This elementary language text, designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak, contains fourteen passages about hunting in Alaska. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the back and is not included in…
Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Wisz, Mary
the hunting season. To test that the geese did not leave because of a lack of food the field status in both areas was classified and density of waste grain was counted on stubble fields before, during and after the geese had left the area. The experiment is carried out in close collaboration with researchers...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...
Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt
Green, Cheri A
Full Text Available and promote development. Part of the prerequisite of basic services is the provision of social facilities, for example primary health care, parks, sports fields and community halls. The CSIR research investigates the sufficient and equitable availability...
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....
Hunt syndrome; Herpes zoster oticus; Geniculate ganglion zoster; Geniculate herpes; Herpetic geniculate ganglionitis ... The varicella-zoster virus that causes Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the same virus that causes chickenpox and ...
Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara
There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...
Konstantin’s grandfather hunted wolves and foxes by using traps. Konstantin’s father, in contrast, hunted with a rifle. In his youth Konstantin went with his father on hunting trips. They hunted hares and steppe birds (seagulls, ducks), except for swans. Konstantin recalls that the seagull’s meat smelled of fish. Killed wolves were skinned in the same way as people skinned sheep. The Kalmyks did not use the fur of foxes or ferrets, because (ordinary) people were not supposed to use or wear wh...
Ripley, Edward B
Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.
Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…
Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.
Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…
Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located
? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer
200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.
The Higgs boson is the most mysterious of all the fundamental particles. It accounts for how other particles acquired mass just after the beginning of the Universe. LEP-2 and the LHC at CERN will hunt it down between them
Full Text Available A graph is equitably k-colorable if its vertices can be partitioned into k independent sets in such a way that the numbers of vertices in any two sets differ by at most one. The smallest k for which such a coloring exists is known as the equitable chromatic number of G and denoted by =(G. It is known that the problem of computation of =(G is NP-hard in general and remains so for corona graphs. In this paper we consider the same model of coloring in the case of corona multiproducts of graphs. In particular, we obtain some results regarding the equitable chromatic number for the l-corona product G ◦l H, where G is an equitably 3- or 4-colorable graph and H is an r-partite graph, a cycle or a complete graph. Our proofs are mostly constructive in that they lead to polynomial algorithms for equitable coloring of such graph products provided that there is given an equitable coloring of G. Moreover, we confirm the Equitable Coloring Conjecture for corona products of such graphs. This paper extends the results from [H. Furmánczyk, K. Kaliraj, M. Kubale and V.J. Vivin, Equitable coloring of corona products of graphs, Adv. Appl. Discrete Math. 11 (2013 103–120].
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1939 Honorary. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1933. Date of birth: 25 September 1866. Date of death: 4 December 1945. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...
Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.
With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…
Fewell, L. A.
Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.
Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S
Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.
Many theoretically well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of the axion and further ultralight axion-like particles. They may constitute the mysterious dark matter in the universe and solve some puzzles in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. There are new, relatively small experiments around the globe, which started to hunt for these elusive particles and complement the accelerator based search for physics beyond the Standard Model.
Many theoretically well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of the axion and further ultralight axion-like particles. They may constitute the mysterious dark matter in the universe and solve some puzzles in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. There are new, relatively small experiments around the globe, which started to hunt for these elusive particles and complement the accelerator based search for physics beyond the Standard Model.
Full Text Available Knowing the profileof hunting tourism consumers is particularly useful to the administrators ofhunting funds or natural parks, and of travel agencies that develop huntingtourism products for the hunting of large game for trophy, of small game asrecreational activity and also for the experienced hunting tourists who loveadventure and hunting with traditional weapons. The motivation for huntingconsists in the existing fauna in a certain area, but there are also cultural,historical reasons or spending time in the middle of nature. Consumers ofhunting tourism have a wide range of ages: hunting tourists prefer watching theanimals in their natural habitat and are less adventure-oriented, unlike trophyhunting tourists who are self-contended, travel much and wish to know thehistory, the culture and the behaviour of animals in protected areas. Theyprefer special accommodation and transport conditions and rely on largeincomes: they wish to get the rarest trophies to display back home as a symbolof their hunting skills and courage
Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank
Within hunting, wildlife populations are estimated to be too high in many countries which is assumed to be due to the market failure, that each hunter harvests too little compared to what the regulator wants. This may be due to the existing regulation which, among other things, requires knowledge...... by an individual, variable tax rate. The variable tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference in marginal value of the population between the hunter and the regulator. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum. Thus, the population tax is a good alternative...... to the existing regulation....
Trabold, E. L.
The establishment of a technical data base for individual seat materials in order to facilitate materials selections is reviewed. The thermal response of multi-layer constructions representative of the basic functional layers of a typical future seat is examined. These functional layers include: (1) decorative fabric cover; (2) slip sheet (topper); (3) fire blocking layer; (4) cushion reinforcement; and (5) cushioning layer. The implications for material selection for full-scale seats are discussed.
Present and future equitable development of telecommunications services calls for an immediate development of an indigenous telecommunications technology capability in order to effectively and efficiently utilizes the services provided by the country's presently imported telecommunications systems while at the same time ...
Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the hunting, cooking, and eating of marmots among pastoralists in Gcan tsha thang (Jianzhatan Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha County, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Folklore positing a connection between humans and marmots is discussed and Sangs rgyas bkra shis provides a story about local marmot hunters and gives accounts from his paternal grandmother (Pa 10 skyid, b. 1941 about marmot hunting in 1958. A conclusion suggests directions for future research. Accounts of marmot hunting and marmot product use from Yul shul (Yushu and Dkar mdzes (Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefectures, a map of Mtsho sngon, and six photographs provide further detail.
..., and by what means such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...
... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...
J Gordon Millichap
The effect of acyclovir-prednisone treatment in 80 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome was analyzed retrospectively at the Department of Otolaryngology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.
Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary
George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...
Victoria Lynn Harms
Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.
Zikusooka, C M; Kyomuhang, R; Orem, J N; Tumwine, M
Health care financing provides the resources and economic incentives for operating health systems and is a key determinant of health system performance. Equitable financing is based on: financial protection, progressive financing and cross-subsidies. This paper describes Uganda's health care financing landscape and documents the key equity issues associated with the current financing mechanisms. We extensively reviewed government documents and relevant literature and conducted key informant interviews, with the aim of assessing whether Uganda's health care financing mechanisms exhibited the key principles of fair financing. Uganda's health sector remains significantly under-funded, mainly relying on private sources of financing, especially out-of-pocket spending. At 9.6 % of total government expenditure, public spending on health is far below the Abuja target of 15% that GoU committed to. Prepayments form a small proportion of funding for Uganda's health sector. There is limited cross-subsidisation and high fragmentation within and between health financing mechanisms, mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and limited prepayment mechanisms. Without compulsory health insurance and low coverage of private health insurance, Uganda has limited pooling of resources, and hence minimal cross-subsidisation. Although tax revenue is equitable, the remaining financing mechanisms for Uganda are inequitable due to their regressive nature, their lack of financial protection and limited cross-subsidisation. Overall, Uganda's current health financing is inequitable and fragmented. The government should take explicit action to promote equitable health care financing by establishing pre-payment schemes, enhancing cross-subsidisation mechanisms and through appropriate integration of financing mechanisms.
Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest
as indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.
Bkra shis dpal 'bar
The Yul shul (Yushu) Rgyas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes  is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter . The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars , performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial
N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S
Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Full Text Available The driver’s seat of a heavy duty truck is usually mounted on a spring–damper assembly anchored to the cab floor. To improve riding comfort, this study investigated the effects of mounting a computer-controlled actuator in parallel with the traditional spring–damper assembly. A dynamic model of the seat is represented by a two degree-of-freedom system, including a cushion. In this paper, a control system is designed, using optimal control theory, which minimizes rms vertical acceleration at a point representing the driver’s hip point. In this system, accelerations of the hip point, the seat frame and the cab floor are picked up and integrated to obtain the state variables to be fed back and fed forward to the actuator through a digital computer. The actuator is constructed with electric servo-motor and ball-screw mechanism. The experimental study was carried out on a shaker, which simulates the vibrations of the cab floor in actual service. Results were obtained for both a dummy and a real human body. The vibration test produced rms accelerations of the seat and the hip point of about 1.0 m/s2 without the actuator, while the rms accelerations were suppressed to about 0.5 m/s2 at a rms input voltage to the servo-motor of 1.0 V.
NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.
... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...
The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary moral controversies about hunting tourism in Serbia in the context of defined value orientations and norms of ethics of hunting tourism, as a branch of applied ethics. On the one hand, this paper summarizes conceptual definitions and specificities of hunting tourism, as a special form of tourism, and the crucial value postulates derived from the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development and biodiv...
Full Text Available Mechatronics is gradually being used in different fields of the production process and final products. In the field of home seating furniture, it has not been formally declared as such yet. The purpose of further development of seating furniture is to improve its ergonomic parameters, to improve user comfort in controlling and using seating furniture or to provide new additional functions of seating furniture. Application of mechatronic principles can be presumed within the framework of this development. An analysis of the current state of reclining seating furniture, which uses mechanical and electromechanical positioning mechanisms, is conducted in order to formulate possible fields of applying mechatronics. The analysis defines individual ergonomic parameters which are influenced in reclining of seating furniture. This analysis is used as a basis for formulating a hypothesis describing potential development fields of applying mechatronics in home seating furniture.
... such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed, possessed, sold...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on... Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird...
Trophy Hunting and Trophy Size in Ugalla Game Reserve, Western Tanzania. ... hunted in the Ugalla Game Reserve (UGR) of western Tanzania, in relation to hunting success (animals shot species-1 quota-1). ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA) ... In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve ... Total funding.
Full Text Available We summarize information provided by some recent scientific studies in relation to the opinions, views and attitudes of Spanish hunters regarding hunting and its management. In particular, we discuss the different functions (economic, ecological and social that hunters attribute to hunting, as well as their moral judgements associated with the different motives for hunting. In addition, we explore how hunters value different game management tools (including predator control, releases of farm-reared animals and the regulation of hunting pressure, and we discuss how such valuations affect their decision-making. Finally, we assess potential future trends of hunting, as expressed by the hunters themselves.
This article describes a scavenger hunt for Business Law students. Specifically, students compete in this scavenger hunt to identify accessible design features on campus to undergird their study of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Title III of the ADA prohibits public accommodations from discriminating on the basis of…
Full Text Available Situla art developed as an echo of the toreutic style which had spread from the Near East through the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans as far as the Veneti, Raeti, Histri, and their eastern neighbours in the region of Dolenjska (Lower Carniola. An Early Iron Age phenomenon (c. 600—300 BC, it rep- resents the major and most arresting form of the contemporary visual arts in an area stretching from the foot of the Apennines in the south to the Drava and Sava rivers in the east. Indeed, individual pieces have found their way across the Alpine passes and all the way north to the Danube. In the world and art of the situlae, a prominent role is accorded to ani- mals. They are displayed in numerous representations of human activities on artefacts crafted in the classic situla style – that is, between the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC – as passive participants (e.g. in pageants or in harness or as an active element of the situla narrative. The most typical example of the latter is the hunting scene. Today we know at least four objects decorat- ed exclusively with hunting themes, and a number of situlae and other larger vessels where hunting scenes are embedded in composite narratives. All this suggests a popularity unparallelled by any other genre. Clearly recognisable are various hunting techniques and weapons, each associated with a particu- lar type of game (Fig. 1. The chase of a stag with javelin, horse and hound is depicted on the long- familiar and repeatedly published fibula of Zagorje (Fig. 2. It displays a hound mauling the stag’s back and a hunter on horseback pursuing a hind, her neck already pierced by the javelin. To judge by the (so far unnoticed shaft end un- der the stag’s muzzle, the hunter would have been brandishing a second jave- lin as well, like the warrior of the Vače fibula or the rider of the Nesactium situla, presumably himself a hunter. Many parallels to his motif are known from Greece, Etruria, and
Ross, David A; Cotter, Lee; Culhane, David; Press, Matthew J
.... Continued usage of the Analog Sequencer is undesirable due to limitations with respect to its installed life, electronic component obsolescence, flexibility to accommodate seat safety improvements...
Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan
To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.
The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...
Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
In Denmark, the right to hunt is vested with the land owner but can be transferred to others and is traded on a well-established market. The dominant form of hunting leases is time limited contract transferring the hunting rights on a piece of land to one or more persons. We analyze this market...... for hunting leases using the hedonic method on a rich set of data obtained from Danish hunters. We hypothesize and show that the price of a hunting lease reflects that hunting is a composite experience; and also reflects aspects relating to the landowners cost of leasing out hunting. Thus, the value...
Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Broman, N H; Hasson, T
A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established.
KE Yongjian; LIU Xinping; WANG Shouqing
The feasibility study of a public-private partnership (PPP) project is regarded as one of the critical factors for successful implementation,but unfortunately the common financial evaluation methods currently used only represent the benefits of the private sector.There is,therefore,an urgent need to develop an equitable financial evaluation method for PPP projects.This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that examines international practices.An equitable financial evaluation method was then developed taking into account the inherent characteristics of PPP projects using six separate indicators and Monte Carlo simulations.The result for a bridge project in Romania shows that the method combines the viewpoints of all the relevant stakeholders to achieve an equitable financial evaluation of PPP projects.
Full Text Available Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1 quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2 identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3 identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4 measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%, being injured (14%, using body parts for traditional medicine (19%, collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%, and keeping as pets (16%. Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%, ungulates (93%, carnivores (93%, primates (87%, and bats (42%, among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that
Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.
For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load
Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D
Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.
A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...
Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakan, Kanokkan
In Thailand, total drug expenditure has grown rapidly. Recently, the Thai government has addressed the issue of drug pricing, but the prices of single-source drugs remain a major challenge. To examine equitable prices of single-source drugs in Thailand. A total of 98 single-source and high-expenditure drugs were examined. Unit prices from the Drug and Medical Supplies Information Center (DMSIC) and National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) were used to represent drug prices at the provider level in Thailand and the U.S., respectively. Data for measuring drug affordability, e.g., dose and poverty line, were obtained from Micromedex online and the National Statistical Office (NSO). The U.S. drug prices were adjusted by the Human Development Index (HDI) to be equitable prices for Thailand. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) was used to convert US currency into Thai baht. All prices in this study were based on the year 2012. Catastrophic, Impoverishment, and WHO/Health Action International (HAI) approaches were used to determine Thai citizens' ability to afford the study drugs. Finally, uncertainty analyses were conducted. From all study drugs, 55 single-source drugs were priced higher than their equitable prices, ranging from 0.38 to 422.36% higher. Among these, 28 items were antineoplastic drugs. The prices of drugs outside the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), as well as the country's newer drugs, tended to be higher than their calculated equitable prices. The majority of drugs in Thailand priced higher than equitable prices were unaffordable for most Thai citizens. The uncertainty analyses revealed that almost all results were relatively robust. Most single-source drug prices in Thailand were higher than their equitable prices, and were likely to be unaffordable to Thai citizens.
Sinha, Gita; Peters, David H; Bollinger, Robert C
The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive literature review for gender-related gaps in HIV clinical services in rural India, focusing on patient access and outcomes, provider practices, and institutional partnerships. Contextualizing findings from rural India in the broader international literature, we describe potential strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India, as responses to the following three questions: (1) What gender-specific patient needs should be addressed for gender-equitable HIV testing and care? (2) What do health care providers need to deliver HIV services with gender equity? (3) How should institutions enforce and sustain gender-equitable HIV services? Data at this early stage indicate substantial gender-related differences in HIV services in rural India, reflecting prevailing gender norms. Strategies including gender-specific HIV testing and care services would directly address current gender-specific patient needs. Rural care providers urgently need training in gender sensitivity and HIV-related communication and clinical skills. To enforce and sustain gender equity, multi-sectoral institutions must establish gender-equitable medical workplaces, interdisciplinary HIV services partnerships, and oversight methods, including analysis of gender-disaggregated data. A gender-equitable approach to rural India's rapidly evolving HIV services programmes could serve as a foundation for gender equity in the overall health care system. PMID:19244284
Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W
Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.
Danilović Milorad; Gačić Dragan
This paper presents the issue of the use of forest and hunting resources in Serbia, with special emphasis on their sustainability. The use of modern technological solutions in terms of sustainable use of forest and hunting resources should be seen through an analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts. The existing machinery used in Serbian forestry cannot respond to the current demands of forestry production. However, the current unfavourable conditio...
Kirk A. Olson
Full Text Available Much of Mongolia’s rangelands are under state control and managed via traditional land use practices and are habitat for numerous wildlife species harvested for their meat and fur. Political and economic transformations that have been occurring since the early 1990’s continues to affect all aspects of Mongolian society. To cope during periods of economic hardship, many turned to harvesting wildlife resources for income and subsistence and this resulted in precipitous declines of some populations, marmots for example. Interviews with herding households in Mongolia’s eastern steppe region were conducted to better determine how wildlife resources (Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, red foxes, corsac foxes, and gray wolf are utilized and valued by herding families. Hunting, carried out by 65% of interviewees, returned an average of $103±172 dollars per household. The number of individuals hunted of any particular species during the previous year ranged widely - 46% of households hunted an average of 8±9 Mongolian gazelles (the equivalent of a small cow, 31% hunted 5±5 corsac foxes, 29% hunted 42±47 marmots, 22% hunted 3±3 red foxes, and 17% hunted 3±2 gray wolves. Differences in mean annual income between hunting and non-hunting households were similar ($1,292±1,132 vs. $1,080±1,196 however the median difference was greater ($1,009 vs $749. However, non-hunting households owned significantly more livestock than hunting households (168±183 vs. 93±92 Livestock Units, and the proportion of hunting households living below the poverty line was higher. Households that were larger or had few numbers of livestock were more likely to engage in hunting than smaller households with more livestock. Household and livestock variables were also significant predictors of a households likelihood of hunting Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, and corsac fox, but not for red fox or gray wolf. Wildlife management policies will likely receive greater
A subject of major importance in fundamental physics is the investigation of the origin of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking. The mechanism of mass generation through the spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry is called the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism and is associated with the appearance of a physical scalar boson. The discovery announced at CERN on 4th July 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of a boson at a mass close to 125 GeV/c2, compatible with this scalar boson of the Standard Model, the so-called Higgs boson, mainly in γγ, ZZ and WW decay modes, with compatible evidence also found at Fermilab in the bb mode, changed the landscape. This important discovery was acknowledged as decisive for the attribution of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter Higgs . This 7th workshop of the "Higgs Hunting" series organized in Paris on August 31 - September 2, 2016 will discuss the developments of LHC run 2 analyses, detailed studies of the new boson and possible de...
Luria, Sarah R.; Kaufman, James C.
This paper reviews the relationship between creativity and equitable thinking and the individual differences in personality, demographic, and experiential factors that influence both concepts as they affect each other. Given the nationwide push to increase equity in public schools, interventions beyond teaching about equity are becoming…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from equitable adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.34 Relationship resulting from...
Services Delivery in Uganda. – Services offered. – Participation. – Decision making process. – Actors. – Issues. • Post-Conflict Situations in Uganda. – Challenges from Conflict. – Decentralisation in Post conflict settings. – Planning for gender equitable services delivery. • Recommendations (Policy). • Research Gaps ...
“Fair” community benefits and equitable land governance ... In several regions, women are resisting displacement and making claims to land through ... Cambridge, UK, in collaboration with the Community Legal Education Center, Cambodia; ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.
Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System. N E Udonwa. Abstract. No Abstract Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (4) 2007: pp. 307-311. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v16i4.37327 · AJOL African ...
Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo
Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age ( 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.
Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.
... Convention and the subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian...
Ochieng, A.; Ahebwa, W.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.
Uganda reintroduced sport hunting in 2001. The policy was piloted around Lake Mburo National Park and later replicated around other protected areas. This chapter analyses the development, implementation and impact of sport hunting policy in Uganda. We do so through literature review, document
..., carriage, or export of any * * * bird, or any part, nest, or egg'' of migratory game birds can take place... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird...
Beth E. Cohen; David K. Loomis
The Quabbin Reservoir, built in the 1930's as a water supply for Boston, is an unfiltered source of water. The agency responsible for managing the reservoir wants it to remain unfiltered. As a result, human activity is kept to a minimum, including (until recently) a prohibition on hunting. The lack of natural predators and the ban on recreational hunting allowed...
Gosselin, Jacinthe; Leclerc, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991-2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled cub survival before, during and after the mating season. We used three proxies to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in male turnover; distance and timing of the closest male killed and number of males that died around a female's home range centre. Male removal decreased cub survival only during the mating season, as expected in seasonal breeders with SSI. Cub survival increased with distance to the closest male killed within the previous 1·5 years, and it was lower when the closest male killed was removed 1·5 instead of 0·5 year earlier. We did not detect an effect of the number of males killed. Our results support the hypothesis that social restructuring due to hunting can reduce recruitment and suggest that the distribution of the male deaths might be more important than the overall number of males that die. As the removal of individuals through hunting is typically not homogenously distributed across the landscape, spatial heterogeneity in hunting pressure may cause source-sink dynamics, with lower recruitment in areas of high human-induced mortality. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.
Kim Paul Kirsner
Full Text Available The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or ‘mean’ just 2.7 NM (nautical miles from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor’s reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013. The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...
Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...
Full Text Available In many applications in sequencing and scheduling it is desirable to have an underlaying graph as equitably colored as possible. In this paper we survey recent theoretical results concerning conditions for equitable colorability of some graphs and recent theoretical results concerning the complexity of equitable coloring problem. Next, since the general coloring problem is strongly NP-hard, we report on practical experiments with some efficient polynomial-time algorithms for approximate equitable coloring of general graphs.
Olmore, A. B.
Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.
Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.
A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower ext...
Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G
This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.
Coleman, Crystal; Fozo, Michael; Rubin, Adam
Ramsay Hunt syndrome, first described by J. Ramsay Hunt in 1907, encompassed the symptoms of otalgia, erythematous vesicular rash on the auricle, and facial paralysis. Although rare, in some cases, the varicella zoster virus responsible for the illness can also be associated with involvement of cranial nerves III-XII, cervical nerves, aseptic meningitis, and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome involving the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, X, and, possibly, XII. Pharyngeal wall and vocal fold paralysis, and severely reduced laryngeal elevation, resulted in such significant dysphagia that percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was required. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hundreds of Internet users from across the globe have been scouring the Computer Centre for LEGO figurines in recent weeks (see here). The time has come to announce the results… We’ve received nearly 5,000 screen-shots, the precious trophies gleaned from hours of virtual scavenging through the CERN Computing Centre, and we’re pleased to see our hunt raised so much interest. Unfortunately, rules being rules, we have to choose the two winners by drawing lots, so prizes will be winging their way to… Sarah Charley (CERN) Stefan Hayes We kindly thank everyone who took part in the hunt with so much gusto and hope you all had as much fun as we did! You can discover all the figurines here: http://lego-scavenger-hunt.web.cern.ch/ The CERN Bulletin team
Full Text Available This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the influence on teacher salaries from local variables, which were derived from a literature review. This study finds that (a teachers are paid more equitably today than before the reform, and (b local variables no longer really matter, as a result of the changed provincial funding formula.
John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls
Most forest land acreage in the South is in small holdings. Much-needed hunting land, and income for rural landowners, could be provided by combining small forest holdings into large units and teasing the hunting rights.
Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea
Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels
We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...
Lund, Jens Friis; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
Recreational hunting may be important to the shaping of the agricultural landscape. Land owners who hunt or lease out hunting rights have an incentive to promote landscapes that contain wildlife biotopes, which may serve wider societal values, such as landscape aesthetics, biodiversity, and prese......Recreational hunting may be important to the shaping of the agricultural landscape. Land owners who hunt or lease out hunting rights have an incentive to promote landscapes that contain wildlife biotopes, which may serve wider societal values, such as landscape aesthetics, biodiversity......, and preservation of valued and/or threatened animal and plant species. Recreational hunting may thus contribute to preserve and enhance landscape multifunctionality. Yet, little is known about the importance of hunting interests in motivating such landscape management. In this article, we seek to shed light...
Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea
Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.
Game consumption and attitudes to hunting in the Netherlands. ... share of this game. Anti-hunting activism is a potential threat for the supply of game and therefore, to this part of restaurant business. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2010 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2009 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks for fall 2008 public hunting access through the Walk-In Hunting...
The ambivalent record of progress on issues of gender equality is reflective of the impediments to women’s equitable employment. This paper presents facts on global gender inequality in general, while specifically focusing on gender discrimination in the labour market and formal organisations. The Gender Mainstreaming strategy is presented as a viable option to overcome the obstacles restricting women from attaining their productive potential.
Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns
We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...
James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan
Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...
Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།
The Yul shul (Yushu) ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
J. John Charbonneau; James R. Lyons
Trends in hunting and fishing participation are evaluated on the basis of responses to a telephone survey of the U.S. population conducted as a part of the 1975 National Hunting and Fishing Survey. Probability of participation in hunting and fishing is a function of the respondent's age, sex, income, place of residence, and a number of supply characteristics. The...
In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events
Østergaard, Jens Sand
In this essay I have reworked the question of death in hunting by defining it as an activity whose nature implies a relation of being by living the death of the animal. Once this relation is understood more fully, it becomes obvious that the animal is not an isolated totality of relations...
Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Torben
From 28 October to 6 November 2009 twenty-one 3rd year students in interior design from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), School of Architecture, Beijing participated in the workshop Hunting the Shadow - Catching the Light. The workshop was conceived and led by the Danish architects Torben Nie...
Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne
The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…
The respondent describes the first time he killed a black bear while hunting. The fifty one audio and nine video files in this collection include: villages’ life stories, circle-dancing songs and performance, local history, folk tales, and interviews from Siyuewu Village, Puxi Township, Rangtang County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. World Oral Literature Project
Full Text Available This paper presents the issue of the use of forest and hunting resources in Serbia, with special emphasis on their sustainability. The use of modern technological solutions in terms of sustainable use of forest and hunting resources should be seen through an analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts. The existing machinery used in Serbian forestry cannot respond to the current demands of forestry production. However, the current unfavourable conditions can be significantly improved with appropriate measures. The planning of a network of roads including a number of factors that directly and indirectly affect sustainable use is of great importance for the development of forestry and hunting. Wood biomass in Serbian forests should be used in the manner and to the extent that ensures the sustainability of ecosystems and the production of large quantities of energy. In recent years, non-timber forest products have gained importance, so that the income generated from their use is growing. The impact of newly adopted laws and bylaws in the field of forestry, hunting and the protection of nature and environment will depend primarily on their application, control, execution and possible amendments and adjustments.
S. A. Zaichenko
Full Text Available The current state map support of the system of hunting management requires updating an information database and the creation of new schemes of hunting organization. In this case the beneficial is using of satellite imagery data for the mapping and also for important environmental research. Presentation of the results in the form of Internet web services provides broad benefits to the paper version of the maps.
Alberto A. Antunes
Full Text Available Mesenchymal neoplasias represent 5% of tumors affecting the penis. Due to the rarity of such tumors, there is no agreement concerning the best method for staging and managing these patients. Sarcomas of the penis can be classified as deep-seated if they derive from the structures forming the spongy body and the cavernous bodies. Superficial lesions are usually low-grade and show a small tendency towards distant metastasis. In contrast, deep-seated lesions usually show behavior that is more aggressive and have poorer prognosis. The authors report 3 cases of deep-seated primary sarcomas of the penis and review the literature on this rare and aggressive neoplasia.
Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino
Full Text Available Deforestation and hunting are main wildlife threats in Amazonia, affecting the ecosystem and dwellers that rely on game meat. Data from 9109 hunted animals from 35 villages of 8 Pano indigenous lands in Brazilian Amazonia were used to build 4 indicators of wildlife status based on ecological models and to analyze the effects of deforestation, hunting pressure, and socioeconomic aspects on wildlife variation. Although variation in wildlife status indicated depletion in certain locations, hunters from most villages continued to hunt their preferred game after decades of intensive hunting. Indigenous hunting resulted in local depletion of species because of the dispersal of animals away from the source of hunting. This local effect can be explained by the permanent hunting of wildlife in the region, the behavior of Pano hunters, and the design and scale of this study analysis. Regionally, however, deforestation and associated factors are the cause of reduced population density and hunting success, extirpating sensitive species. Roads exacerbated hunting effects through disturbance, encroachment, and provision of access to livestock meat at markets. To avoid local depletion, indigenous people must review their subsistence hunting practices, whereas to achieve regional wildlife conservation and to maintain indigenous societies in Amazonia, wildlife habitat loss should be limited.
Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E
Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.
A legally binding protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing is to be adopted by the 193 governments that are party to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The protocol aims to ensure that the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably with biodiversity-rich but financially poor countries. This could help reverse the rapid loss of biodiversity and genetic resources. But unless governments make some major progress in their final negotiating session, the protocol will make little difference.
This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial co...
Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.
The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...
...), and thigh, and the input at the seat. Seating configurations included the rigid seat, a current inventory seat cushion, and a prototype cushion with an inflatable thigh support in both the deflated and inflated positions...
Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.
The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.
... under Executive Order 13132. This proposed AD would not have a substantial direct effect on the States... cable, hook and loop (hook and loop is a generic term for Velcro), leather cover that is glued to seat...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....
Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L
Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n = 666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.
Dubowitz, Tamara; Orleans, Tracy; Nelson, Christopher; May, Linnea Warren; Sloan, Jennifer C; Chandra, Anita
How can healthier, more equitable communities be created? This is a key question for public health. Even though progress has been made in understanding the impact of social, physical, and policy factors on population health, there is much room for improvement. With this in mind, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation made creating healthier, more equitable communities the third of four Action Areas in its Culture of Health Action Framework. This Action Area focuses on the interplay of three drivers-the physical environment, social and economic conditions, and policy and governance-in influencing health equity. In this article we review some of the policy and governance challenges confronting decisionmakers as they seek to create healthy communities on a broad scale. We use these challenges as a framework for understanding where the most critical gaps still exist, where the links could be exploited more effectively, and where there are opportunities for further research and policy development. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Udonwa, N E
The issue of human capital flight has been discussed at different forums with a consensus opinion that it has its merits and demerits to equitable health system. Most often one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of talent, leaving the provider nation at risk of depleting its natural supply of talent. This paper looks into the historical perspective of human capital flight or "brain drain", and its burden. It attempts to elucidate the various causes and suggested solutions. The paper's objective is to educate colleagues on the conceptual and contextual imperatives of the issue. Using a convenient sample of key informants who were medical colleagues in Nigeria relevant information was sourced from these colleagues, documents from the postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the internet on maters relating to human capital flight and brain drain. Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, and other professionals leave Nigeria tempted by significantly higher wages, brighter prospects for employment and education, stability, food security. It appears that the potential exposure to different working conditions, resources and professional environments can be of advantage to the country, should Nigeria be able to recall these professionals. It also appears that necessary economic reforms that make staying at home rewarding, that is--good leadership, and policy planning that seriously looks into rural development, among other issues, are keys ingredients to reversing the trend in order to ensure a more equitable health system.
Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Lommer, Maria Sofie
Between 1992 and 2008 subsidization of mandatory set aside land under the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) gave rise to the establishment of a characteristic type of multifunctional hunting landscapes in Denmark, primarily located on fallow land in tilled valley bottoms. A national survey...... of their economic strategy. Implications for the ongoing discussion on land use policy concerning land sharing vs. land sparing is discussed....
... standard establishes requirements for seats, their attachment assemblies, and their installation to....2. General performance requirements. When tested in accordance with S5, each occupant seat shall... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000...
Harvey, Eugene J.; Kenyon, Melaine C.
This quantitative, cross-sectional research study explored students' perceptions of five different seating styles within typical classrooms in an urban public higher education institution. The five seating styles included: modern mobile chairs, tablet arm chairs, fixed tiered seating with tablet arms, rectangle tables with standard chairs, and…
Meeks, Michael; Knotts, Tami; James, Karen; Williams, Felice; Vassar, John; Wren, Amy
While an extensive body of research exists regarding the delivery of course knowledge and material, much less attention has been paid to the performance effect of seating position within a classroom. Research findings are mixed as to whether students in the front row of a classroom outperform students in the back row. Another issue that has not been fully examined in higher education is the effect of environmental factors, specifically seating type, on student performance. This study examines...
Baker, A M; Keller, G; Garcia, D
The authors report the case of a 21-year-old man who was killed while duck hunting when a shotgun accidentally discharged, shooting him in the head. The loaded weapon, which had been lying on the ground with the safety off and the muzzle pointed toward a river a few feet away, discharged when a hunting dog stepped on the trigger. Scene investigation confirmed that the victim had been standing in the river, planting decoys, with his head approximately level with the adjacent bank. Autopsy examination and ballistic testing confirmed a range of fire consistent with the witness' statements. Examination of the weapon in question documented a light trigger pull but no mechanical defects. The authors review the epidemiology and causality of hunting accidents and discuss the various safety rules that were violated in this highly unusual case. The importance of a complete death investigation, including autopsy, when dealing with a firearm death is emphasized.
Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།
Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J
Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending
Singh, Harinder Jit
This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model
Objectives: This article reports on the content, context, process and impact of project EquitAble, funded by the European Commission Seventh Research Framework Programme, which brought together researchers from Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Namibia, Sudan and Malawi. Method: After the 4-year project ended in February 2013, all members of the consortium were asked to anonymously complete a bespoke questionnaire designed by the coordinating team. The purpose of the questionnaire was to capture the views of those who collaborated on the research project in relation to issues of content, context, process and impact of the EquitAble project. Results: Our results indicated some of the successes and challenges encountered by our consortium. Conclusion: We identified contextual and process learning points, factors often not discussed in papers, which typically focus on the reporting of the ‘content’ of results.
海上, 順代; Nobuyo", "Unagami
The aim of this paper is to discuss the significance of hunting in "The Bear" and "Delta Autumn", the fifth and sixth stories in William Faulkner‟s Go Down, Moses (1942). In this paper, I would like to show that hunting plays an important role in Faulkner's Southern society, referring to the studies of Maria Mies, a German sociologist. In her view, hunting is useful to a patriarchal society, which strictly distinguishes men from women. As a part of a social system, hunting succeeds in g...
Wolfenden, A.K.; Cambridge, M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Toxic Substances Control
In California, the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) has developed a more equitable and expedited approach for the redevelopment of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Senate Bill 923 enacted in 1994, established the Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP) under Chapter 6.85 of the California Health and Safety Code. This bill responds to a nationwide demand to reform Superfund laws and promote the restoration of blighted and contaminated parcels--often referred to as Brownfields. The program was designed as an alternative to CERCLA, which has come under criticism for being inefficient, unfair and restricting opportunities for effective cleanups. Cal/EPA`s Department of Toxic Substances Control will implement this pilot program. This pilot program, which will eventually comprise 30 sites, provides incentives for voluntary remediation by addressing key economic issues associated with the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties.
Full Text Available SEAT Pagine Gialle’s new challengeSEAT Pagine Gialle is a company that for over 80 years has provided information services, search and communication tools.The companies success and notoriety is built on a customer base of about 20 million families and 3 million professional operators with a continually updated technology with which it integrates with detailed geographical information that allows it to reach millions of users every day. The services the company offers include an advanced cartographic web-based search, satellite and aerial photos, the calculation of driving instructions, weather forecasts and traffic information, 360 degree views and the modelling of whole cities in 3D.
Bressel, Eadric; Bliss, Shantelle; Cronin, John
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various bicycle seat designs on seat pressure and perceived stability in male and female cyclists using a unique field-based methodology. Thirty participants, comprising male and female cyclists, pedaled a bicycle at 118W over a 350m flat course under three different seat conditions: standard seat, a seat with a partial anterior cutout, and a seat with a complete anterior cutout. The pressure between the bicycle seat and perineum of the cyclist was collected with a remote pressure-sensing mat, and perceived stability was assessed using a continuous visual analogue scale. Anterior seat pressure and stability values for the complete cutout seat were significantly lower (p<0.05; 62-101%) than values for the standard and partial cutout designs. These findings were consistent between males and females. Our results would support the contention that the choice of saddle design should not be dictated by interface pressure alone since optimal anterior seat pressure and perceived seat stability appear to be inversely related.
Levis, J A
The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When an equitably adopted child is dependent. 222.57 Section 222.57 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.57 When an equitably adopted child is...
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to... Financial Assurance Requirements Revenue Sharing with States § 285.540 How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States? (a) The MMS will distribute among the eligible coastal States 27 percent of the...
... we may be approaching the limits of social acceptance for the use of hunting to control the number of... Regulatory Flexibility Act section below). This analysis estimated consumer surplus for three alternatives... Alternative 3, with an estimated consumer surplus across all flyways of $317.8-$416.8 million. We also chose...
..., Mississippi, Central, and Pacific) has a Flyway Council, a formal organization generally composed of one... Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) in this document. We published definitions of waterfowl flyways and... process must allow for public participation and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in...
... or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment... annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes hunting..., Arizona (Tribal Members and Nontribal Hunters). Doves Season Dates: Open September 1 through 15, 2010...
... productivity of North American Canada geese (Branta canadensis), brant (B. bernicla), snow geese (Chen... of the hunting public which, in part, provided the motivation for this recommendation. Furthermore... relationship of harvest regulations, and specifically zones and splits, to hunter recruitment, retention, and...
... provide information on the population status and productivity of North American Canada geese (Branta... addressing concerns of the hunting public which, in part, provided the motivation for this recommendation... dimensions data on the relationship of harvest regulations, and specifically zones and splits, to hunter...
... at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/CurrentBirdIssues/Management/AHM/AHM-intro.htm . B. Regulatory... for public inspection on http://www.regulations.gov , or by appointment, during normal business hours....). We analyzed the economic impacts of the annual hunting regulations on small business entities in...
... (canvasbacks, pintails, black ducks, and scaup), those strategies will again be used for the 2012-13 hunting... (e.g., tundra swans, some sandhill crane populations), the Service determines the amount of harvest... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 140 July 20, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service...
... selection of the appropriate hunting regulations. Status of Geese and Swans We provide information on the... in the June 14, 2013, Federal Register. D. Special Seasons/Species Management iii. Black Ducks... the International Black Duck AHM Strategy for 2013-14. Service Response: Last year, we adopted the...
... Wisconsin, Department of Natural Resources (WIDNR) noted the long history of working cooperatively with... or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment... on the proposed special hunting regulations and tribal proposals during normal business hours in room...
Pike, Caitlin; Alpi, Kristine M.
Active participation in orientation is hoped to increase understanding and use of library resources and services beyond the effect of tours or welcome lectures. Timed scavenger hunts have been used to orient undergraduate and medical students to academic libraries. This report describes the planning, execution, and evaluation of an untimed…
Full Text Available From an economic and socialpoint of view, hunting tourism has two sub-categories: resident hunting andtourism hunting (for the travellers who travel long distances to participate inhunting. Tourism hunting covers six types of tourism: subsistence indigenoushunting, traditional hunting, commercial hunting, recreational-sport hunting,integrated hunting, and optimum level game maintenance hunting. Huntingtourists should be classified into three distinct categories: large gamehunting tourists (for whom what matters is adventure and trophies, small gamehunting tourists (interested in the hunting experience, and experiencedhunting tourists (characterised by the use of frontal charge guns or arrowshooting. Hunting tourism can be considered a sub-category of nature tourismbecause it contributes to the preservation of area biodiversity, of culturaltourism as educational, cultural activity, and of sustainable tourism inprotected areas (ecotourism whose hunting tourism sub-category is trophyhunting
Greenwald, Anthony G
Presents an obituary for Earl Busby Hunt-known to family, friends, and colleagues as Buz-who died at home in Bellevue, Washington, on April 12, 2016. Buz specialized in artificial intelligence (AI) and had a main focus in cognitive psychology. In fact he was editor of Cognitive Psychology from 1974-1987. Buz's honors include the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for Intelligence Research (2009) and the Cattell Award from the Association for Psychological Science (2011) for lifetime contributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
With the advent of the LHC, the hunt for the Higgs boson enters its crucial phase. These three lectures will review: the Higgs mechanism; its implementation in the minimal Standard Model; possible alternatives with and without elementary scalar fields; the presently available information on electroweak gauge symmetry breaking and the Higgs particle; the properties of the Higgs boson(s) in the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions; the strategies for direct searches at colliders, with emphasis on the LHC, and comments on the possible scenarios that may emerge.
The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has investigated the phenomenon. In this case study, the persecution of child witches in Ghana is studied to explore the nature and patterns of witch hunts against children in the West African nation. There are no reliable national data on child abuse related to witchcraft accusations in Ghana. For this study, 13 cases of child witch hunts appearing in the local media during 1994-2009 were analyzed. Case summaries were constructed for each incident to help identify the socio-demographic characteristics of assailants and victims, victim-offender relationships, the methods of attacks, the spatial characteristics, as well as the motivations for the attacks. Children branded as witches ranged in age from 1-month-old to 17-years-old, were primarily from poor backgrounds, and lived in rural areas of the country. Accusations of witchcraft and witch assaults were lodged by close family members often through the encouragement of, or in concert with Christian clergymen and fetish priests. Accused witches were physically brutalized, tortured, neglected, and in two cases, murdered. For school-aged children, imputations of witchcraft contributed to stigmatization in both the community and at school, resulting in dropping out. The most frequently expressed reason for persecution of the child was suspicion that the child had used witchcraft to cause the death or illness of family relations or someone in the community. Another reason was suspicion that the child was responsible for the business failure or financial difficulties of a perceived victim. The results of this research are consistent with findings in the witchcraft literature suggesting that seemingly
Bruce K. Johnson; Alan A. Ager; James H. Noyes; Norm. Cimon
Hunting can exert a variety of effects on both targeted and nontargeted ungulates, and animals either run or hide in response to hunting pressure. If animals successfully elude hunters by running, the energetic cost may deplete fat reserves needed for survival during winter in temperate regions. If animals successfully elude hunters by hiding, there may be an energetic...
Hendriksen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Ulrik
Inuit in the Upernavik district of Northern Greenland has in generations used the winter sea ice as the basis for the essential hunting of seals, white- and narwhales. Since the late 1980’ies hunting has been combined with increasing fishery of Greenland halibut during summer from dinghies and in...
Hidden among the racks of servers and disks in the CERN Computing Centre, you’ll find Hawaiian dancers, space aliens, gorillas… all LEGO® figurines! These characters were placed about the Centre for the arrival of Google’s Street View team for the world to discover. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE COMPETITION IS OVER. ONLY FOR REFERENCE, HERE IS THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE. We’re pleased to announce our first global scavenger hunt! Spot three LEGO® figurines using Google’s Street View and you’ll be entered to win a gift of your choice from our CERN Gift Guide. A LEGO® figurine in the CERN Computing Centre, as seen on Google Street View. Here are the details: Find at least three LEGO® figurines hidden around the CERN Computing Centre using Google Street View. Take screencaps of the figurines and e-mail the pictures to TreasureHunt-ComputingCentre@cern.ch. This email is no longer active. The...
Jain, R.; Sawhney, S.; Koul, R. L.; Chand, P.
Full text: A review of MRI findings in seven patients with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was carried out. Seven patients presented with unilateral painful ophthalmoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were carried out to evaluate the cavernous sinuses and orbits. Coronal fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted images and fat-saturated T 1 -weighted coronal and transverse images with and without contrast enhancement were obtained for the cavernous sinuses and orbits. All patients showed focal-enhancing masses expanding the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. In one patient the mass was extending to the orbital apex and intraorbital. All patients recovered on corticosteroid therapy and resolution of the masses was documented on follow-up MRI studies in five patients. One patient had a relapse of symptoms after discontinuing therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of the cavernous sinus and orbital apex show high sensitivity for the detection and follow up of inflammatory mass lesions in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging should be the initial screening study in these patients.
Various theories which purport to explain the existence of the Alberta oil sands, were discussed briefly. One theory, held among others by Warren Hunt, speculates that oil is formed deep in the Precambrian basement and not in the higher sedimentary rock. According to this theory, methane in the crust is the abiogenic product that results from hydrogen reacting with silicon carbide in the lower mantle. As it rises through the fractures, it encounters the microbiota, and hydrogen is stripped away making larger molecules until only bitumen remains. Hunt and other adherents of this theory believe that hydrocarbon reservoirs are replenished as oil is produced, hence there is no end to the world's oil supply. This theory is about to be tested by retesting a granite well near Fort McMurray, which was suspended in September 1994, when funding dried up. Kaleeda Enterprises, owners of the well, believe that the well bottom is currently in a granite pool, and oil will be found by deepening the well to 2,150 metres from the current 1,650 metres. While this is not universally accepted, if true, the abiogenic theory would go a long way towards explaining the origin of the oil sands
Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the various ways information literacy is both required by and developed through the recreational activity of survey mark hunting. Through their dialogue they found that the activity of survey mark hunting relies on the construction of both information and its authority in ways contextualized within the communities that participate; that survey mark hunting is a conversation that builds on the past, where lived experience counts as evidence; and, that survey mark hunting is both a metaphor and embodied enactment of information literacy.
David P Wilson
Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the
Neto, Olavo Avalone; Munakata, Jun
This research assessed whether public space users will adopt a least-effort approach and choose a less suitable seat nearby or seek the most suitable seat, even if it is farther away from them when the decision is made. How distance assessment affects seat choice was investigated through an observational survey, which allowed the identification of behavioral patterns. Those behavioral patterns were then tested in a paired comparison experiment with 40 participants. The results showed that the effect of distance on seat choice is related to the difference in distance between the options and that a sufficient difference can cause trade-offs between distance and seat properties. The necessary difference in distance is conditioned by the activity and the seat properties.
Full Text Available SUMMARY: Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare complication of herpes zoster which results from the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. Although facial nerve is the most common affected nerve in Ramsay Hunt syndrome, other cranial and cervical nerves can also be affected. We present an atypical case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a 42-year-old male, with cervical nerve involvement. As spontaneous recovery rate in Ramsay Hunt syndrome is low, early diagnosis and treatment plays a key role in full recovery of paralysis. ÖZET: Ramsay Hunt sendromu, varisella-zoster virüsün latent olarak kaldığı genikulat ganglionda aktifleşmesiyle oluşan herpes zosterin nadir bir komplikasyonudur. Ramsay Hunt sendromunda fasiyal sinir en sık etkilenen sinir olmasına rağmen diğer kraniyal sinirler ve servikal sinirler de tutulabilir. Bu yazıda, 42 yaşındaki erkek hastada servikal tutulumun da eşlik ettiği atipik bir Ramsay Hunt sedromu olgusu sunuldu. Ramsay Hunt sedromunda spontan iyileşme oranları düşük olduğundan bu hastaların tanılarının erken dönemde konması ve tedavilerinin hemen başlanması paralizinin tam olarak iyileşmesinde kilit role sahiptir. Key words: Facial palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, varicella-zoster virus, Anahtar sözcükler: Fasiyal paralizi, Ramsay Hunt sendromu, varisella-zoster virüs
Michelle L Lute
Full Text Available Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n = 666 cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.
function of cost and weight, and the costs of labor involved in assembling a ccmposite seat cushion. The same classes of high char yield polymers that are...SEAT LATER DESIGN REPORT NRBBNBsg$$$$$$NN$$R$$$$$ SEAT DESIGN NUMBER: 009 LAYER NAME CODE NO. S MANUFACTURER 5 COST FACTORS . LABOR ...72621, 9096.. 7SS43. 73757. 77147. DELTA COSTS 0. 8340. 2922. 1136. 4327. ACOSOS in Iho..aS Of dollars. COST SUIRNY REPORT Re ....... VONR3 MORFA
TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA
The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...
.... Seat management, also known as desktop outsourcing, involves the acquisition and management of all hardware and software, desktop and network management, operations management, support services...
Kelly, E; Griffin, R M
A target fibre survey was conducted to assess the random occurrence of a blue wool fibre on seats in public houses throughout the United Kingdom. Fibre tape lifts were taken from 80 seats. Four seats yielded matching fibres and five of these were found on one seat. A total of 292 fibres were identified; nine fibres proved indistinguishable from the target after comparison microscopy, microspectro-photometry and attempts at thin layer chromatography, and two of these fibres were still apparently indistinguishable after TLC analysis although only one dye component was visible.
Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette
As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's achievements are increasingly dependent upon personal effort, choice and initiative rather than predetermined characteristics such as race, gender and socioeconomic background. As such, equity becomes an issue of moral equality based on the belief that people should be treated as equals, with equal access to life chances. This ideal pursues equal access to public services, infrastructure and rights for all citizens, including the right to education. While evidence suggests that education builds healthier, richer, more equitable societies, research on this has focused predominantly on primary and secondary schooling. The authors of this paper begin with an extensive review of existing research and relevant literature. In the second part of their article, they then report on their own study which furthers the discussion by exploring connections between tertiary education and development using equity as a reflection of human development - a holistic extension of economic development. After extracting relevant data from a number of available world reports by the United Nations, the World Bank and other organisations, they carried out a cross-national statistical analysis designed to examine the relationship between tertiary enrolment levels and a composite equity variable. Their results indicate a strong association between higher post-secondary education levels and higher levels of social equity.
..., Recreational Diving seat, Education seat, Archaeological Research seat, Maritime Museum seat, Youth seat, and... by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. It is one of 13 sanctuaries and protects the wreck..., Recreational Diving, the US Navy, Virginia and North Carolina Department of Historic Resources, the National...
Fraichard , Thierry
Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...
Agahi, Maryam; Samani, Mehrdad B.; Behzad, Mehdi
Different factors cause vibration. These vibrations make the voyages difficult and reduce comfort and convenience in passenger ships. In this paper, the creating factors of vibration have discussed first, then with mathematical modelling it will be attempted to minimize the vibration over the crew's seat. The modelling consists of a system with two degrees of freedom and by using vibrationisolation with passive method of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) it will be tried to reduce the vibration over personnel. Moreover using active control systems will be compared with passive systems.
... CONTACT: Patrick Farina, Aerospace Engineer, Cabin Safety Branch, ANM-150L, FAA, Los Angeles Aircraft... understands that the FAA considers this phased testing structure as an acceptable testing plan, but also... the suspect seats were witnessed by FAA ``delegates'' (designated engineering representatives (DERs...
Meeks, Michael D.; Knotts, Tami L.; James, Karen D.; Williams, Felice; Vassar, John A.; Wren, Amy Oakes
While an extensive body of research exists regarding the delivery of course knowledge and material, much less attention has been paid to the performance effect of seating position within a classroom. Research findings are mixed as to whether students in the front row of a classroom outperform students in the back row. Another issue that has not…
Maeda, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)
When passengers get out of vehicle, electrostatics is generated by separation of seat cloth and passenger cloth, and then charged to passenger`s body. It has been impossible for us to simulate this induction charging phenomenon with current evaluation equipments. We developed a new seat cloth evaluation equipments using induction charging plate, which enables us to simulate the phenomenon. This paper describes this new electrostatic charging evaluation method for automobile seat cloth. 5 refs., 6 figs.
Frampton, Paul H.; He Xiaogang
The standard model of particle theory will be rigorously tested by upcoming precision data on flavor mixing. Although the unitarity triangles (UTs) carry information about the Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) quark mixing matrix, it explicitly contains just three parameters which is one short to completely fix the KM matrix. We have recently shown that the unitarity boomerangs (UBs) formed using two UTs, with a common inner angle, can completely determine the KM matrix and, therefore, better represents quark mixing. Out of the total 18 possible UBs, there is only one that does not involve very small angles and is the ideal one for practical uses. Although the UBs have different areas, there is, however, an invariant quantity, for all UBs, which is equal to a quarter of the Jarlskog parameter J squared. Hunting for new physics, with a unitarity boomerang, can reveal more information, than just using a UTs.
Kanstrup, Niels; Swift, John; Stroud, David A; Lewis, Melissa
Much evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of lead ammunition on wildlife, their habitats and human health, and confirms that the use of such ammunition has no place within sustainable hunting. We identify the provisions that define sustainable hunting according to European law and international treaties, together with their guidance documents. We accept the substantial evidence for lead's actual and potential effects on wildlife, habitats and health as persuasive and assess how these effects relate to stated provisions for sustainability and hunting. We evaluate how continued use of lead ammunition negatively affects international efforts to halt loss of biodiversity, sustain wildlife populations and conserve their habitats. We highlight the indiscriminate and avoidable health and welfare impacts for large numbers of exposed wild animals as ethically unsustainable. In societal terms, continued use of lead ammunition undermines public perceptions of hunting. Given the existence of acceptable, non-toxic alternatives for lead ammunition, we conclude that hunting with lead ammunition cannot be justified under established principles of public/international policy and is not sustainable. Changing from lead ammunition to non-toxic alternatives will bring significant nature conservation and human health gains, and from the hunter's perspective will enhance societal acceptance of hunting. Change will create opportunities for improved constructive dialogue between hunting stakeholders and others engaged with enhancing biodiversity and nature conservation objectives.
Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J
Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by
Joseph K Bump
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship
Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J
The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation
Bennett, Bradley C; Alarcón, Rocío
Cultures throughout the world give plants to their dogs in order to improve hunting success. These practices are best developed in lowland Ecuador and Peru. There is no experimental evidence for the efficacy of these practices nor critical reviews that consider possible pharmacological effects on dogs based on the chemistry of the ethnoverterinary plants. This review has three specific aims: (1) determine what plants the Ecuadorian Shuar and Quichua give to dogs to improve their hunting abilities, (2) determine what plants other cultures give to dogs for the same purpose, and (3) assess the possible pharmacological basis for the use of these plants, particularly the psychoactive ones. We gathered Shuar (Province of Morona-Santiago) and Quichua (Napo and Orellano Provinces) data from our previous publications and field notes. All specimens were vouchered and deposited in QCNE with duplicates sent to NY and MO. Data presented from other cultures derived from published studies on ethnoveterinary medicine. Species names were updated, when necessary, and family assignments follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121). Chemical data were found using PubMed and SciFinder. The Shuar and Quichua of Ecuador use at least 22 species for ethnoveterinary purposes, including all but one of their principal hallucinogens. Literature surveys identified 43 species used in other cultures to improve hunting ability. No published studies have examined the pharmacological active of these plant species in dogs. We, thus, combined phytochemical data with the ethnobotanical reports of each plant and then classified each species into a likely pharmacological category: depuratives/deodorant, olfactory sensitizer, ophthalmic, or psychoactive. The use of psychoactive substances to improve a dog׳s hunting ability seems counterintuitive, yet
Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C
Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.
..., upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2011-2012 season. Inadvertently, this...-0038; 93270-1265-0000-4A] RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations... our regulations concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national wildlife refuges...
In 1995 the world-wide carbon emissions reached 5.8 billion metric tonnes per year (GTC/y). The Kyoto protocol calls for a reduction of carbon emissions from the developed countries (Annex I countries) of 6-8% below 1990 levels on the average, and unspecified commitments for the less developed (non-Annex I) countries. It is doubtful that the Kyoto agreement will be ratified by some parliaments, especially the USA Congress. Furthermore, it is shown that if the non-Annex I countries will not curtail their carbon emissions drastically, the global emissions will soar to huge levels by the middle of the next century. An equitable emission criterion is proposed which may lead to a sustainable rate of growth of carbon emissions, and be acceptable to all countries of the world. The criterion links the rate of growth of carbon emissions to the rate of growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A target criterion is proposed R = 0.15 KgC/SGDP, which is the current average for western European countries and Japan. This allows for both the growth of the GDP and carbon emissions. However, to reach the target in a reasonable time, the countries for which R≤ 0.3 would be allowed a carbon emission growth rate of 1%./y, and countries for which R≥ 0.3, 0.75%/y. It is shown that by 2050 the world-wide carbon emissions would reach about 10 GTC/y, which is about 3 times less than the Kyoto agreement would allow. (Author)
Contractors may submit requests for equitable adjustment (REAs) of costs or prices as proposals under the Federal Acquisition Regulation governing contract modifications or as claims under the Contract Disputes Act...
The deadlock principle as a ground for the just and equitable winding up of a solvent company: Thunder Cats Investments 92 (Pty) Ltd v Nkonjane Economic Prospecting Investment (Pty) Ltd 2014 5 SA 1 (SCA)
Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas
Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because...... independent demand model, which is readily solved. The resulting availability control can easily by implemented in existing RMS...
Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...
Just over a third of the children were seated on the front seat of the vehicle, ... meaning adult will be dislodged by the huge gravitational forces in the case of an ..... action. 2009. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563840_.
The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...
Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi
Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System . The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations and the e...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...
Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.
Comfort is an attribute that today’s consumers demand more and more. The seat has an important role to play in fulfilling these comfort expectations. Seating comfort is a major concern for drivers and other members of the work force who are exposed to extended periods of sitting and its associated
Parks, Louisa; Morgera, Elisa
Fair and equitable benefit-sharing is emerging in various areas of international environmental law (biodiversity, oceans, climate change, water, food and agriculture), as well as in international processes on human rights and corporate accountability. Benefit-sharing seeks to fairly and equitably allocate economic as well as socio-cultural and environmental advantages arising from the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, or from their regulation, among different stakeholders...
Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.
A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.
Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J
The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.
Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P
Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This shapefile represents the private lands leased by the Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism (KDWPT) for fall 2011 public hunting access through the...
African Journal of AIDS Research ... Drawing on a multi-method qualitative study, this article examines 'trophy-hunting' scripts among male ... Keywords: attitudes, cultural factors, ethnography, gender issues, masculinity, sexuality, social ...
... and education organizations; (9) Tourism, outfitter, and/or guide industries related to hunting and/or... outreach and education; (e) Fostering communication and coordination among State, tribal, and Federal...
J Gordon Millichap
Fifty two children, aged 2 to 15 years, diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) in a 20 year period between 1976 and 1996 are reported from the Facial Nerve Clinic, Ehime University Hospital, Japan.
Bragg, Leicha A.
If you love taking mathematics lessons outdoors, then you will love this article. Leicha Bragg describes geocaching, which combines technology, treasure hunting and mathematics, and results in purposeful, authentic and engaging mathematics.
Full Text Available Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS is a painful condition characterized by hemicranial pain, retroorbital pain, loss of vision, oculomotor nerve paralysis, and sensory loss in distribution of ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal nerve. Lymphomas rarely involve cavernous sinus and simulate Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Here we present a first case of double-hit B cell lymphoma (DHL relapsing and masquerading as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. The neurological findings were explained by a lymphomatous infiltration of the right Gasserian ganglion which preceded systemic relapse. As part of this report, the diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and double-hit lymphoma are reviewed and updated treatment recommendations are presented.
Vossen, R. van; Giodini, S.; Hunter, A.J.; Beckers, A.L.D.; Williams, D.F.
The effectiveness and efficiency of mine-hunting operations with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are greatly influenced by environmental conditions, such as seabed, turbidity, currents, and tides. Therefore accurate environmental information is needed for the planning and evaluation of
... Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation and Diving Operations... Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston...
Maria Elena Marescotti
Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.
Poudel, Jagdish; Munn, Ian A.; Henderson, James E.
Hunting, fishing and wildlife-associated recreation expenditures have played an important role in the U.S economy and help promote conservation and environmental goals. The 2006 U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) survey reported 87.5 million people aged 16 and above participated in wildlife-associated recreation activities, spending $122.4 billion on trips and equipment. This spending is a 13 percent increase since 2001. The recently released 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wi...
Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T
Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers
Full Text Available The paper deals with modelling a specifc problem called the Optimal Seating Arrangement (OSA as an Integer Linear Program and demonstrated that the problem can be efficiently solved by combining branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods. OSA refers to a specific scenario that could possibly happen in a corporative environment, i.e. when a company endeavors to minimize travel costs when employees travel to an organized event. Each employee is free to choose the time to travel to and from an event and it depends on personal reasons. The paper differentiates between using different travel possibilities in the OSA problem, such as using company assigned or a company owned vehicles, private vehicles or using public transport, if needed. Also, a user-friendly web application was made and is available to the public for testing purposes.
't Sas-Rolfes, Michael
Hunting regulation presents a significant challenge for contemporary global conservation governance. Motivated by various incentives, hunters may act legally or illegally, for or against the interests of conservation. Hunter incentives are shaped by the interactions between unevenly evolving formal and informal institutions, embedded in socio-ecological systems. To work effectively for conservation, regulatory interventions must take these evolving institutional interactions into account. Drawing on analytical tools from evolutionary institutional economics, this article examines the trajectory of African hunting regulation and its consequences. Concepts of institutional dynamics, fit, scale, and interplay are applied to case studies of rhinoceros and lion hunting to highlight issues of significance to conservation outcomes. These include important links between different forms of hunting and dynamic interplay with institutions of trade. The case studies reveal that inappropriate formal regulatory approaches may be undermined by adaptive informal market responses. Poorly regulated hunting may lead to calls for stricter regulations or bans, but such legal restrictions may in turn perversely lead to more intensified and organised illegal hunting activity, further undermining conservation objectives. I conclude by offering insights and recommendations to guide more effective future regulatory interventions and priorities for further research. Specifically, I advocate approaches that move beyond simplistic regulatory interventions toward more complex, but supportive, institutional arrangements that align formal and informal institutions through inclusive stakeholder engagement.
Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P
Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Gitte Høj
As part of the recently endorsed African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird (AEWA) International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus, a stable population target of 60,000 (current population is c. 80,000 during 2011-2013) has been agreed...... the development of the AHM plan. This has been done at the flyway level by developing demographic population models and exploring the application of dynamic optimization methods to find an optimal management strategy. At the local and regional levels I explored effects of hunting practises and organisation at one...
Kipping, David M.
Extrasolar moons may be frequent temperate abodes for life and their detection would not only have astrobiological significance but would also greatly further our understanding of planet/moon formation theories. To date, the bulk of research on this topic has been mostly theoretical, focussing on detection techniques and expected sensitivities as well as exomoon origin and evolution. Here, we introduce a new observational project which aims to change this, enabled by the fact both the theory and available instrumentation have evolved to the required level to make such a search feasible. Our project, "The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler” (HEK), will be a systematic search for exomoons around planets which are viable hosts, with the explicit goal of determining the frequency of large exomoons in the cosmos. We will overview the observational strategy including the detection tools and target selection routines which have been developed, methods to vet false-positives, and some preliminary results from our first batch of candidates. This research is enabled by the NASA Carl Sagan fellowships for exoplanetary research.
Nasser Fegh-hi FARAHMAND
Full Text Available Organizational Actively Management (OAM is the responsibility of every manager. Because, an approach for OAM is becoming more widely accepted is a community-based development approach. In Opportunity Hunting Approach (OHA, OAM is the responsibility of every manager for his/her actions. OAM is using from top to bottom development model. According to the survey of market and customers, after understand customers’ needs, organization then decide how the quality policy and target will develop, from there the actively management system can be developed. The aim of this study in field of organizational actively management and policy of it can provide the specific process required for setting up and monitoring the actively target. As it also is customer-oriented, it aims to improve customer satisfaction. In addition, the actively target should be set up and implemented within every organization department and at each level, in accordance with actively policy. Furthermore, organization should develop the actively management system, in order to conform to general requirements and actively target.
Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitreva, Elizabeta; Angelkova, Tanja; Kitanov, Vladimir
To show the hunting and hunting grounds for big and small game, the structure of the areas of certain hunting, fishing, fishing water objects, fish species, fishponds up to 20 years shown by municipalities and individual farms with ponds in the basin of Crna Reka.
Ramachandran, Ramesh; Kumar, Ajith; Gopi Sundar, Kolla S; Bhalla, Ravinder Singh
The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure. Species richness, density of piscivorous species, and medium-sized species (31-65 cm) were most affected by hunting. Out of 53 species recorded, 47 were hunted, with a preference for larger birds. Although illegal, hunting has increased in recent years and is driven by market demand. This challenges the widely held belief that waterbird hunting in India is a low intensity, subsistence activity, and undermines the importance of agricultural wetlands in waterbird conservation.
Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam
Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted
Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George
Objective To examine available systematically collected evidence regarding prices for assistive technology (AT; e.g. disability aids and equipment) in Australia with other comparable countries. Issues of appropriate AT pricing are coming to the fore as a consequence of efforts to move to consumer-centric purchasing decisions with the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and also in the recent aged care reforms. Methods We identified and present three sets of AT price comparisons. Two comparisons were based solely on the lowest prices advertised on the internet, and one comparison examined recommended retail prices. Variables essential to ensuring accurate comparisons, as well as significant supply-chain issues were also examined and considered in the analyses. Results The first internet-only price comparison found that overall AT prices were 38% higher in Australia compared to other countries, but did not factor in shipping and other related costs that are essential to include given that most AT is imported. The second internet-only price comparison found that overall Australian prices were 24% lower when shipping and related costs were included. The recommended retail price comparisons found that Australian prices were between 14% and 27% lower. Prices for internet-only retailers (those with no bricks-and-mortar presence) are consistently lower for all products than those sold by retailers with actual shop-fronts. Further, there is no evidence of suppliers earning supranormal profits in Australia. Conclusions The results indicate that AT prices in Australia are efficient and equitable, with no significant indicators of market failure which would require government intervention. Efforts to reduce prices through the excessive use of large-scale government procurement programs are likely to reduce diversity and innovation in AT and raise AT prices over time. Open markets and competition with centralised tracking of purchases and providers to minimise possible
Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.
Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.
ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by
Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter
Recreational hunting can be a way of taking responsibility for acquiring one’s own meat. However, many recreational hunters focus instead on hunting as a hobby or sport. This distinction, between two rather different motives for hunting, is relevant to the activity’s moral justifiability. The pub......Recreational hunting can be a way of taking responsibility for acquiring one’s own meat. However, many recreational hunters focus instead on hunting as a hobby or sport. This distinction, between two rather different motives for hunting, is relevant to the activity’s moral justifiability...
This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...
Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).
Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim
The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.
Tesoro, G.; Moussa, A.
The paper considers the selection of cushioning foam and upholstery fabric materials for aircraft passenger seats. Polyurethane, polychloroprene, polyimide, and polyphosphazene are the foam materials considered; and a variety of commercial and developmental fabrics (including wool, cotton, synthetics, and blends) are examined. Viable approaches to the design of fire-resistant seat assemblies are indicated. Results of an experimental laboratory study of fabrics and fabric/foam assemblies exposed to external point-source radiative heat flux are discussed.
Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.
The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.
Byard, R W; Donald, T
To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.
Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.
Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.
Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.
Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.
Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.
Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon
This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
buttocks to the seat cushion or seat pan. Kohara , a Japaners Investigator discussed the problems of seating comfort and the measuren.ent of buttock/seat...loads In an unpublished report in 1965 (23) and subsequently In a magazine article In 1966 (24). Kohara was able to weasure pressures by means of...Isolation. Kohara has also studied the vibration Isolation requirements in high speed trains (23, 2’). Howeveri the seat cushion has been used only rarely in
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
reach ambiguous results when comparing a situation with and without stress effects. A pure stress effect implies that the population level in a wildlife reserve increase and the population level in the hunting area decrease in optimum. However, this change in optimal population levels increase migration...... from the wildlife reserve to the hunting area in the social optimum. The total effect is, therefore, ambiguous. For the private optimum open-access is assumed and exactly the same results arise as in the social optimum when comparing a situation with and without stress effects....
Ni Luh Putu Agustini Karta
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the right marketing communications strategy for Ecotourism’s Destinations, (Dolphin Hunting Lovina, to be sustainable. Design methodology used is a marketing communication approach by adopting the concept of basic elements of the theory of marketing communication, the shift towards integrated marketing approach marketing communications, and public organizational challenges in creating brand awareness. Qualitative research and in-depth interviews carried out to some competent resource. The findings generated that image creation and brand awareness of Dolphin Hunting Lovina is determined by the organization’s marketing communications and internal audiences
How do we hunt for elusive neutrinos emitted by distant astrophysical sources? Submerge a huge observatory under ice or water and then wait patiently.Sneaky MessengersNeutrinos tiny, nearly massless particles that only weakly interact with other matter are thought to be produced as a constant background originating from throughout our universe. In contrast to known point sources of neutrinos (for instance, nearby supernovae), the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos could be emitted from unresolved astrophysical sources too faint to be individually detected, or from the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays propagating across the universe.Observations of this diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos would be a huge step toward understanding cosmic-ray production, acceleration, and interaction properties. Unfortunately, these observations arent easy to make!Diagram showing the path of a neutrino from a distant astrophysical source (accelerator) through the Earth. It is eventually converted into an upward-traveling muon that registers in the ANTARES detector under the sea. [ANTARES]Looking for What Doesnt Want to Be FoundBecause neutrinos so rarely interact with matter, most pass right through us, eluding detection. The most common means of spotting the rare interacting neutrino is to look for Cherenkov radiation in a medium like ice or water, produced when a neutrino has interacted with matterto produce a charged particle (for instance, a muon) moving faster than the speed of light in the medium.Muons produced in our atmosphere can also register in such detectors, however, so we need a way of filtering out these non-cosmic background events. The solution is a clever trick: search for particles traveling upward, not downward. Atmospheric muons will come only from above, whereas muons produced by neutrinos should travel through the detectors in all directions, since cosmic neutrinos arrive from all directions including from below, after passing through the Earth
BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J
Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.
Vooys, de, C.G.N.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meer, van der, J.; Reijnders, P.J.H.
For centuries, bounty hunts for seals (Phoca vitulina) were conducted in the Province of Zeeland (SWNetherlands).Records of bounties paid for seals hunted in that area have been archived by the province of Zeelandfrom the 16th until the 20th century. These hunting records were used to reconstruct the numbers of seals caughteach year in order to subsequently investigate the effect of social and historical events on the hunt. Based on thetype of records we discerned three periods in the bounty ...
Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of the performance of car seat fabrics in terms of physiological comfort of sitting, specifi cally their water vapour resistance and air permeability. The current work presents an alternative approach to increasing the effectiveness of car seat fabrics through a combination of newly designed middle layer with forced convection achieved by a supplementary suction ventilation device. The supplementary device was designed to measure water vapour permeability by means of the sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP system. It consists of two parts: a frame to grip a tested sample for measurements within the SGHP system and two suction ventilators which are arranged at one end of the mentioned frame in order to provide suction into the tested fabric plane during the SGHP test. The results of this investigation show that water vapour transport is increased by approximately 20% compared to the standard way of measurement by means of SGHP because of forced air flow in the plane of ribbed – channelled structure of the car seat middle layer. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. The combination of a car seat cover with channelled structure and forced air fl ow improves physiological comfort of sitting which is a key issue for both drivers and manufacturers. The suggested device for forced air flow convection in the plane of a car seat fabric has not yet been part of an actual car seat, however it is possible to use its principles in a smart car seat prototype.
Scheffelmeier, M.; Classen, E.
The comfort aspect in the vehicle interior is becoming increasingly important. A high comfort level offers the driver a good and secure feeling and has a strong influence on passive traffic safety. One important part of comfort is the climate aspect, especially the microclimate that emerges between passenger and seat. In this research, different combinations of typical seat materials are used. Fourteen woven and knitted fabrics and eight leathers and its substitutes for the face fabric layer, one foam, one non-woven and one 3D spacer for the plus pad layer and for the support layer three foam types with variations in structure and raw material as well as one rubber hair structure were investigated. To characterise this sample set by thermo-physiological aspects (e.g. water vapour resistance Ret, thermal resistance Rct, buffering capacity of water vapour Fd) regular and modified sweating guarded hotplates were used according to DIN EN ISO 11092. The results of the material characterisation confirm the common knowledge that seat covers out of textiles have better water vapour resistance values than leathers and its substitutes. Subject trials in a driving simulator were executed to rate the subjective sensation while driving in a vehicle seat. With a thermal, sweating Manikin (Newton Type, Thermetrics) objective product measurements were carried out on the same seat. Indeed the subject trials show that every test subject has his or her own subjective perception concerning the climate comfort. The results of the subject trials offered the parameters for the Newton measuring method. Respectively the sweating rate, sit-in procedure, ambient conditions and sensor positions on and between the seat layers must be comparable with the subject trials. By taking care of all these parameters it is possible to get repeatable and reliable results with the Newton Manikin. The subjective feelings of the test subjects, concerning the microclimate between seat and passenger, provide
Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.
Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.
Victor K. Muposhi
Full Text Available Trophy hunting has potential to support conservation financing and contribute towards rural development. We conducted a systematic review of the Zimbabwean trophy hunting perspective spanning from pre-1890 to 2015, by examining the following: (1 evolution of legal instruments, administration, and governance of trophy hunting, (2 significance of trophy hunting in conservation financing and rural development, and (3 key challenges, emerging issues in trophy hunting industry, and future interventions. Our review shows that (i there has been a constant evolution in the policies related to trophy hunting and conservation in Zimbabwe as driven by local and international needs; (ii trophy hunting providing incentives for wildlife conservation (e.g., law enforcement and habitat protection and rural communities’ development. Emerging issues that may affect trophy hunting include illegal hunting, inadequate monitoring systems, and hunting bans. We conclude that trophy hunting is still relevant in wildlife conservation and rural communities’ development especially in developing economies where conservation financing is inadequate due to fiscal constraints. We recommend the promotion of net conservation benefits for positive conservation efforts and use of wildlife conservation credits for the opportunity costs associated with reducing trophy hunting off-take levels and promoting nonconsumptive wildlife use options.
Joshua D. Agee; Craig A. Miller
Throughout the past two decades new media outlets emphasizing trophy deer hunting have come to dominate hunting culture. Using data collected through a mail survey of Illinois deer hunters (n = 2,683, 78.5-percent response), we tested two hypotheses to determine factors that contribute to preference for hunting trophy deer. In particular, we examined the relationship...
de Vooijs, K.G.N.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; van der Meer, J.; Reijnders, P.J.H.
For centuries, bounty hunts for seals (Phoca vitulina) were conducted in the Province of Zeeland (SWNetherlands).Records of bounties paid for seals hunted in that area have been archived by the province of Zeelandfrom the 16th until the 20th century. These hunting records were used to reconstruct
... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions...
Theoharis, George; Haddix, Marcelle
This article reports on six White urban principals who came to administration with a commitment to create more equitable and excellent schools for students from marginalized communities. These leaders made strides in raising student achievement, creating a climate of belonging for students, staff, and families, and increasing access to learning…
Gheibizadeh, Mahin; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Mohammadi, Easa; Abedi, Parvin
Equity as a basic human right builds the foundation of all areas of primary healthcare, especially prenatal care. However, it is unclear how pregnant women and their care providers perceive the equitable prenatal care. This study aimed to explore Iranian women's and care providers' perceptions of equitable prenatal care. In this study, a qualitative approach was used. Individual in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of pregnant women and their care providers. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis method. A total of 10 pregnant women and 10 prenatal care providers recruited from six urban health centers across Ahvaz, a south western city in Iran, were participated in the study. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, confidentiality, and anonymity were considered. Analysis of participants' interviews resulted in seven themes: guideline-based care, time-saving care, nondiscriminatory care, privacy-respecting care, affordable comprehensive care, effective client-provider relationships, and caregivers' competency. The findings explain the broader and less discussed dimensions of equitable care that are valuable information for the realization of equity in care. Understanding and focusing on these dimensions will help health policy-makers in designing more equitable healthcare services for pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2015.
...) From applicable funds reserved for parent involvement and professional development under § 200.77, an... equitable basis in professional development and parent involvement activities, respectively. (2) The amount... LEA must conduct professional development and parent involvement activities for the teachers and...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of
... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...
... Act—Equitable Adjustment (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Act of terrorism means... the DHS has determined to be a Qualified Anti-Terrorism Technology (QATT). Qualified Anti-Terrorism... preventing, detecting, identifying, or deterring acts of terrorism or limiting the harm such acts might...
Daniela Soleri; Jonathan W. Long; Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta; Ruth Eitemiller; Rajul Pandyaǁ
For many, citizen science is exciting because of the possibility for more diverse, equitable partnerships in scientific research with outcomes considered meaningful and useful by all, including public participants. This was the focus of a symposium we organized at the 2015 conference of the Citizen Science Association. Here we synthesize points made by symposium...
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…
The National Library of Medicine has discarded connect hour-only billing for a more equitable system, which distributes user costs by type and intensity of work performed and data delivered. User data (cost comparisons, interpolated input/output count per connect hours, connect hours per year) were analyzed and further improvements are planned.…
Home · What we do ... This project will contribute to increasing equitable access to health services for the poor by strengthening the ... The project will also look at the impact of results-based financing on health providers' motivation and ...
Dai, David Yun
This article attempts to address the question of how to make gifted education more equitable and productive by shifting priorities to talent development for all rather than confining itself to the "gifted." I first present an overview of political and ethical considerations in selecting a few for talent or creativity development. I then…
Wager, Anita A.
This article describes how teachers in a professional development course responded to what they noticed about children's participation in elementary mathematics classrooms and how what they noticed was connected to the teachers' positionality toward equitable mathematics pedagogy. Findings suggest that a lens of participation supported…
Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A
Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.
Huang, Shenshi; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Li, Changhai; Guo, Yafei
Narrow seat aisle is an important area in the train car interior due to the large passenger population, however evacuation therein has not gained enough concerns. In this experimental study, the occupant evacuation of the narrow seat aisle area is investigated, with the aisle width of 0.4-0.6 m and the evacuation direction of forward and backward. The evacuation behaviors are analyzed based on the video record, and the discussion is carried out in the aspect of evacuation time, crowdedness, evacuation order, and aisle conflicts. The result shows that with the increasing aisle width, total evacuation time and the average specific evacuation rate decrease. The aisle is crowded for some time, with a large linear occupant densities. The evacuation order of each occupant is mainly related to the seat position. Moreover, it is found that the aisle conflicts can be well described by Burstedde's model. This study gives a useful benchmark for evacuation simulation of narrow seat aisle, and provides reference to safety design of seat area in train cars.
Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão
Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna
Ramsay Hunt syndrome is defined by herpes zoster oticus and peripheral facial nerve palsy which is often associated with otalgia. The syndrome is, in rare cases, associated with other cranial nerve paralyses including the vagal nerve causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Vocal cord paralysis...
Červený, J.; Begall, S.; Koubek, Petr; Nováková, P.; Burda, H.
Roč. 7, č. 3 (2011), s. 355-357 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0687; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fox * hunting behaviour * magnetoreception * magnetic alignment Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2011
Full Text Available Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities.
Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the...
... anniversary of the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, which provided permanent and dependable funding... equal share in the land and an equal responsibility to protect it. On National Hunting and Fishing Day, we pay tribute to the community of sportsmen and women who have kept faith with that fundamental...
Planqué, R.; Dechaume-Moncharmont, F.-X.; Franks, N.R.; Kovacs, T.; Marshall, J.A.R.
To perform tasks, organisms often use multiple procedures. Explaining the breadth of such behavioural repertoires is not always straightforward. During house hunting, colonies of Temnothorax albipennis ants use a range of behaviours to organise their emigrations. In particular, the ants use tandem
The use of guns (68%) was the most applied method of capture followed by cutlasses (10%), dogs (4%), traps (2%) and baits (2%). In the ... However, there is need to monitor the levels of heavy metals in bush meat in relation to the hunting practices so as to avoid any possibility of poisoning to human health. Keywords: ...
Do you have a class of students who do excellent work and whom you would like to give an enjoyable reward? Try an "Internet scavenger hunt" for a fun and educational change of pace! This article shares how to run the activity.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2012-N150; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N125; 90100-1664-1HCC-5A] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public...
..., and giving an oral presentation, please see ``Public Input'' under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... hunting and shooting sports recreation; 4. Stimulating sportsmen and women's participation in conservation... Implementation; 2. Conservation titles of the Farm Bill 3. Energy production and wildlife conservation; and 4...
.... (Mountain daylight time). For deadlines and directions on registering to attend, submitting written material... conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry, wildlife conservation organizations, the... (Service), in consultation with the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Chief, Forest Service (USFS...
...: Teleconference: Tuesday, July 30, 2013, 2-3:30 p.m. (Eastern daylight time). For deadlines and directions on... Management (BLM); Director, National Park Service (NPS); Chief, Forest Service (USFS); Chief, Natural... conservation and ethics in hunting and shooting sports recreation; 4. Stimulating sportsmen and women's...
.... (Eastern standard time). For deadlines and directions on registering to attend, submitting written material... conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry, wildlife conservation organizations, the... (Service), in consultation with the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Chief, Forest Service (USFS...
.... and Thursday, June 16, 2011, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. (Eastern daylight time). Meeting Participation: The... sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry, wildlife conservation... Wildlife Service (Service), in consultation with the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Chief...
...: Teleconference: Friday May 11, 2012 from 2-4 p.m. (Eastern daylight time). For deadlines and directions on..., the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry, wildlife conservation... Wildlife Service (Service), in consultation with the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Director...
...: Teleconference: Tuesday April 3, 2012, from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. (Eastern daylight time). For deadlines and... the public, the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry, wildlife.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), in consultation with the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM...
... teleconference on Tuesday, April 12, 2011, 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. (Eastern Daylight Time). If you wish to listen to or...) Encourage partnership among the public, the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Chief, Forest Service (USFS); Chief, Natural Resources Service (NRCS...
... a.m. to 4 p.m. (Eastern time). Meeting Participation: Notify Joshua Winchell (See FOR FURTHER... and hunting sports industry, wildlife conservation organizations, the States, Native American Tribes... the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Chief, Forest Service (USFS); Chief, Natural Resources...
.... (Eastern standard time). For deadlines and directions on registering to attend, submitting written material... conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry, wildlife conservation organizations, the... (Service), in consultation with the Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Chief, Forest Service (USFS...
... America's wild spaces remain healthy and accessible for all to enjoy, outdoorsmen and women can continue... unique and beautiful bounty of waterfowl, fish, and other game confront exceptional hardships. Following... sportsmen and women across our country about the value of hunting and fishing, the challenges to wildlife...
The Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. or painful ophthalmoplegia. is a rare condition caused by a granulomatous nonspecific process at the level of anterior cavernous sinus. superior orbital fissure and orbital apex. The syndrome is characterized by pain behind. above or around the eye. involvement of the cranial nerves which pass ...
Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy
season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...
Mühl, C.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Thurlings, Marieke E.; Scherffig, Lasse; Duvinage, Matthieu; Elbakyan, Alexandra A.; Kang, SungWook; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
The multimodal, multi-paradigm brain-computer interfacing (BCI) game Bacteria Hunt was used to evaluate two aspects of BCI interaction in a gaming context. One goal was to examine the effect of feedback on the ability of the user to manipulate his mental state of relaxation. This was done by having
Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John
The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…
Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Burke, Donald S.
Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16485465
... hunting and shooting sports recreation; 4. Stimulating sportsmen and women's participation in conservation... sportsmen and women; wildlife and habitat conservation and management organizations; and the public; 6... Implementation; 2. Farm Bill; 3. Funding for public and private lands conservation; and 4. Other Council business...
... sportsmen and women's participation in conservation and management of wildlife and habitat resources through... governments; industry; hunting and shooting sportsmen and women; wildlife and habitat conservation and... business. The final agenda will be posted on the Internet at http://www.fws.gov/whhcc . [[Page 74865...
... recreation; 4. Stimulating sportsmen and women's participation in conservation and management of wildlife and..., tribal, and Federal governments; industry; hunting and shooting sportsmen and women; wildlife and habitat... Outdoors initiative; and 3. Other Council business. The final agenda will be posted on the Internet at http...
... shooting sports recreation; 4. Stimulating sportsmen and women's participation in conservation and... coordination among State, tribal, and Federal governments; industry; hunting and shooting sportsmen and women... and Water Conservation Fund; and 4. Other Council business. The final agenda will be posted on the...
Each year, thousands of graduates are turned into the labour market from over fifty tertiary institutions in Nigeria in search of jobs. In addition to the traditional methods of job-hunting, most of these graduates are increasingly using the Internet as a veritable source of job opportunities. However, jobhunting through the Internet ...
Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C
Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.
Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina
The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further development of new seat belt systems in cars. In addition to an increased feeling of safety, seat belt fit and comfort are supplementary influencing
Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I
The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.
Full Text Available Audience: This scavenger hunt/escape room is a didactic activity for emergency medicine residents or fourth-year medical students rotating in emergency medicine. Introduction: Between 2008-2011, 1.1 million patients presented to U.S. emergency departments each year for poisonings,1 including acute ingestions, envenomations, occupational exposures, and overdoses. Toxicologic exposures are considered part of the core curriculum for emergency medicine (EM residents, who must understand the presentation and treatment of such patients.2 Educating residents in a unique, engaging format such as an “escape room” activity provides an alternative to the didactic format of teaching this material, which may build medical knowledge and team rapport amongst residents.3 Objectives: By the end of the activity, learners should be able to: Calculate an anion and osmolal gap. Recognize poisonings amenable to hemodialysis. Interpret EKG changes related to a variety of ingestions, including beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers, digitalis, and tricyclic antidepressants. Recognize poisonous plants and their clinical toxidromes. Calculate loading dose of N-acetylcysteine as antidote for acute acetaminophen ingestion. Collaborate as a team to arrive at solutions of problems. Recognize poisons that have available antidotes Know the clinical effect of various types of snake envenomations. Recognize the toxicity associated with at least four household chemicals. Know the antidotes for six common poisonings. Methods: This didactic exercise is a small group activity, utilizing puzzles to apply toxicology knowledge.
Hunting is one of the aspects that influence number of wild animals. The article aims at describing semi-comercial and traditional hunting concept of Baar Tribe in East Nusa Tenggara as an alternative for wild animal conservation. The data collection methods are guided interview, in-depth interview and participant observation. The findings show that in the semi-comercial and traditional hunting concept of Baar Tribe in East Nusa Tenggara, traditional wisdom is represented by hunting techniques and equipments. It is likely that rapid semi-commercial hunting conducted by certain members of Baar tribe causes sharp decline in the population of wild animals. On the other hand, annual traditional hunting which strictly follows traditional code of conduct can maintain Timor deer population in Timor. Keywords: hunting, population, semi-commercial, traditional, Timor deer
Hani R. El Bizri
Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy
Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan
An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of
Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.
This report presents an evaluation of the child safety seat distribution initiated by the League General Insurance Company in June 1979. The program provides child safety seats as a benefit under the company's auto insurance policies to policy-holder...
Kashiwamura, T [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Shiratori, M; Yu, Q; Koda, I [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)
The authors proposed a new practical optimum design method called statistical design support system, which consists of five steps: the effectivity analysis, reanalysis, evaluation of dispersion, the optimiza4ion and evaluation of structural reliability. In this study, the authors applied the present system to analyze and optimum design of an automobile seat frame subjected to crushing. This study should that the present method could be applied to the complex nonlinear problems such as large deformation, material nonlinearity as well as impact problem. It was shown that the optimum design of the seat frame has been solved easily using the present system. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci
In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.
Liu Jun; Zhao Chuan Cheng; Yao Shu Xia; Guo Ren Zhi; Yue Qiu Ju
A proper edge coloring of graph G is called equitable adjacent strong edge coloring if colored sets from every two adjacent vertices incident edge are different,and the number of edges in any two color classes differ by at most one,which the required minimum number of colors is called the adjacent strong equitable edge chromatic number. In this paper, we discuss the adjacent strong equitable edge coloring of join-graphs about Pn ∨ Pn, Pn ∨ Cn and Cn ∨ Cn.
Gibson, T.G.; Hill, E.E.
Species dominance in benthonic foraminifera, represented by percent of the assemblage composed of the single most abundant species, shows little change in observed range of values from shallow into deep-marine waters in 1005 samples from the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic, and Arctic margins of North America. This finding contrasts with the model that species dominance is highest in shallow-marine environments and decreases offshore into deeper marine waters. Equitability, the relation of all species abundances within an assemblage, also shows little change between the values found in shallow-marine assemblages and those found in assemblages from deeper water environments. Equitability and dominance values found in 421 assemblages from Palaeocene, Eocene, Miocene, and Pleistocene strata of the Atlantic and E Gulf of Mexico coastal plains are similar to the modern values. -from Authors
Nambisan, Satish; Nambisan, Priya
Technological innovations typically benefit those who have good access to and an understanding of the underlying technologies. As such, technology-centered health care innovations are likely to preferentially benefit users of privileged socioeconomic backgrounds. Which policies and strategies should health care organizations adopt to promote equitable distribution of the benefits from technological innovations? In this essay, we draw on two important concepts-co-creation (the joint creation of value by multiple parties such as a company and its customers) and digitalization (the application of new digital technologies and the ensuing changes in sociotechnical structures and relationships)-and propose a set of policies and strategies that health care organizations could adopt to ensure that benefits from technological innovations are more equitably distributed among all target populations, including resource-poor communities and individuals. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Tan, C.F.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mokhtar, A.S.; Abdullah, E.J.; Adam, N.M.
Seats are one of the most important components of vehicles and they are the place where professional driver spend most of their time. For example, according to Occupational Outlook Handbook by United State Department of Labor, the truck drivers frequently work 50 or more hours a week. The truck
... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which...
Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard
The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...
Hiemenz, G J; Hu, W; Wereley, N M
The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.
Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.
The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...
Novelli, Joan; Edgar, Susan
Two articles present suggestions for enhancing classroom management in creative ways. The first article describes how to use flexible seating arrangements to encourage cooperation, friendship, and community. The second article discusses how to encourage and work with classroom volunteers from the community. (SM)
Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.
The construction of railway seats is based on industry regulations and the requirements of end users, i.e. passengers. The two main documents in this context are the UIC 566 (3rd Edition, dated 7 January 1994) and the EN 12663-1: 2010+A1:2014. The study was to carry out static load tests of passenger seat frames. The paper presents the construction of the test bench and the results of experimental and numerical studies of passenger seat rail frames. The test bench consists of a frame, a transverse beam, two electric cylinders with a force value of 6 kN, and a strain gauge amplifier. It has a modular structure that allows for its expansion depending on the structure of the seats. Comparing experimental results with numerical results for points A and B allowed to determine the existing differences. It follows from it that higher stress values are obtained by numerical calculations in the range of 0.2 MPa to 35.9 MPa.
Hapsari Sakya Nabila
Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design
The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s application o...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We determine efficient, equitable and mixed efficient-equitable allocations of a male circumcision (MC intervention reducing female to male HIV transmission in South Africa (SA, as a case study of an efficiency-equity framework for resource allocation in HIV prevention. Methods We present a mathematical model developed with epidemiological and cost data from the nine provinces of SA. The hypothetical one-year-long MC intervention with a budget of US$ 10 million targeted adult men 15–49 years of age in SA. The intervention was evaluated according to two criteria: an efficiency criterion, which focused on maximizing the number of HIV infections averted by the intervention, and an equity criterion (defined geographically, which focused on maximizing the chance that each male adult individual had access to the intervention regardless of his province. Results A purely efficient intervention would prevent 4,008 HIV infections over a year. In the meantime, a purely equitable intervention would avert 3,198 infections, which represents a 20% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. A half efficient-half equitable scenario would prevent 3,749 infections, that is, a 6% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. Conclusions This paper provides a framework for resource allocation in the health sector which incorporates a simple equity metric in addition to efficiency. In the specific context of SA with a MC intervention for the prevention of HIV, incorporation of geographical equity only slightly reduces the overall efficiency of the intervention.
Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.
The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the
A O Abiola
Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.
... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1) Research Member seat and (2...
... bolt holes or the centroid of any other means of attachment to the structure specified in 126.96.36.199... are either: (a) For designated seating positions that are common to the same occupant seat and that... common to the same occupant seat, but that face in the same direction, if the vertical centerline of the...
McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.
Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 February, 1st March, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 The Hunt for the Higgs Particle F. ZWIRNER, University and INFN, Padova, Italy With the advent of the LHC, the hunt for the Higgs boson is entering its crucial phase. These three lectures will review: the Higgs mechanism; its implementation in the minimal Standard Model; possible alternatives with and without elementary scalar fields; the presently available information on electroweak gauge symmetry breaking and the Higgs particle; the properties of the Higgs boson(s) in the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions; the strategies for direct searches at colliders, with emphasis on the LHC, and comments on the possible scenarios that may emerge.
Martínez, María; Rodríguez-Vigal, Carlos; Jones, Owen R; Coulson, Tim; Miguel, Alfonso San
Much insight can be derived from records of shot animals. Most researchers using such data assume that their data represents a random sample of a particular demographic class. However, hunters typically select a non-random subset of the population and hunting is, therefore, not a random process. Here, with red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunting data from a ranch in Toledo, Spain, we demonstrate that data collection methods have a significant influence upon the apparent relationship between age and weight. We argue that a failure to correct for such methodological bias may have significant consequences for the interpretation of analyses involving weight or correlated traits such as breeding success, and urge researchers to explore methods to identify and correct for such bias in their data. PMID:17148205
Yanagida, Masahiro; Ushiro, Koichi; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami; Katoh, Tsutomu
Enhanced MRI was performed in 14 patients with Ramsay-Hunt,s syndrome to investigate the pathogenesis of this syndrome. All MRI studies were performed on a 0.5T superconductivity MRI system using a head coil with Gd-DTPA. Enhancement was observed in the areas of the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment in many patients, and was especially prominent in patients suffering from vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In some patients it involved not only the facial nerve of the internal auditory canal but also the cochlear nerve and vestibular nerves. Since histological changes of the facial nerve in patients with Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome are assumed to occur in the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment, which is more proximal than the geniculate ganglion, and the possibility is suggested that inflammation may be spread to the vestibular and cochlear nerve via the internal auditory canal. (14 refs., 2 figs.)
Yanagida, Masahiro; Ushiro, Koichi; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami [Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Katoh, Tsutomu [Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology
Enhanced MRI was performed in 14 patients with Ramsay-Hunt,s syndrome to investigate the pathogenesis of this syndrome. All MRI studies were performed on a 0.5T superconductivity MRI system using a head coil with Gd-DTPA. Enhancement was observed in the areas of the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment in many patients, and was especially prominent in patients suffering from vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In some patients it involved not only the facial nerve of the internal auditory canal but also the cochlear nerve and vestibular nerves. Since histological changes of the facial nerve in patients with Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome are assumed to occur in the distal internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segment, which is more proximal than the geniculate ganglion, and the possibility is suggested that inflammation may be spread to the vestibular and cochlear nerve via the internal auditory canal. (14 refs., 2 figs.).
Full Text Available While hunting in traditional societies, was most commonly practised as a profession, for food, sports or entertainment, it was fully a part of Ottoman State organization as a military exercise or war game. From the first Ottoman rulers, there has been hunting institution in the palace. An organized hunting institution, regular hunting practices and the number of hunted animals had been perceived as the symbols of power of the ruler. Hunting organization was instrumental in identifying the situations of the country and people, inspecting government officials and listening to people’s problems. In this respect, the meaning of hunting ceremony gains great importance. Hunting bird-growing organization in Ottoman Empire palace had been institutionalized since early years. Its provincial administration was created for particular sanjaks. The structure of provincial hunting organization was organized in the form of taşra doğancıları (provincial falconers or hawkers, sayyad (hunters, yavrucu (fledgeling careres, yuvacı (nest carers, kayacı (carer of nest rocks, görenceci (bird observers, tuzakçı (bird catchers. There are records in Ottoman archives about this units concerning their organization, numbers, how they were spread and how the duties were passed from father to son. In this study, in the 16th century provincial Ottoman hunting organization and services in Silistra has been throughly examined, using archive documents.
Dewa Purwa Samatra
Full Text Available Background: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare case, characterized by tenderness, persistent around the affected eye and ophthalmoplegia /paresis caused by granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus region, supra orbital or orbital fissure. Although spontaneous remission may occur, even corticosteroid therapy has a very satisfactory effect. However, relapse can occur after remission. We report a case of granulomatous Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in women aged 47 years who suffer from recurrent Tolosa-Hunt syndrome attacks for 4 years on his left eye, there was a significant recovery after receiving steroid therapy. Case: We report A 47 years old with recurrent pain in the left eye since 4 years, pain episode duration of 1-2 weeks, accompanied by double vision when having long or short distance viewing, and when climbing stairs. The patient left eye was protruded with blurred vision and difficulty in distinguishing green color. Left eye examination vision 1/300, green color discromatopsia, normal funduscopic, ptosis, with paresis eye movement toward the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were slightly elevated. ANA test was positive. In visual evoked potential, it showed latency elongation of the left face. Head MRI with contrast showed a isointense protrusion on the left cavernous sinus in axial cuts in T1 and T2. Head MRI T1 with contrast on coronal, axial cuts showed the appearance of convex lesions around the left cavernous sinus that enhanced with contrast. Conclusions: The result was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome (THS. Therefore, 10 mg dexamethasone therapy, 4 times a day for 3 days was lowered to three times on day 4, 2 times on the fifth day and one time at day 6. The patient showed clinical improvement. The patient continued 48 mg oral methylprednisolone therapy up to 3 weeks which then gradually decreased and planned head MRI 3 months later.
Hochard, Jacob; Finnoff, David
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) are managed for competing uses in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Tourism benefits Yellowstone National Park (YNP) visitors while trophy hunting benefits hunters outside of the park. We investigate the policy scope of gray wolf management across jurisdictional boundaries by incorporating three foundations of the behavioral ecology of wolves: refuge-seeking behavior, optimal foraging group size and territoriality. Tradeoffs between and within consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits and wolf population fitness and life history indicators are quantified as a set of elasticities, providing clear implications to resource managers. Our approach highlights that hunting intensity affects the provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits across jurisdictional boundaries and ought to be managed accordingly. We also show that population levels are an incomplete indicator of species fitness, which may depend on how hunting policies impact underlying group ecology. Our findings suggest traditional optimization approaches to wildlife management may lead to suboptimal policy recommendations when the boundaries on the natural system are oversimplified. Highlighting the human element of wildlife management, we show that understanding tourist and hunter responses to wildlife population abundances is critical to balancing provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr
The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare disease characterized by complications of herpes zoster oticus. This syndrome is defined by characteristic skin lesions with paresis of the facial and/or vestibulocochlear nerve. Objective. To present a case of a 14-year-old child with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Case report . A 14-year-old patient was admitted to the Department of Dermatology due to vesicular lesions in the left auricular region. On medical examination, insufficiency of the left eyelid, asymmetry of the facial lines, drooping of the left corner of the mouth, and smoothing of the forehead were observed. According to the House-Brackmann scale, the patient had paresis (grade IV of the facial nerve. The patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Supplementation with vitamin B and rehabilitation procedures were also introduced. Conclusions . Ramsay Hunt syndrome is very rare in the pediatric population. It requires interdisciplinary cooperation between doctors. The presented case confirms the validity of therapy with acyclovir and prednisone and rehabilitation.
In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The
Moiseev, Yu B; Ignatovich, S N; Strakhov, A Yu
The article discusses anthropometric design of shockproof pilot seats for state-of-the-art helicopters. Object of the investigation was anthropometric parameters of the helicopter aviation personnel of the Russian interior troops. It was stated that the body parameters essential for designing helicopter seat dampers are mass of the body part that presses against the seat in the seating position, and eye level above the seat surface. An uncontrolled seat damper ensuring shockproof safety to 95 % helicopter crews must be designed for the body mass contacting the seat of 99.7 kg and eye level above the seat of 78.6 cm. To absorb.shock effectively, future dampers should be adjustable to pilot's body parameters. The optimal approach to anthropometric design of a helicopter seat is development of type pilot' body models with due account of pilot's the flight outfit and seat geometry. Principle criteria of type models are body mass and eye level. The authors propose a system of type body models facilitating specification of anthropometric data helicopter seat developers.
Anslem de Silva
Full Text Available Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide. However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period. Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place.
John S. Baen
This study considers the evolution and explosion growth of recreational hunting leases in America. The traditional European practice of leasing rural lands for the exclusive rights of tenants to hunt and fish is now an important revenue source for American agricultural land investors/owners. Hunting lease income can enhance value to the point that recreation becomes the highest and best use of rural land for both the market and income approaches to valuation. This study offers new perspective...
Harris, Richard B; Cooney, Rosie; Leader-Williams, Nigel
Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, increasing concerns that such hunting may undermine rather than enhance conservation efforts. We question the appropriateness of uncritically applying the AAE model to trophy hunting for 4 reasons. First, the AAE assumes an open-access resource, which is a poor characterization of most trophy-hunting programs and obscures the potential for state, communal, or private-property use rights to generate positive incentives for conservation. Second, study results that show the price of hunting increases as the rarity of the animal increases are insufficient to indicate the presence of AAE. Third, AAE ignores the existence of biological and behavioral factors operating in most trophy-hunting contexts that tend to regulate the effect of hunting. We argue that site-specific data, rather than aggregated hunting statistics, are required to demonstrate that patterns of unsustainable exploitation can be well explained by an AAE model. Instead, we suggest that conservation managers seeking to investigate and identify constraints that limit the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, should focus on the critical governance characteristics that shape the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, such as corruption, insecure property rights, and inadequate sharing of benefits with local people. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.
Paula A White
Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.
White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L
Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.
Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.
The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting
Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.
An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.
Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantineau, Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Groves, Gordon E. (Tijeras, NM)
An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.
BODY AXiS FURCE COMPONENT. L ACTING ON THE AiRPLANc FROM THE CATAPULT (Ld) C ILA1(3) - PORT ONE X,Y,L AIRPLANE BODY AXIS TORQUE COMPONENTS C ACrINu...THE AIRPLANE (FT) C EAPI3) - EARTH TO AIRPLANc . EULER ANGLES (DEG) C SKPt3) - XtYZ EARTh POSITIGN VECTOR OF THE SEAT REFERENCE L POINT (FT) f- LST(3
Gambel, Ray; Lundy, David; Murphy, William; Southmost Consulting
EMBA Project Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Student Military Aviators who complete primary flight training at Training Wing FOUR and select jets for their advanced training track will require Naval Aviation Survival Training Program (NASTP) Class 1 training until the T-6B replaces the T-34C as the primary flight training aircraft. This Class 1 training instructs students in ejection seat equipment and procedures for emergency egress of their new aircraft. Of the eight available Aviation Survi...
Koteski, Cane; Josheski, Dushko; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Bardarova, Snezana; Serafimova, Mimoza
The Crna River is a river in the Republic of Macedonia, right tributary to Vardar. Its source is in the mountains of Western Macedonia, west of Krusevo. It flows through the village of Sopotnica, and southwards through the plains east of Bitola. The name means “black river” in Macedonian, which is translation for its former Thracian name. The purpose of this paper is to show the hunting and hunting areas for big and small Game (food), the structure of the areas of certain hunting, fi...
Lewis, E. S.; Gehrke, G. E.
In a historical moment where the legitimacy of science is being questioned, it is essential to make science more accessible to the public. Active participation increases the legitimacy of projects within communities (Sidaway 2009). Creating collaborations in research strengthens not only the work by adding new dimensions, but also the social capital of communities through increased knowledge, connections, and decision making power. In this talk, Lewis will discuss how engagement at different stages of the scientific process is possible, and how researchers can actively develop opportunities that are open and inviting. Genuine co-production in research pushes scientists to work in new ways, and with people from different backgrounds, expertise, and lived experiences. This approach requires a flexible and dynamic balance of learning, sharing, and creating for all parties involved to ensure more meaningful and equitable participation. For example, in community science such as that by Public Lab, the community is at the center of scientific exploration. The research is place-based and is grounded in the desired outcomes of community members. Researchers are able to see themselves as active participants in this work alongside community members. Participating in active listening, developing plans together, and using a shared language built through learning can be helpful tools in all co-production processes. Generating knowledge is powerful. Through genuine collaboration and co-creation, science becomes more relevant. When community members are equitable stakeholders in the scientific process, they are better able to engage and advocate for the changes they want to see in their communities. Through this talk, session attendees will learn about practices that promote equitable participation in science, and hear examples of how the community science process engages people in both the knowledge production, and in the application of science.
Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B
In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul
Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonçalves, R M
This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome. (paper)
Evi Yunita Kurniaty
Full Text Available The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of women in the Indian Parliament. By the way there are quotas for women as a strategy for accessing the political arena has growing support among MPs. In this study, Indonesia could get a reservation seats of learning about the system is done. To increase the representation in the "area" is very difficult to be touched by a quota system which is run now, it can be done with reservation seats quota to ensure women's representation in parliament.
Chris T Darimont
Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.
Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim......: To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual...
Plamondon, Katrina; Walters, Dylan; Campbell, Sandy; Hatfield, Jennifer
Recognising radical shifts in the global health research (GHR) environment, participants in a 2013 deliberative dialogue called for careful consideration of equity-centred principles that should inform Canadian funding polices. This study examined the existing funding structures and policies of Canadian and international funders to inform the future design of a responsive GHR funding landscape. We used a three-pronged analytical framework to review the ideas, interests and institutions implicated in publically accessible documents relevant to GHR funding. These data included published literature and organisational documents (e.g. strategic plans, progress reports, granting policies) from Canadian and other comparator funders. We then used a deliberative approach to develop recommendations with the research team, advisors, industry informants and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) partners. In Canada, major GHR funders invest an estimated CA$90 M per annum; however, the post-2008 re-organization of funding structures and policies resulted in an uncoordinated and inefficient Canadian strategy. Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America invest proportionately more in GHR than Canada. Each of these countries has a national strategic plan for global health, some of which have dedicated benchmarks for GHR funding and policy to allow funds to be held by partners outside of Canada. Key constraints to equitable GHR funding included (1) funding policies that restrict financial and cost burden aspects of partnering for GHR in LMICs; and (2) challenges associated with the development of effective governance mechanisms. There were, however, some Canadian innovations in funding research that demonstrated both unconventional and equitable approaches to supporting GHR in Canada and abroad. Among the most promising were found in the International Development Research Centre and the (no longer active) Global Health
Full Text Available We consider the allocation of a finite number of homogeneous divisible items among three players. Under the assumption that each player assigns a positive value to every item, we develop a simple algorithm that returns a Pareto optimal and equitable allocation. This is based on the tight relationship between two geometric objects of fair division: The Individual Pieces Set (IPS and the Radon-Nykodim Set (RNS. The algorithm can be considered as an extension of the Adjusted Winner procedure by Brams and Taylor to the three-player case, without the guarantee of envy-freeness. (original abstract
Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-
27. mail lõppenud laste- ja noorteteatrite festivalist "Draamake 2006". Lastelavastuse auhinna sai Vanemuise "Suur kuri hunt" (lavastaja Taago Tubin), noorsooteatri auhind määrati Vene Teatri lavastusele "Veerevad kivid ei sammaldu" (lavastaja Nikita Grinshpun), näitlejaauhinnaga pärjati Marika Vaarikut osatäitmise eest VAT Teatri lavastuses "Klammi sõda", publikupuudutuse auhinna sai ZUGA ühendatud tantsijate "ZUGA lastekas" ja sõnajõuauhind läks NO99 teatri lavastusele "Kaks päikest"( lavastaja Andres Noormets)
Creel, Scott; M'soka, Jassiel; Dröge, Egil; Rosenblatt, Eli; Becker, Matthew S; Matandiko, Wigganson; Simpamba, Twakundine
While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects of lion hunting, but this recommendation was based on a population model parameterized with data from a well-protected and growing lion population. Here, we used demographic data from lions subject to more typical conditions, including source-sink dynamics between a protected National Park and adjacent hunting areas in Zambia's Luangwa Valley, to develop a stochastic population projection model and evaluate alternative harvest scenarios. Hunting resulted in population declines over a 25-yr period for all continuous harvest strategies, with large declines for quotas >1 lion/concession (~0.5 lion/1,000 km 2 ) and hunting of males younger than seven years. A strategy that combined periods of recovery, an age limit of ≥7 yr, and a maximum quota of ~0.5 lions shot/1,000 km 2 yielded a risk of extirpation lion trophy hunting with a combination of regulations. To implement sustainable trophy hunting while maintaining revenue for conservation of hunting areas, our results suggest that hunting fees must increase as a consequence of diminished supply. These findings are broadly applicable to hunted lion populations throughout Africa and to inform global efforts to conserve exploited carnivore populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
Van Lummel, R C; Ainsworth, E; Hausdorff, J M; Lindemann, U; Beek, P J; Van Dieën, J H
The identification of chair rise phases is a prerequisite for quantifying sit-to-stand movements. The aim of this study is to validate seat-off and seat-on detection using a single-body-fixed sensor against detection based on chair switches. A single sensor system with three accelerometers and three gyroscopes was fixed around the waist. Synchronized on–off switches were placed under the chair. Thirteen older adults were recruited from a residential care home and fifteen young adults were recruited among college students. Subjects were asked to complete two sets of five trials each. Six features of the trunk movement during seat-off and seat-on were calculated automatically, and a model was developed to predict the moment of seat-off and seat-on transitions. The predictions were validated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Feature extraction failed in two trials (0.7%). For the optimal combination of seat-off predictors, cross-validation yielded a mean error of 0 ms and a mean absolute error of 51 ms. For the best seat-on predictor, cross-validation yielded a mean error of –3 ms and a mean absolute error of 127 ms. The results of this study demonstrate that seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements can be detected semi-automatically in young and older adults using a one-body-fixed sensor system with an accuracy of 51 and 127 ms, respectively. The use of the ambulatory instrumentation is feasible for non-technically trained personnel. This is an important step in the development of an automated method for the quantification of sit-to-stand movements in clinical practice. (paper)
Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen
A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.
Since the frequency plan of the Regional Radiocommunication Conference Geneva 2006 has come into force, many attempts have been made towards its enhancement. The preliminary results, however, seem not to be compliant with elementary principles of distribution justice. Therefore, the planning principles which lead to the observed imbalance will be scrutinized. Furthermore it will be shown that the utilization of spectrum can be advanced in a balanced way when the same (necessary) condition for "equitable access", which has been used by a group of middle European countries for the construction of the original frequency plan, is applied to plan refinements as well. The necessary condition mentioned consists simply in the parity of the number of coverages (constituted of disjoint allotments) configured in the plan for each country. In order to be able to plan enhancements, the concept of coverage number has to be generalized to the case of incomplete coverages of potentially overlapping allotments. The computation of coverage numbers is straightforward and renders the concept of coverage number parity a useful tool to be applied as a necessary condition in testing a frequency plan variant for equitable access.
Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia
This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...... parameters influence the performance of the WEC can also be investigated using this methodology.......This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests...... leads to testing campaigns that are not as extensive as desired. Therefore, the performance analysis should be robust enough to allow for not fully complete sea trials and sub optimal performance data. In other words, this methodology is focused at retrieving the maximum amount of useful information out...
... Hunting and Fishing Day, 2009 8421 Proclamation 8421 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8421 of September 22, 2009 Proc. 8421 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2009By the President of the... celebrate the great abundance and utility of our natural resources. Since our Nation's founding, hunters and...
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT HUNTING THE GHOST GUN : AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY......LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HUNTING THE GHOST GUN : AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY INFANTRY
Whytock, Robin C.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Awa, Taku; Bekokon, Zacharie; Abwe, Ekwoge A.; Buij, Ralph; Virani, Munir; Vickery, Juliet A.; Bunnefeld, Nils
Global biodiversity is threatened by unsustainable exploitation for subsistence and commerce, and tropical forests are facing a hunting crisis. In Central African forests, hunting pressure has been quantified by monitoring changes in the abundance of affected species and by studying wild meat
... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of sport...
Hunting intensity in the Suhuma Forest Reserve (SFR) in the Sefwi Wiawso District of the Western Region of Ghana has been investigated. The methodology involved the recording of signs of hunting activity using linetransects, and interviews with hunters. A total of 157 spent cartridges, 21 wire snares, presence of 17 ...
Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan
Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little
Full Text Available Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours "hunting", "gathering" or "researching". These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat.
... seasons, as determined by State or Federal regulations. FWS Form 3-2359 (Big Game Harvest Report). FWS...] Proposed Information Collection; Hunting and Fishing Application Forms and Activity Reports for National... uses, including hunting and fishing, on lands of the Refuge System when we find that the activity is...
Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Bestetti, Valentina; Fisher, Emma E.; Srivastava, David S.; Ricklin, Meret E.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.
Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword “hunt.” Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient...
Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe
The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230-648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123-498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa.
Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo
to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.
A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969
Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris
Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia
... migratory game bird, upland game, and big game hunting appear in §§ 32.20 through 32.72. (g) The use of any... HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.2 What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the...
... and publication of the opening of a wildlife refuge area to migratory game bird, upland game or big game hunting. (b) Refuge-specific hunting regulations may contain the following items: (1) Wildlife... FISHING General Provisions § 32.3 What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting...
Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.
Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.
Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda
The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.
Feng Ming; Zhou Youxin; Sun Chunming; Zhang Shiming
Objective: To investigate the clinical value of neuronavigator assisted microsurgery for deep-seated brain glioma. Methods: The electromagnetic neuronavigation system had been applied for microsurgery of deep-seated brain glioma in fifteen cases. Results: Ten from 15 patients were totally removed, 2 were subtotally removed and 3 were partial removed.All patients had no new neurological deficit. Conclusion: The neuronavigator assisted microsurgery for deep-seated brain glioma is of characters including accurate location, minimal invasiveness, and can enhance the rate of total resection and decrease the operative complications in the patients with deep-seated brain glioma. (authors)
The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.
Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi
This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.
... (alternate), Research and Monitoring (member), Research and Monitoring (alternate), South Florida Ecosystem... seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the...
Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki
A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...
Gyi, D E; Porter, J M; Robertson, N K
Interface pressure measurement has generated interest in the automotive industry as a technique which could be used in the prediction of driver discomfort for various car seat designs, and provide designers and manufacturers with rapid information early on in the design process. It is therefore essential that the data obtained are of the highest quality, relevant and have some quantitative meaning. Exploratory experimental work carried out with the commercially available Talley Pressure Monitor is outlined. This led to a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of this system and the re-design of the sensor matrix. Such evaluation, in the context of the actual experimental environment, is considered essential.
Evi Yunita Kurniaty
The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of w...
Full Text Available It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR, the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul
Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis
Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg. The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by
Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel
It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in
Full Text Available Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS is a disorder characterized by herpetic eruptions on the auricle, facial paralysis, and vestibulocochlear dysfunction and is attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV infection in the geniculate ganglion. Although it is a common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis, children are not usually affected. The diagnosis is based on history and physical findings. Treatment of RHS uses a combination of high-dose corticosteroids and acyclovir. This paper presents three cases diagnosed as RHS in the pediatric age group in association with the literature review. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of careful examination and early initiation of therapy in suspected cases of RHS.
Aydoğdu, İmran; Ataç, Enes; Saltürk, Ziya; Atar, Yavuz; Özdemir, Erdi; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by herpetic eruptions on the auricle, facial paralysis, and vestibulocochlear dysfunction and is attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the geniculate ganglion. Although it is a common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis, children are not usually affected. The diagnosis is based on history and physical findings. Treatment of RHS uses a combination of high-dose corticosteroids and acyclovir. This paper presents three cases diagnosed as RHS in the pediatric age group in association with the literature review. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of careful examination and early initiation of therapy in suspected cases of RHS. PMID:26435868
Genetics professor Michelle Murphy loses her husband under mysterious circumstances and without warning, while their brilliant eight year old daughter Avalon, adopted in Kazakhstan, stubbornly believes she is a mutant. As if this were not enough she soon finds herself thrown into the middle of a quickly thickening plot, where the legacy of Genghis Khan meets the hunt for FOXP5, a genetic transcription factor that could herald the dawn of new human species. Initially caught helplessly between well-meaning fellow scientists, the government and more sinister agents, Michelle, with the help of a host of unlikely heroes, eventually takes control and finds the courage to confront the decision of whether to save human lives or humanity. The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular aspects of FOX proteins, genetic mutations, viruses and cancer as well as the relation between intelligence and cortical complexity - are introduced and discussed by the authors in an extensive non-technical a...
Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Cardini, G
Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses, to cause oxidative stress. The aim of our trials was to evaluate oxidative stress and recovery times in trained dogs during two different hunting exercises, with reactive oxygen metabolites-derivatives (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests. A group of nine privately owned Italian hounds were included. A 20-min aerobic exercise and a 4-h aerobic exercise, after 30 days of rest, were performed by the dogs. Our results show an oxidative stress after exercise due to both the high concentration of oxidants (d-ROMs) and the low level of antioxidant power (BAP). Besides, the recovery time is faster after the 4-h aerobic exercise than the 20-min aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress monitoring during dogs exercise could become an interesting aid to establish ideal adaptation to training. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)
Full Text Available Recent reports and studies document dramatic declines in a wide variety of wildlife species in Mongolia. The prime driver in these declines appears to be illegal and unsustainable hunting, both for local trade and consumption and for the international market. While data on these declines are sparse, comparisons of survey reports since the 1980s present evidence that some species may have declined by up to 90% in recent years. We outline the situation for eight major species of wildlife in Mongolia (saiga antelope, Mongolian gazelle, red deer , musk deer , ar gali, brown bear , Siberian marmot, and saker falcon. We then review the existing legal conditions and government efforts to control this situation, and suggest specific changes and actions that Mongolia should take to halt these dramatic declines in wildlife populations and avoid what may soon become an extinction crisis.
Robin Anne Reid
Full Text Available The fan-produced film The Hunt for Gollum (Independent Online Cinema, 2009 was released May 3, 2009, for free viewing on the Internet, garnering much interest from The Lord of the Rings fan communities and fan reviewers. Reviews of the film—whether in major science fiction fan communities, on the film's page in the Internet Movie Database, or in individual blogs and LiveJournals—have been positive to glowing. The consensus seems to be that the film is atypical of fan productions because of its professional production values. What the reviewers fail to consider are circumstances of production and reception that relate to gender differences in fan and mainstream culture. To address this lack, I first discuss the film as a fan production, then question how choices made by the creators regarding media and genre and the critical reception can be situated in the broader context of gender.
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...
Hanning, Brian W T
The many types of payment models used in the Australian private sector are reviewed. Their features are compared and contrasted to those desirable in an optimal private sector payment model. The EPM(TM) (Equitable Payment Model) is discussed and its consistency with the desirable features of an optimal private sector payment model outlined. These include being based on a robust classification system, nationally benchmarked length of stay (LOS) results, nationally benchmarked relative cost and encouraging continual improvement in efficiency to the benefit of both health funds and private hospitals. The advantages in the context of the private sector of EPM(TM) being a per diem model, albeit very different to current per diem models, are discussed. The advantages of EPM(TM) for hospitals and health funds are outlined.
Drechsler, Martin; Egerer, Jonas; Lange, Martin; Masurowski, Frank; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Oehlmann, Malte
Globally, the production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid growth. One of the most pressing issues is the appropriate allocation of renewable power plants, as the question of where to produce renewable electricity is highly controversial. Here we explore this issue through analysis of the efficient and equitable spatial allocation of wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants in Germany. We combine multiple methods, including legal analysis, economic and energy modelling, monetary valuation and numerical optimization. We find that minimum distances between renewable power plants and human settlements should be as small as is legally possible. Even small reductions in efficiency lead to large increases in equity. By considering electricity grid expansion costs, we find a more even allocation of power plants across the country than is the case when grid expansion costs are neglected.
Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong
In this paper, an energy regenerative seat suspension with a variable external resistance is proposed and built, and a semi-active controller for its vibration control is also designed and validated. The energy regenerative seat suspension is built with a three-phase generator and a gear reducer, which are installed in the scissors structure centre of the seat suspension, and the vibration energy is directly harvested from the rotary movement of suspension's scissors structure. The electromagnetic torque of the semi-active seat suspension actuator is controlled by an external variable resistor. An integrated model including the seat suspension's kinematics and the generator is built and proven to match the test result very well. A simplified experimental phenomenon model is also built based on the test results for the controller design. A state feedback H∞ controller is proposed for the regenerative seat suspension's semi-active vibration control. The proposed regenerative seat suspension and its controller are validated with both simulations and experiments. A well-tuned passive seat suspension is applied to evaluate the regenerative seat's performance. Based on ISO 2631-1, the frequency-weighted root mean square (FW-RMS) acceleration of the proposed seat suspension has a 22.84% reduction when compared with the passive one, which indicates the improvement of ride comfort. At the same time, the generated RMS power is 1.21 W. The proposed regenerative seat suspension can greatly improve the driver's ride comfort and has the potential to be developed to a self-powered semi-active system.
Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.
MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig
Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.
Full Text Available Human consumption of animal meat killed by lead ammunition has been reported as a risk factor for elevated blood lead levels. However, little is known about how meat killed by lead ammunition is hunted, prepared, sold, and consumed. We explored the process from hunting to consumption within communities in Benin from the perspective of preventive measures. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with hunters (n = 9 and sellers (n = 8 of bushmeat and families (n = 21 as consumers of bushmeat killed by lead ammunition. Data were transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. We conducted content analysis to identify and describe key themes and processes from hunting to consumption. Many hunters (n = 7/9 used lead-based ammunition. After the meat is hunted, market sellers often buy it directly from the hunters. Amongst the hunters and sellers, few (n = 4/17 acknowledged removing the meat impacted by lead shot prior to sale. Many families (n = 15/21 mentioned consumption of the hunted bushmeat. The meat is cooked before sharing with children. Many families (n = 19/21 mentioned they look for the remains of the lead shot or remove the meat impacted by the shot. The finding suggests that hunting, sale, and consumption of bushmeat killed by lead ammunition are well-known practices in Allada, Benin. The bushmeat often hunted illegally with lead shot is sold in the markets and eventually consumed by families who attempt to clean the meat impacted by the lead shot before cooking it.
Full Text Available Although prohibited, hunting is widely practiced by rural populations settled along the Transamazon Highway. A diagnostic of subsistence hunting was conducted in 1997 in the Uruará district of Brazil. Beat, hide and trap were the three main hunting techniques, and each one targeted a specific type of game. Although these techniques were rudimentary, 62% of the hunts were successful. Hunters kept their movements within five kilometers at most from their homes, thus covering an 80 km² area. The number of species caught was low: pacas (Agouti paca, deer (Mazama sp. and collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu provided more than 70% of game meat. The red mazama (Mazama americana, the favorite species, and the paca underwent the highest hunting pressure. In addition to social and ludic roles, hunting had a real nutritional value. Mean daily game meat consumption ranged from 36 to 45.9 g per person (i.e. 13.1–16.7 kg per person per year, depending on the origin of the hunters (urban or rural, respectively. Game hunting did not seem to be the main factor for loss of biodiversity, which might rather result from the transformation of the forest ecosystem into agricultural zones: the habitats were parceled out, generating a reduction in the biodiversity. Community management of wildlife and development of new activities such as breeding of wild animals could help preserve natural resources.
Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan
Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
Van der Zwaan, B.; Petersen, A. (eds.)
The world is going through the profound changes of a demographic transition. Population growth is best taken care of when women and men are able to choose freely and responsibly their number of children. The most important aspects are the availability of reliable and safe means and the access women have to knowledge, resources and decision power. General education is a prerequisite. (Groningen Manifesto, statement no. 7). The current international, political, economic and financial order still primarily reflects the claims of international trade. There is a lack of public awareness as to the inescapable limits of the planet's resources and we hardly seem to be moving towards a sustainable and equitable world. The contributors to this volume provide an up-to-date and forceful exposition of this problematique. In the aftermath of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, they suggest topical ways to alter the world's course. The keys to reaching a sustainable world, in which the planet is equitably shared among humans and other species, are to consider the impact of our collective actions at longer timescales and to deal head-on with the interconnected issues of population pressure, consumption volume and species loss. The volume displays a multidisciplinary and multicultural approach involving both scientific and ethical arguments. It is of interest to a wide audience of scholars and concerned citizens. With contributions by: Ernst Ulrich von Weizsaecker, Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek, Johan van Klinken, Anne Ehrlich, Sergey Kapitza, Roefie Hueting, Jan van Hooff, Lucas Reijnders, Arthur Petersen, Bob van der Zwaan, Vandana Shiva, Radha Holla, Koo van der Wal, Bas de Gaay Fortman, Atiq Rahman and Jane Goodall.
Paul S. Reichler
Full Text Available The unanimous judgment the International Court of Justice in November 2012 which resolved the boundary dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia in the western Caribbean Sea has generated considerable attention and commentary. Almost all of it has been highly favorable, with the sole exception of the reaction by Colombia, which purported to “reject” the Court’s Judgment and commenced procedures to withdraw its acceptance of ICJ jurisdiction in regard to future cases. This article demonstrates that the Court’s Judgment reflects the application of well-established legal principles of maritime boundary delimitation, and results in an equitable solution that is balanced and fair to both Parties. By analyzing the unique geographical circumstances of this case and discussing the methodologies and reasoning the Court employed in these circumstances to delimit the disputed maritime area, the article demonstrates that the delimitation line established by the Court was a creative solution to a difficult and complex geographic situation, which at the same time is firmly rooted in and consistent with well-established jurisprudence. As a result, the maritime boundary that the Court fixed between Nicaragua and Colombia allows the coasts of both States to generate maritime entitlements in a reasonable and mutually balanced way. Not only is the Court’s Judgment equitable to both Parties; it is also legally binding on them. There is no basis for either State to “reject” it, and no justification for refusing to entrust future cases to the Court, which remains an indispensable forum for the peaceful resolution of disputes between States according to the rule of law.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.
Tesoro, G. C.
The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.
These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service. The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...
Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.
Seong Guk Kim
Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.
Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung
Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.
Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent
The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.
Peter Andrew Lindsey
Full Text Available The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2, which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.
Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than
The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the
Ouellette, Eric S; Shenoy, Aarti A; Gilbert, Jeremy L
The mechanically assisted crevice corrosion performance of head-neck modular tapers is a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. Fretting crevice corrosion processes in modular tapers are thought to be influenced by a wide array of factors including seating mechanics of the junction, hence there is a need for in vitro test methods that can assess their performance. This study presented a test method to directly measure the load-displacement seating mechanics of modular tapers and used this method to compare the seating mechanics for different tapers, moisture, seating loads and seating rates. Seating mechanics were explored whereby the instantaneous load-displacement behavior of the head seating onto the neck is captured and used to define the mechanics of seating. Two distinct taper design/material combinations were assembled wet or dry using axially applied loads (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 N) at two loading rates of 100 and 10 4 N/s (n = 5 for each condition) using a servohydraulic test frame. The results showed that pull-off strength scaled with seating load and ranged between 43% and 68% of seating load depending on sample and wetness. Tapers seated wet had higher pull-off strengths (2,200 ± 300 N) than those seated dry (1,800 ± 200 N, p mechanics (load-displacement plots) varied due to sample type and due to wetness with differences in seating energy, seating stiffness, and seating displacement. These results show the detailed mechanics of seating during assembly and provide significant insight into the complex interplay of factors associated with even "ideal" seating (axial, quasistatic) loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1164-1172, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming
Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.
Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda
The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient
Fiorella Nasha Gonzales Guillén
Full Text Available Between the months of August to November 2011 were conducted 42 semi-structured interviews to assess the hunting of mammals in areas of special purpose (ZUE and buffer (ZA National Park Tingo María surveys. The results indicate that 43% of the population practiced hunting as a secondary activity, the main smallholder agriculture. The methodology used for hunting are the "tramperas" while the hunting is often 2-3 times a month. Hunting is more common after the wet season, it is selective and responds to the taste of meat that an economic need. Among the most hunted mammals include agouti Dasyprocta sp. and picuro Cuniculus paca, while animals higher biomass as the peccary Pecari tajacu are rare in the area, so it is recommended to increase the control of hunting of vulnerable species in the villages which are inside and in the vicinity of the Park.
While teacher-librarians embrace the concept of equitable access when they select "multicultural" materials to include in their collections, plan special programs, and teach lessons on a variety of topics, what do they do to make equitable access a part of their online catalogs? Have they achieved (or nearly achieved) a consistent level of…
Liinamo, A E; Karjalainen, L; Ojala, M; Vilva, V
Data from field trials of Finnish Hounds between 1988 and 1992 in Finland were used to estimate genetic parameters and environmental effects for measures of hunting performance using REML procedures and an animal model. The original data set included 28,791 field trial records from 5,666 dogs. Males and females had equal hunting performance, whereas experience acquired by age improved trial results compared with results for young dogs (P Hounds with respect to their hunting ability should be based on animal model BLUP methods instead of mere performance testing. The evaluation system of field trials should also be revised for more reliability.
Shihua, Peng; Rihui, Tan
Employing statistical analysis, this study has made a preliminary exploration of promoting the equitable development of basic education in underdeveloped counties through the case study of Cili county. The unequally developed basic education in the county has been made clear, the reasons for the inequitable education have been analyzed, and,…
Laner, Stephen; And Others
Following an explanation of the Level of Responsibility/Equitable Pay Function, its applicability is demonstrated to the analysis and to the design and redesign of organizational hierarchies. It is shown how certain common dysfuntional anomalies can be avoided by structuring an organization along the principles outlined. A technique is then…
Jaaskelainen, Kristal; Deneen, Musetta
As the future arrives faster and faster one must ask continually, what do kids actually need from their formal education today and tomorrow? Continuous innovation of method and strategy must be integral to the practice of all teaching professionals. Equitable educators must take a look at the learners in front of them, when and where they stand,…
Angsupaisal, Mattana; Dijkstra, Linze-Jaap; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Burger, Karine; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Background: The effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is debated. Aim: To assess the effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with CP on kinematic head stability and reaching. Methods: Nineteen
Omerović, Senad; Tomasch, Ernst; Gutsche, Andreas J; Prebil, Ivan
Whiplash injuries to the cervical spine represent a considerable economic burden on society with medical conditions, in some cases persisting for more than a year. Numerous studies of whiplash injuries have been made for occupant normal seated position, leaving the analysis of neck injuries for out-of-normal positions not well documented. For that purpose, a detailed human cervical spine finite element model was developed. The analysis was made for four most common occupant seated positions, such as: Normal Position with the torso against the seat back and the head looking straight ahead, Torso Lean forward position with the torso away from the seat back for approximately 10°, Head Flexed position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° from the normal position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° and torso 10° from the normal position. The comparative study included the analysis of capsular ligament deformation and the level of S-curvature of the cervical spine. The model developed predicted that Head Flexed seated position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position are most threatening for upper and lower cervical spine capsular ligament, respectively. As for the level of S-curvature, the model predicted that Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position would be most prone to neck injuries associated with it. This study demonstrated that the occupant seated position has a significant influence on potential whiplash injuries.
Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Shui, Yijie; Rakheja, Subhash
Designs and analyses of seat-suspension systems are invariably performed considering effective vertical spring rate and damping properties, while neglecting important contributions due to kinematics of the widely used cross-linkage mechanism. In this study, a kineto-dynamic model of a seat-suspension is formulated to obtain relations for effective vertical suspension stiffness and damping characteristics as functions of those of the air spring and the hydraulic damper, respectively. The proposed relations are verified through simulations of the multi-body dynamic model of the cross-linkage seat-suspension in the ADAMS platform. The validity of the kineto-dynamic model is also demonstrated through comparisons of its vibration transmission response with the experimental data. The model is used to identify optimal air spring coordinates to attain nearly constant natural frequency of the suspension, irrespective of the seated body mass and seated height. A methodology is further proposed to identify optimal damping requirements for vehicle-specific suspension designs to achieve minimal seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) and vibration dose value (VDV) considering vibration spectra of different classes of earthmoving vehicles. The shock and vibration isolation performance potentials of the optimal designs are evaluated under selected vehicle vibration superimposed with shock motions. Results show that the vehicle-specific optimal designs could provide substantial reductions in the SEAT and VDV values for the vehicle classes considered.
... would actually make the requirement less restrictive than what is already in the voluntary standard. For... various water levels and possible head positions of occupants vs. angles of bath seats to determine what... instructional literature or warnings, it is foreseeable that caregivers will install the bath seat on a wet and...
Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.
this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented.. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that used for European Project SEAT (Smart tEchnologies for Stress free Air Travel). The SEAT project aims to
... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Advisory Council...
... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Chumash Community...
... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business Alternate...
... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Advisory Council...
Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...
Trauma Nurses Talk Tough is a seat belt diversion program originally developed at the Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in 1988. Attendance at the course is a condition for a one-time dismissal of a seat belt citation without fine or court...
Jeonggee, Son; Yamashita, Toru; Sato, Susumu; Kosaka, Hidenori; Masuko, Masabumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)
Wear of nozzle's body seat of diesel fuel injector, which is caused by the collision of needle on the body seat in a nozzle, affects fuel spray behaviors and injection characteristics. Recently, to reduce the wear of body seat, DLC nozzles are widely used. The DLC on the needle which is called diamond-like carbon has a certain effect in reducing wear of body seat. However, disallowable wear is reported at limited engine operating conditions. Moreover, the wear mechanism of body seat with DLC coated needle has not been made clear yet. In this study, the influence of temperature of the body seat and fuel property on the wear of DLC nozzle was investigated with a newly developed wear testing device which was constructed based on common-rail injection system. Worn surfaces of body seat were observed by FE-SEM, laser scanning microscope and EPMA. The obtained results from the measurements show that DLC nozzle has much less wear amount than non-DLC nozzle on the body seat and the corrosive wear effect is suppressed with DLC nozzle. (orig.)
Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal
Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.
Po Er Hsu
Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple-DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four-axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt-in-space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure-sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.
... seat belt assembly to fit the user, including such hardware that may be integral with a buckle... the proper use of the assembly, stressing particularly the importance of wearing the assembly snugly... of Standard No. 208. (a)(1) A manual seat belt assembly, which is subject to the requirements of S5.1...
Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa
Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...
have a common migration and settlement history as descendants of a major block of ... Cambridge International Dictionary (1995) defines hunting as chasing and .... Illustrated below, is a victory ..... 14, 13357, Berlin, Germany. Fiagbedzi, N.
Full Text Available Galați county is a geographical area that is less valued in terms of tourism, but which benefits by a natural tourism potential. The aim of this study is to identify the potential and the activities of the hunting and fishing tourism. Exploitation of hunting and fishing activities in touristic aim is only partial because of the lack of touristic infrastructure and the lack of collaboration with various travel agencies from this branch of tourism. Proposals that would help the future development and improvement of tourism activity are from “wildlife watching tourism” domain: capturing images with the camera, observing the behavior of hunting species without affecting them, providing information for those interested in the hunting behavior and life fauna, creating a wildlife museum and last but not least, upgrading the transport infrastructure.
Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike
To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.
... alcoholic beverages while hunting on the refuge (see Sec. 32.2(j)). 15. We prohibit target practice or any... Wildlife Associated Recreation to identify expenditures for food and lodging, transportation, and other...
Abe, Masahiro; Hara, Yuzo; Ito, Noritaka; Nishimura, Mieko; Onishi, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro
CT showed the lesion at the orbital apex in both of the 2 cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and regression of the lesion which was confirmed by CT. (Chiba, N.)
O'Shea, John M; Lemke, Ashley K; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P; Reynolds, Robert G; Abbott, Brian D
Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters.
Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457
Bischof, Richard; Swenson, Jon E; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Mysterud, Atle; Gimenez, Olivier
1. The population dynamic and evolutionary effects of harvesting are receiving growing attention among biologists. Cause-specific estimates of mortality are necessary to determine and compare the magnitude and selectivity of hunting and other types of mortalities. In addition to the logistic and financial constraints on longitudinal studies, they are complicated by the fact that nonhunting mortality in managed populations usually consists of a mix of natural and human-caused factors. 2. We used multistate capture-recapture (MCR) models to estimate cause-specific survival of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in two subpopulations in Sweden over a 23-year period. In our analysis, we distinguished between legal hunting and other sources of mortality, such as intraspecific predation, accidents, poaching, and damage control removals. We also tested whether a strong increase in harvest quotas after 1997 in one of the subpopulations affected vulnerability to legal hunting. 3. Although only a fraction of mortalities other than legal hunting could be considered natural, this group of causes showed a general pattern of demographic selectivity expected from natural mortality regimes in populations of long-lived species, namely greater vulnerability of young animals. On the other hand, demographic effects on hunting vulnerability were weak and inconsistent. Our findings support the assumption that hunting and other mortalities were additive. 4. As expected, an increase in hunting pressure coincided with a correspondingly large increase in vulnerability to hunting in the affected subpopulation. Because even unbiased harvest can lead to selective pressures on life-history traits, such as size at primiparity, increasing harvest quotas may not only affect population growth directly, but could also alter optimal life-history strategies in brown bears and other carnivores. 5. Legal hunting is the most conveniently assessed and the most easily managed cause of mortality in many wild
Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity
Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.
Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur
The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
... for Vacant Seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office... ONMS is seeking applications for the following six vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National... experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations...
... flammability of seat cushions. With the seat design being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire..., large, non-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The.... At the time the applicable rules were written, seats were designed with a metal frame covered by...
MacNulty, Daniel R.; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.
An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey...
Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Newton, Wesley E.; Borg, Bridget
Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (pwolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated by differences in primary prey riskiness to wolves, and we highlight two important extensions of this idea: (1) the potential for wolves to provision and defend injured packmates from other wolves and (2) the importance of less-risky, buffer prey to pack-size persistence and year-to-year variation. Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (pwolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated by differences in primary prey riskiness to wolves, and we highlight two important extensions of this idea: (1) the potential for wolves to provision and defend injured packmates from other wolves and (2) the importance of less-risky, buffer prey to pack-size persistence and year-to-year variation.
Mweetwa, Thandiwe; Christianson, David; Becker, Matt; Creel, Scott; Rosenblatt, Elias; Merkle, Johnathan; Dröge, Egil; Mwape, Henry; Masonde, Jones; Simpamba, Twakundine
Factors that limit African lion populations are manifold and well-recognized, but their relative demographic effects remain poorly understood, particularly trophy hunting near protected areas. We identified and monitored 386 individual lions within and around South Luangwa National Park, Zambia, for five years (2008-2012) with trophy hunting and for three additional years (2013-2015) during a hunting moratorium. We used these data with mark-resight models to estimate the effects of hunting on lion survival, recruitment, and abundance. The best survival models, accounting for imperfect detection, revealed strong positive effects of the moratorium, with survival increasing by 17.1 and 14.0 percentage points in subadult and adult males, respectively. Smaller effects on adult female survival and positive effects on cub survival were also detected. The sex-ratio of cubs shifted from unbiased during trophy-hunting to female-biased during the moratorium. Closed mark-recapture models revealed a large increase in lion abundance during the hunting moratorium, from 116 lions in 2012 immediately preceding the moratorium to 209 lions in the last year of the moratorium. More cubs were produced each year of the moratorium than in any year with trophy hunting. Lion demographics shifted from a male-depleted population consisting mostly of adult (≥4 years) females to a younger population with more (>29%) adult males. These data show that the three-year moratorium was effective at growing the Luangwa lion population and increasing the number of adult males. The results suggest that moratoria may be an effective tool for improving the sustainability of lion trophy hunting, particularly where systematic monitoring, conservative quotas, and age-based harvesting are difficult to enforce.
Full Text Available The impact of timber exploitation on biodiversity is usually increased by hunting in the exploited area. Proper forest management practices on areas under commercial exploitation minimize hunting and damage to the forest. Large species of Cracidae, the most endangered family of birds in the Neotropics, are among the first to be affected in a Neotropical forest damaged by timber-extraction activities, and where at least moderate hunting occurs. Herein an assessment of cracids is carried out in three areas with selective logging in Peru in 2004 and 2005, is used to evaluate hunting pressure. Tree inventory trails were used as transects, and density was calculated using the line transect methodology. Four species of cracids were evaluated, and density was calculated for three of them. The area with lower hunting pressure, Maderyja, showed higher cracid diversity and was the only with the presence of razor-billed curassows (Mitu tuberosum and blue-throated pining-guans (Pipile cumanensis, two sought-after prey species. Areas where hunting intensity is higher had lower cracid diversity. The density of the M. tuberosum was high in Maderyja: 11.3 ind/km2 (95% CI: 7.4 – 17.3 ind/km2. In contrast, Spix’s guan (Penelope jacquacu did not show a marked difference among areas, unless compared to heavily hunted sites. The higher diversity of cracids and the density found for razor-billed curassows suggests Maderyja had low hunting pressure in the past and is properly managed towards wildlife. Currently, the Peruvian Amazon is being opened for forestry concessions and hydrocarbons exploitation and proper management towards wildlife is necessary to guarantee the conservation of susceptible taxa such as cracids.
Gill, David J C; Fa, John E; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F
Economic development in Africa is expected to increase levels of bushmeat hunting through rising demand for meat and improved transport infrastructure. However, few studies have tracked long-term changes in hunter behavior as a means of testing this prediction. We evaluated changes in hunter behavior in a rural community in Equatorial Guinea over a period of rapid national economic growth, during which time road access to the regional capital greatly improved. We conducted offtake surveys (Supporting Information) over 3 7-week periods at the same time of year in 1998, 2003, and 2010 and conducted hunter and household interviews (Supporting Information) in 2003 and 2010. We tested whether relations existed among catch, hunting effort, hunting strategy, and income earned through hunting and other livelihoods in 2003 and 2010. Although village offtake increased from 1775 kg in 1998 to 4172 kg in 2003, it decreased in 2010 to 1361 kg. Aggregate catch per unit effort (i.e., number of carcasses caught per hunter and per trap) decreased from 2003 to 2010, and the majority of hunters reported a decrease in abundance of local fauna. Although these results are indicative of unsustainable hunting, cumulative changes in offtake and catch per unit effort were driven by a contraction in the total area hunted following an out-migration of 29 of the village's hunters, most of whom left to gain employment in the construction industry, after 2003. Hunters operating in both 2003 and 2010 hunted closer to the village because an increased abundance of elephants posed a danger and because they desired to earn income through other activities. Our study provides an example of national economic development contributing to a reduction in the intensity and extent of hunting. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Arbogast, Kristy B; Kim, Jinyong; Loeb, Helen; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Bohman, Katarina; Charlton, Judith L
Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative. This article describes a recently completed NDS of child occupants in which their position was monitored using a Kinect sensor to quantify their head position throughout normal, everyday driving trips. A study vehicle was instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure vehicle dynamics, a set of video cameras, and a Kinect sensor providing 3D motion capture at 1 Hz of the rear seat occupants. Participant families used the vehicle for all driving trips over 2 weeks. The child occupants' head position was manually identified via custom software from each Kinect color image. The 3D head position was then extracted and its distribution summarized by seat position (left, rear, center) and restraint type (forward-facing child restraint system [FFCRS], booster seat, seat belt). Data from 18 families (37 child occupants) resulted in 582 trips (with children) for analysis. The average age of the child occupants was 45.6 months and 51% were male. Twenty-five child occupants were restrained in FFCRS, 9 in booster seats, and 3 in seat belts. As restraint type moved from more to less restraint (FFCRS to booster seat to seat belt), the range of fore-aft head position increased: 218, 244, and 340 mm on average, respectively. This observation was also true for left-right movement for every seat position. In general, those in the center seat position demonstrated a smaller range of head positions. For the first
Full Text Available Active seat suspensions can be used to reduce the harmful vertical vibration of a vehicle’s seat by applying an external force using a closed loop controller. Many of the controllers found in the literature are difficult to implement practically, because they are based on using unavailable or difficult and costly measurements. This paper presents both simulation and experimental studies of five novel, simple, and cost-effective control strategies to be used for an active seat suspension in order to improve ride comfort at low frequencies below 20 Hz. These strategies use available and measurable feedforward (preview information states from the vehicle secondary suspension, as well as feedback states from the seat suspension, together with gains optimised to minimise the occupant vibration. The gains were optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA, with a fitness function based on the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT factor. Constraints on the control force and the seat suspension stroke were also included in the optimisation algorithm. Simulation and laboratory experimental tests were carried out to assess the performance of the proposed controllers according to the ISO 2631-1 standard, in both the frequency and time domains with a range of different road profiles. The experimental tests were performed using a multi-axis simulation table (MAST and a physical active seat suspension configured as a hardware-in-loop (HIL simulation with a virtual linear quarter vehicle model (QvM. The results demonstrate that the proposed controllers substantially attenuate the vertical vibration at the driver’s seat compared with both a passive and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID active seat suspension and thus improve ride comfort together with reducing vibration-linked health risks. Moreover, experimental results show that employing both feedforward information and feedback vehicle body and seat acceleration signals in the controller
Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding
Ana Catarina Luz
Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.
Wakerman, John; Sparrow, Lisa; Thomas, Susan L; Humphreys, John S; Jones, Mike
Improved Primary Health Care (PHC) utilisation is central to reducing the unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates characterising populations living in remote communities. Despite poorer health, significant inequity characterises the funding of PHC services in Australia's most remote areas. This pilot study sought to ascertain what funding is required to ensure equitable access to sustainable, high quality primary health care irrespective of geographical remoteness of communities. High performing remote Primary Health Care (PHC) services were selected using improvement measures from the Australian Primary Care Collaboratives Program and validated by health experts. Eleven PHC services provided data relating to the types of services provided, level of service utilisation, human resources, operating and capital expenses. A further four services that provide visiting PHC to remote communities provided information on the level and cost of these services. Demographic data for service catchment areas (including estimated resident population, age, Indigenous status, English spoken at home and workforce participation) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 census. Formal statistical inference (p-values) were derived in the linear regression via the nonparametric bootstrap. A direct linear relationship was observed between the total cost of resident PHC services and population, while cost per capita decreased with increasing population. Services in smaller communities had a higher number of nursing staff per 1000 residents and provided more consultations per capita than those in larger communities. The number of days of visiting services received by a community each year also increased with population. A linear regression with bootstrapped statistical inference predicted a significant regression equation where the cost of resident services per annum is equal to $1,251,893.92 + ($1698.83 x population) and the cost of resident and visiting services is
Peter Andrew Lindsey
Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000 of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2 that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2, the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2. We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of
Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil
Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their
Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians
Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F
Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem.
Hannerz, J.; Ericson, K.; Bergstrand, G.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm
Orbital phlebography has been reported to be pathologic in some patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome (recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia). A systematic study of the phlebographic findings in Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome in comparison with a normal material seems not to have been performed. In this investigation, orbital phlebography was performed in 19 patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome and in a reference group of 23 persons without the disease. In 13 of 19 patients (68%) with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome, the phlebography was pathologic (narrowing or occlusion of particularly the third segment of the superior ophthalmic vein, partial occlusion of the cavernous sinus). Orbital phlebography was normal in all but one of the subjects in the reference group. The medical history of this subject in retrospect revealed symptoms other than painful ophthalmoplegia commonly found in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome, suggesting that he suffered from a variant of the disease causing the syndrome. In one patient with recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia a biopsy from an eye muscle showed venous vasculitis, probably indicating the basic pathology behind the phlebographic changes in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome. (orig.)
Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Rueda, Almudena; Esteban-Sanchez, Jonathan; Yanes, Joaquin; Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Sanz-Fernandez, Ricardo
To evaluate vestibular restoration and the evolution of the compensatory saccades in acute severe inflammatory vestibular nerve paralysis, including vestibular neuritis and Ramsay Hunt syndrome with vertigo. Prospective. Tertiary referral center. Vestibular neuritis (n = 18) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients with vertigo (n = 13) were enrolled. After treatment with oral corticosteroids, patients were followed up for 6 months. Functional recovery of the facial nerve was scored according to the House-Brackman grading system. Caloric and video head impulse tests were performed in every patient at the time of enrolment. Subsequently, successive video head impulse test (vHIT) exploration was performed at the 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up. Eighteen patients with vestibular neuritis and 13 with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and associated vertigo were included. Vestibular function was significantly worse in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome than in those with vestibular neuritis. Similar compensatory saccades velocity and latency values were observed in both groups, in both the caloric and initial vHIT tests. Successive vHIT results showed a significantly higher vestibulo-ocular reflex gain recovery in vestibular neuritis patients than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. A significantly faster reduction in the latency, velocity, and organization of the compensatory saccades was observed in neuritis than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. In addition to the recovery of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the reduction of latency, velocity and the organization of compensatory saccades play a role in vestibular compensation.
Hess, Steven C.; Jacobi, James D.
Hunting is often considered to be incompatible with conservation of native biota and watershed functions in Hawai'i. Management actions for conservation generally exclude large non-native mammals from natural areas, thereby reducing the amount of land area available for hunting activities and the maintenance of sustainable game populations. An approach which may be useful in addressing the necessary minimum amount of land area allocated for hunting in Hawai'i is to determine the amount of land area necessary for sustaining populations of hunted animals to meet current levels harvested by the public. We ask: What is the total amount of land necessary to provide sustained-yield hunting of game meat for food at the current harvest level on Hawai'i Island if only feral pigs (Sus scrofa) were to be harvested? We used a simplistic analysis to estimate that 1 317.6 km2-1 651.4 km2 would be necessary to produce 187 333.6 kg of feral pig meat annually based on the range of dressed weight per whole pig, the proportion of a pig population that can be sustainably removed annually, and the density of pig populations in the wild. This amount of area comprises 12.6-15.8% of the total land area of Hawai'i Island, but more likely represents 27.6-43.5% of areas that may be compatible with sustained-yield hunting.
Cardoso, Michelle; McKinnon, Colin; Viggiani, Dan; Johnson, Michel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Albert, Wayne J
A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-h simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-min increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the Automotive Seating Discomfort Questionnaire. Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype. Pairing the gluteal backrest panel with the adjustable seat pan helped reduce the average sitting pressure. The industry-standard truck seat may lead to the development of poor whole body posture, and the proposed ergonomic redesign of a new truck seat helped improve sitting posture and reduce perceived discomfort. Practitioner Summary: A new freely adjustable truck seat prototype was compared to an Industry standard seat to assess hypothesised improvements to sitting posture and discomfort for long haul driving. It was found that the adjustable panels in the prototype helped promote spine posture, reduce sitting pressure and improved discomfort ratings.
Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S
The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.
The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967
Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan
Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530
Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. Case presentation Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. Conclusions Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients.
Last week, an asteroid the size of Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza whizzed by Earth, missing it by half the distance to the moon. The concern that we may one day not be so lucky has long preoccupied the B612 Foundation, a private organization in Mill Valley, California, dedicated to finding asteroids that cross Earth's orbit and could devastate humanity. B612 itself had a near-death experience 3 years ago, when its bold plans for an asteroid-hunting space telescope fell apart. But now, its ambitions are rising again with a new technique for finding menacing objects. On 10 May, B612 announced a partnership with York Space Systems to investigate building a fleet of small asteroid hunters. For many years, B612 aimed to build and launch a much larger craft, Sentinel, a $450 million space telescope with a 50-centimeter mirror. But fundraising stalled and, in 2015, NASA ended an agreement to help B612 because it wasn't meeting mileposts, essentially killing the telescope. Now, B612 has developed a new technique, called synthetic tracking, that can produce similar results at a far lower cost with small space telescopes. Ed Lu, B612 co-founder and CEO, expects the first telescope to cost about $10 million and believes a full constellation "would be a factor of many, many cheaper" than Sentinel.
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.
Ross, Annemarie D.
As a Deaf individual, it is important to ensure the growth of the Deaf community as science-literate members of society. While many predecessors have contributed to the body of research in Deaf pedagogy, there is still much to be done in safeguarding Deaf learners' equitable access to science education. One area of concern is in narrowing the statistically significant gap in Climate Change knowledge between Deaf students' and Hearing students' at the Rochester Institute of Technology. It is within this topic that the writing-to-learn-science framework is practiced and Deaf students in the Laboratory Science Technology program at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf participate in a study to assess whether or not the use of writing-to-learn-science strategies help them become better scientists, writers and learners. In this study, the social constructivist framework (Vygotsky, 1987) is used to study the impact of the use of the Berland and Reiser (2009) argumentation framework, so that they write-to-learn-science through the steps of sense-making, articulation and persuasion.
Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.
Sanders, David; Baum, Fran E; Benos, Alexis; Legge, David
The promised revitalisation of primary healthcare (PHC) is happening at a time when the contradictions and unfairness of the global economic system have become clear, suggesting that the current system is unsustainable. In the past two decades, one of the most significant impediments to the implementation of comprehensive PHC has been neoliberal economic policies and their imposition globally. This article questions what will be required for PHC to flourish. PHC incorporates five key principles: equitable provision of services, comprehensive care, intersectoral action, community involvement and appropriate technology. This article considers intersectoral action and comprehensiveness and their potential to be implemented in the current global environment. It highlights the constraints to intersectoral action through a case study of nutrition in the context of globalisation of the food chain. It also explores the challenges to implementing a comprehensive approach to health that are posed by neoliberal health sector reforms and donor practices. The paper concludes that even well-designed health systems based on PHC have little influence over the broader economic forces that shape their operation and their ability to improve health. Reforming these economic forces will require greater regulation of the national and global economic environment to emphasise people's health rather than private profit, and action to address climate change. Revitalisation of PHC and progress towards health equity are unlikely without strong regulation of the market. The further development and strengthening of social movements for health will be key to successful advocacy action.
Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin
This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives.
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Swartz, Leslie; Bantjes, Jason; Rall, Divan; Ferreira, Suzanne; Blauwet, Cheri; Derman, Wayne
The Paralympic Movement explicitly sets out to create a more equitable society and promote participation for all and fairness in disability sport. This is primarily achieved through the use of a range of interventions with less attention given to how economic factors may hinder access and achievement in Paralympic sport. We investigated how country-level economic variables influence the level of participation and achievement in the 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics Championships held in Doha. We used multiple regression analysis to show how levels of participation and achievement in the Championships were significantly determined by economic factors independent of population size. Our data show that in spite of the ideals of inclusion and fairness within the Paralympic Movement and the considerable effort expended on the use of technologies to achieve this, economic factors continue to exert a statistically significant influence on both the level of participation and achievement of Paralympic athletes. LMICs participate at lower levels and achieve fewer medals when compared to HICs. These differences are particularly marked in events that have a high cost of participation. Our findings raise questions regarding the use of current technologies and the level to which they are able to truly disrupt the politics of global inequality in sport.
Bantjes, Jason; Rall, Divan; Ferreira, Suzanne; Blauwet, Cheri; Derman, Wayne
The Paralympic Movement explicitly sets out to create a more equitable society and promote participation for all and fairness in disability sport. This is primarily achieved through the use of a range of interventions with less attention given to how economic factors may hinder access and achievement in Paralympic sport. We investigated how country-level economic variables influence the level of participation and achievement in the 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics Championships held in Doha. We used multiple regression analysis to show how levels of participation and achievement in the Championships were significantly determined by economic factors independent of population size. Our data show that in spite of the ideals of inclusion and fairness within the Paralympic Movement and the considerable effort expended on the use of technologies to achieve this, economic factors continue to exert a statistically significant influence on both the level of participation and achievement of Paralympic athletes. LMICs participate at lower levels and achieve fewer medals when compared to HICs. These differences are particularly marked in events that have a high cost of participation. Our findings raise questions regarding the use of current technologies and the level to which they are able to truly disrupt the politics of global inequality in sport. PMID:27941981
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and understand the barriers to equitable care within health care settings that women of ethnic minorities encounter in Latin America and to examine possible strategies for mitigating the issues. METHODS: This was a comprehensive review of the literature from 2000-2015 available from the online databases PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and SciELO in Spanish, English, and Portuguese, using a keyword search that included the Region and country names. RESULTS: Health provider discrimination against Indigenous and Afrodescendant women is a primary barrier to quality health care access in Latin America. Discrimination is driven by biases against ethnic minority populations, women, and the poor in general. Discriminatory practices can manifest as patient-blaming, purposeful neglect, verbal or physical abuse, disregard for traditional beliefs, and the non-use of Indigenous languages for patient communication. These obstacles prevent delivery of appropriate and timely clinical care, and also produce fear of shame, abuse, or ineffective treatment, which, in addition to financial barriers, deter women from seeking care. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure optimal health outcomes among Indigenous and Afrodescendant women in Latin America, the issue of discrimination in health care settings needs to be understood and addressed as a key driver of inequitable health outcomes. Strategies that target provider behavior alone have limited impact because they do not address women's needs and the context of socioeconomic inequality in which intra-hospital relations are built.
Full Text Available Until now, the United Nations Capital Development Fund’s (UNCDF Gender Equitable Local Development (GELD programme has not been presented within an explicit human rights framework. This is strange given that the human rights based approach to development (HRBAD aims to ensure that all human beings can live their lives fully and with dignity. HRBAD is fundamentally about the healthy and full development of individuals and communities. In addition, one of human rights’ central concerns is that people have equal access to the benefits of society. Initiatives to realize human rights therefore give priority to the most marginalized - the poorest - in a society. It is those individuals who have most difficulty in securing the basics that are essential to living their lives with dignity. Women in all communities are disproportionately represented among the poor. Thus, human rights have gender equity as a central focus. Put another way, we are dealing with the feminization of poverty. We are dealing with the concept of equal access (to development. In short, we are dealing with those who need (and deserve greater priority in access to infrastructure and supporting services in order to reach a point of equality.
Baumert, Kevin A.; Perkaus, James F.; Kete, Nancy
Climate change equity debates tend to focus on achieving a fair and global 'allocation' of emission rights among countries. Allocation proposals typically envision, if implicitly, two purposes for international emissions trading. First, trading is expected to serve as a cost-effective means of promoting compliance with emissions targets. Second, trading is posited as a means to generate financial transfers, typically from industrialized to transitioning and developing countries. This article investigates the common assumption that international emissions trading will effectively serve both of these purposes. We conclude that the two purposes might not be mutually supportive, and that efforts to use international emissions trading as a financial transfer mechanism may potentially undermine cost-effectiveness goals. International emissions trading on a global scale would create new risks in terms of both cost-effectiveness and environmental performance, some of which will be challenging to manage. In particular, uncertainties over market prices and trading eligibility, coupled with the costs of participation, may together be the Achilles heel of some allocation proposals that entail large financial transfers from industrialized to developing countries. Any proposal for an 'equitable' allocation of emission allowances, we conclude, must be cognizant of the risks and costs implied by a reliance on international emissions trading. We offer some suggestions to this end
Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Shigeki; Yamada, Katsunori; Gotoh, Mitsuaki
This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments. The effect of seat recline was also studied in the forward-facing and rear-facing cases by assuming three positions: driving position, resting position and relaxed position. Occupants were represented by human body finite element models. The results of part one showed that the front seat (rear-facing) occupants were restrained by the seatback, resulting in T1 forward displacement less than 100 mm; the rear seat occupants were restrained by the seatbelt resulting larger T1 forward displacement more than 500 mm. The results of the part two showed the directional dependence of occupant restraint. Greater T1 displacements were observed when the occupant faced lateral or front oblique. However, the seatbelt provided some restraint in all directions considered. The seatback generated contact force to the occupant when it was in the impact direction, including the lateral directions. The relaxed position allowed increased excursion compared to the driving position when the occupant faced rearward, but the magnitude of this increase was lower with lower impact speed.
Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Fei; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Bangji
In this paper, a disturbance observer based Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy controller is proposed for an active seat suspension; both simulations and experiments have been performed verifying the performance enhancement and stability of the proposed controller. The controller incorporates closed-loop feedback control using the measured acceleration of the seat and deflection of the suspension; these two variables can be easily measured in practical applications, thus allowing the proposed controller to be robust and adaptable. A disturbance observer that can estimate the disturbance caused by friction, model simplification, and controller output error has also been used to compensate a H∞ state feedback controller. The TS fuzzy control method is applied to enhance the controller's performance by considering the variation of driver's weight during operation. The vibration of a heavy duty vehicle seat is largest in the frequency range between 2 Hz and 4 Hz, in the vertical direction; therefore, it is reasonable to focus on controlling low frequency vibration amplitudes and maintain the seat suspensions passivity at high frequency. Moreover, both the simulation and experimental results show that the active seat suspension with the proposed controller can effectively isolate unwanted vibration amplitudes below 4.5 Hz, when compared with a well-tuned passive seat suspension. The active controller has been further validated under bump and random road tests with both a 55 kg and a 70 kg loads. The bump road test demonstrated the controller has good transient response capabilities. The random road test result has been presented both in the time domain and the frequency domain. When with the above two loads, the controlled seat suspensions root-mean-square (RMS) accelerations were reduced by 45.5% and 49.5%, respectively, compared with a well-tuned passive seat suspension. The proposed active seat suspension controller has great potential and is very practical for application
Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.
Digital Displacement Fluid Power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency of fluid power pumps and motors. The core element of the Digital Displacement technology is high performance electronically controlled seat valves, which must exhibit very low flow...... work an annular seat valve suitable for use in Digital Displacement units is considered, and the ring geometry is optimized using finite element analysis including non-linear material behaviour, contact elements and fluid pressure penetrating load, closely reflecting the actual load of the seat valve...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.
Full Text Available Hunting is a controversial activity in Australia, and much debated in international research. Positions range from ‘the first hunters were the first humans’ to the ‘meat is murder’ argument. There is, however, very little research on non-Indigenous hunting in Australia, particularly on the social aspects, but also on biological and ecological issues. In contrast to a general lack of research on non-Indigenous hunting, there is extensive literature on Indigenous hunting. This paper reviews initial research exploring hunting participation and motivation in Australia, as a window into further understanding connections between humans, non-humans and place. My focus is on an analysis of hunting as cultural involvement in nature. Is it a cruel, archaic and redundant practice; or a respectful relationship between and among humans and non- humans which can reorient us to our emerging recombinant ecologies?
Full Text Available Fair and equitable standard of treatment of foreign investments represents an integral part of all modern international agreements on protection and encouragement of foreign investments. The key element of its contents, according to arbitral practice, is an obligation of the host state to provide the investor with the treatment in accordance with basic expectations that he or she had at the time of the investment with regard to economical and legal conditions in the host state. The paper analyzes the most important awards of arbitral tribunals dealing with legitimate expectations of the investor as a part of the fair and equitable treatment standard. A considerable attention is dedicated to identifying the behavior of the host state capable of creating legitimate expectation which enjoy legal protection as well as to detecting the requirements for the development of reasonable expectations.
The availability of an adequate electrical supply to the whole population is essential for the wellbeing and equity of a society. However, for those countries that are largely dependent on fossil fuels for generating electricity, peak oil and gas threaten energy security and the ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity on an equitable basis. This paper will review future energy demand and supply in Malaysia and implications for its electricity supply. It will demonstrate ...
Yehua Dennis Wei
Full Text Available The unprecedented wave of global urbanization has exerted increased pressure on urban land and made land-use sustainability an urgent concern. This Special Issue examines patterns, structures, and dynamics of urban land use from the economic, social, and, to a lesser extent, environmental standpoints, in light of the goal of equitable and sustainable development. This introduction discusses the background and design of the Special Issue and highlights the contribution of the selected papers.
Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein
Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.
John E Fa
Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.
John E Fa
Full Text Available We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates. We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1 of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas.
Shaffer, Christopher A; Milstein, Marissa S; Yukuma, Charakura; Marawanaru, Elisha; Suse, Phillip
Although hunting is a key component of subsistence strategies of many Amazonians, it is also one of the greatest threats to wildlife. Because indigenous reserves comprise over 20% of Amazonia, effective conservation often requires that conservation professionals work closely with indigenous groups to manage resource use. We used hunter-generated harvesting data in spatially explicit biodemographic models to assess the sustainability of subsistence hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana. We collected data through a hunter self-monitoring program, systematic follows of hunters, and semistructured interviews. We used these data to predict future densities of 2 indicator species, spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus) and bearded sakis (Chiropotes sagulatus), under different scenarios of human population expansion and changing hunting technology. We used encounter rates from transect surveys and hunter catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) to validate model predictions. Paca (Cuniculus paca) (198 /year), Currosaw (Crax alector) (168), and spider monkey (117) were the most frequently harvested species. Predicted densities of spider monkeys were statistically indistinguishable from empirically derived transect data (Kolmogorov-Smirnov D = 0.67, p = 0.759) and CPUE (D = 0.32, p = 1.000), demonstrating the robustness of model predictions. Ateles paniscus and C. sagulatus were predicted to be extirpated from <13% of the Waiwai reserve in 20 years, even under the most intensive hunting scenarios. Our results suggest Waiwai hunting is currently sustainable, primarily due to their low population density and use of bow and arrow. Continual monitoring is necessary, however, particularly if human population increases are accompanied by a switch to shotgun-only hunting. We suggest that hunter self-monitoring and biodemographic modeling can be used effectively in a comanagement approach in which indigenous parabiologists continuously provide hunting data that is then used to update model