of snus packaging on perceptions of appeal and harm of snus among youth. Participants Adolescent tobacco users and non-users (N=35) ages 15–17 years. Design We conducted interviews among 6 focus groups (each with 4–7 participants). Participants were shown snus packages with a variety of designs and with different product qualities (flavour additives, slim, regular, white and brown sachets) and group discussions focused on how they perceived packages and products. The focus group discussions were semistructured using a standard guide, and analysed thematically. Results The participants in the focus groups narrated distinct images of snus brands and associated user identities. Package design elements such as shapes, colours, images and fonts were described as guiding these perceptions. Packaging elements and flavour additives were associated with perceptions of product harm. The appeal of flavoured snus products and new types of snus sachets seemed to blend in with these processes, reinforcing positive attitudes and contributing to the creation of particular identities for products and their users. Conclusions The findings indicate that packaging is vital to consumer's identification with, and differentiation between, snus brands. In view of this, snus branding and packaging can be seen as fulfilling a similar promotional role as advertising messages: generating preferences and appeal. PMID:28373248

  11. Differences between patients' and clinicians' report of sleep disturbance: a field study in mental health care in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallestad Håvard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the study was to assess the prevalence of diagnosed insomnia and the agreement between patient- and clinician-reported sleep disturbance and use of prescribed hypnotic medication in patients in treatment for mental disorders. Methods We used three cross-sectional, multicenter data-sets from 2002, 2005, and 2008. Data-set 1 included diagnostic codes from 93% of all patients receiving treatment in mental health care in Norway (N = 40261. Data-sets 2 (N = 1065 and 3 (N = 1181 included diagnostic codes, patient- and clinician-reported sleep disturbance, and use of prescribed hypnotic medication from patients in 8 mental health care centers covering 10% of the Norwegian population. Results 34 patients in data-set 1 and none in data-sets 2 and 3 had a diagnosis of insomnia as a primary or comorbid diagnosis. In data-sets 2 and 3, 42% and 40% of the patients reported sleep disturbance, whereas 24% and 13% had clinician-reported sleep disturbance, and 7% and 9% used hypnotics. Patients and clinicians agreed in 29% and 15% of the cases where the patient or the clinician or both had reported sleep disturbance. Positive predictive value (PPV of clinicians' evaluations of patient sleep disturbance was 62% and 53%. When the patient reported sleep disturbance as one of their most prominent problems PPV was 36% and 37%. Of the patients who received hypnotic medication, 23% and 29% had neither patient nor clinician-rated sleep disturbance. Conclusion When patients meet the criteria for a mental disorder, insomnia is almost never diagnosed, and sleep disturbance is imprecisely recognized relative to the patients' experience of sleep disturbance.

  12. Cute as candy: a qualitative study of perceptions of snus branding and package design among youth in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2017-04-03

    Snus use has increased among youth in Norway in recent years and is now more prevalent than smoking. Concurrently, a range of new products and package designs have been introduced to the market. The aim of this study was to explore how youth perceive snus branding and package design, and the role, if any, of snus packaging on perceptions of appeal and harm of snus among youth. Adolescent tobacco users and non-users (N=35) ages 15-17 years. We conducted interviews among 6 focus groups (each with 4-7 participants). Participants were shown snus packages with a variety of designs and with different product qualities (flavour additives, slim, regular, white and brown sachets) and group discussions focused on how they perceived packages and products. The focus group discussions were semistructured using a standard guide, and analysed thematically. The participants in the focus groups narrated distinct images of snus brands and associated user identities. Package design elements such as shapes, colours, images and fonts were described as guiding these perceptions. Packaging elements and flavour additives were associated with perceptions of product harm. The appeal of flavoured snus products and new types of snus sachets seemed to blend in with these processes, reinforcing positive attitudes and contributing to the creation of particular identities for products and their users. The findings indicate that packaging is vital to consumer's identification with, and differentiation between, snus brands. In view of this, snus branding and packaging can be seen as fulfilling a similar promotional role as advertising messages: generating preferences and appeal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Childhood Otitis Media: A Cohort Study With 30-Year Follow-Up of Hearing (The HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Kvestad, Ellen; Engdahl, Bo

    2015-01-01

    To study the extent to which otitis media (OM) in childhood is associated with adult hearing thresholds. Furthermore, to study whether the effects of OM on adult hearing thresholds are moderated by age or noise exposure. Population-based cohort study of 32,786 participants who had their hearing tested by pure-tone audiometry in primary school and again at ages ranging from 20 to 56 years. Three thousand sixty-six children were diagnosed with hearing loss; the remaining sample had normal childhood hearing. Compared with participants with normal childhood hearing, those diagnosed with childhood hearing loss caused by otitis media with effusion (n = 1255), chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM; n = 108), or hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM; n = 613) had significantly increased adult hearing thresholds in the whole frequency range (2 dB/17-20 dB/7-10 dB, respectively). The effects were adjusted for age, sex, and noise exposure. Children diagnosed with hearing loss after rAOM had somewhat improved hearing thresholds as adults. The effects of CSOM and hearing loss after rAOM on adult hearing thresholds were larger in participants tested in middle adulthood (ages 40 to 56 years) than in those tested in young adulthood (ages 20 to 40 years). Eardrum pathology added a marginally increased risk of adult hearing loss (1-3 dB) in children with otitis media with effusion or hearing loss after rAOM. The study could not reveal significant differences in the effect of self-reported noise exposure on adult hearing thresholds between the groups with OM and the group with normal childhood hearing. This cohort study indicates that CSOM and rAOM in childhood are associated with adult hearing loss, underlining the importance of optimal treatment in these conditions. It appears that ears with a subsequent hearing loss after OM in childhood age at a faster rate than those without; however this should be confirmed by studies with several follow-up tests through

  15. Game animals & hunting : Law enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of hunting activities, game mammal surveys, and law enforcement on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. For each year, a list...

  16. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  17. The thrill of the chase: uncovering illegal sport hunting in Brazil through YouTube™ posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani R. El Bizri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy

  18. Equity in School Finance: A Comparative Case Study of Sweden and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Joel D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of primary school finance by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) suggests many countries have concerns regarding financial equalization of educational opportunity. This study tests the CERI project's conclusions to determine whether some of the more equalizing finance systems might serve as models for other countries.…

  19. Hunting Plan: Amendment to conduct Becoming an Outdoors Woman Feral Hog Hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the hog hunt plan for the Becoming an Outdoors Woman (BOW) program on St. Vincent NWR. The objective of the BOW hunt is to provide a quality hunting...

  20. Hunting efficiency of Red-footed Falcons in different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatitz Péter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied hunting success of 13 male Red-footed Falcons by radio-telemetry in the second phase of chick rearing. We coded 484 hunting events, and the success measured in captured prey biomass/minute was exceedingly high in corn fields. This is mainly caused by the fact that the effectiveness of hunting for vertebrate prey was high on the harvested stubble fields. Moreover the observed falcons hunted for insects in these stubble field and alfalfa fields most successfully. In the studied habitat the chick feeding period of Red-footed Falcons coincide with the harvest of cereal fields, and the suddenly created lower vegetation cover increases temporarily the accessibility of prey items.

  1. Erosion response to anthropogenic activity and climatic changes during the Holocene:case studies in northwestern China and southern Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion assessment and prediction play critical roles in addressing problems associatedwith erosion control or soil conservation. The past dynamics of soil erosion can provide valuableinformation for us to understand the relations of soil erosion to environmental change andanthropogenic activity. The present paper has compared Holocene climatic changes in northwesternChina with those in southern Norway, and investigated the past dynamics of erosion activity duringthe Holocene. Modem soil erosion on the Loess Plateau is a combinafon of the intensive naturalerosion and human-induced erosion, the latter being four times greater than the former. Because ofglobal warming and increasing human activities, climate on the Loess Plateau is becoming dryer andmore unstable, causing an enhanced erosion problem and water scarcity. In the arctic-alpine region ofsouthern Norway, however, the global wanning and regional wetting caused expansion of the largestEuropean ice cap. This has accentuated the erosion in that region, with a higher frequency ofavalanches and debris flows.

  2. Spirituality and caring in old age and the significance of religion - a hermeneutical study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykkje, Linda L R; Eriksson, Katie; Raholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    Spirituality is an important part of caring for the whole human being. However, there is lack of consensus about the concept parameter, and there is an ongoing discussion in nursing regarding the relation between religion and spirituality. Spirituality and religion is found to support health and well-being in old age, and this article portrays how older Norwegians understand religion and religious support as part of spirituality and caring. The theoretical framework in this study is Eriksson's caritative caring theory, and the research aim is to broaden the understanding of spirituality from a caring science perspective. The methodology is hermeneutical according to Gadamer. The study is based upon qualitative content analysis of 30 interviews with 17 participants above 74 years, six men and 11 women. The findings portray connectedness with a Higher power, including how Christianity has influenced upon the philosophy of life of the participants, wonders about the end of life/afterlife, and the meaning of religious symbols and rituals. The study also portrays how religious support may foster dignity, especially near the end of life, and experiences and opinions regarding support from nursing personnel. The study concludes that religiousness cannot be separated from spirituality, and that nurses should be able to provide spiritual care to a certain extent. Spiritual care including religious support according to patients' desires may foster health and preserve human dignity.

  3. Diagnosis-prescription studies – important steps towards a national drug prescription statistics in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørund Straand

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTIn the first part of this article, drug utilization and prescribing practice is discussed as seen from aNorwegian general practice perspective. Which are the data sources available? What kind of studieshave been performed? Prescription-diagnosis studies are reviewed, in particular the Møre & RomsdalPrescription Study (MRPS. Because the wholesales drug statistics do not include information aboutneither patients, prescribers or diagnoses, there is a current need for establishing a more comprehensivestatistics giving wider and deeper insights into the prescribing and utilization of drugs in the Norwegiansociety. The proposed Norwegian prescription statistics is discussed in relation to previous experiencesfrom prescription-diagnosis studies and current needs for research and statistics in the field. Someexamples are given illustrating why the 11-digit person number probably should be included in thedatabase. Lack of diagnostic information may to some extent be compensated for by introducing a moredifferentiated list of diagnoses for the drugs reimbursed. The use of data from this statistics for qualityassurance in e.g. general practice is discussed. Finally, some suggestions are given for how the Norwegianprescription statistics may be organised.

  4. George's cosmic treasure hunt

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...

  5. Multivariate analysis of the hunting tactics of Kalahari leopards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. du P. Bothma

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The hunting tactics of male and female leopards in the southern Kalahari were analysed for prey-specific patterns. The field study was based on tracking leopard spoor in the sandy substrate of the Kalahari. Visual profiles for each type of prey were compiled for various facets of hunting. Data sets were analysed further, using Correspondence Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis. The results indicate that multivariate analysis can be used to demonstrate prey-specific hunting tactics in Kalahari leopards. In using a scarce prey base, Kalahari leopards seem to be number maximisers as they are unselective of prey type, age or sex. The presence of prey-specific hunting tactics may indicate a move along a continuum towards some degree of energy maximisation.

  6. Malthus on norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M

    1966-11-01

    Abstract Malthus visited Norway in 1799 and his impression of the country's demographic experience was important in determining the character of the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population. He relied for the most part on non-statistical sources. This led him to exaggerate, e.g. the size of households, the number of unmarried farm servants and to miss important features, e.g. differences in marital age patterns, regional variations in fertility and nuptiality. The bias of his itinerary and of his main informants is also apparent. Statistical material not available to Malthus indicates that he was right to stress the late age at marriage in Norway but wrong to ignore the operation of the positive check. Mortality was frequently high in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Norway, much higher than Malthus ever realized. This destroys the symmetry, as well as the morality, of Malthus's exposition.

  7. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  8. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  9. Geophysical and geological investigations of subsurface reservoirs : case studies of Spitsbergen, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelum, Karoline

    2011-07-01

    The thesis gives a description of the subsurface and outcrop geology at a number of localities on Svalbard through a selection of various geophysical and geological methods. The localities represent a series of geological settings of varying scale, from near surface paleokarst and glacial environments to large scale geological features such as fault zones, grabens and dolerite intrusions. The geophysical and geological methods deployed likewise represent both detailed small scale investigations such as Lidar, radar and geoelectric investigations on and near the surface, and seismic investigations covering larger areas to a depth of several kilometers. The overall aim for all the studies has been to better understand reservoir and cap rock/ice systems in a barren arctic desert characterized by a frozen ground that challenges common geophysical methods. The investigations undertaken in connection with this thesis cover several areas The first part addresses the Billefjorden fault zone (BFZ) with its eastern hanging wall classic rift-basin. This fault zone can be traced for more than 200 km as a lineament that runs almost the entire length of Spitsbergen, from Wijdefjorden in the north to Storfjorden in the south. The seismic data along with surface observations and Lidar scans illustrate the long and complicated history of the BFZ and associated basin, from the initial formation via linkage of reverse faults in the Devonian, through Carboniferous reactivation as a normal fault with adjacent rift-basin in an extensional tectonic regime, to finally Tertiary contraction seen as fault reactivation and basin inversion in connection with the formation of the west-coast fold and thrust-belt. Especially the development of the Carboniferous rift-basin is of interest. An integrated study by seismic and georadar mapping, and Lidar data interpretation combined with outcrop analysis of faults and sedimentary succession, have shed new, detailed information on the good sandstone

  10. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  11. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-12-31

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to ``mental accouting`` in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the ``true`` values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-01-01

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to mental accouting'' in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the true'' values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. The geography of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Martinussen, Pål E

    2014-06-01

    Research on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that includes geographic information is important in order to improve care and appropriate allocation of resources to patients suffering from COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geography of COPD and factors associated with the spatial patterns of COPD prevalence. Particular emphasis is put on the role of the local socioeconomic environment. Utilising information from the Norwegian Prescription Database on all lung medication prescribed in 2009 we identified 62,882 persons with COPD in the Norwegian population. Patterns of spatial clustering in the prevalence of COPD are clearly evident, even when age and gender are controlled for. Gender and age are strongly related to COPD risk. Socio-economic characteristics of the community such as education and unemployment are also significantly correlated with COPD risk. People living in rural parts of the country are generally associated with less risk than people in urban settings, and in particular people living in communities with high levels of farm and fisheries employment.

  14. Gamma Knife Treatment of Growing Vestibular Schwannoma in Norway: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varughese, Jobin Kotakkathu, E-mail: jobinv@gmail.com [Institute of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Wentzel-Larsen, Tore [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo (Norway); Pedersen, Paal-Henning [Institute of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Mahesparan, Ruby [Department of Neurosurgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Lund-Johansen, Morten [Institute of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been increasingly used in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Very few studies relate tumor control and post-treatment growth rates to pretreatment growth rates. Methods and Materials: We prospectively included 45 consecutive VS patients who were initially treated conservatively and then received GKRS between 2000 and 2007 because of demonstrated tumor growth. Pretreatment and post-treatment tumor volumes were estimated. Patients underwent audiograms, reported their symptoms, and responded to the Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire on each visit. Results: Volume doubling times before and after treatment were 1.36 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.14-1.68) and -13.1 years (95% confidence intervals, -111.0 to -6.94), respectively. Tumor control, defined as a post-GKRS growth rate {<=}0, was achieved in 71.1% of patients, with highest odds for tumor control among older patients and those with larger tumors. The 5-year retreatment-free survival rate was 93.9% (95% confidence intervals, 76.5-98.5). None of the clinical endpoints investigated showed statistically significant changes after GKRS, but improvement was seen in a few SF-36 parameters. Conclusions: GKRS alters the natural course of the tumor by reducing growth. Mathematic models yield poorer tumor control rates than those found by clinical assessment. Symptoms were unaffected by treatment, but quality of life was improved.

  15. Gender differences in the relationship between school problems, school class context and psychological distress: results from the Young-HUNT 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Joakim D

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between shared school classroom environment and psychological distress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are gender differences in the clustering of psychological distress within school classes as well as to assess individual and contextual effects of school problems. Data were obtained from the Young-HUNT 3 study (2006-2008), a population study of adolescents attending school in the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. A total of 6,379 pupils were analysed using multilevel models. The results suggest that the amount of variation in psychological distress attributable to school class context was higher among girls (4.5%) compared to boys (1.0%). Furthermore, individual school problems were associated with psychological distress for both genders, although the effects were greater for girls. The effects of school class variables were limited for both genders, although gender composition was associated with higher levels of psychological distress among girls. This study suggests that researchers should account for possible gender differences when examining the association between classroom environment and psychological distress.

  16. Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescent girls and boys--family linkage data from the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasbøll, Jannike; Ranøyen, Ingunn; Nilsen, Wendy; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-08-22

    Parental chronic pain has been associated with adverse outcomes in offspring. However, knowledge on individual and family resilience factors in adolescent offspring of chronic pain sufferers is scarce. This study thus aimed to investigate the associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion levels reported by adolescent girls and boys. Based on cross-sectional surveys from the Nord Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT 3 study), the study used independent self-reports from adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (n = 3227) and their parents and conducted separate linear regression analyses for girls and boys. Concurrent maternal and paternal chronic pain was associated with reduced self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in girls. Moreover, maternal chronic pain was associated with higher social competence in boys and reduced self-esteem in girls. The majority of the observed associations were significantly different between girls and boys. Paternal chronic pain was not found to be associated with child outcomes. The findings indicate that the presence of both maternal and paternal chronic pain could be a potential risk factor for lower levels of individual and family resilience factors reported by girls. Further research on the relationship between parental pain and sex-specific offspring characteristics, including positive resilience factors, is warranted. The study demonstrates the importance of targeting the entire family in chronic pain care.

  17. Effects of Uncertainties in Hydrological Modelling. A Case Study of a Mountainous Catchment in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Steinsland, Ingelin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how the inclusion of uncertainties in inputs and observed streamflow influence the parameter estimation, streamflow predictions and model evaluation. In particular we wanted to answer the following research questions: • What is the effect of including a random error in the precipitation and temperature inputs? • What is the effect of decreased information about precipitation by excluding the nearest precipitation station? • What is the effect of the uncertainty in streamflow observations? • What is the effect of reduced information about the true streamflow by using a rating curve where the measurement of the highest and lowest streamflow is excluded when estimating the rating curve? To answer these questions, we designed a set of calibration experiments and evaluation strategies. We used the elevation distributed HBV model operating on daily time steps combined with a Bayesian formulation and the MCMC routine Dream for parameter inference. The uncertainties in inputs was represented by creating ensembles of precipitation and temperature. The precipitation ensemble were created using a meta-gaussian random field approach. The temperature ensembles were created using a 3D Bayesian kriging with random sampling of the temperature laps rate. The streamflow ensembles were generated by a Bayesian multi-segment rating curve model. Precipitation and temperatures were randomly sampled for every day, whereas the streamflow ensembles were generated from rating curve ensembles, and the same rating curve was always used for the whole time series in a calibration or evaluation run. We chose a catchment with a meteorological station measuring precipitation and temperature, and a rating curve of relatively high quality. This allowed us to investigate and further test the effect of having less information on precipitation and streamflow during model calibration, predictions and evaluation. The results showed that including uncertainty

  18. Population dynamics of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in kelpforests and barren grounds in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerli, Camilla W.; Gran Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2015-01-01

    decreased nearly exponentially with age. The variation in most demographic variables was high among replicate sampling sites and test size. Mean age and growth rates did not differ consistently among sites in mid- and northern Norway nor between barren ground and kelp sites. In contrast, mortality rates...... in mid-Norway were 50 % higher than in northern Norway. We suggest that increasing predation pressure on sea urchins partly explains the higher mortality in mid-Norway. Recent studies have shown that recruitment of sea urchins is significantly lower in mid-Norway than in northern Norway. The lower mean...

  19. Robotics Research in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Hølpødt

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available Except for some districts and industries, the population of industrial robots in Norway is low. Trallfa AS is definitely the largest producer of robots in Norway. Jonas Oglænd A/S formerly produced handling manipulators, but they are now produced abroad. New companies such as NORKYB are developing. In addition to Trallfa and Oglænd, the development of robot systems is done by different research institutes such as the Center for Industrial Research (SI, SINTEF and the Rogaland Research Center (RF. These institutes do research work both for the robot manufacturers and directly for end users.

  20. Gobbling of Merriam's turkeys in relation to nesting and occurrence of hunting in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Lester D. Flake; Mark A. Rumble; Dan J. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Timing of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nesting and peaks in gobbling activity are often used in setting spring hunting season dates. The relationship between gobbling activity, hunting pressure, and nesting chronology has not been studied using hunted and nonhunted turkey populations. We tabulated gobbling activity of Merriam's turkeys (...

  1. A population based validation study of self-reported pensions and benefits: the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtveit Solbjørg Makalani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of disability pensions, sickness certification and long-term health related benefits are often self-reported in epidemiological studies. Few studies have examined these measures, and the validity is yet to be established. We aimed to estimate the validity of self-reported disability pension, rehabilitation benefit and retirement pension and to explore the benefit status and basic characteristics of those not responding to these items. A large health survey (HUNT2 containing self-reported questionnaire data on sickness benefits and pensions was linked to a national registry of pensions and benefits, used as “gold standard” for the analysis. We investigated two main sources of bias in self-reported data; misclassification - due to participants answering questions incorrectly, and systematic missing/selection bias - when participants do not respond to the questions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predicative value, agreement and Cohen’s Kappa were calculated for each benefit. Co-variables were compared between non-responders and responders. Results In the study-population of 40,633, 9.2% reported receiving disability pension, 1.4% rehabilitation benefits and 6.1% retirement pension. According to the registry, the corresponding numbers were 9.0%, 1.7% and 5.4%. Excluding non-responders, specificity, NPV and agreement were above 98% for all benefits. Sensitivity and PPV were lower. When including non-responders as non-receivers, specificity got higher, sensitivity dropped while the other measures changed less. Between 17.7% and 24.1% did not answer the questions on benefits. Non-responders were older and more likely to be female. They reported more anxiety, more depression, a higher number of somatic diagnoses, less physical activity and lower consumption of alcohol (p  Conclusions The validity of self-reported data on disability pension, rehabilitation benefits and retirement pension is

  2. Ottoman Hunting Organization of Silistra Sanjak in The 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ALKAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While hunting in traditional societies, was most commonly practised as a profession, for food, sports or entertainment, it was fully a part of Ottoman State organization as a military exercise or war game. From the first Ottoman rulers, there has been hunting institution in the palace. An organized hunting institution, regular hunting practices and the number of hunted animals had been perceived as the symbols of power of the ruler. Hunting organization was instrumental in identifying the situations of the country and people, inspecting government officials and listening to people’s problems. In this respect, the meaning of hunting ceremony gains great importance. Hunting bird-growing organization in Ottoman Empire palace had been institutionalized since early years. Its provincial administration was created for particular sanjaks. The structure of provincial hunting organization was organized in the form of taşra doğancıları (provincial falconers or hawkers, sayyad (hunters, yavrucu (fledgeling careres, yuvacı (nest carers, kayacı (carer of nest rocks, görenceci (bird observers, tuzakçı (bird catchers. There are records in Ottoman archives about this units concerning their organization, numbers, how they were spread and how the duties were passed from father to son. In this study, in the 16th century provincial Ottoman hunting organization and services in Silistra has been throughly examined, using archive documents.

  3. Psychosocial work stress, leisure time physical exercise and the risk of chronic pain in the neck/shoulders: Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanavoll, Rannveig; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holtermann, Andreas; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic neck/shoulder pain is associated with work stress and job control, and to assess if physical exercise modifies these associations. The study population comprised 29 496 vocationally active women and men in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study) without chronic pain at baseline in 1984-1986. Chronic neck/shoulder pain was assessed during a follow-up in 1995-1997. A generalized linear model (Poisson regression) was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs). Work stress was dosedependently associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain (ptrend work as stressful "almost all the time" had multi-adjusted RRs = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.47) and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.46-2), respectively, referencing those with no stressful work. Work stress interacted with sex (p stressful work (ptrend = 0.05) and among the men who perceived their work as "rarely stressful" (ptrend work stress. Work stress is an independent predictor of chronic neck/shoulder pain and the effect is stronger in men than in women. Physical exercise does not substantially reduce the risk among the persons with frequent exposure to work stress. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. The impact of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on survival in the general population – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorpen Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met which has been related to common diseases like cancer, psychiatric illness and myocardial infarction. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism is associated with survival has not been evaluated in the general population. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism on survival in a population-based cohort. Methods The sample comprised 2979 non-diabetic individuals who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in the period 1995–97. The subjects were followed up with respect to mortality throughout year 2004. Results 212 men and 183 women died during the follow up. No association between codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism and survival was found. The unadjusted relative risk of death by non-ischemic heart diseases with Met/Met or Met/Val genotypes was 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–9.00 compared to Val/Val genotype. When we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, coffee intake and body mass index the relative risk decreased to 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–8.00. Conclusion During 10 year of follow-up, the Val158Met polymorphism had no impact on survival in a general population. Difference in mortality rates from non-ischemic heart diseases may be incidental and should be evaluated in other studies.

  5. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundmark PO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter Optometri, Rjukan, Norway Purpose: The increasing demand for primary eye care due to an aging population implicates an enhanced role of optometrists in the communities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the rate of referrals and returning medical reports between optometrists and health care professionals in Norway. The secondary objectives were to investigate the conformity of diagnoses in referrals and medical reports, the extent of optometric follow-up examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs in optometric practice.Materials and methods: This study is an ongoing prospective electronic survey administered on the Internet between November 2014 and December 2017. Optometrists in private optometric practice are eligible. Participants register data for up to 1 year, including examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs; referrals, including International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2 codes; medical reports, including the ICD-10 codes; and optometric follow-up enquiries. Analysis of agreement between referred and diagnosed conditions was made possible by encoding patients’ ID.Results: Seventeen months into the study, 67 optometrists were included (Female: 60%, mean age: 41 years.. There were 49,510 registered examinations (60% general, 28% contact lens, 12% auxiliary. Diagnostic drugs were used in 4% of these and in 14% of the examinations that resulted in a referral. There were 1,779 referrals (97% to ophthalmologists. Top three diagnoses were cataract (36%, glaucoma (11%, and age-related macular degeneration (7%. There were 1,036 returned medical reports, of which 76% could be linked with registered referrals. Diagnostic agreement was observed in 80% of the cases (74% for

  6. Association of personality, neighbourhood, and civic participation with the level of perceived social support: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Siv; Romild, Ulla; Hellzèn, Ove; Stordal, Eystein

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the association of personality, neighbourhood, and civic participation with the level of perceived social support if needed. The sample consists of a total of 35,797 men (16,035) and women (19,762) drawn from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 (HUNT3), aged 20-89, with a fully completed short version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) including a complete response to questions regarding perceived social support. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the three-category outcomes (high, medium, and low) of perceived social support. The Chi-square test detected a significant (p personality, sense of community, civic participation, self-rated health, living arrangement, age groups, gender, and perceived social support, except between perceived social support and loss of social network, in which no significance was found. The crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression models show a relation between medium and low scores on perceived social support, personality, and sources of social support. Interactions were observed between gender and self-rated health. There is an association between the level of perceived social support and personality, sense of community in the neighbourhood, and civic participation. Even if the interaction between men and self-reported health decreases the odds for low and medium social support, health professionals should be aware of men with poor health and their lack of social support.

  7. Current European guidelines for management of arterial hypertension: Are they adequate for use in primary care? Modelling study based on the Norwegian HUNT 2 population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetlevik Irene

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that clinical guidelines using combined risk evaluation for cardiovascular diseases (CVD may overestimate risk. The aim of this study was to model and discuss implementation of the current (2007 hypertension guidelines in a general Norwegian population. Methods Implementation of the current European Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension was modelled on data from a cross-sectional, representative Norwegian population study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97, comprising 65,028 adults, aged 20-89, of whom 51,066 (79% were eligible for modelling. Results Among individuals with blood pressure ≥120/80 mmHg, 93% (74% of the total, adult population would need regular clinical attention and/or drug treatment, based on their total CVD risk profile. This translates into 296,624 follow-up visits/100,000 adults/year. In the Norwegian healthcare environment, 99 general practitioner (GP positions would be required in the study region for this task alone. The number of GPs currently serving the adult population in the study area is 87 per 100,000 adults. Conclusion The potential workload associated with the European hypertension guidelines could destabilise the healthcare system in Norway, one of the world's most long- and healthy-living nations, by international comparison. Large-scale, preventive medical enterprises can hardly be regarded as scientifically sound and ethically justifiable, unless issues of practical feasibility, sustainability and social determinants of health are considered.

  8. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  9. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...

  10. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  11. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    , gradients in fetal growth by parental education existed. Low parental education was associated with lower birthweight, increased risk of SGA and decreased risk of LGA. Mother's education exerted the strongest influence on outcomes, whereas father's education had a weaker effect. The educational gradients...... as measured by the SII were generally steepest in Denmark, followed by Norway, Sweden, and Finland. From 1981 to 2000, the educational gradients in birthweight decreased in all countries, except Denmark where it increased. All countries experienced small decreases in the educational gradient in SGA over time...

  12. Cu-Zn slags from Røros (Norway): a case study of rapid cooling and crystal nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchulski, Rafał; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    The mining town of Røros located in central Norway was established in 1644 and it is known of historical mining industry related to copper. Røros was designated as an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980 on the base of mining culture represented by, e.g., unique wooden architecture. Slag pieces are composed of three parts differing in glass to crystallites ratio. Røros slags are composed of olivine- and pyroxene- group minerals accompanied by sulphides, with glass in the interstices. Temperature gradient and volatiles content were determined as the main factor influencing crystallization process in this material

  13. Cu-Zn Slags from R⊘ros (Norway): A Case Study of Rapid Cooling and Crystal Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchulski, Rafał; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    The mining town of R⊘ros located in central Norway was established in 1644 and it is known of historical mining industry related to copper. R⊘ros was designated as an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980 on the base of mining culture represented by, e.g., unique wooden architecture. Slag pieces are composed of three parts differing in glass to crystallites ratio. R⊘ros slags are composed of olivine- and pyroxene- group minerals accompanied by sulphides, with glass in the interstices. Temperature gradient and volatiles content were determined as the main factor influencing crystallization process in this material.

  14. Assessment of aggregate quality and petrographic properties' influence on rock quality: A case study from Nordland county, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve Keiding, Jakob; Erichsen, Eyolf; Heldal, Tom; Aslaksen Aasly, Kari

    2017-04-01

    Good access to construction materials is crucial for future infrastructure development and continued economic growth. In Norway >80 % of construction materials come from crushed aggregates and represent an growing share of the consumption. Although recycling to some extend can cover the need for construction materials, economic growth, increasing population and urbanization necessitates exploitation of new rock resources in Norway as well as many other parts of the world. Aggregates must fulfill a number of technical requirements to ensure high quality and long life expectancy of new roads, buildings and structures. Aggregates also have to be extracted near the consumer market. Particularly for road construction strict criteria are in place for wearing course for roads with high traffic density. Thus knowledge of mechanical rock quality is paramount for both exploitation as well as future resource and land-use planning but is often not assessed or mapped beyond the quarry scale. The Geological survey of Norway runs a database with information about crushed aggregate deposits from >1500 Norwegian quarries and sample sites. Here we use mechanical test analyses from the database to assess the aggregate quality in the Nordland county, Norway. Maps have been produced linking bed rock geology with rock quality parameters. The survey documents that the county is challenged in meeting the requirements for roads with high traffic density and especially in the middle parts of the county many samples have weak mechanical properties. This to some degree reflect that weak Cambro-Silurian rocks like phyllite, schist, carbonate and greenstone are abundant in Nordland. Typically mechanically stronger rock types such as gabbro, monzonite and granite are also exposed in large parts of the county, but are also characterized by relative poor or very variable mechanical test quality. Preliminary results indicate that many intrinsic parameters influence the mechanical rock strength, but

  15. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  16. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  17. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  18. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  19. Parker River NWR : Revised Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains revisions to the 1978 Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Hunt Management Plan. Refuge hunters must obtain a permit to use the hunting...

  20. Waterfowl Hunting Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Waterfowl Hunting Plan for Mingo NWR summarizes how the Waterfowl Hunting Program relates to Refuge objectives, outlines Program policies and control, and lists...

  1. 7th Higgs Hunting 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    A subject of major importance in fundamental physics is the investigation of the origin of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking. The mechanism of mass generation through the spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry is called the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism and is associated with the appearance of a physical scalar boson. The discovery announced at CERN on 4th July 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of a boson at a mass close to 125 GeV/c2, compatible with this scalar boson of the Standard Model, the so-called Higgs boson, mainly in γγ, ZZ and WW decay modes, with compatible evidence also found at Fermilab in the bb mode, changed the landscape. This important discovery was acknowledged as decisive for the attribution of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter Higgs . This 7th workshop of the "Higgs Hunting" series organized in Paris on August 31 - September 2, 2016 will discuss the developments of LHC run 2 analyses, detailed studies of the new boson and possible de...

  2. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... August 8, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...

  3. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the...

  4. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird...

  5. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  6. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  7. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  8. The Effect of College Students' Cognitive Level on the Expected Difficulties in Job-hunting: An Empirical Study%大学生认知水平对就业难度影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪小红; 罗玲英; 雷玲; 张权

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive level determines the objectivity,rationality,and scientific nature of people's judgment.The cognitive level of college students will influence the rationality and scientific nature of job-hunting process,thus affecting the degree of difficulties they expect in the job-hunting.In the presenting study,we designed a questionnaire to comprehensively understand the current levels of students' cognitive ability in perception,interests,personality and the specialty.Based on the data of the questionnaire,we analyzed the relationship between college students' cognitive level and the degree of difficulties they expect in the job-hunting.The results showed that college students' cognitive level has great influence on the degree of expected difficulties in job-hunting,and the influence varies depending on the type of cognitive ability.In conclusion,the results of our study provided guidance for college students to perfect their cognitive structure,and for colleges and universities to improve career guidance.%大学生认知水平影响其就业难度。通过问卷调查,全面了解大学生能力认知、兴趣认知、性格认知及专业认知现状,分析大学生认知水平与就业难度之间的关系。结果显示,大学生认知水平对就业难度影响较大,各项认知对就业难度的影响程度不一。该结论可以为大学生完善认知结构、降低就业难度提供一定的指导,也可以为高校就业指导部门提供一定的借鉴。

  9. Norway: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringard, Ånen; Sagan, Anna; Sperre Saunes, Ingrid; Lindahl, Anne Karin

    2013-01-01

    Norways five million inhabitants are spread over nearly four hundred thousand square kilometres, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. It has enjoyed several decades of high growth, following the start of oil production in early 1970s, and is now one of the richest countries per head in the world. Overall, Norways population enjoys good health status; life expectancy of 81.53 years is above the EU average of 80.14, and the gap between overall life expectancy and healthy life years is around half the of EU average. The health care system is semi decentralized. The responsibility for specialist care lies with the state (administered by four Regional Health Authorities) and the municipalities are responsible for primary care. Although health care expenditure is only 9.4% of Norways GDP (placing it on the 16th place in the WHO European region), given Norways very high value of GDP per capita, its health expenditure per head is higher than in most countries. Public sources account for over 85% of total health expenditure; the majority of private health financing comes from households out-of-pocket payments.The number of practitioners in most health personnel groups, including physicians and nurses, has been increasing in the last few decades and the number of health care personnel per 100 000 inhabitants is high compared to other EU countries. However, long waiting times for elective care continue to be a problem and are cause of dissatisfaction among the patients. The focus of health care reforms has seen shifts over the past four decades. During the 1970s the focus was on equality and increasing geographical access to health care services; during the 1980s reforms aimed at achieving cost containment and decentralizing health care services; during the 1990s the focus was on efficiency. Since the beginning of the millennium the emphasis has been given to structural changes in the delivery and organization of health care and to policies

  10. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species.

  11. Material, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality: evidence from the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; van Lenthe, Frank; Bambra, Clare; Krokstad, Steinar; Mackenbach, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have assessed the relative importance of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality, but research into the contribution of biomedical factors has been limited. Our study examines the relative contribution of (i) material, (ii) psychosocial, (iii) behavioural and (iv) biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic (educational and income) inequalities in mortality. Cohort study--baseline data from the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT 2 study linked to mortality data (1995/97 to 2003). In this analysis, 18 247 men and 18 278 women aged 24-80 without severe chronic disease at baseline were eligible. No socio-economic inequalities in mortality among women were found. In men, educational- and income-related inequalities in mortality were found with a relative risk for the lowest educational group of 1.67 (1.29-2.15) and the lowest income quartile of 2.03 (1.57-2.70). Together, the four explanatory factors reduced the relative risk of mortality of the lowest educational group to 1.18 (0.90-1.55) and the relative risk of mortality in the lowest income quartile was attenuated to 1.17 (0.83-1.63). Known biomedical factors contributed least to both educational and income inequalities in mortality. Material factors were the most important in explaining income inequalities in mortality amongst men, whereas psychosocial and behavioural factors were the most important in explaining educational inequalities. This suggests that improving the material, psychosocial and behavioural circumstances of men might bring more substantial reductions in relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality.

  12. Hyper-real territories and urban markets: changing conventions for local food – case studies from France and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Fort

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fondé sur deux types de données différentes et complémentaires, cet article propose de comparer des conventions sur lesquelles reposent les produits locaux et localisés, à travers une analyse comparée de la façon dont le concept de local est perçu en France et en Norvège à travers les signes de qualité des produits d’une origine donnée. Le consommateur étant l’objet premier des campagnes de marketing, après une rapide présentation des cadres institutionnels dans les deux pays, nous nous intéresserons dans un premier temps à la façon dont l’idée de local est présentée dans les réclames concernant les produits. Dans un second temps nous présenterons la perception du local dans les interviews approfondies réalisées auprès de consommateurs de produits choisis en France et en Norvège. Finalement nous interpréterons les conceptions que les consommateurs ont des produits locaux dans une perspective inspirée des mondes possibles de production de Salais et Storper et du concept d’hyper-réalité développé par Baudrillard. Cette approche met en valeur l’importance et la nature dynamique des conventions de qualité locale ainsi que la nécessité de reconsidérer les terminologies courantes, comme proximité ou local, dont la pluralité reflète la tension inhérente entre identité locale rurale et existence urbaine.Based on case studies in France and Norway, this article compares the conventions of local foods through an analysis of the meanings and representations of Signs of Identification of Quality and Origin (SIQO in institutional frameworks, marketing claims and consumer perceptions. Because consumers are the ultimate target of most marketing campaigns, we investigated the ways in which advertisements convey the idea of ‘local’ to the consumer. We then analysed consumer conceptions of two currently popular local cheeses, chosen to highlight differences and similarities between the two countries

  13. Stavanger Squash Centre, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Although Stavanger is the technological and financial oil-capital of Norway, the Stavanger Squash Centre was until recently the largest solar building in Norway, with 120 m{sup 2} of collectors. The active, building-integrated, solar air collector in the 45 {sup o} roof facing 15 {sup o} east of due south, has now been delivering solar-heated hot water for the showers for 15 years. The solar system consists of several standard products put together in a new way. Monitoring has shown that the system produced 18,000 kWh/m{sup 2} a (150 kWh/m{sub coll} {sup 2}a). If operated as planned, it could have had a solar contribution of 45,000 kWh/a) (375 kWh/m{sub coll} {sup 2}a), resulting in a 19% solar fraction of total demand. (author)

  14. Application of the anthropogenic allee effect model to trophy hunting as a conservation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard B; Cooney, Rosie; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2013-10-01

    Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, increasing concerns that such hunting may undermine rather than enhance conservation efforts. We question the appropriateness of uncritically applying the AAE model to trophy hunting for 4 reasons. First, the AAE assumes an open-access resource, which is a poor characterization of most trophy-hunting programs and obscures the potential for state, communal, or private-property use rights to generate positive incentives for conservation. Second, study results that show the price of hunting increases as the rarity of the animal increases are insufficient to indicate the presence of AAE. Third, AAE ignores the existence of biological and behavioral factors operating in most trophy-hunting contexts that tend to regulate the effect of hunting. We argue that site-specific data, rather than aggregated hunting statistics, are required to demonstrate that patterns of unsustainable exploitation can be well explained by an AAE model. Instead, we suggest that conservation managers seeking to investigate and identify constraints that limit the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, should focus on the critical governance characteristics that shape the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, such as corruption, insecure property rights, and inadequate sharing of benefits with local people. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Derivation and Evaluation of Age-Specific Multivariate Reference Regions to Aid in Identification of Abnormal Filling Patterns: The HUNT and VaMIS Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeryd, Jonas; Henriksen, Egil; Dalen, Håvard; Hedberg, Pär

    2017-07-13

    This study aimed to derive age-specific multivariate reference regions (MVRs) able to classify subjects into those having normal or abnormal filling patterns and to evaluate the prognostic impact of this classification. The integration of several parameters is necessary to diagnose disorders of left ventricular (LV) filling because no single measurement accurately describes the complexity of diastolic function. However, no generally accepted validated multiparametric algorithm currently exists. A cohort of 1,240 apparently healthy subjects from HUNT (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) with measured early (E) and late (A) mitral inflow velocity and early mitral annular diastolic tissue velocity (e') were used to derive univariate 95% reference bands and age-specific MVRs. Subsequently, the prognostic impact of this MVR-based classification was evaluated by Cox regression in a community-based cohort (n = 726) and in a cohort of subjects with recent acute myocardial infarction (n = 551). Both evaluation cohorts were derived from VaMIS (the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study). Univariate reference bands and MVRs are presented graphically and as regression equations. After adjustment for sex, age, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes, prior ischemic heart disease, LV mass, LV ejection fraction, and left atrial size, the hazard ratio associated with abnormal filling patterns in the community-based cohort was 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.0; p filling patterns and showed, in a community-based cohort and in a cohort of patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, that these MVRs conveyed important prognostic information. An MVR-based classification of LV filling patterns could lead to more consistent diagnostic algorithms for identification of different filling disorders. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  17. Depression and anxiety in relation to catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype in the general population: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwart John-Anker

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met, which has been linked to anxiety and depression, but previous results are not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Val158Met COMT gene polymorphism and anxiety and depression measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS in the general adult population. Methods In the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT the association between the Val158Met polymorphism and anxiety and depression was evaluated in a random sample of 5531 individuals. Two different cut off scores (≥ 8 and ≥ 11 were used to identify cases with anxiety (HADS-A and depression (HADS-D, whereas controls had HADS-A Results The COMT genotype distribution was similar between controls and individuals in the groups with anxiety and depression using cut-off scores of ≥ 8. When utilizing the alternative cut-off score HADS-D ≥ 11, Met/Met genotype and Met allele were less common among men with depression compared to the controls (genotype: p = 0.017, allele: p = 0.006. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and heart disease, depression (HADS-D ≥ 11 was less likely among men with the Met/Met genotype than among men with the Val/Val genotype (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.18–0.76. Conclusion In this population-based study, no clear association between the Val158Met polymorphism and depression and anxiety was revealed. The Met/Met genotype was less likely among men with depression defined as HADS-D ≥ 11, but this may be an incidental finding.

  18. Should China Allow Game Hunting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Public opinion is having an increasing impact on decision-making in China, as witnessed last month when the State Forestry Administration announced it was postponing plans to auction the first ever hunting licenses in the country's history. This move, brought about by a backlash in the media and online forums, prompted officials to disclose more details to justify

  19. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  20. Occupational mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Due, Jonas Røer

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how yearly occupational mobility has developed in Norway between the years 1972 and 2015. It also analyses the characteristics of workers that experienced the most occupational switches, and control for demographic changes in the workforce of the population. To investigate this topic, this thesis uses quarterly panel data from the Norwegian Labor Force Survey, where several cleaning procedures have been conducted through the computer program STATA with additional calc...

  1. Leisure time activities in adolescence in the presence of susceptibility genes for obesity: risk or resilience against overweight in adulthood? The HUNT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Environment, health behavior, and genetic background are important in the development of obesity. Adolescents spend substantial part of daily leisure time on cultural and social activities, but knowledge about the effects of participation in such activities on weight is limited. Methods A number of 1450 adolescents from the Norwegian HUNT study (1995–97) were followed-up in 2006–08 as young adults. Phenotypic data on lifestyle and anthropometric measures were assessed using questionnaires and standardized clinical examinations. Genotypic information on 12 established obesity-susceptibility loci were available for analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations between cultural and social activities in adolescence and adiposity measures in young adulthood. In addition, interaction effects of a genetic predisposition score by leisure time activities were tested. Results In girls, participation in cultural activities was negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (B = −0.04, 95%CI: -0.08 to −0.00) and with waist-hip ratio (WHR) (B = −0.058, 95%CI: -0.11 to −0.01). However, participation in social activities was positively associated with WC (B = 0.040, CI: 0.00 to 0.08) in girls and with BMI (B = 0.027, CI: 0.00 to 0.05) in boys. The effect of the obesity-susceptibility genetic variants on anthropometric measures was lower in adolescents with high participation in cultural activities compared to adolescents with low participation. Conclusion This study suggests that the effects of cultural activities on body fat are different from the effects of participation in social activities. The protective influence of cultural activities in female adolescents against overweight in adulthood and their moderating effect on obesity-susceptibility genes suggest that even cultural activities may be useful in public health strategies against obesity. PMID:22998931

  2. Leisure time activities in adolescence in the presence of susceptibility genes for obesity: risk or resilience against overweight in adulthood? The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuypers Koenraad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environment, health behavior, and genetic background are important in the development of obesity. Adolescents spend substantial part of daily leisure time on cultural and social activities, but knowledge about the effects of participation in such activities on weight is limited. Methods A number of 1450 adolescents from the Norwegian HUNT study (1995–97 were followed-up in 2006–08 as young adults. Phenotypic data on lifestyle and anthropometric measures were assessed using questionnaires and standardized clinical examinations. Genotypic information on 12 established obesity-susceptibility loci were available for analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations between cultural and social activities in adolescence and adiposity measures in young adulthood. In addition, interaction effects of a genetic predisposition score by leisure time activities were tested. Results In girls, participation in cultural activities was negatively associated with waist circumference (WC (B = −0.04, 95%CI: -0.08 to −0.00 and with waist-hip ratio (WHR (B = −0.058, 95%CI: -0.11 to −0.01. However, participation in social activities was positively associated with WC (B = 0.040, CI: 0.00 to 0.08 in girls and with BMI (B = 0.027, CI: 0.00 to 0.05 in boys. The effect of the obesity-susceptibility genetic variants on anthropometric measures was lower in adolescents with high participation in cultural activities compared to adolescents with low participation. Conclusion This study suggests that the effects of cultural activities on body fat are different from the effects of participation in social activities. The protective influence of cultural activities in female adolescents against overweight in adulthood and their moderating effect on obesity-susceptibility genes suggest that even cultural activities may be useful in public health strategies against obesity.

  3. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  4. The influence of social capital on self-rated health and depression – The Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Sund

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and two health outcomes: selfrated health and depression. A total of 42,571 individuals aged 30–67 years participated in a cross-sectional total population health study in Nord-Trøndelag in 1995–1997 (HUNT II and were investigated using multilevel modelling. Aims were, first, to investigate potential area effects after accounting for the characteristics of individuals in the neighbourhoods (N = 155, and, second, to explore the relationships between contextual social capital (the level of trust at the neighbourhood level and the level of local organizational activity and the two health measures. Models with stepwise inclusion of individual level factors attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health (PCV: 41% and depression (PCV: 43%. The inclusion of the two contextual social capital items attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health and depression, however to varying degrees. At the individual level, contextual social capital was associated with both self-rated health and depression. Individuals living in wards with a low level of trust experienced an increased risk of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 for poor self-rated health compared to individuals in wards with a high level of trust. For depression, this effect was even stronger (OR 1.52, 1.23-1.87. The associations with the level of organizational activity were inconsistent and weaker for both health outcomes. It was concluded that geographical variations in self-rated health and depression are largely due to the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. Nevertheless, contextual social capital, expressed as the level of trust, was found to be associated with depression and self-rated health at individual level.

  5. "Hunt"-ing for post-translational modifications that underlie the histone code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Sean D.; David Allis, C.; Hake, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells package their DNA with histone proteins to form chromatin that can be regulated to enable transcription, DNA repair and replication in response to cellular needs and external stimuli. A wealth of recent studies of post-translational histone modifications and histone variants have led to an explosion of insights into and more questions about how these processes might be regulated. Work from Donald Hunt and colleagues contributed greatly to our understanding of the "histone code" by developing novel methods to study and identify histone modifications in both generic and specialized variant histone proteins. Without his expertise, the field of chromatin biology would not be where it is today. In recognition, we are pleased to contribute to a special issue of the International Journal of Mass Spectrometry dedicated to the many advances pioneered by the Hunt laboratory, which have enhanced the science of many fields and the careers of many scientists.

  6. Utilization of Radiation Therapy in Norway After the Implementation of The National Cancer Plan—A National, Population-Based Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Åsli, Linn M., E-mail: linn.merete.asli@kreftregisteret.no [Department of Registration, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Kvaløy, Stein O. [Division of Cancer, Surgery, and Transplantation, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Jetne, Vidar [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Myklebust, Tor Å. [Department of Registration, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Levernes, Sverre G. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås (Norway); Tveit, Kjell M. [Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Green, Tor O. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Johannesen, Tom B. [Department of Registration, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To estimate actual utilization rates of radiation therapy (RT) in Norway, describe time trends (1997-2010), and compare these estimates with corresponding optimal RT rates. Methods and Materials: Data from the population-based Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all patients diagnosed with cancer and/or treated by RT for cancer in 1997-2010. Radiation therapy utilization rates (RURs) were calculated as (1) the proportion of incident cancer cases who received RT at least once within 1 year of diagnosis (RUR{sub 1Y}); and (2) the proportion who received RT within 5 years of diagnosis (RUR{sub 5Y}). The number of RT treatment courses per incident cancer case (TCI) was also calculated for all cancer sites combined. The actual RURs were compared with corresponding Australian and Canadian epidemiologic- and evidence-based model estimates and criterion-based benchmark estimates of optimal RURs. The TCIs were compared with TCI estimates from the 1997 Norwegian/National Cancer Plan (NCP). Joinpoint regression was used to identify changes in trends and to estimate annual percentage change (APC) in actual RUR{sub 1Y} and actual TCI. Results: The actual RUR{sub 5Y} (all sites) increased significantly to 29% in 2005 but still differed markedly from the Australian epidemiologic- and evidence-based model estimate of 48%. With the exception of RUR{sub 5Y} for breast cancer and RUR{sub 1Y} for lung cancers, all actual RURs were markedly lower than optimal RUR estimates. The actual TCI increased significantly during the study period, reaching 42.5% in 2010, but was still lower than the 54% recommended in the NCP. The trend for RUR{sub 1Y} (all sites) and TCI changed significantly, with the annual percentage change being largest during the first part of the study period. Conclusions: Utilization rates of RT in Norway increased after the NCP was implemented and RT capacity was increased, but they still seem to be lower than optimal levels.

  7. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data...

  8. Final Environmental Assessment Proposed Opening of Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge to Upland Game Hunting, Migratory Waterfowl Hunting, Big Game Hunting and Sport and Commercial Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 1985 Final Environmental Assessment Proposed Opening of Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge to Upland Game Hunting, Migratory Waterfoul Hunting, Big Game Hunting...

  9. Treatment of fibromyalgia at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway II--a 24-month follow-up pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lars Bjørn; Mikkelsen, Knut; Haugen, Margaretha; Pripp, Are H; Fields, Jeremy Z; Førre, Øystein T

    2012-05-01

    Treatments offered at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway are based on Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM). MVM is a consciousness-based revival by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program of the ancient Ayurvedic medicine tradition in India. To extend from 6 to 24 months, a pilot study of the effects of the treatment program at the Health Centre on fibromyalgia. Retesting 2 years after a clinical trial. In this intention to treat study, 31 women with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia received an individually tailored program of (1) physiological purification therapy (Maharishi Panchakarma) and (2) Ayurvedic recommendations regarding daily routine and diet including a novel approach to food intolerance. Five subjects chose to learn TM for stress reduction, pain management and personal development. All were recommended Ayurvedic herbal products for follow-up treatment. A modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) that included seven dimensions. Scores at 24 months follow-up were compared with pre-treatment scores. At 24-months follow-up, there were significant reductions (26% to 44%) in six of the seven fibromyalgia dimensions: impairment of working ability, pain, tiredness, morning tiredness, stiffness and anxiety. The 7th, depression, decreased 32% (borderline significant). At 24 months, the four subjects who continued practising TM, had almost no symptoms and significantly lower FIQ change scores (-92% to 97%) than the non-meditators on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests that the treatments and health promotion programs offered at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway lead to long-term reductions in symptoms of fibromyalgia, which is considered a treatment-resistant condition, and further studies are warranted.

  10. Familial aggregation of anxiety and depression in the community: the role of adolescents' self-esteem and physical activity level (the HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranøyen, Ingunn; Stenseng, Frode; Klöckner, Christian A; Wallander, Jan; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated in parents and children, but few studies have examined associations between recurrent parental problems and offspring symptoms, and fathers have rarely been included in these studies. Additionally, few have investigated factors that may protect against familial aggregation of anxiety and depression. The aims of the present study are to examine the associations between recurrent parental anxiety/depression over a ten-year time span and offspring anxiety/depression in adolescence and to test whether two factors proposed to be inversely related to anxiety and depression, namely, adolescent self-esteem and physical activity, may moderate and mediate the transmission of anxiety/depression. This study used data from two waves of a Norwegian community study (the HUNT study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents, ages 13-18, (mean age = 15.8, 50.3% girls) who had one (N = 1,761 mothers; N = 742 fathers) or both parents (N = 3,229) participating in the second wave. In the first wave, 78% of the parents also participated. The adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires on self-esteem, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression, whereas parents reported on their own anxiety/depressive symptoms. The data were analysed with structural equation modeling. The presence of parental anxiety/depression when offspring were of a preschool age predicted offspring anxiety/depression when they reached adolescence, but these associations were entirely mediated by current parental symptoms. Self-esteem partly mediated the associations between anxiety/depression in parents and offspring. No sex differences were found. Physical activity moderated the direct associations between anxiety/depression in mothers and offspring, whereas no moderating effect was evident with regard to paternal anxiety/depression. These findings suggest that children of parents with anxiety/depression problems are at a sustained risk for

  11. Body configuration as a predictor of mortality: comparison of five anthropometric measures in a 12 year follow-up of the Norwegian HUNT 2 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfdan Petursson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work. METHODS: We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20-79, followed up for mortality from 1995-1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity.

  12. Serum levels of choline-containing compounds are associated with aerobic fitness level: the HUNT-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of people at risk is continuously growing. New methods for early risk prediction are therefore needed to actuate prevention strategies before the individuals are diagnosed with CVD. Several studies report that aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max, is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality in healthy people. Based on this, we wanted to study differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO(2max-level to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have potential as early biomarkers of CVD risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum samples from 218 healthy individuals with a low VO(2max (n = 108, 63 women or high VO(2max (n = 110, 64 women were analysed with MR metabolomics. In addition, standard clinical-chemical analyses for glucose, lipids, liver enzymes, micro-CRP, and colorimetric analysis on circulating choline were performed. Individuals in the low VO(2max-group had increased serum levels of free choline, decreased phosphatidylcholine, increased glucosę and decreased unsaturated fatty acids compared to the individuals in the high VO(2max-group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Aerobic fitness dependent differences in serum levels of free choline and phosphatidylcholine are observed. They should be further studied as potential early markers of CVD risk.

  13. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Berntsen, F.; Clausen, S.; Dahl, E.L.; Flagstad, Oe.; Follestad, A.; Halley, D.; Hanssen, F.; Hoel, P.L.; Johnsen, L.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Steinheim, Y.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    The project is named Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind). BirdWind is approaching its finalization; with 2010 as the last ordinary year where data-collecting activities takes place. In 2009 the project was significantly strengthened through a new PhD-position. The overall aim of the work conducted by the PhD-student is to model the future white-tailed eagle (WTE) population development based on reproduction and mortality data. Weekly searches with dogs for birds killed within the wind-power plant have been carried out throughout the year; in general searches are conducted every 7 days. 25 'primary turbines' are selected and searched together with one of two dogs. A full search of all turbines is performed at larger intervals. In 2009 31 specimens of at least 8 species have been re-corded. The most frequent victims are willow ptarmigan and WTE with 10 and 7 carcasses, respectively. Of waders 3 common snipes have been recorded. Five carcasses were recorded of hooded crow, and single carcasses of parrot crossbill, northern wheat ear, teal and mallard. Some records from earlier years have been revised as collision victims or not. Also in 2009 censuses for willow ptarmigan have been carried out in spring and autumn on Smoela and Hitra. The preliminary results do not indicate any obvious differences between the two areas, but autumn density in the wind-power plant area seems to be more stable compared to the control area. Interestingly the higher density within the wind-power plant area in autumn is evened out in spring each year, so also in spring 2009. To obtain data on habitat selection, movements, collision risks, survival of eggs, chicks and adults and general population dynamic parameters, willow ptarmigan specimen have been radio-tagged in 2008-2009. The activities regarding breeding waders and small birds (mainly passerines) have this year focused on the EIA-activities on Hitra in

  14. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Estimating the Economic Value of Narwhal and Beluga Hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoover, C.; Bailey, M.L.; Higdon, J.; Ferguson, S.H.; Sumaila, R.

    2013-01-01

    Hunting of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Hudson Bay is an important activity, providing food and income in northern communities, yet few studies detail the economic aspects of these hunts. We outline the uses of narwhal and beluga and estimate the revenues, costs,

  16. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little

  17. Prevalence of nutritional risk in the non-demented hospitalised elderly: a cross-sectional study from Norway using stratified sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Helene K; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Sortland, Kjersti; Halvorsen, Kristin; Almendingen, Kari

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of accurate prevalence data on undernutrition and the risk of undernutrition among the hospitalised elderly in Europe and Norway. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of nutritional risk by using stratified sampling along with adequate power calculations. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the period 2011 to 2013 at a university hospital in Norway. Second-year nursing students in acute care clinical studies in twenty hospital wards screened non-demented elderly patients for nutritional risk, by employing the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) form. In total, 508 patients (48·8 % women and 51·2 % men) with a mean age of 79·6 (sd 6·4) years were screened by the students. Mean BMI was 24·9 (sd 4·9) kg/m(2), and the patients had been hospitalised for on average 5·3 (sd 6·3) d. WHO's BMI cut-off values identified 6·5 % as underweight, 48·0 % of normal weight and 45·5 % as overweight. Patients nutritionally at risk had been in hospital longer and had lower average weight and BMI compared with those not at risk (all P nutritional risk was estimated to be 45·4 (95 % CI 41·7 %, 49·0) %, ranging between 20·0 and 65·0 % on different hospital wards. The present results show that the prevalence of nutritional risk among elderly patients without dementia is high, suggesting that a large proportion of the hospitalised elderly are in need of nutritional treatment.

  18. A crisis resolution and home treatment team in Norway: a longitudinal survey study Part 3. Changes in morbidity and clinical problems from admission to discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biong Stian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crisis resolution and home treatment (CRHT is an emerging mode of delivering acute mental health care in the community. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the workings of CRHT in the literature. This is the third paper in a series of three from the longitudinal survey of patients of a CRHT team in Norway, which was aimed at describing the characteristics of patients served, professional services provided, and clinical outcomes. This report focuses on the changes in morbidity and clinical problems from admission to discharge and the length of service. Methods The study was a descriptive, quantitative study based on the patient data from a longitudinal survey of one CRHT team in Norway. The participants of the survey, a total of 363 patients, were the complete registration of patients of this team in the period from February 2008 to July 2009. Results The findings indicate that the patients´ mental health status improved from admission to discharge, although many patients were discharged with the same mental health symptoms as those present at admission. However, one third of the patients were discharged with no clinically significant mental health problems. The majority of the patients of the CRHT team on the other hand seemed to be those with long-standing mental health problems, who were likely to be in need of continuing mental health care even after the resolution of mental health crises. There is a need for a coordinated system of community-based mental health services for patients with long-standing mental health problems, within which CRHT teams can play a pivotal role in making connections between the crisis-care and the recovery-oriented care. The mean length of service was around 15 days with variations by the clinical problem types, with the patients in the psychosis group having the shortest duration and the patients in the depression group having the longest duration.

  19. Vitamin D status in patients with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and headache: a cross-sectional descriptive study in a multi-ethnic general practice in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Kirsten Valebjørg; Brekke, Mette; Gjelstad, Svein; Lagerløv, Per

    2010-09-01

    To investigate vitamin D levels in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headache, and fatigue. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A health center in Oslo, Norway, with a multi-ethnic population. A total of 572 patients referred by a general practitioner (GP) for an examination of hypovitaminosis D who reported musculoskeletal pain, headache, or fatigue. The patients' native countries were: Norway (n = 249), Europe, America, and South-East Asia (n = 83), and the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia (n = 240). Both genders and all ages were included. Vitamin D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D) in nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L) was found in 58% of patients. One-third of ethnic Norwegians had hypovitaminosis D, while 83% of patients from the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia had hypovitaminosis D with minimal seasonal variation of levels. One in two women from these countries had a vitamin D level below 25 nmol/L. Mean vitamin D level was lower in patients with headaches compared with patients with other symptoms. Some 15% of patients with low (< 50 nmol/L) vitamin D levels reported headaches, compared with 5% of those with normal vitamin D levels. Our study shows a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headache, or fatigue for whom the GP had suspected a low vitamin D level. Hypovitaminosis D was not restricted to immigrant patients. These results indicate that GPs should maintain awareness of hypovitaminosis D and refer patients who report headaches, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain with minimal sun exposure and a low dietary vitamin D intake for assessment.

  20. Psychosocial work stress, leisure time physical exercise and the risk of chronic pain in the neck/shoulders: Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannveig Fanavoll

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic neck/shoulder pain is associated with work stress and job control, and to assess if physical exercise modifies these associations. Material and Methods: The study population comprised 29 496 vocationally active women and men in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study without chronic pain at baseline in 1984–1986. Chronic neck/shoulder pain was assessed during a follow-up in 1995–1997. A generalized linear model (Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs. Results: Work stress was dosedependently associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain (ptrend < 0.001 in both sexes. The women and men who perceived their work as stressful “almost all the time” had multi-adjusted RRs = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1–1.47 and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.46–2, respectively, referencing those with no stressful work. Work stress interacted with sex (p < 0.001. Poor job control was not associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain among the women (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92–1.19 nor the men (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.95–1.26. Combined analyses showed an inverse dose-dependent association between hours of physical exercise/week and the risk of neck/shoulder pain in the men with no stressful work (ptrend = 0.05 and among the men who perceived their work as “rarely stressful” (ptrend < 0.02. This effect was not statistically significant among the women or among men with more frequent exposure to work stress. Conclusions: Work stress is an independent predictor of chronic neck/shoulder pain and the effect is stronger in men than in women. Physical exercise does not substantially reduce the risk among the persons with frequent exposure to work stress.

  1. TOLOSA-HUNT SYNDROME MIMICKING AS ORBITAL COMPLICATION OF SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendra . Gadag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tolosa – Hunt syndrome is a rare, benign condition characterized by severe unilateral headache with extraocular palsies, orbital pain caused by nonspecific granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure or the orbit. (1-4 The incidence of Tolosa - Hunt syndrome has been estimated as approximately one to two cases per million. The etiology of the syndrome is largely unknown and it can affect people of virtually any age, with no sex predilection. It is usually unilateral, with no predisposition for right or left side; it has been reported as bilateral in 4.1-5 % cases. (2, 4 We report a rare case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome which was misdiagnosed as sinusitis with orbital complication. The clinical features, diagnostic investigation and the importance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies in the differentiation of the condition are addressed.

  2. Trace metal pollution in Eastern Finnmark, Norway and Kola Peninsula, Northwestern Russia as evidenced by studies of lake sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Appleby, P.G.; Dauvalter, V.; Traaen, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The eastern part of Finnmark county in Northern Norway borders against the northwestern part of Russia. On the Russian side are the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company. Sediment cores from two lakes, Hundvatn on the Norwegian side and Shuonijarvi on the Russian side, were analysed as described in the present report. Caesium from Chernobyl was detected in Shuonijarvi sediment. Americium distribution in the sediment was consistent with {sup 210}Pb dating chronology. The last century has seen increased concentrations and fluxes of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Except for Pb, all the fluxes are highest northeast of Nikel. Together with other data this indicates that the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company have been a major source of metal pollution since their start-up. No regional pollution of the metals except Pb is evident in sediment prior to the 20th century. The histories of Pb fluxes and concentrations indicate a pollution history probably exceeding 2000 years. 17 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in West Norway during 2006-2013; a prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylvaganam, Haima; Kolstad, Helge; Breistein, Rebecca Irene; Lind, Grete; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae and phenotypic identification of underlying mechanisms using a simple strategy was commenced in 2006 at our laboratory, serving West Norway. This report focuses on the results until 2013. The classical plasmid-mediated extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLA ) among clinically relevant Escherichia coli isolates showed an increase from 0.6% to 4.3% during the surveillance period, while prevalence for other mechanisms remained stable, below 0.7%. ESBLA in Klebsiella pneumoniae had similar prevalence in 2006 (0.6%) and 2013 (4.4%), but in between it peaked to 3.9% in 2008 and to 9.3% in 2011. Within the other species, the numbers of clinically relevant isolates and isolates-producing ESBLA were much lower. An increasing resistance due to hyperproduction of AmpC enzymes was seen in Enterobacter and Citrobacter, with prevalence increasing from 18% and 12.2% in 2006 to 27.5% and 26.1% in 2013, respectively. Hyperproduction of KOXY enzyme in Klebsiella oxytoca remained below 9.5% and did not show an increasing trend. The overall increase in the proportions of isolates-producing ESBLA in E. coli/K. pneumoniae and hyperproduction of AmpC in Enterobacter/Citrobacter necessitates measures to hinder the spread of resistant bacteria and vigilant antibiotic stewardship.

  4. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  5. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  6. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  7. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  8. Ethical aspects of hunting tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentović Risto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary moral controversies about hunting tourism in Serbia in the context of defined value orientations and norms of ethics of hunting tourism, as a branch of applied ethics. On the one hand, this paper summarizes conceptual definitions and specificities of hunting tourism, as a special form of tourism, and the crucial value postulates derived from the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation, and philosophical, theological and legal settings of man’s attitude towards animals and their welfare, as well as the standard code of hunting ethics and issues of business ethics in hunting tourism, on the other. The paper also cites some examples of ethically problematic phenomena in modern hunting tourism in Serbia and offers possible solutions to overcome them.

  9. Amendment #3 : Hunting and Fishing Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge : Historic Weapons Deer Hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the Mingo NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan opens an additional 5,000 acres in the southwest portion of the Refuge to a historic weapons deer hunt.

  10. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  11. Rgyas bzang Tibetan Tribe Hunting Lore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bkra shis dpal 'bar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.

  12. Hunting and hallucinogens: The use psychoactive and other plants to improve the hunting ability of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Alarcón, Rocío

    2015-08-02

    Cultures throughout the world give plants to their dogs in order to improve hunting success. These practices are best developed in lowland Ecuador and Peru. There is no experimental evidence for the efficacy of these practices nor critical reviews that consider possible pharmacological effects on dogs based on the chemistry of the ethnoverterinary plants. This review has three specific aims: (1) determine what plants the Ecuadorian Shuar and Quichua give to dogs to improve their hunting abilities, (2) determine what plants other cultures give to dogs for the same purpose, and (3) assess the possible pharmacological basis for the use of these plants, particularly the psychoactive ones. We gathered Shuar (Province of Morona-Santiago) and Quichua (Napo and Orellano Provinces) data from our previous publications and field notes. All specimens were vouchered and deposited in QCNE with duplicates sent to NY and MO. Data presented from other cultures derived from published studies on ethnoveterinary medicine. Species names were updated, when necessary, and family assignments follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121). Chemical data were found using PubMed and SciFinder. The Shuar and Quichua of Ecuador use at least 22 species for ethnoveterinary purposes, including all but one of their principal hallucinogens. Literature surveys identified 43 species used in other cultures to improve hunting ability. No published studies have examined the pharmacological active of these plant species in dogs. We, thus, combined phytochemical data with the ethnobotanical reports of each plant and then classified each species into a likely pharmacological category: depuratives/deodorant, olfactory sensitizer, ophthalmic, or psychoactive. The use of psychoactive substances to improve a dog׳s hunting ability seems counterintuitive, yet

  13. Hunting at the Abun Regional Marine Protected Areas: A Link Between Wildmeat and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Papuans are relied on hunting for subsistence purposes and significantly contributed to traditional cultures. However, in Papua information on hunting is limited and largely restricted to anthropological setting with most observations were done on the forest sites in lowland and highland landscapes. This study focuses on the contribution of hunting on food security along the coastal forests at the Bird’s Head Peninsula. Do people live near coastal sites mostly rely on marine resources as protein source? We gathered data on hunting by the majority of Karon ethnic group in the Abun district of Tambrauw Regency at the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia. We used information from in-depth interviews with hunters and households meal survey at four villages of Abun: Waibem, Wau, Warmandi and Saubeba. Reasons for hunting were varies among respondents but mostly conducted for trade. Six species of mammals and three birds were commonly hunted by using six different hunting techniques. Wild pig and rusa deer were the major targets in hunting to meet the demand of meat for both trading and household consumption. Meals containing wildmeat was the most consumed meal, greater than meals containing fish, animal products and vegetables, and noodles.

  14. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  15. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundmark PO; Luraas K

    2017-01-01

    Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter...

  16. Fault-induced deformation in a poorly consolidated, siliciclastic growth basin: A study from the Devonian in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, A.; Osmundsen, P. T.; Hauso, H.; Semshaug, S.; Fredman, N.; Buckley, S. J.

    2013-02-01

    The extensional Berge fault (Devonian Kvamshesten Basin, West Norway) displays 430 m of syntectonic stratigraphy with fluvial sandstones and red fines exposed in a hanging wall growth section. The fault consists of three linked strands, where the offset diminishes and tips out stratigraphically upwards. Folds in the growth basin include a rollover and drag fold that record cumulative deformation during the main phases of fault slip, and a monocline that records the death and burial of the fault. Deformation styles in both the subbasin fill and the fault core indicate that the sediments were unconsolidated to poorly lithified during deformation. The upward-narrowing fault core consists of indurated breccias derived from footwall conglomerates, and mainly laminated fault gouge of subbasin affinity. Towards the hanging wall there is a mixed layer of sandstone lenses enclosed in fault gouge; this unit is variably sheared. In the damage zone deeper in the subbasin, truncating-style small-scale tabular shear bands show a general increase in frequency towards the fault, with abundant peaks in frequency next to the fault core. Smearing-style shear bands are merely encountered near the master fault. In the upper monocline realm, an overall broad zone of deformation reveals a moderate frequency of shear bands, characterized by clear distinctions between variably deformed layers. Some tabular dilation structures are found locally as layer-confined strain throughout the basin. We reason that the mixed layer is a product of fluid mobilization in/along the fault core. Fluid induced weakening combined with differential compaction would augment aseismic creep, as advocated for the creation of the smearing shear bands. We discuss a conceptual model in which damage zones grow by repeated rejuvenation and expand during propagation events, advocating that a distinctive damage zone becomes better expressed with increasing faulting events and depth (consolidation) in a growth basin.

  17. Fluid-assisted zircon and monazite growth within a shear zone: a case study from Finnmark, Arctic Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Christopher L.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Slagstad, Trond

    2009-11-01

    The U-Pb ages, REE content, and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon rims developed within a major shear zone in the Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC), Arctic Norway have been determined along with the age of monazite crystals. Different generations of granitic veins have been distinguished based on both field criteria and monazite ages of 446 ± 3 and 424 ± 3 Ma. Within each of these veins, inherited zircon cores are mantled by homogeneous low CL-response zircon rims which yield a range of concordant U-Pb dates of ca. 470-360 Ma. Significant numbers of zircon rims coincide with the timing of monazite crystallization. The zircon rims have moderate light REE enrichment compared to cores, distinctive (Sm/La) n values of less than 12, and La between 0.3 and 10 ppm. This indicates free elemental exchange between newly formed zircon rims and the surrounding matrix. The rims have calculated accumulated alpha-radiation dosages corresponding with a crystalline structure and δ18O values of 1‰. This implies rim crystallization directly from a zirconium-saturated hydrothermal fluid which was modified by some silicate melt. Growth of the zircon rims was prolonged and locally variable due to preferential fluid flow. A third type of zircon can be recognized, forming both rims and cores, with high alpha-radiation doses, and significant enrichment in La, Pr, and Eu. These are interpreted as low-temperature hydrothermally altered metamict zircons. The high volatile input and partial melting in the shear zone favoured prolonged zircon rim growth due to its ability to easily nucleate on inherited seeds. On the other hand, monazite, susceptible to dissolution and re-growth, crystallized in brief episodes, as has been predicted from theoretical phase diagrams. From a regional perspective, these results elucidate cryptic Ar-Ar cooling ages, providing the first record of a Late Ordovician heating and cooling phase within the KNC prior to the climactic Scandian collision.

  18. High birth weight and perinatal mortality among siblings: A register based study in Norway, 1967-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Corbett, Karina; Irgens, Lorentz M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality according to birth weight has an inverse J-pattern. Our aim was to estimate the influence of familial factors on this pattern, applying a cohort sibling design. We focused on excess mortality among macrosomic infants (>2 SD above the mean) and hypothesized that the birth weight-mortality association could be explained by confounding shared family factors. We also estimated how the participant’s deviation from mean sibling birth weight influenced the association. Methods and findings We included 1 925 929 singletons, born term or post-term to mothers with more than one delivery 1967–2011 registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We examined z-score birth weight and perinatal mortality in random-effects and sibling fixed-effects logistic regression models including measured confounders (e.g. maternal diabetes) as well as unmeasured shared family confounders (through fixed effects models). Birth weight-specific mortality showed an inverse J-pattern, being lowest (2.0 per 1000) at reference weight (z-score +1 to +2) and increasing for higher weights. Mortality in the highest weight category was 15-fold higher than reference. This pattern changed little in multivariable models. Deviance from mean sibling birth weight modified the mortality pattern across the birth weight spectrum: small and medium-sized infants had increased mortality when being smaller than their siblings, and large-sized infants had an increased risk when outweighing their siblings. Maternal diabetes and birth weight acted in a synergistic fashion with mortality among macrosomic infants in diabetic pregnancies in excess of what would be expected for additive effects. Conclusions The inverse J-pattern between birth weight and mortality is not explained by measured confounders or unmeasured shared family factors. Infants are at particularly high mortality risk when their birth weight deviates substantially from their siblings. Sensitivity analysis suggests

  19. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000 of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2 that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2, the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2. We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of

  20. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  1. 77 FR 38317 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  2. 76 FR 3155 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed...

  3. 78 FR 42104 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background Formed...

  4. 77 FR 74864 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting.... App., we announce that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a...

  5. 77 FR 10543 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Office of the Secretary Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter AGENCY: Office of the... Secretary of Agriculture have renewed the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council..., providing recommendations for: (a) Implementing the Recreational Hunting and Wildlife Resource...

  6. 75 FR 57292 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed...

  7. 77 FR 15386 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  8. The relation between culture and Vietnamese entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    NHAT, Le Minh

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an exploratory and quantitative investigation of Norwegian Vietnamese in Norway to explain the Entrepreneurial Orientation and then Entrepreneurship of Vietnamese community in Norway with the emphasis on culture respect. A survey of 190 Norwegian students and 34 Norwegian Vietnamese was conducted online. A comparison between Vietnamese Norwegian and non-immigrant Norwegians was done with reference to the results of previous studies. And from that, the cultur...

  9. Neurosyphilis Mimicking Ramsay Hunt Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tadashi; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Hirayama, Takehisa; Saga, Tomoo; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Urita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with facial nerve palsy, hearing loss, vertigo and headache. He was initially diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and treated with a systemic steroid and valaciclovir; however, his symptoms deteriorated. Serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an elevated white blood cell count and positive RPR, confirming the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Penicillin G (PCG) was administered, and his facial nerve function and headache improved. However, left-side hearing loss worsened temporarily, which was assumed to be a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Betamethasone was administered along with PCG, and he recovered completely.

  10. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  11. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  12. “Where to find those doctors?” A qualitative study on barriers and facilitators in access to and utilization of health care services by Polish migrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Czapka, Elżbieta Anna; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background Poles constitute the largest group of migrants in Norway. Research confirms a steady inflow and a minimal outflow of Polish migrants. One of the key aspects of migrants’ structural integration is access to health care services. This study explored barriers to and facilitators of Polish migrants’ access to Norwegian health care services. Methods A qualitative interview-based study was carried out between November 2013 and July 2014. The study is part of a larger, ongoing mixed-metho...

  13. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Fita Dídac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg. The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by

  14. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus. In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers.

  15. The economic impact of hunting: A regional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus van der Merwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The core of South Africa tourism industry is based on wildlife tourism.  Private game reserves and game farms which forms part of wildlife tourism constitute most of the wildlife products in South Africa.  On these private reserves and game farms, hunting is one of the major income generators for product owners.  The aim of this study is to analyse the economic impact of hunting on the regional economies of three of South Africa’s most important hunting provinces. The study used economic multipliers, input-output analysis, and related modelling processes through input-output (supply-use tables and social accounting matrices (SAM. The results differed significantly for the three provinces, with Limpopo receiving the biggest impact (R2.6 billion and the Free State having the highest multiplier (2.08. The geographical location of the game farms, the number of farms per province and the species available all influenced the magnitude of the economic impact of hunters over and above the traditional determinants of economic impact analysis. The implication of the research is that it will help product owners in the development of game farms or hunting products, contribute to policy formulation, especially for government decisions on what products to offer where, and how to create more jobs.

  16. Causal pathways for asthma (CASPAR – MoBa “a happy hunting ground”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Nystad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large population-based research cohorts, together with national health registries and biobanks are core components in a modern infrastructure for knowledge. Along with the other Nordic countries, Norway has unique opportunities for high quality research based on cohorts, biobanks and registries. Cohorts, biobanks and registries provide a basis for discovering causes and mechanisms of disease as well as for following the development of disease, effects of treatment and consequences of disease. The purpose of this manuscript is to give a brief outline of a project that makes use of these unique opportunities by using data from The Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study (MoBa to address research questions of common interest, and thus encourage other research groups to use this “happy hunting ground”.The present study, Causal Pathways for Asthma (CASPAR funded by the Research Council of Norway, is a subproject of MoBa. The project is designed to take advantage of the potential for research on human biological material in biobanks, by coupling analysis results with data from health surveys, health registries and the health services. The present study is based on an ongoing collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS in the US and several other national and international collaborators within The MoBa Asthma Group. The main aim of the study is to examine a number of hypothesis regarding in utero and early life exposures in relation to the development of different phenotypes of asthma and allergies in childhood.For the majority of children who become asthmatic and allergic, the differentiation of their immune system into an atopic phenotype probably begins before birth and is established within the first six years of life. This study will advance knowledge of the mechanisms whereby diet and environmental exposures influences gene expression to alter risk of

  17. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  18. Hunting Motifs in Situla Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Preložnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Situla art developed as an echo of the toreutic style which had spread from the Near East through the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans as far as the Veneti, Raeti, Histri, and their eastern neighbours in the region of Dolenjska (Lower Carniola. An Early Iron Age phenomenon (c. 600—300 BC, it rep- resents the major and most arresting form of the contemporary visual arts in an area stretching from the foot of the Apennines in the south to the Drava and Sava rivers in the east. Indeed, individual pieces have found their way across the Alpine passes and all the way north to the Danube. In the world and art of the situlae, a prominent role is accorded to ani- mals. They are displayed in numerous representations of human activities on artefacts crafted in the classic situla style – that is, between the late 6th  and early 5th centuries BC – as passive participants (e.g. in pageants or in harness or as an active element of the situla narrative. The most typical example of the latter is the hunting scene. Today we know at least four objects decorat- ed exclusively with hunting themes, and a number of situlae and other larger vessels where hunting scenes are embedded in composite narratives. All this suggests a popularity unparallelled by any other genre. Clearly recognisable are various hunting techniques and weapons, each associated with a particu- lar type of game (Fig. 1. The chase of a stag with javelin, horse and hound is depicted on the long- familiar and repeatedly published fibula of Zagorje (Fig. 2. It displays a hound mauling the stag’s back and a hunter on horseback pursuing a hind, her neck already pierced by the javelin. To judge by the (so far unnoticed shaft end un- der the stag’s muzzle, the hunter would have been brandishing a second jave- lin as well, like the warrior of the Vače fibula or the rider of the Nesactium situla, presumably himself a hunter. Many parallels to his motif are known from Greece, Etruria, and

  19. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  20. APOE ε4 lowers age at onset and is a high risk factor for Alzheimer's disease; A case control study from central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltvedt Ingvild

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to analyze factors influencing the risk and timing of Alzheimer's disease (AD in central Norway. The APOE ε4 allele is the only consistently identified risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. We have described the allele frequencies of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE in a large population of patients with AD compared to the frequencies in a cognitively-normal control group, and estimated the effect of the APOE ε4 allele on the risk and the age at onset of AD in this population. Methods 376 patients diagnosed with AD and 561 cognitively-normal control individuals with no known first degree relatives with dementia were genotyped for the APOE alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes in patients and control individuals were compared. Odds Ratio for developing AD in different genotypes was calculated. Results Odds Ratio (OR for developing AD was significantly increased in carriers of the APOE ε4 allele compared to individuals with the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype. Individuals carrying APOE ε4/ε4 had OR of 12.9 for developing AD, while carriers of APOE ε2/ε4 and APOE ε3/ε4 had OR of 3.2 and 4.2 respectively. The effect of the APOE ε4 allele was weaker with increasing age. Carrying the APOE ε2 allele showed no significant protective effect against AD and did not influence age at onset of the disease. Onset in LOAD patients was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner from 78.4 years in patients without the APOE ε4 allele, to 75.3 in carriers of one APOE ε4 allele and 72.9 in carriers of two APOE ε4 alleles. Age at onset in early onset AD (EOAD was not influenced by APOE ε4 alleles. Conclusion APOE ε4 is a very strong risk factor for AD in the population of central Norway, and lowers age at onset of LOAD significantly.

  1. Applicability of age-based hunting regulations for African leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the hunting industry.

  2. 'Trophy-hunting scripts' among male university students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muparamoto, Nelson

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on a multi-method qualitative study, this article examines 'trophy-hunting' scripts among male university students in Zimbabwe. 'Trophy hunting' is a term I have adopted to refer to hegemonic masculinity rituals through which men gain social admiration for dating and having sex with as many women as possible. I argue that this trophy hunting is exacerbated by the 'crisis of masculinity' which has been brought about by the harsh macroeconomic environment in Zimbabwe. The latter has reduced men's access to the material trappings that denote successful masculinity in a competitive and materialistic environment. Sexual scripting that is based on such trophy hunting makes students susceptible to acquiring HIV infection. Research was conducted with 69 male social-science students at a Zimbabwean university, and the findings were analysed within a post-structural conceptual framework. The findings point to the existence of 'toxic masculinities' among male students. In their endeavour to live up to hegemonic masculinity expectations of the university bachelor, they end up being trapped in what can be described as 'toxic masculinity entrapments.' There is a need to challenge these identities if efforts against HIV and AIDS are to be successful.

  3. Dialogic action in climate change discussions: An international study of high school students in China, New Zealand, Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J. Arya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014. This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141. Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999, we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.

  4. A central role for the mast cell in early phase vasculitis in the Brown Norway rat model of vasculitis: a histological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Catherine S; Turner, David R; Oliveira, David B G

    2004-01-01

    Administration of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) to Brown Norway rats causes Th2-dominated autoimmunity with raised immunoglobulin E concentrations and gut vasculitis, both of which are T-cell dependent, peak at 14 days after starting HgCl2 and then spontaneously resolve. If animals are re-challenged with HgCl2 6 weeks after initial exposure, they are resistant to autoimmunity, developing only attenuated disease. Recently, a separate phase of early caecal vasculitis was described beginning 24 h after initiating HgCl2 and prior to caecal entry of T cells. Previous work suggested this early vasculitis was αβ T-cell independent and implied a role for mast cells. We further tested this hypothesis by performing a histological study during the first 93 h following HgCl2 challenge defining the precise relationship between gut mast cell degranulation and appearing caecal vasculitis. We also studied whether early caecal vasculitis enters a resistant phase upon re-challenge with HgCl2. We show a direct correlation between mast cell degranulation and early caecal vasculitis following initial HgCl2 challenge. We demonstrate resistance to re-challenge in this phase of injury, with results at re-challenge also showing a correlation between mast cell degranulation and early caecal injury. PMID:15255970

  5. Hunting range of a breeding peregrine falcon on Franklin Bluff, Sagavanirktok River: Interim report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Peregrines were studied to determine their hunting range, or the radius away from the nesting site used for food gathering. Study was done in connection with oil...

  6. A geographic cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Turid; Klevar, Siv; Li, Hong; Hauge, Anna Germundsson

    2015-04-01

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008-February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) DNA (n = 3) and typical histopathologic lesions (n = 1). To study the possibility of subclinical or latent MCF virus (MCFV) infection in this moose population and in red deer (Cervus elaphus), we examined clinically normal animals sampled during hunting in Lesja 2010 by serology and PCR. Sera from 63 moose and 33 red deer were tested for antibodies against MCFV by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To test for MCFVs, a consensus PCR for herpesviral DNA was run on spleen samples from 23 moose and 17 red deer. All samples were antibody and PCR negative. Thus, there is no evidence of previous exposure, subclinical infection, or latent infection in this sample. This seasonal cluster of SA-MCF cases (2008-10) may be attributable to exposure of moose to lambs when OvHV-2 shedding is presumed to be maximal, compounded by an unusual extended grazing period by sheep in the autumn.

  7. Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Longyearbyen is the administrative center of Svalbard and is located on Spitsbergen, the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago, part of the Kingdom of Norway. It is the world's northernmost town with over 1000 people. The settlement was founded in 1906 by John Longyear, owner of the Arctic Coal Company. Until the early 1990s the coal mining industry was the major employer of Longyearbyen. Near Longyearbyen, the Global Crop Diversity Trust administers the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, an Arctic safe capable of storing millions of crop seeds as a safeguard against natural and human disasters. Last week, the first deposit of 250,000 different species of crop seeds was made into the repository. The perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color image over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model. The image was acquired July 12, 2003, and is located at 78.2 degrees north latitude, 15.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Bump-hunting in LHC ttbar events

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, Michal; Mitov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a purposefully normalised NNLO top pair invariant mass differential spectrum can have very small theoretical uncertainty and, in particular, a small sensitivity to the top quark mass. Such observable can thus be a very effective bump-hunting tool for resonances decaying to top pair events during LHC Run II and beyond. To illustrate how the approach works, we concentrate on one specific example of current interest, namely, the possible 750 GeV di-gamma excess resonance Phi. Considering only theoretical uncertainties, we demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish pp -> Phi -> tt signals studied in the recent literature [Hespel, Maltoni and Vryonidou, arXiv:1606.04149] from the pure SM background with very high significance. Alternatively, in case of non-observation, a strong upper limit on the decay rate Phi -> tt can be placed.

  9. Absolute gravity observations in Norway (1993-2014) for glacial isostatic adjustment studies: The influence of gravitational loading effects on secular gravity trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophaug, Vegard; Breili, Kristian; Gerlach, Christian; Omholt Gjevestad, Jon Glenn; Lysaker, Dagny Iren; Dahl Omang, Ove Christian; Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2016-12-01

    We have compiled and analyzed FG5 absolute gravity observations between 1993 and 2014 at 21 gravity sites in Norway, and explore to what extent these observations are applicable for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) studies. Where available, raw gravity observations are consistently reprocessed. Furthermore, refined gravitational corrections due to ocean tide loading and non-tidal ocean loading, as well as atmospheric and global hydrological mass variations are computed. Secular gravity trends are computed using both standard and refined corrections and subsequently compared with modeled gravity rates based on a GIA model. We find that the refined gravitational corrections mainly improve rates where GIA, according to model results, is not the dominating signal. Consequently, these rates may still be considered unreliable for constraining GIA models, which we trace to continued lack of a correction for the effect of local hydrology, shortcomings in our refined modeling of gravitational effects, and scarcity of observations. Finally, a subset of standard and refined gravity rates mainly reflecting GIA is used to estimate ratios between gravity and height rates of change by ordinary and weighted linear regression. Relations based on both standard and refined gravity rates are within the uncertainty of a recent modeled result.

  10. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change.

  11. The political economy of corporate social responsibility and community development: a case study of Norway's Snoehvit natural gas complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klick, Matthew T.

    2009-07-01

    This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company's stated 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snoehvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of 'socially responsible' approaches to development to internalize negative externalisation and promote positive 'spin-offs'. Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry. (Author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  13. Dispersal in a Neotropical tree, Virola flexuosa (Myristicaceae): does hunting of large vertebrates limit seed removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, K M; Loiselle, B A

    2009-06-01

    To understand how different frugivores impact dispersal, we studied the assemblage that feed on Virola flexuosa over a two-year period at two sites differing in hunting pressure in Ecuador. We focus on disperser effectiveness and test the hypothesis that seed removal, influenced by differential visits of large-bodied frugivores, will differ between hunted and non-hunted sites. All visiting frugivores were identified, and fruit handling behavior and seed removal rates quantified. Seed traps were placed under fruiting trees to estimate crop size and fruit removal. Seventeen bird and three primate species were recorded foraging in V. flexuosa trees. Toucans and primates were the most important dispersers comprising nearly 85% of visits with six toucan species recorded in 74% of visits. A proportionately larger number of seeds were removed from fruiting trees at a non-hunted site (89.4%) than a hunted site (66.8%). In addition, there were significantly more frugivore visits at the non-hunted than the hunted site. The differences in the frugivore assemblage and the number of seeds dispersed from individual trees between two structurally similar forest sites suggest dispersal limitation resulting from a decline in frugivores.

  14. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally.

  15. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  16. ON THE SUBJECT OF ILLEGAL HUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Abdulmutalibov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article considers a notion of subject of such crime as illegal hunting. Only a man can be a subject of this crime. The content of such crime is revealed with the help of such properties as guilt, motive and aim. The article considers different properties of a subject of crime: 1 Physical nature Illegal actions can be committed by a man directly or indirectly. If during hunting a dog without its master’s command got a wild animal, the hunter is not liable as here intentional crime is absent. Juridical entities also are not admitted a subject of crime, only their representative if he committed this crime. 2 Criminal capacity. A person is not liable for this crime if he committed it in the state of criminal incapacity (CC Art.21. If illegal hunting is committed by a person in the state of drunkenness he is admitted capable and is liable for the crime(Criminal Code art.23. 3 A definite age. According to Art.23 of RF CC criminal responsibility for illegal hunting comes from the age of 16 . Performance of art.11, 12, 13 of CC concerns citizens of Russia, foreign citizens and persons without citizenship who committed poaching on the territory of Russia. Thus, the subject of poaching is a capable physical person reached the age of 16 by the moment of committing the crime. Methods. questionnaire method was applied for finding out the predominant motive and aim of illegal hunting. Result. 82% of pollee officials of hunting supervision bodies indicated the motive of profit as a predominant in committing illegal hunting.Location. Pskovskaya, Tulskaya, Moskovskaya regions. Conclusions. 1.Illegal hunting is committed only intentionally.2.The aim of poaching is killing wild animals and further use of their meat, skin, down, and active rest3.The more spread motives of poaching are: mercenary motives (35% and hunting passion

  17. Age-dependency in hunting ability among the Ache of eastern Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Hill, Kim; Kaplan, Hillard; McMillan, Garnett

    2002-06-01

    This paper examines changes in hunting ability across the lifespan for the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Hunting ability is decomposed into two components-finding prey and probability of kill upon encounter- and analyzed for important prey species. Results support the argument that skill acquisition is an important aspect of the human foraging niche with hunting outcome variables reaching peaks surprisingly late in life, significantly after peaks in strength. The implications of this study are important for modeling the role of the human foraging niche in the co-evolution of various outstanding human life history characteristics such as large brains, long lifespans, and extended juvenile periods.

  18. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by

  19. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  20. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2, which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  1. The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ∼558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  2. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  3. Cultural factors behind the different business cultures of Iceland and Norway, a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Rostrup, Hanne Ragnhild Hjemlestad, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Even though Iceland and Norway are both Nordic countries originating from the same culture, the countries’ business cultures have developed different characteristics over the years. In light of the increasing emigration from Iceland to Norway following the financial crisis in 2008, this study will establish the difference between Norwegian and Icelandic business cultures so that Icelanders can prepare themselves for the different national culture and business culture in Norway. Moreover th...

  4. Childhood violence and adult chronic pain among indigenous Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: a SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. A. Eriksen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population. Objective: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences. Design: The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5% and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%. Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence. Results: Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model, and higher pain intensity. Conclusion: Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity.

  5. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth; Smide, Bibbi; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sigurdardottir, Arun K

    2016-06-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. These searches were limited to studies published between 1979 and 2009 that had an abstract available in English or a Nordic language. Two researchers independently selected studies for analysis, leading to the inclusion of 164 relevant publications for analysis. In summary, Nordic nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised in networks in order to share knowledge and expertise across national groups and borders, (ii) more multidisciplinary collaborations in order to promote patient-centred care and (iii) further research directed towards improving the dissemination and implementation of research findings. Using complex intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research.

  6. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  7. Drivers of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of zoonoses in Nigerian hunting communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagan Friant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1 quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2 identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3 identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4 measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%, being injured (14%, using body parts for traditional medicine (19%, collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%, and keeping as pets (16%. Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%, ungulates (93%, carnivores (93%, primates (87%, and bats (42%, among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that

  8. Archaeology and the debate on the transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sommerseth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive Sami historical land use concerning reindeer management and settlement of inner Troms, North Norway, is reflected in places with archaeological remains. The insight and knowledge connected with these places can be accessed through oral traditions and place-names where reindeer management is embedded in reindeer knowledge developed over long time spans. Previous distinctions between wild reindeer hunting and pastoral herding can be redefined, since much of the traditional knowledge concerning the wild reindeer (goddi may have been transferred to the domesticated animals (boazu. The transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism is a current research focus and archaeological results from inner Troms indicate that several Sami dwellings with árran (hearths are related to a transitional period from AD 1300 to 1400. This period is marked by a reorganisation of the inland Sami siida (collective communities, and changes in landscape use wherein seasonal cycles and grazing access began to determine the movements of people and their domestic reindeer herds. This reorganisation was a response to both external political relations and the inner dynamic of the Sami communities. The first use of tamed reindeer was as decoys and draft animals in the hunting economy, only later becoming the mainstay of household food supply in reindeer pastoralism, providing insurance for future uncertainties. The formation of the national border between Norway-Denmark and Sweden in 1751 led to extensive changes in the previously trans-national mobility pattern, leading to fragmentation of the old siidas and to a new stage of nomadic pastoral economy.

  9. Do mental health and behavioural problems of early menarche persist into late adolescence? A three year follow-up study among adolescent girls in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2010-08-01

    Early menarche has been linked to mental health and behavioural problems in several studies. Most of these studies are cross-sectional, the data gathered during puberty. Thus, there is a lack of research on the long-term effect of early menarche on mental health. The main aim of this study was to explore whether the differences in mental health problems between girls with early and late menarche persist into late adolescence. The data consisted of responses from a large school-based survey of all 10th grade girls (15 years of age) in Oslo, Norway. Of the 1860 participating girls in the 2001 survey, 1377 were included in the three year follow-up study in 2004, giving a response rate of 74%. Mental distress was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Check list 10-version. Additional items assessed were number of sexual partners, weight and body satisfaction. All information was self-reported, including age of menarche. We found a clear gradient in the cross sectional analyses at baseline of higher odds for mental distress at lower age of menarche even after adjustment for socio demographic and other factors. In the analysis of the follow-up data there was no statistically significant difference in mental distress across age of menarche, even though the differences in body and weight satisfaction and average body mass index remained at the same level between baseline and follow-up. We therefore conclude that the effects of age of menarche on mental health problems are a transitory problem during puberty.

  10. Hunting Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Mingo...

  11. Cat Island NWR Recreational Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...

  12. Hunting Plan: St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on St....

  13. Hunt Plan : Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on...

  14. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Back...

  15. Hunting Plan Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Morgan Brake...

  16. Hunting Plan Mathew's Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Mathew’s...

  17. Hunting Plan : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hunting has been and is a traditional use of the Seney Refuge dating back to its establishment in 1935. This recreational activity has strong support from the...

  18. Hunting Plan : Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and...

  19. Revised Hunting Plan : Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on...

  20. Hunting Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Shiawassee...

  1. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on...

  2. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Crab...

  3. Fact sheet : Hunting and Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides information about the opening of portions of Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge to the hunting of eastern mourning doves and migratory...

  4. Hunting Plan : Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Trempealeau...

  5. Sport Hunting Plan Decision Document Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives of plan are to provide high quality hunting opportunities, maintain populations within seasonal carrying capacities, and allow compatible public use.

  6. Hunting Management Plan Erie NWR 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Erie...

  7. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  8. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  9. St. Vincent Offers Special Archery & Primitive Hunts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's archery hunt is scheduled for November 28-30, 1984. White-tailed deer, turkeys, and hogs may be taken.

  10. Hunting Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Squaw...

  11. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. Settings and Design: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Results: In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both. Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1–6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0 was 3.2 (1.4–6.7, P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9–1.8, P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Conclusion: Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  12. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC) weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both). Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1-6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0) was 3.2 (1.4-6.7), P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9-1.8), P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  13. Ramsay hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karthiga Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS is defined as an acute peripheral facial neuropathy caused by the reactivated latent varicella zoster virus (VZV in the geniculate ganglion; characterized with erythematous vesicular rash of the skin of the ear canal, auricle, facial skin, oral mucosa and facial palsy (also known as herpes zoster oticus. This article reports a case of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS in a 37-year-old male patient depicting the classical signs.

  14. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welander-Vatn Audun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that might influence both mental and psychical well being as well as school performance and social life. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of bullying, mental health problems and psychical complaints among 10th and 12th grade students and to analyze the association between bullying, mental health problems and muscle and skeletal complaints. Methods Two cross sectional studies of adolescents living in Oslo, Norway the first conducted in 2001 among 10th grade students (15/16 years old and the second in 2004 among 12th grade students (18/19 years old. Both surveys were based on self report, were mostly school based and had almost identical questionnaires. There were around 3700 participants in both surveys, but the participation rate was lower in the latter survey (88 versus 80%. The Hopkins Symptoms Check List (HSCL-10 and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ were used to measure mental health problems. Results Bullying is decreasing both among boys and girls while the prevalence of internalized mental health problems are increasing from 10th to 12th grade. For muscle and skeletal pain there is a diverging trend between boys and girls, with an increase among girls and a decrease among boys. The highest Odds Ratios, as a measure for the association between bullying, mental health problems and pain, were found for internalized mental health problems at both 10th and 12th grade both for boys and girls. Conclusion Both internalized and externalized mental health problems together with pain seem to be associated with bullying irrespective of school type and gender.

  15. Deep carious lesions and other consequences of caries among 18-year-olds at Public Dental Health Service in Northern Norway: A cross-sectional age cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangvaltaite, Lina; Kundzina, Rita; Bolstad, Napat Limchaichana; Eriksen, Harald M; Kerosuo, Eero

    2015-08-01

    To document deep carious lesions and other consequences of caries (DCL-CC) in molars of 18-year olds leaving the free-of-charge Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). To explore the association between background factors and DCL-CC. The final study sample (n=1876) comprised 95% of individuals born in 1993 and registered in the PDHS in Troms County, Northern Norway. The most recent digital bitewing radiographs of each subject were examined for DCL-CC (deep untreated carious lesions, deep restorations, root canal obturations or extractions due to caries). Inter- and intra-observer kappa scores were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively. Information on background factors (gender, clinic location, history of medical problems, bitewing examination interval, DMFT score and planned recalls) were retrieved from dental records. About one-quarter of subjects (488) had at least one molar with DCL-CC. There were 848 molars in total with DCL-CC; the majority were deep restorations (70%), but 4% were deep untreated carious lesions. More than a quarter of DCL-CC were either root canal obturations (14%) or extractions (12%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that a 1-unit increase in DMFT score was associated with deep untreated carious lesions and extractions due to caries. There was no association between urban/rural clinic location, which indicated socio-economic status, and either DMFT score or DCL-CC. Despite the existence of a free-of-charge dental service, more than one-quarter of the subjects in the present study had at least one molar with DCL-CC.

  16. Prevalence of hip dislocation among children with cerebral palsy in regions with and without a surveillance programme: a cross sectional study in Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkamil Areej I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation is a serious complication among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of hip dislocation among children with CP in an area providing regular care with an area providing hip surveillance services. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian counties providing regular care and one Swedish healthcare region where a hip surveillance programme was introduced in 1994. Data were provided by the Norwegian Cerebral Palsy Register and the CP Register in Southern Sweden. Children born 1996 - 2003 with moderate to severe CP, defined as Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS levels III - V, were included. In all, 119 Norwegian and 136 Swedish children fulfilled the criteria. In Norway, data on hip operations and radiographs of the hips were collected from medical records, while these data are collected routinely in the Swedish register. The hip migration percentage was measured on the recent radiographs. Hip dislocation was defined as a migration percent of 100%. Results The proportion of children at GMFCS levels III - V was 34% in the Norwegian and 38% in the Swedish population. In the Norwegian population, hip dislocation was diagnosed in 18 children (15.1%; CI: 9.8 - 22.6 compared with only one child (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.01 - 4.0 in Southern Sweden (p = Conclusions The surveillance programme reduced the number of hip dislocations and the proportion of children undergoing hip surgery was lower. However, with the surveillance programme the first operation was performed at a younger age. Our results strongly support the effectiveness of a specifically designed follow-up programme for the prevention of hip dislocation in children with CP.

  17. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  18. Quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice according to patients' ethnic background: a cross-sectional study from Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkeland Kåre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades immigration to Norway from Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has increased rapidly. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of care for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients from these ethnic minority groups compared with the care received by Norwegians. Methods In 2006, electronic medical record data were screened at 11 practices (49 GPs; 58857 patients. 1653 T2DM patients cared for in general practice were identified. Ethnicity was defined as self-reported country of birth. Chi-squared tests, one-way ANOVAs, multiple regression, linear mixed effect models and generalized linear mixed models were used. Results Diabetes was diagnosed at a younger age in patients from the ethnic minority groups (South Asians (SA: mean age 44.9 years, Middle East/North Africa (MENA: 47.2 years, East Asians (EA: 52.0 years, others: 49.0 years compared with Norwegians (59.7 years, p 85% of patients in all groups with minor differences between minority groups and Norwegians. A greater proportion of the minority groups were prescribed hypoglycaemic medications compared with Norwegians (≥79% vs. 72%, p 9% was higher in minority groups (SA: 19.6%, MENA: 18.9% vs. Norwegians: 5.6%, p Conclusions Mean age at the time of diagnosis of T2DM was 8-15 years younger in minority groups compared with Norwegians. Recording of important processes of care measures is high in all groups. Only one in four of most patient groups achieved all four treatment targets and prescribing habits may be sub-optimal. Patients from minority groups have worse glycaemic control than Norwegians which implies that it might be necessary to improve the guidelines to meet the needs of specific ethnic groups.

  19. Exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms among first responders working in proximity to the terror sites in Norway on July 22, 2011 - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogstad, Laila; Fjetland, Anja M; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2015-02-24

    Norway experienced two terror attacks on July 22, 2011. A car bomb exploded in the Oslo government district killing eight people. Shortly after, 69 adolescents gathered at a political youth camp were shot and killed at Utøya Island. First responders were exposed to multiple risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). This cross-sectional study investigated the degree of perceived peritraumatic strain among police officers, fire-fighters, and ambulance personnel, as well as the prevalence and predictors of PTSS. A questionnaire was completed by 89 ambulance personnel, 73 fire-fighters, and 76 police officers working close to the terror sites, 8-11 months after the event. PTSS were assessed using the PTSD Check List (PCL-S). Merging all groups, 68% reported to have witnessed injured/dead people, but only 5.7% reported this as very/extremely strainful. The PCL-S scores were low and not significantly different among the three professions (Median = 19-20, range 17-64). The prevalence of possible PTSD (cut-off > 50) was 1.3 %, and 2 % had scores indicating sub-threshold PTSD. Dissociation predicted higher PTSS-level in all groups (β 1.6-5.1), witnessing injured/dead among ambulance personnel (β 2.5) and feeling overwhelmed among police officers (β 1.2). First responders were exposed to deaths, injuries, and destruction, but few reported this as highly stressful. The prevalence of possible PTSD was low in all occupational groups, and symptoms of dissociation were found to be the most important predictor.

  20. Trends in antimicrobial resistance and empiric antibiotic therapy of bloodstream infections at a general hospital in Mid-Norway: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Arne; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Kümmel, Angela; Lydersen, Stian; Paulsen, Julie; Haugan, Ingvild; Solligård, Erik; Damås, Jan Kristian; Harthug, Stig; Edna, Tom-Harald

    2017-02-02

    The occurrence of bloodstream infection (BSI) and antimicrobial resistance have been increasing in many countries. We studied trends in antimicrobial resistance and empiric antibiotic therapy at a medium-sized general hospital in Mid-Norway. Between 2002 and 2013, 1995 prospectively recorded episodes of BSI in 1719 patients aged 16-99 years were included. We analyzed the antimicrobial non-susceptibility according to place of acquisition, site of infection, microbe group, and time period. There were 934 community-acquired (CA), 787 health care-associated (HCA) and 274 hospital-acquired (HA) BSIs. The urinary tract was the most common site of infection. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated infective agent in all three places of acquisition. Second in frequency was Streptococcus pneumoniae in CA and Staphylococcus aureus in both HCA and HA. Of the BSI microbes, 3.5% were non-susceptible to the antimicrobial regimen recommended by the National Professional Guidelines for Use of Antibiotics in Hospitals, consisting of penicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole (PGM). In contrast, 17.8% of the BSI microbes were non-susceptible to cefotaxime and 27.8% were non-susceptible to ceftazidime. Antimicrobial non-susceptibility differed by place of acquisition. For the PGM regimen, the proportions of non-susceptibility were 1.4% in CA, 4.8% in HCA, and 6.9% in HA-BSI (p resistant microbes. We also observed increasing numbers of bacteria with acquired resistance, particularly E. coli producing ESBL or possessing gentamicin resistance, and these occurred predominantly in CA- and HCA-BSI. Generally, antimicrobial resistance was a far smaller problem in our BSI cohort than is reported from countries outside Scandinavia. In our cohort, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy could be achieved to a larger extent by replacing second- and third-generation cephalosporins with penicillin-gentamicin or piperacillin-tazobactam.

  1. An empirical study of the influence of the concept of "job-hunting" on graduates' employment%择业观念对大学毕业生就业影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成文; 胡桂英

    2008-01-01

    择业观念是影响大学毕业生就业的一个重要因素.实证研究结果表明:大学毕业生择业时,对单位性质和职业类型的要求与就业机会获得和地位获得后的月收入水平呈负相关;求职主动性与就业机会呈正相关;工资水平期望与地位获得后的月收入呈正相关;职业苦乐意识与职业满意度呈负相关.因此,高校应大力加强就业形势教育,引导大学毕业生树立正确的择业竞争观、职业地位观、职业苦乐观,端正择业态度,转变择业观念,从而有利于其职业地位的获得.%The concept of job-hunting is an important factor affecting university students' employment. This empirical study shows that while hunting for a job, graduates witness negative correlation between their expectation of the nature of work and the demand for occupational types and the accessibility to a post and monthly income; positive correlation between students' initiative and employment opportunities; positive correlation between salary expectation and real income; negative correlation between mental preparation for hardship and job satisfaction. Therefore, institutions of higher learning must strengthen their employment education, guiding students to foster a sound sense of competition, the concept of occupational position, mental preparation for vocational hardship so that students can rectify their attitude towards employment and adjust their employment concept, thus benefiting them in gaining a position.

  2. Exploitation of Hunting and Fishing Tourism in Galați County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camară Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Galați county is a geographical area that is less valued in terms of tourism, but which benefits by a natural tourism potential. The aim of this study is to identify the potential and the activities of the hunting and fishing tourism. Exploitation of hunting and fishing activities in touristic aim is only partial because of the lack of touristic infrastructure and the lack of collaboration with various travel agencies from this branch of tourism. Proposals that would help the future development and improvement of tourism activity are from “wildlife watching tourism” domain: capturing images with the camera, observing the behavior of hunting species without affecting them, providing information for those interested in the hunting behavior and life fauna, creating a wildlife museum and last but not least, upgrading the transport infrastructure.

  3. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  4. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  5. Hunting for Conservation? The Re-introduction of Sport Hunting in Uganda Examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, A.; Ahebwa, W.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    Uganda reintroduced sport hunting in 2001. The policy was piloted around Lake Mburo National Park and later replicated around other protected areas. This chapter analyses the development, implementation and impact of sport hunting policy in Uganda. We do so through literature review, document

  6. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... alternatives for duck hunting seasons remain the same as those used in 2009. Service Response: As we stated in... Council Recommendations: The Atlantic Flyway Council recommended adoption of a derived Northern Pintail... usefulness of sex-specific regulations for pintails as a way to increase hunting opportunity on male...

  7. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... July 20, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird...

  8. The Quabbin controlled deer hunt 1991 - 2001: limitations of a controlled hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth E. Cohen; David K. Loomis

    2003-01-01

    The Quabbin Reservoir, built in the 1930's as a water supply for Boston, is an unfiltered source of water. The agency responsible for managing the reservoir wants it to remain unfiltered. As a result, human activity is kept to a minimum, including (until recently) a prohibition on hunting. The lack of natural predators and the ban on recreational hunting allowed...

  9. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  10. Petroleum fiscal system design and cost-related incentives in oil and gas projects : a comparative study of UK, Norway, Indonesia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Serova, Dina

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the oil and gas industry has been facing unprecedented cost and time overruns while delivering megaprojects both in Norway and internationally. Combined with a dramatic oil price drop, cost overruns became a hot topic in both academic and business worlds. Whilst the project management aspects were in the spotlight, external factors, such as government policies, were paid much less attention. Although, oil companies are cost minimizers, in a situation of a moral...

  11. Active Aging Policies between Individual Needs and Collective Goods. A Study of Active Aging Policies and Practices in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Midtsundstad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A main objective of European governments is to reduce the number of early retirees, either by reforming pension systems or promoting active aging in working life. The importance of formulating a coherent personnel policy for all age groups is increasingly recognized by employers. However, there is still a lack of knowledge as how to strategically cope with an aging labor force. The aim of this article is to define and discuss a number of challenges arising from workplace-related active aging policies. We in particular discuss how an emphasis on economic incentives and gains (“senior goods” may give rise to unanticipated side effects for the employers as well as the employees. The article is based on results from two recent studies: one study examining six Norwegian municipalities with seemingly good practices in work-related old age policies, and another examining such policies in eight establishments in four different industries.

  12. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth

    2015-01-01

    nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised......Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing...... contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psyc...

  13. Hospitalisations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in Akershus, Norway, 1993–2000: a population-based retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratlid Dag

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RSV is recognized as the most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children worldwide leading to hospitalisation in a great number of cases, especially in certain high-risk groups. The aims of the present study were to identify risk groups, outcome and incidences of hospitalisation for RSV bronchiolitis in Norwegian children under two years of age and to compare the results with other studies. Methods We performed a population-based retrospective survey for the period 1993–2000 in children under two years of age hospitalised for RSV bronchiolitis. Results 822 admissions from 764 patients were identified, 93% had one hospitalisation, while 7% had two or more hospitalisations. Mean annual hospitalisation incidences were 21.7 per 1.000 children under one year of age, 6.8 per 1.000 children at 1–2 years of age and 14.1 per 1.000 children under two years of age. 77 children (85 admissions belonged to one or more high-risk groups such as preterm birth, trisomy 21 and congenital heart disease. For preterm children under one year of age, at 1–2 years of age and under two years of age hospitalisation incidences per 1.000 children were 23.5, 8.7 and 16.2 respectively. The incidence for children under two years of age with trisomy 21 was 153.8 per 1.000 children. Conclusion While the overall hospitalisation incidences and outcome of RSV bronchiolitis were in agreement with other studies, hospitalisation incidences for preterm children were lower than in many other studies. Age on admission for preterm children, when corrected for prematurity, was comparable to low-risk children. Length of hospitalisation and morbidity was high in both preterm children, children with a congenital heart disease and in children with trisomy 21, the last group being at particular high risk for severe disease.

  14. Growth studies on Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L., in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssi Mytilineou

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the growth of Nephrops norvegicus among different areas in the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic was conducted. MIX and Bhattacharya´s length-based methods were used for age determination. Both methods were used for all the studied areas. For the estimation of the growth parameters two non-linear methods, based on the results of the length frequency analysis, were used; the Gauss-Newton method, implemented by the SAS program, was applied using the results of the MIX and the FISHPARM program using the results of the Bhattacharya´s method. The identification of the age groups and their mean lengths-at-age as well as the estimation of the growth parameters proved to be difficult. A question regarding the adequacy of the von Bertalanffy model was also posed. Remarkable differences were obvious between sexes in the number of identified age groups and their mean lengths-at-age as well as in their growth parameters in all areas. The comparison of the results obtained for the studied areas showed differences, which could not be considered very important except in the case of the Nephrops population of the Alboran Sea, which was characterised by a high growth rate. All other areas seemed to be close; among them the populations from Euboikos Gulf and Catalan Sea being the most different.

  15. Isotopic evidence for Last Glacial climatic impacts on Neanderthal gazelle hunting territories at Amud Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Hovers, Erella; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Middle Paleolithic site of Amud Cave, Israel, was occupied by Neanderthals at two different time periods, evidenced by two chronologically and stratigraphically distinct depositional sub-units (B4 and B2/B1) during MIS 4 and MIS 3, respectively. The composition of both hunted large fauna and naturally-deposited micromammalian taxa is stable at the site over time, despite a ∼ 10 ky gap between the two occupation phases. However, while gazelle is the most ubiquitous hunted species throughout the occupation, isotopic analysis showed that there is a marked change in Neanderthal hunting ranges between the early (B4) and late (B2/B1) phases. Hunting ranges were reconstructed by comparing oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopes from gazelle tooth enamel with modern isotope data from the Amud Cave region. This region is characterized by extensive topographic, lithological, and pedological heterogeneity. During the early occupation phase negative oxygen isotope values, low radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, and low Sr concentrations reveal restricted gazelle hunting in the high elevations west of Amud Cave. In the late occupation phase, hunting ranges became more diverse, but concentrate at low elevations closer to the site. Climatic proxies indicate that conditions were drier in the early occupation phase, which may have pushed gazelle populations into higher, more productive foraging areas. This study showed that Neanderthals adjusted their hunting territories considerably in relation to varying environmental conditions over the course of occupation in Amud Cave. It highlights the utility of multiple isotope analysis in enhancing the resolution of behavioral interpretations based on faunal remains and in reconstructing past hunting behaviors of Paleolithic hominins.

  16. A hedonic analysis of the complex hunting experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, the right to hunt is vested with the land owner but can be transferred to others and is traded on a well-established market. The dominant form of hunting leases is time limited contract transferring the hunting rights on a piece of land to one or more persons. We analyze this market...... of a lease is determined by the location and size of the hunting area, the game harvest and hunting activity itself, several landscape qualities affecting the recreational nature experience, several social aspects of hunting and the relation between the landowner, the hunters and their activities...

  17. Psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems: a longitudinal study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom

    2017-04-20

    A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems. Randomly drawn from the general working-age population, the cohort comprised respondents with an active employee relationship in 2009 and 2013 (N = 5760). Exposures and outcome were measured on two occasions separated by 4 years. We computed several sex-stratified logistic regression models with adjustments for various plausible confounders. We found support for the commonly hypothesized unidirectional forward associations between psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems among women only. Among men, psychosocial stressors at work and sleep problems were reciprocally and reversely related. Nevertheless, reduced exposure levels across time pertaining to effort-reward imbalance (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.69) and lack of social support (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.93) among men, and work-family imbalance (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.15-0.46) among women were associated with a robust significant lower risk of sleep problems compared to those in the stable high exposure groups. The study results suggest that preventive measures targeting effort-reward imbalance and lack of social support among men, and work-family imbalance among women, might contribute to reduce the risk of troubled sleep among employees.

  18. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Berntsen, Finn; Clausen, Stig; Dahl, E.L.; Flagstad, Oe.; Follestad, A.; Halley, Duncan; Hanssen, Frank; Johnsen, L.; Kvaloey, P.; Lund-Hoel, P.; May, Roel; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Roeskaft, E.; Steinheim, Y.; Stokke, B.; Vang, R.

    2011-07-01

    The BirdWind project (2007-2010) is now concluded. This report summarises the main findings. Several scientific papers are in the process of preparation for publication in international peer re-view journals; this report only provides a brief overview. The main project objective has been to study species-, site- and seasonal-specific bird mortality; and to identify vulnerable species and site-specific factors that should be considered to improve the basis for future pre- and post construction EIAs in connection with wind power-plant constructions. To reach these goals work pack-ages and sub-projects have focused on behavioural and response studies at individual and population levels, for selected model species. The white-tailed eagle has been a focal species during the studies, as several fatalities were recorded in connection with the Smoela Wind-Power Plant (SWPP) even before the project started; the SWPP has been the main arena for project fieldwork. Modelling the WTE collision risk and making a WTE population model were important elements of the project activities. The development of methodologies and technical tools for data collection and mitigating measures has also been an important part of the project. For practical convenience the project was divided into eight sub projects focusing on 1) bird mortality, 2) willow ptarmigan, 3) breeding waders and smaller passerines, 4) white-tailed eagle, 5) bird radar, 6) mitigating technology, 7) data flow and storage systems and 8) GIS, visualization and terrain modelling. Results and preliminary conclusions related to each of these sub tasks are reported. (Author)

  19. Seasonal variation in objectively assessed physical activity among children and adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Andersen, Lars B;

    2009-01-01

    data were collected during winter, spring and fall. General linear models were used to study the associations between physical activity and season. RESULTS: Nine-year-old children had significantly higher mean physical activity levels in spring than in winter and fall. In the two latter seasons...... found between mean physical activity level and season among the 15-year-olds. However, the adolescents also had higher odds (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.32) of meeting the physical activity recommendations in spring than in winter. CONCLUSION: In a large population-based sample, we observed substantial...

  20. Web-based Discussion Forums on Pregnancy Complaints and Maternal Health Literacy in Norway: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the fastest growing information sources for pregnant women and seems to be used across social and economic strata. However, we still lack knowledge on how interaction in Web-based discussion forums influence maternal health literacy, in terms of how pregnant women access, appraise, and apply information to promote and maintain good health. Objective The aim of this study was to understand how Web-based discussion forums influence maternal health literacy; hence, we explored the role of interactions in Web-based discussion forums among women who experienced health problems during pregnancy. More specifically, we explored why media-literate women experiencing the medically unexplained condition, pelvic girdle pain (PGP), during pregnancy participated in Web-based discussion forums and how they appraised and applied the information and advice that they gained from the Web-based interaction with other women. Methods Women were invited to participate in the study via postings on 3 different open websites for pregnant women and mothers. The sample included 11 Norwegian women who participated in open Web-based discussion forums when experiencing PGP in pregnancy. The data were collected using synchronous qualitative email interviews and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results In our study sample, interaction in Web-based discussion forums influenced maternal health literacy in terms of increased health-related knowledge and competencies, increased awareness of health promotion and health protection, and increased system navigation. The women appraised and selectively applied information and advice that resonated with their own experiences. For many, the information provided online by other women in the same situation was valued more highly than advice from health professionals. Women reported that they used their knowledge and competency in encounters with health professionals but hesitated to disclose the origin of their knowledge

  1. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates – A Study in Brown Norway Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which...... and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity...... in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey‐based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro...

  2. Cardiovascular disease in patients with genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia in Norway during 1994-2009, a registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundal, Liv; Veierød, Marit B; Halvorsen, Thomas; Holven, Kirsten B; Ose, Leiv; Iversen, Per Ole; Tell, Grethe S; Leren, Trond P; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-12-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The primary aim of the present study was to describe sex differences in incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease leading to hospitalisation in a complete cohort of genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia patients. Design and methods In this registry study data on 5538 patients with verified genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia were linked to data on all Norwegian cardiovascular disease hospitalisations, and hospitalisations due to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, congenital heart defects and diabetes. Results During 1994-2009 a total of 1411 of familial hypercholesterolaemia patients were hospitalised, and ischaemic heart disease was reported in 90% of them. Mean (SD) age at first hospitalisation and first re-hospitalisation was 45.1 (16.5) and 47.6 (16.3) years, respectively, with no sex differences ( P = 0.66 and P = 0.93, respectively). More men (26.9%) than women (24.1%) with familial hypercholesterolaemia were hospitalised ( P = 0.02). The median (25th-75th percentile) number of hospital admissions was four (two to seven) per familial hypercholesterolaemia patient, with no sex differences ( P = 0.87). Despite having familial hypercholesterolaemia at the time of hospitalisation, the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia was registered in only 45.7% of the patients at discharge. Conclusion Most cardiovascular disease hospitalisations were due to ischaemic heart disease. Familial hypercholesterolaemia patients were first time hospitalised at age 45.1 years, with no significant sex differences in age, which are important novel findings. The awareness and registration of the familial hypercholesterolaemia diagnosis during the hospital stays were disturbingly low.

  3. Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; M'soka, Jassiel; Dröge, Egil; Rosenblatt, Eli; Becker, Matthew S; Matandiko, Wigganson; Simpamba, Twakundine

    2016-10-01

    While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects of lion hunting, but this recommendation was based on a population model parameterized with data from a well-protected and growing lion population. Here, we used demographic data from lions subject to more typical conditions, including source-sink dynamics between a protected National Park and adjacent hunting areas in Zambia's Luangwa Valley, to develop a stochastic population projection model and evaluate alternative harvest scenarios. Hunting resulted in population declines over a 25-yr period for all continuous harvest strategies, with large declines for quotas >1 lion/concession (~0.5 lion/1,000 km(2) ) and hunting of males younger than seven years. A strategy that combined periods of recovery, an age limit of ≥7 yr, and a maximum quota of ~0.5 lions shot/1,000 km(2) yielded a risk of extirpation populations throughout Africa and to inform global efforts to conserve exploited carnivore populations.

  4. Mapping biological resources in the coastal zone: an evaluation of methods in a pioneering study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Jan Atle; Knutsen, Halvor; Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Bodvin, Torjan; Dahl, Einar

    2010-03-01

    For many years, the planning and management of terrestrial areas has been supported by a detailed knowledge of the distribution of habitats and their associated species. However, the detailed mapping of biological resources in extent coastal areas, such as the Norwegian coastal zone, is unrealistic due to its enormous coastline. Here, we present a useful and feasible approach and a set of simple, cost-effective methods which are suitable for providing a broad-scale overview of marine habitats and fish resources. This approach was developed in conjunction with a pioneer study conducted along the southern coast of the Skagerrak, where we combined knowledge gathered from local fishermen with scientific knowledge of important species and nature types to establish a coastal sea mapping program. GIS modeling tools were used in both the mapping program and to integrate local and scientific knowledge into digital maps made available to local area management. This multi-faceted approach, which combines local knowledge and scientific methods, provides valuable information with respect to marine biodiversity, and has been used extensively by local environmental management.

  5. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Magne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. Results The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68 and females (OR = 2.04, and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38. Conclusion Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with

  6. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Dalgard, Florence; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2009-09-16

    Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68) and females (OR = 2.04), and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38). Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with mental distress and, among girls, with infrequent consumption

  7. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  8. Sustainable trophy hunting of African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Karyl; Starfield, Anthony M; Quadling, Henley S; Packer, Craig

    2004-03-11

    In most species, sport hunting of male trophy animals can only reduce overall population size when the rate of removal of males is so high that females can no longer be impregnated. However, where males provide extensive paternal care, the removal of even a few individuals could harm the population as a whole. In species such as lions, excessive trophy hunting could theoretically cause male replacements (and associated infanticide) to become sufficiently common to prevent cubs reaching adulthood. Here we simulate the population consequences of lion trophy hunting using a spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model parameterized with 40 years of demographic data from northern Tanzania. Although our simulations confirm that infanticide increases the risk of population extinction, trophy hunting could be sustained simply by hunting males above a minimum age threshold, and this strategy maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the long-term kill. We present a simple non-invasive technique for estimating lion age in populations lacking long-term records, and suggest that quotas would be unnecessary in any male-only trophy species where age determination could be reliably implemented.

  9. Bromadiolone resistance does not respond to absence of anticoagulants in experimental populations of Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, A.C.; Leirs, H.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) is documented to be associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. The aim of this study was to quantify these effects in small populations of Norway rat in Denmark and to se...

  10. Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard, TSP NORWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H.; Berthling, I.; Blikra, L.; Dehls, J.; Etzelmuller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Humlum, O.; Isaksen, K.; Juliussen, H.; Lauknes, T.; Midttomme, K.; Rønning, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Norwegian funded IPY project 'Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard', (TSP NORWAY) is part of the TSP cluster. The main goal of TSP NORWAY is to measure and model the permafrost distribution in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on its thermal state, thickness and associated periglacial processes, including increased knowledge of the mountain permafrost distribution related to geohazard studies on rockslides. TSP NORWAY will contribute to IPY by providing a spatially distributed set of observations on the present status of permafrost temperatures and active layer thicknesses, and periglacial processes in Svalbard and Norway. Special focus is given to empirical and numerical modelling of permafrost distribution and thermal ground heat fluxes to address future climate variability on permafrost distribution and associated geomorphic activity. Permafrost distribution in the North Atlantic area is strongly climatically controlled, mainly by the North Atlantic Drift, providing much less permafrost than in any other high latitude terrestrial region on the Northern Hemisphere. Hopefully a first Nordic permafrost map will be based on Nordic permafrost collaboration during IPY. The TSP NORWAY project has established two permafrost observatories with intensive permafrost and periglacial monitoring sites in maritime and continental areas. One in Troms, northern Norway, which will be part of the north Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory extending into northernmost Sweden and Finland, and the Svalbard Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory also with both maritime and continental sites. The first Norwegian permafrost database, NORPERM, with all permafrost data from Norway and Svalbard, collected before and during IPY, has been established at the Norwegian Geological Survey. NORPERM shall contribute data as requested in the IPY data protocol and the TSP cluster to the international Global Terrestrial Network on

  11. Applicability of age-based hunting regulations for African leopards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Andrew Balme

    Full Text Available In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory

  12. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-05

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey.

  13. Demography, not inheritance, drives phenotypic change in hunted bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Lochran W; Schindler, Susanne; Coulson, Tim

    2014-09-09

    Selective harvest, such as trophy hunting, can shift the distribution of a quantitative character such as body size. If the targeted character is heritable, then there will be an evolutionary response to selection, and where the trait is not, then any response will be plastic or demographic. Identifying the relative contributions of these different mechanisms is a major challenge in wildlife conservation. New mathematical approaches can provide insight not previously available. Here we develop a size- and age-based two-sex integral projection model based on individual-based data from a long-term study of hunted bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Canada. We simulate the effect of trophy hunting on body size and find that the inheritance of body mass is weak and that any perceived decline in body mass of the bighorn population is largely attributable to demographic change and environmental factors. To our knowledge, this work provides the first use of two-sex integral projection models to investigate the potential eco-evolutionary consequences of selective harvest.

  14. Faster Treasure Hunt and Better Strongly Universal Exploration Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Qin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the explicit deterministic treasure hunt problem in a $n$-vertex network. This problem was firstly introduced by Ta-Shma and Zwick in \\cite{TZ07} [SODA'07]. Note also it is a variant of the well known rendezvous problem in which one of the robot (the treasure) is always stationary. In this paper, we propose an $O(n^{c(1+\\frac{1}{\\lambda})})$-time algorithm for the treasure hunt problem, which significantly improves the currently best known result of running time $O(n^{2c})$ in \\cite{TZ07}, where $c$ is a constant induced from the construction of an universal exploration sequence in \\cite{R05,TZ07}, and $\\lambda \\gg 1$ is an arbitrary large, but fixed, integer constant. The treasure hunt problem also motivates the study of strongly universal exploration sequences. In this paper, we also propose a much better explicit construction for strongly universal exploration sequences compared to the one in \\cite{TZ07}.

  15. Talking about intimate partner violence in multi-cultural antenatal care: a qualitative study of pregnant women's advice for better communication in South-East Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa Maria; Lukasse, Mirjam; Solheim, Miriam; Henriksen, Lena

    2017-04-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women constitutes a major public health problem. Antenatal care is considered a window of opportunity to disclose and to communicate about IPV. However, little is known about how women from different ethnic backgrounds wish to communicate about their experiences with IPV during pregnancy in antenatal care. The aim of the present study was to explore how women from different ethnic backgrounds experienced IPV and what their recommendations were about how midwives should communicate about IPV in antenatal care. Qualitative individual interviews with eight women who had experienced IPV during pregnancy were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. The participants were purposively recruited from three crisis shelters in South-East Norway. The participants either had immigrant backgrounds (n = 5) or were ethnic Norwegians (n = 3). All participants received antenatal care by a midwife. Although none of the participants were asked about IPV during antenatal care, they wished to talk about their experiences. Most participants felt that it would be important for the midwife to make them aware that they were victims of violence. Participants offered different suggestions on how and when midwives should talk about IPV. Facilitators to talk about IPV with the midwife were a good relationship with and the trustworthiness of the midwife, information about possible negative health outcomes for the newborn owing to IPV and knowing that the midwife could help them. The main barriers to talk about IPV with the midwife were that the participants were accompanied by their husbands during antenatal care, fear that the Child Welfare Service would take away their children after disclosure and cultural acceptance of violence. Participants with immigrant backgrounds also experienced difficulties in talking about IPV owing to their limited language skills. They thought that professionally trained interpreters with experience of IPV

  16. The hunting season’s over

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of Internet users from across the globe have been scouring the Computer Centre for LEGO figurines in recent weeks (see here). The time has come to announce the results…   We’ve received nearly 5,000 screen-shots, the precious trophies gleaned from hours of virtual scavenging through the CERN Computing Centre, and we’re pleased to see our hunt raised so much interest. Unfortunately, rules being rules, we have to choose the two winners by drawing lots, so prizes will be winging their way to… Sarah Charley (CERN) Stefan Hayes We kindly thank everyone who took part in the hunt with so much gusto and hope you all had as much fun as we did! You can discover all the figurines here: http://lego-scavenger-hunt.web.cern.ch/ The CERN Bulletin team

  17. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  18. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  19. Sport hunting decision document package : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes limited hunting opportunities at North Platte NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  20. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  1. Hunting Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan sets forth a proposal for public hunting on the refuge as a form of wildlife-oriented recreation. Hunting of deer, waterfowl, other migratory game birds...

  2. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  3. 76 FR 17442 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference AGENCY... February 2010, the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: (a... public, the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry,...

  4. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  5. 77 FR 16051 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Office of the Secretary Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Office of the... Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). The Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that (a) benefit wildlife resources; (b) encourage partnership among the...

  6. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  7. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  8. 77 FR 31636 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit...

  9. 76 FR 12130 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference AGENCY... February 2010, the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: (a... public, the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry,...

  10. [Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan & Related Documents : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 'Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan', beginning on page 66 and continuing through the end of the document, is focused on public hunting and the...

  11. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Interim hunting plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim hunting plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) outlines hunting guidelines for the Refuge....

  12. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2011. Topics covered include hunt...

  13. Environmental Assessment : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment (EA) is designed to evaluate possible actions for modifying the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (Refuge) public hunt plan. The hunt...

  14. trophy hunting and trophy size in ugalla game reserve, western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    the Ugalla Game Reserve (UGR) of western Tanzania, in relation to hunting success (animals shot species-1 quota-1) ... take, which through effective management is considered to be ... are several requirements for a successful trophy hunting ...

  15. Compatibility Determination : Hunting of migratory birds and resident game

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Compatibility Determination for the Minnesota Valley NWR and WMD proposed Hunting Plan. Refuge purposes are outlined and proposed hunting activities are...

  16. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2005. Topics covered include hunt...

  17. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  18. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2007. Topics covered include hunt...

  19. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2004. Topics covered include hunt...

  20. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2010.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2010. Topics covered include hunt...

  1. Modify hunting program on Arapaho NWR [Environmental Assesment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose for this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the hunting program onArapaho National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This EA, and hunting plan that will...

  2. Outreach Plan : Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge for Expanded Hunting Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Outreach Plan for Sherburne NWR states that hunting opportunities will be expanded on the Refuge to include wild turkey hunting by disabled and youth hunters.

  3. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2002.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2002. Topics covered include hunt...

  4. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2008. Topics covered include hunt...

  5. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2009. Topics covered include hunt...

  6. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2003.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2003. Topics covered include hunt...

  7. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2006. Topics covered include hunt...

  8. Hunting plan for San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This migratory waterfowl hunting plan for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge allows waterfowl hunting on certain areas of the Refuge. Aerial...

  9. Walk-In Hunting Access (WIHA) Fall 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2009 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...

  10. Walk-In Hunting Access (WIHA) Fall 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2008 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...

  11. Walk-In Hunting Access (WIHA) Fall 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2010 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...

  12. Organizational Actively Management for Opportunity Hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Fegh-hi FARAHMAND

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Actively Management (OAM is the responsibility of every manager. Because, an approach for OAM is becoming more widely accepted is a community-based development approach. In Opportunity Hunting Approach (OHA, OAM is the responsibility of every manager for his/her actions. OAM is using from top to bottom development model. According to the survey of market and customers, after understand customers’ needs, organization then decide how the quality policy and target will develop, from there the actively management system can be developed. The aim of this study in field of organizational actively management and policy of it can provide the specific process required for setting up and monitoring the actively target. As it also is customer-oriented, it aims to improve customer satisfaction. In addition, the actively target should be set up and implemented within every organization department and at each level, in accordance with actively policy. Furthermore, organization should develop the actively management system, in order to conform to general requirements and actively target.

  13. The Hunt Is Not On China's ban on trophy hunting remains despite calls for a relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2011-01-01

    Dulan,a small town in northwest China's Qinghai Province,would have been an unfamiliar name to most Chinese,if not for the recent high-profile debate regarding the possible relaxation of a six-year ban on hunting in the vicinity of the town.Foreign hunters have been familiar with Dulan since 1992 when they were tirst granted permits to hunt in the area.The State Forestry Administration (SFA) banned hunting in the region in 2006 amidst concerns that hunters were killing too many animals and damaging the local ecosystem.

  14. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  15. Cat Dilemma: Too Protected To Escape Trophy Hunting?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Trophy hunting is one of the most controversial issues in the field of biodiversity conservation. In particular, proponents and opponents debate fiercely over whether it poses a threat to hunted populations. Here, we show that trophy hunting constitutes a greater menace to threatened species than previously realized. Because humans value rarity, targeted species that are threatened are likely to be disproportionately hunted, thereby becoming even more vulnerable, which could eventually push t...

  16. The chiropractic profession in Norway 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession in Norway has increased five-fold in the last two decades. As there is no academic graduate program in Norway, all chiropractors have been trained outside of Norway, in either Europe, America or Australia. This might have given Norwegian chiropractors...... in Norway. METHOD: Two surveys were distributed to all 530 registered chiropractors in Norway in 2011. One survey was for all chiropractors (Survey 1) and the other for clinic owners (Survey 2). Results have been reported as tables and as approximate percentages in the text for ease of reading. RESULT......: Response rates were 61% (Survey 1, N = 320) and 71% (Survey 2, N = 217). More than two-thirds of the chiropractors in Norway had been in practice for under a decade. Only one in four chiropractors worked in solo practice and the majority shared premises with at least one colleague, typically at least one...

  17. 77 FR 4575 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed in February...

  18. 76 FR 30192 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation...

  19. 76 FR 66955 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed in February...

  20. What managers believe as important while recruitment in fast food industry within Norway: A case study of Burger King and McDonalds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    It is true that recruitment and selection of employees is expensive but less expensive than the cost of hiring a wrong person and it better to ‘‘be economical with truth’’. This paper investigates factors, that managers believe as important while recruitment in fast food industry within Norway. The main objective of this paper is to find out that how restaurant managers recruit and on what basis they select from potential candidates. We want to interrogate the methods of recruitment and selec...

  1. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  2. Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madslien Knut

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the

  3. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... normally migrated through the State, reducing the likelihood that sandhill crane hunters would encounter..., conditional on successful monitoring being conducted as called for in the Flyway hunt plan for this...

  4. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge deer hunt : Gatehouse guidelines during hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines the gatehouse guidelines for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge during the 1993 deer hunt. Key responsibilities include: checking in each...

  5. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  6. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  7. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  8. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  9. Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events

  10. 6 mln Graduates,Tough Job Hunting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie Zang

    2009-01-01

    @@ It is never easy for graduates to hunt their first jobs, and it becomes even harder for them due to the ongoing financial crisis, which spread over the whole world and made enterprises and various institutes cut their employment numbers. According to the incomplete statistics, over 6 million Chinese students graduate from school, are seeking a suitable position for living in 2009.

  11. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  12. Concerning Hunt's New Ways of Assessing Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, John M.

    1983-01-01

    In an earlier article, Hunt envisions the automation of intelligence testing, but he appears to be overly optimistic. He neglects to mention conceptual and practical difficulties at the interface of measurement and theory that place psychometry not in the dawn of microcomputerization, but rather more nearly in its primordium. (Author)

  13. The Simulation of Prehistoric Hunting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses use of computer simulation as an archeological tool for research and teaching involving the remains of prehistoric game animals to aid in understanding effects of various strategies of prehistoric hunters on populations of game animals. A simulation involving possible vicuna hunting strategies is described. (MBR)

  14. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  15. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  16. Hunting the Shadow, Catching the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    From 28 October to 6 November 2009 twenty-one 3rd year students in interior design from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), School of Architecture, Beijing participated in the workshop Hunting the Shadow - Catching the Light. The workshop was conceived and led by the Danish architects Torben Nie...

  17. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  18. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  19. Evaluation of seasonal ensemble forecasts in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tore Sinnes, Svein; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Langsholt, Elin; Roar Sælthun, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the winter and spring season, seasonal forecasts are used by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) in order to assess the probability for sever floods or for low seasonal runoff volumes. The latter is especially important for hydropower production. The seasonal forecasts are generated by a set of 145 lumped, elevation distributed HBV models distributed all over Norway. The observed weather is used to establish the initial snow cover, soil moisture and groundwater levels in the HBV model. Subsequently, scenarios are created by using time series of observed weather the previous 50 years, creating a total of 50 ensembles. The predictability of this seasonal forecasting system depends therefore on the importance of the initial conditions, and in Norway the seasonal snow cover is especially important. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the seasonal forecasts of flood peaks and seasonal runoff volumes and especially to evaluate of the predictability depends on (i) catchment climatology and (ii) issue dates and lead times. For achieving these aims, evaluation criterions assessing reliability and sharpness were used. The results shows that the predictability is the highest for catchments where the spring runoff is dominated by snow melt. The predictability is the highest for the shortest lead times (up to 1 months ahead).The predictive performance is higher for runoff volumes than for the flood peaks.

  20. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: A symbolic dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction σ of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-σ hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K ,C0) and (K ,σ) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity Kc decreases at increasing σ, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.