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Sample records for hunpu wastewater-irrigated area

  1. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, Radha V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  3. Heavy Metal Residues in Soil and Accumulation in Maize at Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation Area in Tongliao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and plant samples were collected from Tongliao, China, during the maize growth cycle between May and October 2010. Heavy metals, such as Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn, were analyzed. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the wastewater-irrigated area were higher than those in the topsoil from the groundwater-irrigated area. The concentrations of metals in the maize increased as follows: Pb < Ni < Zn < Cr. In addition, Cr, Pb, and Ni mainly accumulated in the maize roots, and Zn mainly accumulated in the maize fruit. The results of translocation factors (TF and bioconcentration factors (BCF of maize for heavy metals revealed that maize is an excluder plant and a potential accumulator plant and can serve as an ideal slope remediation plant. In addition, the increasing heavy metal contents in soils that have been polluted by wastewater irrigation must result in the accumulation of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in maize. Thus, the pollution level can be decreased by harvesting and disposing of and recovering the plant material.

  4. Wastewater Irrigation and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Web: www.idrc.ca ... The paper used is FSC certified. ..... Manzoor Qadir, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and International ... IR. ingestion rates. IWMI. International Water Management Institute. KAPP.

  5. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  6. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu (China); Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Jia, Hui-Hui [State High-Tech Industrial Innovation Center, Shenzhen 518057, Guangdong (China); Wang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: junjian.wang@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  7. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  8. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Duwig, C; Prado, B; Siebe, C; Hidalgo, C; Etchevers, J

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years with sorption to a non-irrigated (P0) Phaeozem soil under rainfed agriculture. The use of bromide as an inert water tracer in column experiments and the subsequent analysis of the tracers' breakthrough curves allowed the calibration of the hydrodynamic parameters of a two-site non equilibrium convection-dispersion model. The quality of the irrigation water significantly altered the soils' hydrodynamic properties (hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and the size of pores that are hydraulically active). The impacts on soil chemical properties (total organic carbon content and pH) were not significant, while the sodium adsorption ratio was significantly increased. Sorption and desorption isotherms, determined in batch and column experiments, showed enhanced atrazine sorption and reduced and slower desorption in wastewater-irrigated soils. These effects increased with the length of irrigation. The intensified sorption-desorption hysteresis in wastewater-irrigated soils indicated that the soil organic matter developed in these soils had fewer high-energy, easily accessible sorption sites available, leading to lower and slower atrazine desorption rates. This study leads to the conclusion that wastewater irrigation decreases atrazine mobility in the Mezquital valley Phaeozems by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity and increasing the soil's sorption capacity.

  9. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3......,132 water samples from WSP and irrigated areas yielded 606,053 Culex larvae of five species. In addition, 107,113 anophelines, representing eight species were collected. Anopheles subpictus (Grassi) and Culex mosquitoes, especially Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles), showed...... an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...

  10. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, K.; Duwig, Céline; Prado, B.; Siebe, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Etchevers, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years wi...

  11. Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Heavy Metals Distribution in a Tunisian Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khaskhoussy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater (TWW may contain toxic chemical constituents that pose negative environmental and health impacts. In this study, soil samples under treated wastewater irrigation were studied. For this purpose, six plots were made in an irrigated area in north of Tunisia and treated with two water qualities: fresh water (FW and treated wastewater (TWW. Five soil depths were used: 0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120 and 120-150 cm. The TWW irrigation increased significantly (P≤0.05 the soils’ EC, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SAR, Cu, Cd and Ni and had no significant (P ≤0.05 effect on the soils’ pH, Zn, Co and Pb contents. EC, Na, Cl, SAR, Zn and Co increased significantly with soil depth. The results for K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Pb and Ni exhibited similar repartition in different layers of soil. It was also shown that the amount of different elements in soil irrigated with fresh water (FW were less compared with the control soil

  12. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

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    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Wangyang River (WYR basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  13. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Eskridge, Kent M; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. - Highlights: • Higher sand content in soil caused higher internalization of sulfamethoxazole and Salmonella in lettuce. • Drought

  15. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  16. Contribution of Wastewater Irrigation to Soil Transmitted Helminths Infection among Vegetable Farmers in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Dennis Amoah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Odds ratios were calculated for exposure and non-exposure to wastewater irrigation. The results obtained indicate positive correlation between STH concentrations in irrigation water/soil and STHs ova as measured in the stool of the exposed farmer population. The correlations are based on reinfection during a 3 months period after prior confirmed deworming. Farmers and family members exposed to irrigation water were three times more likely as compared to the control group of non-farmers to be infected with Ascaris (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.15-13.86 and hookworm (OR = 3.07, 95% CI, 0.87-10.82. This study therefore contributes to the evidence-based conclusion that wastewater irrigation contributes to a higher incidence of STHs infection for farmers exposed annually, with higher odds of infection in the wet season.

  17. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  18. An integrated approach to assess the dynamics of a peri-urban watershed influenced by wastewater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Jampani; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Pavelic, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In many urban and peri-urban areas of India, wastewater is under-recognized as a major water resource. Wastewater irrigated agriculture provides direct benefits for the livelihoods and food security of many smallholder farmers. A rapidly urbanizing peri-urban micro-watershed (270 ha) in Hyderabad was assessed over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2010 for changes in land use and associated farming practices, farmer perceptions, socio-economic evaluation, land-use suitability for agriculture and challenges in potential irrigated area development towards wastewater use. This integrated approach showed that the change in the total irrigated area was marginal over the decade, whereas the built-up area within the watershed boundaries doubled and there was a distinct shift in cropping patterns from paddy rice to paragrass and leafy vegetables. Local irrigation supplies were sourced mainly from canal supplies, which accounted for three-quarters of the water used and was largely derived from wastewater. The remainder was groundwater from shallow hard-rock aquifers. Farmer perception was that the high nutrient content of the wastewater was of value, although they were also interested to pay modest amounts for additional pre-treatment. The shift in land use towards paragrass and leafy vegetables was attributed to increased profitability due to the high urban demand. The unutilised scrubland within the watershed has the potential for irrigation development, but the major constraints appear to be unavailability of labour and high land values rather than water availability. The study provides evidence to support the view that the opportunistic use of wastewater and irrigation practices, in general, will continue even under highly evolving peri-urban conditions, to meet the livelihood needs of the poor driven by market demands, as urban sprawl expands into cultivable rural hinterlands. Policy support is needed for enhanced recognition of wastewater for agriculture, with flow

  19. Effects of bleaching wastewater irrigation on soil quality of constructed reed wetlands

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    Cheng Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructed reed wetland microcosms (CRWs in a lab of east China have been irrigated with bleaching wastewater per month for a reed growth season. The soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities (i.e. urease, invertase, polyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and cellulase and soil microbial diversity were assayed before and after the exposure experiment. Compared to the river water irrigated controls (CKs, bleaching wastewater application has no marked influence on soil pH, but significantly increased soil Na+, total halogen and absorbable organic halogen (AOX contents, which induced the increasing of soil electrical conductivity. Furthermore, soil enzyme activities displayed significant variation (except for polyphenol oxidase. Bleaching wastewater irrigation decreased Sorenson’s pairwise similarity coefficient (Cs, which indicated the changes of the structure of bacterial and fungal communities. However, only the diversity of bacterial community was inhibited and has no effect on the diversity of fungal community, as evidenced by the calculated Shannon–Wiener index (H.

  20. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Ying Guangguo; Kong Lingxiao; Wang Li; Zhao Jianliang; Zhou Lijun; Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: → Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. → Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. → Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. → Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  1. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lingxiao, Kong [Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Baoding 07100 (China); Li, Wang; Jianliang, Zhao; Lijun, Zhou; Lijuan, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: > Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. > Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. > Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. > Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  2. Leaching of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in turfgrass soils during wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Bondarenko, S; Ernst, F; Yang, W; Ries, S B; Sedlak, D L

    2006-01-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a carcinogenic by-product of chlorination that is frequently found in municipal wastewater effluent. NDMA is miscible in water and negligibly adsorbed to soil, and therefore may pose a threat to ground water when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation. A field study was performed in the summer months under arid Southern California weather conditions to evaluate the leaching potential of NDMA in turfgrass soils during wastewater irrigation. Wastewater was used to irrigate multiple turfgrass plots at 110 to 160% evapotranspiration rate for about 4 mo, and leachate was continuously collected and analyzed for NDMA. The treated wastewater contained relatively high levels of NDMA (114-1820 ng L(-1); mean 930 ng L(-1)). NDMA was detected infrequently in the leachate regardless of the soil type or irrigation schedule. At a method detection limit of 2 ng L(-1), NDMA was only detected in 9 out of 400 leachate samples and when it was detected, the NDMA concentration was less than 5 ng L(-1). NDMA was relatively persistent in the turfgrass soils during laboratory incubation, indicating that mechanisms other than biotransformation, likely volatilization and/or plant uptake, contributed to the rapid dissipation. Under conditions typical of turfgrass irrigation with wastewater effluent it is unlikely that NDMA will contaminate ground water.

  3. Up and down the sanitation ladder: Harmonizing the treatment and multiple-barrier perspectives on risk reduction in wastewater irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses two prominent perspectives in the debate on risk reduction in wastewater irrigation; reliance on conventional wastewater treatment and the multiple-barrier approach. The treatment perspective is based on water-quality standards for wastewater irrigation with treatment...... considered the ultimate risk reductionmeasure. The somewhat broader multiple-barrier perspective supports the use of a combination of pre-farm, on-farm and postfarm barriers, including, where possible, wastewater treatment, to meet required health targets. The discussion in this paper shows that each...

  4. A probabilistic assessment of the contribution of wastewater-irrigated lettuce to Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection risk and disease burden in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidu, Razak; Abubakari, Amina; Dennis, Isaac Amoah; Heistad, Arve; Stenstrom, Thor Axel; Larbi, John A; Abaidoo, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Wastewater use for vegetable production is widespread across the cities of many developing countries. Studies on the microbial health risks associated with the practice have largely depended on faecal indicator organisms with potential underestimation or overestimation of the microbial health risks and disease burdens. This study assessed the Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection risk and diarrhoeal disease burden measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the consumption of wastewater-irrigated lettuce in Kumasi, Ghana using data on E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-harvest, wastewater-irrigated lettuce. Two exposure scenarios - best case and worst case - associated with a single consumption of wastewater-irrigated lettuce were assessed. The assessment revealed wastewater-irrigated lettuce is contributing to the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 in Kumasi, Ghana. The mean E. coli O157:H7 infection risk and DALYs in the wet and dry seasons, irrespective of the exposure scenario, were above the World Health Organization tolerable daily infection risk of 2.7 × 10⁻⁷ per person per day and 10⁻⁶ DALYs per person per year. It is recommended that legislation with clear monitoring indicators and penalties is implemented to ensure that farmers and food sellers fully implement risk mitigating measures.

  5. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  6. Microbial risk in wastewater irrigated lettuce: comparing Escherichia coli contamination from an experimental site with a laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

    This study assessed the contamination of Escherichia coli, in lettuce grown with treated domestic wastewater in four different irrigation configurations: open spray, spray under plastic sheet cover, open drip and drip under plastic sheet cover. Samples of lettuce from each irrigation configuration and irrigating wastewater were collected during the growing season. No E. coli was detected in lettuce from drip irrigated beds. All lettuce samples from spray beds were positive for E. coli, however, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was detected between lettuces grown in open spray or covered spray beds. The results from the field experiment were also compared to a laboratory experiment which used submersion of lettuce in wastewater of known E. coli concentration as a surrogate method to assess contamination following irrigation. The microbial quality of spray bed lettuces was not significantly different from submersed lettuce when irrigated with wastewater containing 1,299.7 E. coli MPN/100 mL (p > 0.05). This study is significant since it is the first to validate that the microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in the field is comparable with a laboratory technique frequently applied in the quantitative microbial risk assessment of the consumption of wastewater irrigated salad crops.

  7. Microbial indicators of fecal contamination in soils under different wastewater irrigation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Godinez, C. A.; Palacios-Lopez, O. A.; Munoz-Castellanos, L. N.; Saucedo-Teran, R.; Rubio-Arias, H.; Nevarez-Moorillon, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of wastewater to irrigate produce was a common practice in some suburban areas in Mexico. The continuous use of wastewater can increase the chance of fecal soil contamination, which can percolate in soil and finally cause groundwater contamination. A suburban area in Chihuahua, mexico, has been traditionally irradiated with wastewater for production of agriculture goods, including produce and animal foodstuffs. (Author)

  8. Distribution of heavy metals in plants cultivated with wastewater irrigated soils during different periods of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Mireles, A.; Reyes-Solis, I.E.; Garcia-Calderon, N.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Pina, C.U.; Flocchini, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mezquital valley is a vast area near Mexico city that has been irrigated with wastewater from Mexico city for more than 50 years. At present, this water source continues to be used while new irrigation areas are being incorporated according to rural demand. This research study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the accumulation of metals in soils and plants and the physicochemical properties of soils irrigated in this manner for 50 and 100 years, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined by conventional methods. Plant and soil total trace metals Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Lower pH and TOC contents were obtained for soils irrigated during 100 years, indicating a higher metal bioavailability. This is not reflected in plant content for most of the reported elements, but Zn and Pb show a higher absorption in 100 years old plots (26-79%) than in 50-year-olds plots, indicating a pH dependence

  9. Heavy metals contamination of soils in response to wastewater irrigation in Rawalpindi region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, N.; Khan, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of effluents/ waste water samples from Rawalpindi region for irrigation purpose and to elucidate effects of their application on heavy metal contents in soils of area. Results indicated that the EC, SAR, RSC and TDS of most effluent/ waste water samples were above the critical limits. Cadmium and Cr were above the critical limits in almost all the effluent samples, whereas Ni was high in 14, Pb was high in 10, Cu was high in 5 and the Fe was high in 3 effluent samples as compared to critical limits. Regarding heavy metals contents of soils irrigated by these effluents/ waste water, total Fe, total Cd and total Ni were higher in almost all the sampled sites, whereas total Cr was high at 7 sampled sites. AB-DTPA extractable Fe and Zn were higher at all the sampled sites, while the extractable Cd was higher at 2 sampled sites. Overall, the effluent samples collected from Adiala showed high concentrations of heavy metals, whereas soils of Wah factory and Islamabad area had higher heavy metal contents (total and AB-DTPA extractable). On the basis of results it is concluded that quality of effluents/ waste water samples collected from different locations of Rawalpindi is not good for irrigation and the long term use of these effluents for crop production caused accumulation of some toxic metals in soils above critical limits which is harmful for soil health and may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in crop plants. (author)

  10. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in vegetables and fish raised in wastewater irrigated fields and stabilization ponds during a non-cholera outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounmanou, Yaovi M G; Mdegela, Robinson H; Dougnon, Tamègnon V

    2016-01-01

    gene (tcpA) and the haemolysin gene (hlyA). RESULTS: The prevalence of V. cholerae in wastewater, vegetables and fish was 36.7, 21.7 and 23.3 %, respectively. Two isolates from fish gills were V. cholerae O1 and tested positive for ctx and tcpA. One of these contained in addition the hlyA gene while......BACKGROUND: Cholera, one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases, remains rampant and frequent in Tanzania and thus hinders existing control measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in wastewater, fish and vegetables during a non......-outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania. METHODS: From October 2014 to February 2015, 60 wastewater samples, 60 fish samples from sewage stabilization ponds and 60 wastewater irrigated vegetable samples were collected. Samples were cultured for identification of V. cholerae using conventional bacteriological...

  11. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-02-01

    Amending soil with biosolids or livestock manure provides essential nutrients in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater allows for agriculture in regions where water resources are limited. However, biosolids, manure and wastewater have all been shown to contain pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have shown that PPCPs can accumulate in the tissues of plants but the risk that accumulated residues may pose to humans via consumption of edible portions is not well documented. This study reviewed the literature for studies that reported residues of PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants grown in biosolids- or manure-amended soils or irrigated with wastewater. These residues were used to determine the estimated daily intake of PPCPs for an adult and toddler. Estimated daily intake values were compared to acceptable daily intakes to determine whether PPCPs in plant tissue pose a hazard to human health. For all three amendment practices, the majority of reported residues resulted in hazard quotients plants to concentrations of PPCPs that would not be considered relevant based on concentrations reported in biosolids and manure or unrealistic methods of exposure, which lead to artificially elevated plant residues. Our assessment indicates that the majority of individual PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants due to biosolids or manure amendment or wastewater irrigation represent a de minimis risk to human health. Assuming additivity, the mixture of PPCPs could potentially present a hazard. Further work needs to be done to assess the risk of the mixture of PPCPs that may be present in edible tissue of plants grown under these three amendment practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system and associated influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Shiwei; Liu, Bailin; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Yang, Wenzhi; Bai, Xiaojuan; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Yingmei

    2018-05-30

    Heavy metal pollution in farmlands is highly concerned as crops' easy-uptake of heavy metal can ultimately affect consumers. In order to offer suggestions on cultivating safe quality vegetable, specifically eggplant which is widely consumed for its nutritional value and antioxidant activity, a field study was undertaken to investigate the temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system. In the present study, eggplants were planted in the farmlands of Weichuan village (WC) (relatively unpolluted field), Liangzhuang village (LZ) (moderately polluted field) and Minqin village (MQ) (seriously polluted field) to elucidate their temporal uptake processes of heavy metals described by the sigmoid model. Eggplant tissues from severely polluted farmlands were found with higher heavy metal concentrations and lower yields compared with other two groups. What is more, 25 farmlands along the Dongdagou stream (heavy metals polluted stream) were chosen to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils and eggplants. Heavy metal concentrations in eggplants decreased with the decline of heavy metal concentrations in soil from upstream (pollution source) to downstream. Moreover, several methods were employed to assess bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. All the bioavailable heavy metals were found in linear positive correlations with heavy metal concentrations. Meanwhile, linear correlations were found between heavy metals in soils and eggplants. At last, redundancy analysis was used to investigate the effects of soil properties (pH, organic matter and texture of soils) and heavy metals on eggplants' uptake. The results indicated that soil heavy metals had a dominant impact on their accumulations in eggplant fruit, with a variance contribution of 78.0%, while soil properties had a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 5.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A participatory modelling approach to define farm-scale effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in the Lockyer Valley, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal, van J.D.; Huibers, F.P.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The Lockyer Valley is an important agricultural area experiencing water insecurity, which causes a decrease in agricultural production. Regional authorities are initiating a wastewater reclamation project conveying treated municipal wastewater to water users, including potentially the Lockyer

  14. Impacts of long-term waste-water irrigation on the development of sandy Luvisols: consequences for metal pollutant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Lamy, I.; Baize, D.; Chevallier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating macro- and microscopic aspects of impacts of long-term contaminative practices on soils are scarce. We performed such an approach by assessing the fate of metal pollutants in an area close to Paris, where sandy Luvisols were irrigated for 100 years with urban waste water. As a

  15. Target virus log10 reduction values determined for two reclaimed wastewater irrigation scenarios in Japan based on tolerable annual disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiro; Kitajima, Masaaki; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2017-11-15

    Multiple-barriers are widely employed for managing microbial risks in water reuse, in which different types of wastewater treatment units (biological treatment, disinfection, etc.) and health protection measures (use of personal protective gear, vegetable washing, etc.) are combined to achieve a performance target value of log 10 reduction (LR) of viruses. The LR virus target value needs to be calculated based on the data obtained from monitoring the viruses of concern and the water reuse scheme in the context of the countries/regions where water reuse is implemented. In this study, we calculated the virus LR target values under two exposure scenarios for reclaimed wastewater irrigation in Japan, using the concentrations of indigenous viruses in untreated wastewater and a defined tolerable annual disease burden (10 -4 or 10 -6 disability-adjusted life years per person per year (DALY pppy )). Three genogroups of norovirus (norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), geogroup II (NoV GII), and genogroup IV (NoV GIV)) in untreated wastewater were quantified as model viruses using reverse transcription-microfluidic quantitative PCR, and only NoV GII was present in quantifiable concentration. The probabilistic distribution of NoV GII concentration in untreated wastewater was then estimated from its concentration dataset, and used to calculate the LR target values of NoV GII for wastewater treatment. When an accidental ingestion of reclaimed wastewater by Japanese farmers was assumed, the NoV GII LR target values corresponding to the tolerable annual disease burden of 10 -6 DALY pppy were 3.2, 4.4, and 5.7 at 95, 99, and 99.9%tile, respectively. These percentile values, defined as "reliability," represent the cumulative probability of NoV GII concentration distribution in untreated wastewater below the corresponding tolerable annual disease burden after wastewater reclamation. An approximate 1-log 10 difference of LR target values was observed between 10 -4 and 10 -6 DALY pppy

  16. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  17. Potential of different crop species for nickel and cadmium phytoremediation in peri-urban areas of Varanasi district (India with more than twenty years of wastewater irrigation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Pal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals introduced into soil by indiscriminate dumping along with irrigating with sewage effluent often lead to toxic accumulation of heavy metal ions, which not only impair soil productivity but also cause health hazards by entering into food chain via soil-plant-animal-atmosphere continuum. To evaluate the potential of different crop species for nickel (Ni and cadmium (Cd phytoremediation, fifteen crop species comprising of cereals, vegetables and flowers were collected from differentially contaminated soils (DTPA-Cd 5.7-6.75 mg kg–1, DTPA-Ni 16.50- 20.85 mg kg–1. The tissue metal concentration and relative efficiency of transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant (transfer factor for various groups of crops were worked out. The uptake of Cd and Ni increased with contents in soils and the major part of taken up Cd and Ni is translocated to the floricultural crops with maximum accumulation occurred in roots. Values of translocation factor of Cd and Ni were ranged between 0.2 to 0.8 and 0.2 to 1.0 respectively for the different crops studied. The mean total root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza in these soils ranged from 15% for cauliflower to 76% for marigold, suggesting a certain adaptation of these indigenous to such environmental stress. Among the different crops studied marigold with highest translocation factor, mycorrhization and Cd and Ni content in root part holds considered as a potential economic crop for phytoremediation.

  18. Comparison of Desertification Intensity in the Purified Wastewater Irrigated Lands with Normal Lands in Yazd Using of Soil Criterion of the IMDPA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yektafar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Desertification, is a complex phenomenon, which as environmental, socio-economical, and cultural impacts on natural resources. According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification defination, desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, resulting from climate change and human activities. Because of limiting access to qualified water resources in arid lands, it is necessary to use, all forms of acceptable water resources such as wastewater. Since irrigation with sewages has most effects on soil, in this research, desertification intensity of lands irrigated with sewages and natural lands of the area, where located near Yazd city, has been analyzed considering soil criterion of the Iranian Model for Desertification Potential Assessment (IMDPA. Several studies have done in Iran and in the world in order to provide national, regional or global desertification assessment models. A significant feature of the IMDPA is easily defining and measuring criteria, indicators, and ability of the model to use geometric means for the criteria and indicators. Materials and Methods: In first step, In first step, in a random method, soil samples were taken in each of the defined land units with considering of the size of area. Next, all indices related to the soil criterion such as soil texture index, soil deep gravel percentage, soil depth, and soil electrical conductivity were evaluated in each land use (both irrigated lands and natural lands and weighted considering the present conditions of the lands. Each index was scored according to the standard table of soil that categorized desertification. Then, geometry average of all indices were calculated and map of the desertification intensity of the study area were prepared. Thus, four maps were prepared according to each index. These maps were used to study both quality and effect of each index on desertification. Finally, these maps were

  19. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  20. Characterization of contamination, source and degradation of petroleum between upland and paddy fields based on geochemical characteristics and phospholipid fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng; Dai, Jiulan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate contamination caused by petroleum, surface soil samples were collected from both upland and paddy fields along the irrigation canals in the Hunpu wastewater irrigation region in northeast China. N-alkanes, terpanes, steranes, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in the surface soil samples were analyzed. The aliphatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest in the samples obtained from the upland field near an operational oil well; it was lowest at I-3P where wastewater irrigation promoted the downward movement of hydrocarbons. The Hunpu region was found contaminated by heavy petroleum from oxic lacustrine fresh water or marine deltaic source rocks. Geochemical parameters also indicated significantly heavier contamination and degradation in the upland fields compared with the paddy fields. Principal component analysis based on PLFA showed various microbial communities between petroleum contaminated upland and paddy fields. Gram-negative bacteria indicated by 15:0, 3OH 12:0, and 16:1(9) were significantly higher in the paddy fields, whereas Gram-positive bacteria indicated by i16:0 and 18:1(9)c were significantly higher in the upland fields (p petroleum contamination. Poly-unsaturated PLFA (18:2omega6, 9; indicative of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi) was also significantly elevated in the upland fields. This paper recommends more sensitive indicators of contamination and degradation of petroleum in soil. The results also provide guidelines on soil pollution control and remediation in the Hunpu region and other similar regions.

  1. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  2. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 déc. 2009 ... The book therefore complements other books on the topic of wastewater which focus on high-end treatment options and the use of treated wastewater. ... Pay Drechsel is Global Theme Leader on Water Quality, Health and Environment at the International Water Management Institute ( IWMI ), Sri Lanka.

  3. Wastewater irrigation in Jordan: A mismatch in macro nutrient provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, S.; Huibers, F.P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    By using sewage nutrients in irrigation, both the costs for nutrient removal and costs for fertilisers at the farm can be distinctly reduced. The present study describes the wastewater use scheme in the Seil Al-Zarqa and Middle Jordan Valley regions, Jordan. Through field studies, information on

  4. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-12-18

    Dec 18, 2009 ... In most developing countries wastewater treatment systems have very low ... from a practical and realistic perspective, addressing the issues of health risk ... at the International Water Management Institute ( IWMI ), Sri Lanka.

  5. Evaluating the Sources and Fate of Nitrate in the Alluvial Aquifers in the Shijiazhuang Rural and Suburban Area, China: Hydrochemical and Multi-Isotopic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the sources and fate of NO\\(_{3}^{-}\\ contaminants is important to protect the water quality of aquifer systems. In this study, NO\\(_{3}^{-}\\ contaminated groundwater from the drinking water wells in the Shijiazhuang area, China, was chemically (NO\\(_{3}^{-}\\/Cl\\(^{\\rm{{-}}}\\ ratio and isotopically (\\(δ\\\\(^{\\rm{15}}\\N\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\, \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{18}}\\O\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\ and \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{13}}\\C\\(_{\\rm{DOC}}\\; \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{2}}\\H\\(_{\\rm{H2O}}\\, \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{18}}\\O\\(_{\\rm{H2O}}\\ characterized to identify the sources of NO\\(_{3}^{-}\\ and address subsequent biogeochemical processes. The positive correlations between dominant anions and cations suggested that the dissolution of calcium carbonate and gypsum minerals was the most effective process in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of NO\\(_{3}^{-}\\, Cl\\(^{\\rm{{-}}}\\ and Mg\\(^{\\rm{2+}}\\ could be related to the wastewater irrigation and usage of fertilizers. The natural water in the study area originated primarily from precipitation and experienced a limited extent of evaporation, as demonstrated by measurements of \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{2}}\\H\\(_{\\rm{H2O}}\\ and \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{18}}\\O\\(_{\\rm{H2O}}\\. A cross-plot of \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{15}}\\N\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\ vs. \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{18}}\\O\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\ gave an enrichment of the 15N isotope relative to the 18O isotope by a factor of 2. A further insight into the denitrification process was obtained by the synergistic changes in \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{13}}\\C\\(_{\\rm{DOC}}\\ and \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{15}}\\N\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\ values, confirming that a low extent of denitrification occurred. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{18}}\\O\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\ and \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{18}}\\O\\(_{\\rm{H2O}}\\. The initial \\(\\delta\\\\(^{\\rm{15}}\\N\\(_{\\rm{NO3}}\\ value(s of the NO\\(_{3}^{-}\\ source

  6. Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Khan, Shahid Javid, Atif Muhmood, Tahir Mjeed, Abid Niaz and Abdul Majeed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. For this purpose, during year 2009-10, 25 sewage water, 76 soil, 40 leaf and 30 vegetable samples (tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower were taken from peri-urban area of Lahore district. These samples were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ni contents. The analysis showed that in wastewater concentration of Cu (100 %, Mn (72 %, Ni (32 % and Cd (44% were higher than the safe limits while Zn, Fe and Pb concentration was below permissible limits. In soil DTPA extractable concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cd was in safe limit and ranged between 1.30-8.02, 1.06 -5.42, 8.60-35.03, 8.7-30.07, 2.11-30.86, 0.28-1.76 and 0.05-0.52 mg kg-1 respectively. In vegetable, 100 % leaf and fruit samples were contaminated and accumulation of heavy metals was higher than the WHO/FAO recommended permissible limits.

  7. Fate and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Irrigated Calcareous Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stietiya, Mohammed Hashem; Duqqah, Mohammad; Udeigwe, Theophilus; Zubi, Ruba; Ammari, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in Jordanian soils irrigated with treated wastewater threatens agricultural sustainability. This study was carried out to investigate the environmental fate of Zn, Ni, and Cd in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater and to elucidate the impact of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) amendment on metal redistribution among soil fractions. Results showed that sorption capacity for Zarqa River (ZR1) soil was higher than Wadi Dhuleil (WD1) soil for all metals. The order of sorption affinity for WD1 was in the decreasing order of Ni > Zn > Cd, consistent with electrostatic attraction and indication of weak association with soil constituents. Following metal addition, Zn and Ni were distributed among the carbonate and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, while Cd was distributed among the exchangeable and carbonate fractions in both soils. Amending soils with 3% HFO did not increase the concentration of metals associated with the Fe/Mn oxide fraction or impact metal redistribution. The study suggests that carbonates control the mobility and bioavailability of Zn, Ni, and Cd in these calcareous soils, even in presence of a strong adsorbent such as HFO. Thus, it can be inferred that in situ heavy metal remediation of these highly calcareous soils using iron oxide compounds could be ineffective. PMID:24723833

  8. Treated wastewater irrigation effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability of loamy soils in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schacht Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of treated wastewater (TWW for agricultural irrigation becomes increasingly important in water stressed regions like the Middle East for substituting fresh water (FW resources. Due to elevated salt concentrations and organic compounds in TWW this practice has potential adverse effects on soil quality, such as the reduction of hydraulic conductivity (HC and soil aggregate stability (SAS. To assess the impact of TWW irrigation in comparison to FW irrigation on HC, in-situ infiltration measurements using mini disk infiltrometer were deployed in four different long-term experimental orchard test sites in Israel. Topsoil samples (0-10 cm were collected for analyzing SAS and determination of selected soil chemical and physical characteristics.

  9. In situ stabilization remediation of cadmium contaminated soils of wastewater irrigation region using sepiolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuebing; Sun, Guohong; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Lin, Dasong; Liang, Xuefeng; Shi, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The effects of immobilization remediation of Cd-contaminated soils using sepiolite on soil pH, enzyme activities and microbial communities, TCLP-Cd (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure-Cd) concentration, and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) growth and Cd uptake and accumulation were investigated. Results showed that the addition of sepiolite could increase soil pH, while the TCLP-Cd concentration in soil was decreased with increasing sepiolite. The changes of soil enzyme activities and bacteria number indicated that a certain metabolic recovery occurred after the sepiolite treatments, and spinach shoot biomass increased by 58.5%-65.5% in comparison with the control group when the concentration of sepiolite was < or = 10 g/kg. However, the Cd concentrations in the shoots and roots of spinach decreased with an increase in the rate of sepiolite, experiencing 38.4%-59.1% and 12.6%-43.6% reduction, respectively, in contrast to the control. The results indicated that sepiolite has the potential for success on a field scale in reducing Cd entry into the food chain.

  10. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  11. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallach, J Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  13. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2003-01-01

    and the wastewater disposal system. Overall, 17.3% of the samples were positive for Anopheles, 12.0% for Culex and 15.0% for Aedes. Four anopheline species, viz, Anopheles stephensi (84.3% of total anophelines), An. subpictus (11.8%), An. culicifacies (2.0%) and An. pulcherrimus (0.2%) were present, as were two...... species of Culex, viz, Cx. quinquefasciatus (66.5% of culicines) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (20.1%). Aedes were not identified to species level. The occurrence of different species was linked to particular habitats and habitat characteristics such as physical water condition, chemical water quality...... and the presence of fauna and flora. Anophelines and Aedes mosquitos were mainly collected during the month of July, while Culex were collected in September. The prevalence of established vectors of human diseases such as An. stephensi (malaria), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis...

  14. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallach, J. Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial uptake in lettuce is cultivar dependent. • Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decrease despite repeated exposure. • Lincomycin is better conserved in the soil-plant system than oxytetracycline or sulfamethoxazole. • Subirrigation resulted in more Salmonella in bottom soil than in top soil. • Internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce is low despite repeated exposure. - Cultivar-specific differences in lincomycin and sulfamethazine uptake were observed in lettuce, while uptake of Salmonella was low despite repeated exposure from wastewater

  15. Fate and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Irrigated Calcareous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hashem Stietiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals in Jordanian soils irrigated with treated wastewater threatens agricultural sustainability. This study was carried out to investigate the environmental fate of Zn, Ni, and Cd in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater and to elucidate the impact of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO amendment on metal redistribution among soil fractions. Results showed that sorption capacity for Zarqa River (ZR1 soil was higher than Wadi Dhuleil (WD1 soil for all metals. The order of sorption affinity for WD1 was in the decreasing order of Ni > Zn > Cd, consistent with electrostatic attraction and indication of weak association with soil constituents. Following metal addition, Zn and Ni were distributed among the carbonate and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, while Cd was distributed among the exchangeable and carbonate fractions in both soils. Amending soils with 3% HFO did not increase the concentration of metals associated with the Fe/Mn oxide fraction or impact metal redistribution. The study suggests that carbonates control the mobility and bioavailability of Zn, Ni, and Cd in these calcareous soils, even in presence of a strong adsorbent such as HFO. Thus, it can be inferred that in situ heavy metal remediation of these highly calcareous soils using iron oxide compounds could be ineffective.

  16. Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C; Beernaerts, I.

    2012-01-01

    of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature......Irrigation using untreated wastewater poses health risks to farmers and consumers of crop products, especially vegetables. With hardly any wastewater treatment in Ghana, a multiple-barrier approach was adopted and safe re-use practices were developed through action research involving a number...... and our own specific studies, which used data from a broad range of research methods and approaches. Identifying, testing, and assessment of safe practices were done with the active participation of key actors using observations, extensive microbiological laboratory assessments, and field...

  17. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  18. Harnessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers' knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to ex...

  19. Harnessing Farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernhard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to ex...

  20. Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil sodicity and nutrient leaching in calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, M.; Merikhpour, H.; Kaledhonkar, M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil column studies were conducted with two soils to assess the effects of irrigation with wastewater on soil and groundwater quality. Upon the application of wastewater, exchange occurred between solution sodium (Na+) and exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+), whereby these cations were released

  1. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Corresponding ... Key Words: Sewage sludge, Green amaranth, Phytoextraction, Heavy metals. ..... Wastewater-irrigated Areas of Titagarh,.

  2. Nutrient management and institutional cooperation as conditions for environmentally safe wastewater irrigation: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, F.P.; van Vliet, Bas J.M.; Dung, N.V.; Van, D.T.H.; Ragab, Ragab; Koo-Oshima, Sasha

    2006-01-01

    Hanoi is rapidly growing in population and in economic activities. Increasing volumes of domestic and industrial wastewater flows are discharged mostly untreated into the drainage system. At downstream level, these polluted, nutrient rich waters are used for irrigation. Nutrient concentrations in

  3. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective.

  4. Farm-based measures for reducing microbiological health risks for consumers from informal wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2010-01-01

    in developing countries as part of a multiple-barrier approach for health-risk reduction along the farm to fork pathway. Measures discussed include treatment of irrigation water using ponds, filters and wetland systems; water application techniques; irrigation scheduling; and crop selection. In addition...

  5. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be detected at some agricultural fields by SOC measurements (Jüschke 2009). Therefore attention has to be drawn especially on the carbon content and quality of the used TWW for irrigation purposes.

  6. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  7. [Isolation and characterization of petroleum catabolic broad-host-range plasmids from Shen-Fu wastewater irrigation zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fei; Wang, Ya-Fei; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Based on triparental mating, we isolated a total of eight broad host range (BHR) petroleum hydrocarbon catabolic plasmids from the soils, sediments, and wastewater samples in the Shen-Fu irrigation zone. The antibiotic resistance of the plasmids was tested, and then, the plasmids were transferred to Escherichia coli EC100. The plasmids carrying no antibiotic resistance were tagged by miniTn5 transposon consisting of antibiotic resistant genes. The PCR-based incompatibility test revealed that the pS3-2C and pS4-6G belonged to Inc P group, the pS3-2G, pW22-3G, and pA15-7G belonged to Inc N group, the pS7-2G was identified as Inc W plasmid, and the pA23-1G and pA10-1C were placed into Inc Q group. By adopting the reported PCR amplification methods of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading catabolic genes, the petroleum-degrading capability of these BHR plasmids were preliminarily analyzed. The plasmids pS3-2G, pS7-2G, pA23-1G, pW22-3G, and pA10-1C carried aromatic ring- hydroxylating dioxygenase gene phdA and toluene monooxygenase gene touA; the plasmid pA15-7G carried touA and toluene dioxygenase gene tod; the plasmid pS3-2C carried ben, phdA, and tod; whereas the pS4-6G only carried ben. The host range test showed that all the isolated plasmids except pS3-2C could be transferred and maintained stably in the representative strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Cupriavidus necator JMP228, and E. coli EC100 of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, respectively.

  8. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  9. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of domestic wastewater treated through pilot-scale constructed wetland of Adana-Karaisalı with dominant Mediterranean climate in irrigation of marigold (Tagetes erecta, commonly used over urban landscapes. Experiments were carried out between the dates May-November 2008 for 7 months with fresh water and treated wastewater. Plant growth parameters (plant height, plant diameter, number of branches and flowering parameters (number of flowers, flower diameter, flower pedicle thickness were monitored in monthly basis. Results revealed positive impacts of treated wastewater irrigations on plant growth during the initial 5 months between May-September but negative impacts in October and November. Similarly, treated wastewater irrigations had positive impacts on flowering parameters during the initial 3 months but had negative impacts during the subsequent 4 months. Such a case indicated shortened visual efficiencies of marigold. Therefore, treated wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource in irrigation of annual flowers, but better results can be attained by mixing treated wastewater with fresh water at certain ratios.

  10. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  11. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  12. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  13. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hald, Tine

    2017-12-01

    The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10 -5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study attempts to fit a QMRA model to genome copies of norovirus data. The model estimates the risk of norovirus infection from the intake of vegetables irrigated with wastewater from different sources. The results were compared to the results of a corresponding model using the fecal indicator conversion ratio to estimate the norovirus count. In all scenarios of using different water sources, the application of the fecal indicator conversion ratio underestimated the norovirus disease burden, measured by the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), when compared to results using the genome copies norovirus data. In some cases the difference was >2 orders of magnitude. All scenarios using genome copies met the 10 -4 DALY per person per year for consumption of vegetables irrigated with wastewater, although these results are considered to be highly conservative risk estimates. The fecal indicator conversion ratio model of stream-water and drain-water sources of wastewater achieved the 10 -6 DALY per person per year threshold, which tends to indicate an underestimation of health risk when compared to using genome copies for estimating the dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2017-01-01

    physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study......The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10− 5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different...... attempts to fit a QMRA model to genome copies of norovirus data. The model estimates the risk of norovirus infection from the intake of vegetables irrigated with wastewater from different sources. The results were compared to the results of a corresponding model using the fecal indicator conversion ratio...

  15. The influence of the microbial quality of wastewater, lettuce cultivars and enumeration technique when estimating the microbial contamination of wastewater-irrigated lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the volume of wastewater retained on the surface of three different varieties of lettuce, Iceberg, Cos, and Oak leaf, following submersion in wastewater of different microbial qualities (10, 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 E. coli MPN/100 mL) as a surrogate method for estimation of contamination of spray-irrigated lettuce. Uniquely, Escherichia coli was enumerated, after submersion, on both the outer and inner leaves and in a composite sample of lettuce. E. coli were enumerated using two techniques. Firstly, from samples of leaves - the direct method. Secondly, using an indirect method, where the E. coli concentrations were estimated from the volume of wastewater retained by the lettuce and the E. coli concentration of the wastewater. The results showed that different varieties of lettuce retained significantly different volumes of wastewater (p 0.01) were detected between E. coli counts obtained from different parts of lettuce, nor between the direct and indirect enumeration methods. Statistically significant linear relationships were derived relating the E. coli concentration of the wastewater in which the lettuces were submerged to the subsequent E. coli count on each variety the lettuce.

  16. Comparison of Desertification Intensity in the Purified Wastewater Irrigated Lands with Normal Lands in Yazd Using of Soil Criterion of the IMDPA Model

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yektafar; M. Zare; M. Akhavan Ghalibaf; S. R. Mahdavi Ardakani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Desertification, is a complex phenomenon, which as environmental, socio-economical, and cultural impacts on natural resources. According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification defination, desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, resulting from climate change and human activities. Because of limiting access to qualified water resources in arid lands, it is necessary to use, all forms of acceptable water resources such ...

  17. Phytoextraction of 55-year-old wastewater-irrigated soil in a Zn-Pb mine district: effect of plant species and chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, YiPing; Yang, YuFen; Li, ZhiAn; Yang, Yang; Wang, JiaXi; Zhuang, Ping; Zou, Bi

    2017-07-16

    Untreated water from mining sites spreads heavy metal contamination. The present study assessed the phytoextraction performance of heavy metal-accumulating plants and the effects of chemical chelators on cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) removal from paddy fields that have been continuously irrigated with mining wastewater from mines for 55 years. Outdoor pot experiments showed that the total Pb, Zn, and Cd content was lower in the rhizosphere soil of Amaranthus hypochondriacus than in that of Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, and Sorghum bicolor. The aboveground biomass (dry weight) and relative growth rate of A. hypochondriacus were significantly higher than that of the other three species (P phytoextraction effect.

  18. Root-Zone Redox Dynamics - In Search for the Cause of Damage to Treated-Wastewater Irrigated Orchards in Clay Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, David; Shenker, Moshe; Schwartz, Amnon; Assouline, Shmuel; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Treated wastewater (TW) has become a common source of water for agriculture. However recent findings raise concern regarding its use: a marked decrease (up to 40%) in yield appeared in orchards irrigated with TW compared with fresh water (FW) irrigated orchards. These detrimental effects appeared predominantly in orchards cultivated in clay soils. The association of the damage with clay soils rather than sandy soils led us to hypothesize that the damage is linked to soil aeration problems. We suspected that in clay soils, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and high levels of organic material, both typical of TW, may jointly lead to an extreme decrease in soil oxygen levels, so as to shift soil reduction-oxidation (redox) state down to levels that are known to damage plants. Two-year continuous measurement of redox potential, pH, water tension, and oxygen were conducted in the root-zone (20-35 cm depth) of avocado trees planted in clay soil and irrigated with either TW or FW. Soil solution composition was sampled periodically in-situ and mineral composition was sampled in tree leaves and woody organs biannually. In dry periods the pe+pH values indicated oxic conditions (pe+pH>14), and the fluctuations in redox values were small in both TW and FW plots. Decreases in soil water tension following irrigation or rain were followed by drops in soil oxygen and pe+pH values. TW irrigated plots had significantly lower minimum pe+pH values compared with FW-irrigated plots, the most significant differences occurred during the irrigation season rather than the rain season. A linear correlation appeared between irrigation volume and reduction severity in TW-irrigated plots, but not in the FW plots, indicating a direct link to the irrigation regime in TW-irrigated plots. The minimum pe+pH values measured in the TW plots are indicative of suboxic conditions (9water tension and oxygen concentration levels. The consequences of our findings to plant health will be discussed, and future research prospects will be shown. We believe that our findings will contribute to the development of better management practices that will enable more sustainable use of TW, an essential resource in the world today.

  19. Effect of soil contamination due to wastewater irrigation on total cesium as determined by destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques in some soils of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Lattif, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations to represent different soils irrigated with different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Sequential extraction experiment was carried out to determine different forms of Cs in soils. Moreover, Soil samples were analyzed for total Cs using two analytical methods i.e. destructive wet digestion technique (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, AAS or by summation of all sequential extracted fractions, SUM) and non-destructive technique (Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA). The aim of this study was to evaluate soil total Cs-forms (especially, bio-available fraction) as affected by soil pollution. Cesium was mostly concentrated in the residual fraction, and its values ranged from 57.4% to 82.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils and from 31.5% to 64.5 % of total Cs in tested clayey soil. Then organically bound Cs- fraction followed by Cs-occluded in Fe-Mn fraction, carbonate, exchangeable and water soluble fractions. Results suggested that, Cs level is affected by soil organic matter content, Fe-Mn oxides and clay content. The mobile Cs fraction (the sum of soluble and exchangeable fractions) ranged from 2% up to 9.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils. However, a higher value (9.82% to 15.31 %) could be observed in case of the tested clayey soils. Soils D and E were more contaminated than other tested soils. Data show obviously, that soil contaminated due to the irrigation with either sewage effluent or industrial wastewater has resulted in a drastic increase in both metal-organic and occluded in Fe and Mn oxide fractions followed by the carbonate fraction

  20. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel an...

  1. Lower leaf gas-exchange and higher photorespiration of treated wastewater irrigated Citrus trees is modulated by soil type and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Indira; Shaviv, Avi; Bernstein, Nirit; Heuer, Bruria; Shapira, Or; Lukyanov, Victor; Bar-Tal, Asher; Rotbart, Nativ; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-04-01

    Water quality, soil and climate can interact to limit photosynthesis and to increase photooxidative damage in sensitive plants. This research compared diffusive and non-diffusive limitations to photosynthesis as well as photorespiration of leaves of grapefruit trees in heavy clay and sandy soils having a previous history of treated wastewater (TWW) irrigation for >10 years, with different water qualities [fresh water (FW) vs TWW and sodium amended treated wastewater (TWW + Na)] in two arid climates (summer vs winter) and in orchard and lysimeter experiments. TWW irrigation increased salts (Na(+) and Cl(-) ), membrane leakage, proline and soluble sugar content, and decreased osmotic potentials in leaves of all experiments. Reduced leaf growth and higher stomatal and non-stomatal (i.e. mesophyll) limitations were found in summer and on clay soil for TWW and TWW + Na treatments in comparison to winter, sandy soil and FW irrigation, respectively. Stomatal closure, lower chlorophyll content and altered Rubisco activity are probable causes of higher limitations. On the other hand, non-photochemical quenching, an alternative energy dissipation pathway, was only influenced by water quality, independent of soil type and season. Furthermore, light and CO2 response curves were investigated for other possible causes of higher non-stomatal limitation. A higher proportion of non-cyclic electrons were directed to the O2 dependent pathway, and a higher proportion of electrons were diverted to photorespiration in summer than in winter. In conclusion, both diffusive and non-diffusive limitations contribute to the lower photosynthetic performance of leaves following TWW irrigation, and the response depends on soil type and environmental factors. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Effect Of Soil Contamination Due To Wastewater Irrigation On Total Co As Determined By Neutron Activation And Other Conventional Analytical Techniques In Some Soils Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M. F.; Al-Salama, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt) to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Co was separated into six operationally defined fractions: water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Moreover, total-Co in soils as determined by three analytical methods (sum of sequential extracting, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques) were compared. Cobalt distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Co-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Co, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a significant role on Co fractions in soil. In the mean time, soil properties are affected by pollution factors such as source of pollution and load of pollution on the studied soil. Data showed that values of total Co determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. (Authors)

  3. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  4. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  5. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  6. Health Service Areas (HSAs) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Service Areas (HSAs) are a compromise between the 3000 counties and the 50 states. An HSA may be thought of as an area that is relatively self-contained with respect to hospital care and may cross over state boundries.

  7. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  8. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  9. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  10. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 � 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  11. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  12. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  13. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  14. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  15. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  16. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  17. Quadrilaterals: Diagonals and Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The task shared in this article provides geometry students with opportunities to recall and use basic geometry vocabulary, extend their knowledge of area relationships, and create area formulas. It is characterized by reasoning and sense making (NCTM 2009) and the "Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others"…

  18. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  19. On the contribution of reclaimed wastewater irrigation to the potential exposure of humans to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes - NEREUS COST Action ES1403 position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piña, Benjamin; Bayona, Josep M.; Christou, Anastasis

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is becoming a worldwide threat due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. There is a general consensus about the potential implications of the use of antibiotics in livestock on the onset of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB......), mainly through meat consumption. However, the ever-increasing use of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) in agriculture may also contribute significantly to the non-accounted exposure to antibiotics, ARB, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This position paper aims at evaluating the current knowledge...... concerning the occurrence of antibiotics, ARBs, and ARGs in edible parts of different common crops irrigated with RWW. We will discuss which regulations on the use of RWW may contribute to the minimization of the prevalence of these contaminants in crops, and provide recommendations on how to minimize...

  20. Electric Holding Company Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  1. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  2. Semi-arid Areas

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livia Bizikova

    precipitation in the form of rainfall or snow (UN, 2011; MEA 2009). • Dryland subtypes can ... in terms of their land uses: rangelands, croplands, and urban areas. ... farmers; climate resilient agricultural practices; irrigation, pasture management.

  3. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  4. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  5. kaduna area, north ce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Similarly, the relative variation of depth to the water table inferred from the spectral analysis was used to deduce .... All the image processing and map preparations were done on a .... investigations in shallow basement areas of. Zaria, Kaduna ...

  6. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  7. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  8. Quantifying disbond area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, D. W.

    1992-10-01

    Disbonds simulated in a composite helicopter rotor blade were profiled using eddy currents. The method is inherently accurate and reproducible. An algorithm is described for calculating disbond margin. Disbond area is estimated assuming in-service disbondments exhibit circular geometry.

  9. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  10. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  12. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  13. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  14. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic

  15. Investigating scintillometer source areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelet, A. O.; Ward, H. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Scintillometry is an indirect ground-based method for measuring line-averaged surface heat and moisture fluxes on length scales of 0.5 - 10 km. These length scales are relevant to urban and other complex areas where setting up traditional instrumentation like eddy covariance is logistically difficult. In order to take full advantage of scintillometry, a better understanding of the flux source area is needed. The source area for a scintillometer is typically calculated as a convolution of point sources along the path. A weighting function is then applied along the path to compensate for a total signal contribution that is biased towards the center of the beam path, and decreasing near the beam ends. While this method of calculating the source area provides an estimate of the contribution of the total flux along the beam, there are still questions regarding the physical meaning of the weighted source area. These questions are addressed using data from an idealized experiment near the Salt Lake City International Airport in northern Utah, U.S.A. The site is a flat agricultural area consisting of two different land uses. This simple heterogeneity in the land use facilitates hypothesis testing related to source areas. Measurements were made with a two wavelength scintillometer system spanning 740 m along with three standard open-path infrared gas analyzer-based eddy-covariance stations along the beam path. This configuration allows for direct observations of fluxes along the beam and comparisons to the scintillometer average. The scintillometer system employed measures the refractive index structure parameter of air for two wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, 880 μm and 1.86 cm to simultaneously estimate path-averaged heat and moisture fluxes, respectively. Meteorological structure parameters (CT2, Cq2, and CTq) as well as surface fluxes are compared for various amounts of source area overlap between eddy covariance and scintillometry. Additionally, surface

  16. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  17. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  19. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  20. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  1. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  2. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  3. Home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article consists of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Some of the specific areas/topics discussed include: Convergence in home networks, home service scenarios; Home wired network architectures, CapEx and OpEx; Residential Gateway; Optical fiber types;

  4. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  5. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  7. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  8. Bronchoscopy in Rural Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidar Berntsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of bronchoscopy performed by one single pulmonologist in a scarcely populated subarctic area was compared to the guidelines provided by the British Thoracic Society (BTS. 103 patients underwent bronchoscopy. Diagnostic yield was increased to 76.6% when the first bronchoscopy was supplemented by bronchial washing fluid and brush cytology and to 86.7% (BTS guidelines >80% after a second bronchoscopy. Median time from referral to bronchoscopy was 10 days and 8 days from positive bronchoscopy to operative referral to another hospital. 1% of patients that underwent transbronchial lung biopsy had minor complications. One pulmonologist had rate of correct diagnosis based on visible endobronchial tumors that was comparable to the rates of numerous pulmonologists at larger centers performing the same procedure. Time delay was short. Rate of complications was comparable. Bronchoscopy performed by one pulmonologist alone could, in organized settings, be carried out at local hospitals in areas of scattered settlement.

  9. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  10. Geoconservation and protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Brilha, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation will fail if nature conservation policies impose artificial boundaries on the natural world. The protected area manager’s main task is biodiversity preservation. Nevertheless, nature conservation requires a broad perspective. Incorporating geology into conservation policies at the same level as biology is urgent. The slow rate of many geological processes leads to the misconception that geological resources are inexhaustible and immutable. Geologists know that this is not true an...

  11. Local area networking handbook

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis provides Navy shore based commands with sufficient information on local area networking to (1) decide if they need a LAN, (2) determine what their networking requirements are, and (3) select a LAN that satisfies their requirements. LAN topologies, transmission media, and medium access methods are described. In addition, the OSI reference model for computer networking and the IEEE 802 LAN standards are explained in detail. ...

  12. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Concepts for aircraft interior decon • Concepts for wide area/fixed site decon • Supercritical fluid-based decon for sensitive equipment; •Demo enzymatic ...and special purpose clothing; improved closure systems for ensembles; microencapsulated phase change materials for special purpose applications, and...development of microencapsulated phase change materials for heating and cooling in response to extreme temperature changes. Participants in this work are

  13. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  14. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  15. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  16. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  17. Soil nitrogen balance under wastewater management: Field measurements and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vocasek, F.; Ma, Liwang; KC, A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops could result in high nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in the vadose zone and ground water. The goal of this 2-yr field-monitoring study in the deep silty clay loam soils south of Dodge City, Kansas, was to assess how and under what circumstances N from the secondary-treated, wastewater-irrigated corn reached the deep (20-45 m) water table of the underlying High Plains aquifer and what could be done to minimize this problem. We collected 15.2-m-deep soil cores for characterization of physical and chemical properties; installed neutron probe access tubes to measure soil-water content and suction lysimeters to sample soil water periodically; sampled monitoring, irrigation, and domestic wells in the area; and obtained climatic, crop, irrigation, and N application rate records for two wastewater-irrigated study sites. These data and additional information were used to run the Root Zone Water Quality Model to identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in the study area. We demonstrated that NO3-N transport processes result in significant accumulations of N in the vadose zone and that NO3-N in the underlying ground water is increasing with time. Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations for two wastewater-irrigated study sites indicated that reducing levels of corn N fertilization by more than half to 170 kg ha-1 substantially increases N-use efficiency and achieves near-maximum crop yield. Combining such measures with a crop rotation that includes alfalfa should further reduce the accumulation and downward movement of NO3-N in the soil profile. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Wide area monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental sampling can be used to complement the safeguarding of nuclear material, especially in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Routine monitoring of nuclear installations has provided valuable information about the fate of key signature materials within different environmental settings. The approach collates information regarding the generation of individual radiochemical signatures within different nuclear processes, the potential for release of these signatures to the environment and, the chemical form and mobility of the signatures in environmental media along which the material could migrate. Meteorological, geological and hydrological information is used to determine where to sample, what to sample, and how often to sample to provide the greatest likelihood for detection. Multiple strategies can be used to implement wide area monitoring for safeguards purposes. The most complex, and expensive of these, involves establishing extensive networks of fixed location sampling sites. The sites would be operated continuously, and would be instrumented with automated sampling, analysis, and communication equipment to relay information regarding potential anomalies to control centers in near-real time. Alternative strategies can be used to supplement fixed location monitoring equipment, especially in regions that cannot support (financially or logistically) the fixed stations. Through combinations of these various strategies, using a variety of environmental media to monitor a region, we believe that a competent network, one with a quantifiable probability for detecting undeclared nuclear activities, can be designed. While this approach cannot and should not replace other inspection and monitoring activities, it can potentially contribute valuable information to an international safeguards system. (author)

  19. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  20. Shielding in experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Thorndike, A.; White, S.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of shielding necessary to protect experimental detectors from various sources of background radiation is discussed. As illustrated an experiment has line of sight to sources extending approx. 90 m upstream from the intersection point. Packing a significant fraction of this space with shielding blocks would in general be unacceptable because primary access to the ring tunnel is from the experimental halls. (1) From basic machine design considerations and the inherent necessity to protect superconducting magnets it is expected that experimental areas in general will be cleaner than at any existing accelerator. (2) Even so, it will likely be necessary to have some shielding blocks available to protect experimental apparatus, and it may well be necessary to have a large amount of shielding available in the WAH. (3) Scraping will likely have some influence on all halls, and retractable apparatus may sometimes be necessary. (4) If access to any tunnel is needed to replace a magnet, one has 96 h (4 days) available to move shielding away to permit access without additional downtime. This (the amount of shielding one can shuffle about in 96 h) is a reasonable upper limit to shielding necessary in a hall

  1. Reclamation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1986-02-01

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  2. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  3. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  4. Flow area optimization in point to area or area to point flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodoossi, Lotfollah; Egrican, Niluefer

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the constructal theory of generation of shape and structure in flow systems connecting one point to a finite size area. The flow direction may be either from the point to the area or the area to the point. The formulation of the problem remains the same if the flow direction is reversed. Two models are used in optimization of the point to area or area to point flow problem: cost minimization and revenue maximization. The cost minimization model enables one to predict the shape of the optimized flow areas, but the geometric sizes of the flow areas are not predictable. That is, as an example, if the area of flow is a rectangle with a fixed area size, optimization of the point to area or area to point flow problem by using the cost minimization model will only predict the height/length ratio of the rectangle not the height and length itself. By using the revenue maximization model in optimization of the flow problems, all optimized geometric aspects of the interested flow areas will be derived as well. The aim of this paper is to optimize the point to area or area to point flow problems in various elemental flow area shapes and various structures of the flow system (various combinations of elemental flow areas) by using the revenue maximization model. The elemental flow area shapes used in this paper are either rectangular or triangular. The forms of the flow area structure, made up of an assembly of optimized elemental flow areas to obtain bigger flow areas, are rectangle-in-rectangle, rectangle-in-triangle, triangle-in-triangle and triangle-in-rectangle. The global maximum revenue, revenue collected per unit flow area and the shape and sizes of each flow area structure have been derived in optimized conditions. The results for each flow area structure have been compared with the results of the other structures to determine the structure that provides better performance. The conclusion is that the rectangle-in-triangle flow area structure

  5. Cholera in Azov area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  6. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207 Section 591.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living...

  7. Living in Prone Flooding Area: in Coastal Areas of Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    When settlements are not able to provide a comfort area to live in, in this case because of a periodic threat of tidal flood coming to certain settlement areas, it is likely that the people still cannot leave the area. This paper explores the leading factors of the attachment of people to the areas, from economic, physical, social and psychological factors, including a place attachment. Therefore, the approach of the problem solution to tackle the tidal flooding in the areas should be also concern and have considerations relate to the factors.

  8. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoem, P.; Hisas, F.; Gelardi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author) [es

  9. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  10. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  11. LIHTC Difficult to Develop Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Difficult Development Area (DDA) for the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program is an area designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)...

  12. NORTH END ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Harald; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in the North End Roadless Area, Arizona indicate probable or substantiated metallic mineral-resource potential in about one-fifth of the area. The area has potential for disseminated or stockwork-type molybdenum mineralization, copper-lead-zinc-silver veins, lead-zinc-silver limestone replacement deposits, and tungsten-bearing contact metamorphic skarn deposits. The area also contains cement rock and marble dimension stone, but has only slight promise for the occurrence of petroleum and natural gas.

  13. PIEDRA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.

  14. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... transport where the level of detail can be suited to the purpose....

  15. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  16. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  17. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  18. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...

  19. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    ), Staffanstorp municipality (Sweden) and Werv-area (the Netherlands). All three areas belong to the rurban zone and are selected to exemplify pro-active planning. The analysis focuses on how the concept of compact city is perceived and implemented, how rurban areas are managed in order to avoid further urban...... encroachment, and how resilient green landscapes are ensured. The results reveal significant differences in approaches, reflecting variations in the public involvement in rurban areas development, the role of different administrative levels and the use of zonation. Variation in the use of zonation encapsulates...

  20. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  1. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  2. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  3. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  4. The Histogram-Area Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzer, William; Carpenter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates an alternative approach to the construction of histograms--one based on the notion of using area to represent relative density in intervals of unequal length. The resulting histograms illustrate the connection between the area of the rectangles associated with particular outcomes and the relative frequency (probability)…

  5. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  6. Water Service Areas - MDC_WaterServiceArea

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Water and Sewer Service Area layer was derived from the original paper based sketches which contained both water and sewer utility boundary information. This...

  7. Sewerage Service Areas - MDC_SewerServiceArea

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Water and Sewer Service Area layer was derived from the original paper based sketches which contained both water and sewer utility boundary information. This...

  8.   Transformation of the industrial harbor areas to housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Meike

    2009-01-01

    Research question: How to read the universal (understood as the common and the social) and the individual (understood as the specific, private and intimate) in the meeting between urban and housing space? Questions in the project: How do the exterior spaces in these new harbour areas come to being......? What influences are at play in the development of them? What influences the approval and the functioning of these housing areas?...

  9. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  10. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  11. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas

  12. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  13. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  14. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  15. Revitalization Areas By Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Single Family Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by...

  16. Flood Hazard Areas - High Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The S_Fld_Haz_Ar table contains information about the flood hazards within the study area. A spatial file with locational information also corresponds with this data...

  17. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  18. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  19. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  20. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  1. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  2. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  3. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  4. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  5. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  6. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  7. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  8. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  9. Sprawl in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  10. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  11. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  12. Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarian, Naeimehossadat; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Soleimani, Ali; Taghi Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Areato- area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Sapwood area - leaf area relationships for coast redwood

    OpenAIRE

    Stancioiu, P T; O'Hara, K L

    2005-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) trees in different canopy strata and crown positions were sampled to develop relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and projected leaf area. Sampling occurred during the summers of 2000 and 2001 and covered tree heights ranging from 7.7 to 45.2 m and diameters at breast height ranging from 9.4 to 92.7 cm. Foliage morphology varied greatly and was stratified into five types based on needle type (sun or shade) and twig color. A str...

  14. Notes on the area theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mu-In

    2008-01-01

    Hawking's area theorem can be understood from a quasi-stationary process in which a black hole accretes positive energy matter, independent of the details of the gravity action. I use this process to study the dynamics of the inner as well as the outer horizons for various black holes which include the recently discovered exotic black holes and three-dimensional black holes in higher derivative gravities as well as the usual BTZ black hole and the Kerr black hole in four dimensions. I find that the area for the inner horizon 'can decrease', rather than increase, with the quasi-stationary process. However, I find that the area for the outer horizon 'never decreases' such that the usual area theorem still works in our examples, though this is quite non-trivial in general. There exists an instability problem of the inner horizons but it seems that the instability is not important in my analysis. I also find a generalized area theorem by combining those of the outer and inner horizons

  15. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  16. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces...... ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnational Garden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...

  17. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  18. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units

  19. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  20. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  1. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  2. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  3. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  4. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm 2 , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  5. Integrated Assessment of Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing change due to a range of natural and human-induced drivers. Of particular concern is climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR). In low gradient coastal areas, small changes in water levels can have profound consequences. Hence SLR is rightly considered a major threat. However, to properly diagnose a problem and find sustainable solutions, a systems approach is essential as the impacts of SLR will be modified by the other drivers. This paper will consider these issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective drawing on examples from around the world.

  6. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  7. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  8. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  9. ARC Research Areas and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    studying realistic engine-in-vehicle operation, thermal management, component matching, advanced powertrain maximize the vehicle's performance. The vision of Thrust Area 1 is to create adaptive vehicles for maximum , victor.j.paul2.civ@mail.mil The safety and performance of human occupants and operators are paramount in the

  10. Environmental information document: Y Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Site selection, facility descriptions, and alternative operations are described for disposal/storage of concentrated waste streams resulting from waste treatment facilities at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for these alternatives are presented. The new disposal site for this waste will be designated Y Area

  11. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    in sufficient time (2-24 hours before). Another factor that has to be fulfilled is a high level of cohesion in the local area, i.e. a high level of knowledge of any participants in the scheme. Despite of these requirements being met, it is still a challenge to change car owners’ habit in order to make...

  12. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  13. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  14. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  15. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  16. Wide area Hyperspectral Motion Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    detection at a manageable false alarm rate using the adaptive coherence estimator algorithm. A radiance spectrum was calculated with MODTRAN at 5km...1mHz. In order to meet SNR and update rate, the area coverage is reduced to less than the size of a football stadium. An interferometer has

  17. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  18. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design has been to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. One possibility would be to enclose each experiment in a temporary structure that would provide weatherproofing and shielding; another possibility would be to erect a permanent building at a later time, when experience has made the needs clearer than they are at present. The secondary objective of the design of open areas has been to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective might be added, however, which we indicate by the term ''open access.'' This note will explore this idea and some design concepts based on it. In the ISABELLE 1977 summer workshop there was considerable discussion of the importance of techniques for inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Since enclosed halls have certain restrictions in this respect, open areas may be helpful in providing this feature. If the mechanical and electrical aspects could be handled quickly, one might even attempt to reduce the time spent on bureaucratic procedures in order to expedite the introduction of new experiments and new ideas in these areas

  19. GPS measurements in Satakunta area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ahola, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute, the Geological Survey of Finland, Posiva Ltd and municipalities in the district of Satakunta launched the GeoSatakunta research program in 2002 to carry out interdisciplinary studies on regional bedrock stress field and to apply the results e.g. in land use planning in the Satakunta area. The area was chosen for many reasons. Its geological diversity, extensive multi-disciplinary data coverage, and various interests of participants made the area suitable for the project. The purpose of the GPS observations is to get detailed information on recent crustal deformations in the area. The Finnish Geodetic Institute maintains e.g. national GPS network, FinnRef, and since 1995 a local research network in the Olkiluoto area. The Satakunta network differs from these, and this is the first time to obtain such detailed information of a regional network in Finland. The Satakunta GPS network consists of 13 concrete pillars for episodic GPS campaigns and the Olkiluoto permanent GPS station in the FinnRef network. The distances between the concrete pillars are 10-15 km, and the sites were chosen in a co-operation with the Geological Survey of Finland taking into account the geological structures in the area. The City of Pori made the final reconnaissance in the field and constructed eight pillars in 2003. The original network was expanded in 2005-2006 in Eurajoki and Rauma, and at the City of Rauma joined the co-operation. The five new pillars join the previous Olkiluoto network into the Satakunta network. There have been three annual GPS campaigns in 2003-2008. Time series of the Satakunta network are shorter than in the Olkiluoto network, and also the distances are longer. Therefore, the same accuracy than in Olkiluoto has not yet achieved. However, mm-sized movements can be excluded. Estimated velocities were small (0.2 mm/a) and mostly statistically insignificant because of relatively short time series. In this publication we describe the

  20. [Emotion and Brodmann's areas: special reference on area 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2010-11-01

    Brodmann's brain maps, assembled in 1909, are still in use, but understanding of their animal-human homology is uncertain. Furthermore, in 1909, Brodmann did not identify human Area 12 (BA12); a location now important to understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and emotional function. We found Brodmann did identify human BA12 in later maps (1910 and 1914), not in the 1909 monograph. Because of its current link with FTLD, BA 12's translation from animal (1909) to human (1910 and 1914) is not only an historical puzzle. It impacts how Brodmann's areas, based on comparative animal-human cyto-architecture, are widely used in current research as functional loci in human brain. If Brodmann's maps are of current value, then an accurate rather than a generic Brodmann number is in order.

  1. Conservative and innovative dialect areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on conservative and innovative (transitional dialect areas and the questions of 1 how such areas can be methodologically visualized and 2 how the outcomes can be interpreted. In the first part of this paper a geostatistical method of representing phonological features in space will be introduced: interpolation. This method is not entirely new to dialectology; it has been quite neglected, though, in comparison to other methods of mapping, such as the isogloss or dot symbol method that was mainly used in traditional dialect atlases. The interpolation method will be applied to a large corpus of spontaneous speech data from rural dialects spoken in southwest Germany. Methodological steps in data processing will be described, resulting in a data set that can be used as input for statistical analysis and the visual depiction of variation in space as interpolated grid plots. In the second part results will be discussed. The major outcome consists of an aggregate interpolation plot that includes variables from fifteen different etymological sound classes. These sound classes can be used for demonstrating the distribution of receding phonological variables in space. The interpolation shows two conservative areas where receding forms are still widespread. They lie within the centers of the two major dialect groups of southwest Germany: Alemannic and Swabian. The conservative areas are separated by a broad transitional zone characterized by intense variation between receding and innovative variants. It will be argued that this transitional zone is not due to the horizontal spread of the dialects into each other’s areas alone. Rather, variation is triggered by vertical standard influence that supports any dialect form to spread out horizontally as long as it is phonologically identical or similar to the standard form.

  2. Multitemporal burnt area mapping using Landsat 8: merging multiple burnt area indices to highlight burnt areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available gases. These, makes the study of wildfires important. The study of fires is in three phases. Firstly it is forecasting, which uses Fire Danger Index (FDI), secondly it is the mapping of active fires and thirdly, the mapping of burnt areas to access...

  3. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  4. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  5. Hanford 300 Area Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, K.S.; Seiler, S.W.; Hail, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 300 Area Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 300 Area in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.1B (DOE 1991b) by performing the following: (1) Establishing a land use plan, setting land use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities; (2) Coordinating existing, 5-yr, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans; (3) Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities; (4) Identifying site development issues that need further analysis; Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development; and, (6) Integrating DOE plans with local agency plans (i.e., city, country, state, and Tri-Cities Science and Technology Park plans)

  6. Speleogenesis in Dinaric karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2015-04-01

    Dinaric Karst is one of the largest karst regions in Europe and in the World. It is the paramount karst of Europe and type site of many karst features. Dinaric Karst Area covers an extensive part of the Dinarides, a mountain chain in Southern Europe named after Dinara Mt., an impressive and outstanding rocky wall on the border between Dalmatian part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Dinaric Karst occupies an area from the Friuli Plain (Doberdo Karst Plateau) and Slovenian mountains near Postojna cave on the northwest, to Skadar Lake and Prokletije Mt. on the southeast, from Central Bosnian Mountains on the northeast, and the Adriatic Sea seafloor with its islands. The Dinarides outspread in a so-called "Dinaric strike" (NW-SE) for 650 km in length and are up to 150 km wide across SW-NE. The biggest part of the Dinaric Karst Area is situated within Croatian territory (continental, Adriatic coastal and seafloor karst) comprising all karst features with exceptional examples exposed on the surface as well as in the underground. Classical karst area is the one situated in Slovenia, where typical karst features were described for the first time. Presentation of the outstanding values of Dinaric karst is based on the values that can be met in Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania, too. Dinaric Karst is the World's natural heritage because of its unique and outstanding geological characteristics and its living world; some of them are of outstanding natural beauty. Dinaric karst is an integral, compact karst area with extremely great thickness of carbonate rocks of predominantly Mesozoic age which in some areas exceeds 8.000 m. It bears several cycles of karstification thus giving world uniqueness to the area, especially regarding the wealth of submerged karst phenomena, among which vruljes are world unique features. Dinaric karst is one of the largest karst regions in the World. From the scientific perspective, the Dinaric Karst is one of

  7. Health care in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L M

    1994-02-01

    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit.

  8. Temporary storage area characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Nuclear criticality safety: 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Standard applies to the receipt, processing, storage, and shipment of fissionable material in the 300 Area and in any other facility under the control of the Reactor Materials Project Management Team (PMT). The objective is to establish practices and process conditions for the storage and handling of fissionable material that prevent the accidental assembly of a critical mass and that comply with DOE Orders as well as accepted industry practice

  10. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.

    2001-01-01

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it

  11. An Incomplete Optimal Currency Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Graversen, Mads Byskov

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to test if the Eurozone a decade after its launch can be considered an optimal currency area (OCA) as defined by Mundell (1961). In an OCA, asymmetric shocks – as the ones experienced by the Eurozone following the recent financial crisis – may be dampened by tw...... on migration rates. We use panel regressions to test these relationships and find out that migration between member states is very low after the Euro’s first decade. Combined with the lack of significant fiscal transfers we conclude that the currency union is still not an OCA.......The main objective of this study is to test if the Eurozone a decade after its launch can be considered an optimal currency area (OCA) as defined by Mundell (1961). In an OCA, asymmetric shocks – as the ones experienced by the Eurozone following the recent financial crisis – may be dampened by two...... instruments: fiscal transfers from one country to another, or migration. As fiscal transfers in the Eurozone are low, we study the economic significance of migration flows as automatic stabilizers of the currency area. We assume that there is a strong relationship between unemployment and relative wealth...

  12. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  13. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  14. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żarnowiec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out whether the climate of the southern Poland allows for removing rainwater from industrial areas by evaporation from roof surfaces. The study covered the premises of a Logistics Centre with an approximate area of 34 hectares, located in the catchment of the Wedonka stream and in the region of water intake for Kraków at the Rudawa river. In the future, the Centre will comprise nine large warehouses. Road traffic associated with the project will cause potential risks for groundwater and surface water of this protected area. Therefore, the Centre’s investor decided to evaporate rainwater from the premises. To establish advisability of this plan, the study team designed and built a unique experimental station consisting of experimental roof, tank for collecting water for the sprinkler system, system for delivering, distributing and discharging water from the roof, measuring tilt tray, automatic meteorological station, and electronic devices for recording measurement data. The research on the experimental station was carried out from April to October in 2011 and 2012 and included continuous measurements of the volume of water supplied to and discharged from the roof. Moreover, the temperature of the roof and water in the tank and a number of important meteorological parameters were measured. The difference between supplied and discharged water, divided by the wetted surface of the roof, helped to determine thickness of the evaporation layer in millimeters. The study confirmed the possibility of removing potentially contaminated rainwater by evaporating it from roof surfaces of the Logistics Centre located near Kraków at an average rate of 5.9 dm3·m–2.d–1. However, due to high seasonal variability of rainfall and air temperature, it is necessary to temporarily collect water in an expansion tank of suitable capacity.

  15. AEC controlled area safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1969-01-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  16. Western Areas new U plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    On March 30, 1982 Western Areas Gold Mining Company Limited's uranium plant was officialy opened. The plant is designed to treat 100 000t/month of uranium bearing ore. The majority of this ore is from the Middle Elsburg series, while the miner part comes from routing upgrated Upper Elsburg products into the uranium plant treatment route. The forward leach concept of gold and uranium extraction is adopted, i.e. the gold is extracted before the uranium. The flow of work, instrumentation, electrical installation and other facilities at the plant are also discussed

  17. Carlsbad Area Office strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This edition of the Carlsbad Area Office Strategic Plan captures the U.S. Department of Energy's new focus, and supercedes the edition issued previously in 1995. This revision reflects a revised strategy designed to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations earlier than the previous course of action; and a focus on the selected combination of scientific investigations, engineered alternatives, and waste acceptance criteria for supporting the compliance applications. An overview of operations and historical aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico is presented

  18. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  19. History of 100-B Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    The initial three production reactors and their support facilities were designated as the 100-B, 100-D, and 100-F areas. In subsequent years, six additional plutonium-producing reactors were constructed and operated at the Hanford Site. Among them was one dual-purpose reactor (100-N) designed to supply steam for the production of electricity as a by-product. Figure 1 pinpoints the location of each of the nine Hanford Site reactors along the Columbia River. This report documents a brief description of the 105-B reactor, support facilities, and significant events that are considered to be of historical interest. 21 figs

  20. AEC controlled area safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, D W [Nevada Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  1. Home area networks and IPTV

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information tra

  2. Area-normalized thematic views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

  3. Large area and flexible electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applicatio

  4. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  5. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  6. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  7. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  8. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    One objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design is to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. A second objective of the design of open areas is to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective is open access. This note explores this idea and some design concepts based on it. It would permit inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Entire experiments would be moved in a single piece (or a few) by building them on movable platforms with capacities of up to about 1000 tons per platform. Most experiments could be built on a single platform or on a few. The shielding must also be moved. It must also be organized into a small number of large units. A scheme using large tanks filled with water is described. It is important to make the equipment on a given platform as complete and self-contained as possible, with a minimum of interconnections for power, coolant, controls, data transmission, etc. 5 figures

  9. HYDROGELS AND THEIR APLICATION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, being polymeric material,are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of their capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balace volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape. Their cross linked bound structures are able to covalent or ionic and also one polymer which can for use of hydrogel polymer, must have hydrophilic groups such as carboxyl, carbonyl, amine and amide in main chains or side chains, and because of these groups water bound the polymer and polymer start to swell with rising volume and mass. Swell behavior of hydrogel is interested in quantity of hydrophilic groups. Hydrogels can use in different industrial and environmental areas with this high amount water holding capacity. They are used in food industry, biomedical, bioengineering, biotechnology, veterinary, pharmacist, agriculture, telecommunication, etc. Especially in current life, baby nappy has been including inside hydrogel beads. Also they used in contact lens, artificial cornea, synthetic cartilage and gullet, controlled medicine release, surgery yarns. This article general inform about usage area of hydrogels.

  10. Organizational Dysfunctions: Sources and Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pasieczny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this article is to identify and describe various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions. Research Design & Methods: The findings are based on literature review and an ongoing empirical research project conducted in private sector organisations. The empirical study can be situated within interpretative approach. In this qualitative project open interviews and observations were used to collect data. Findings: The study indicates that various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions can be identified in organizations operating in Poland. The sources of dysfunctions may be found both within the organization and its environment. Regardless of its specific features, most of the dysfunctions may be interpreted as an undesirable goal displacement. Very often areas of these dysfunctions are strongly interconnected and create a system that hinders organizational performance. Yet, it is difficult to study these phenomena as respondents are unwilling, for various reasons, to disclose the problems faced by their organizations. Implications & Recommendations: The results imply that the issue of organisational dysfunctions requires open, long-lasting and comparative studies. Recommendations for further studies are formulated in the last section of the paper. Contribution & Value Added: The paper provides insight into "the dark side of organising" by identifying sources and areas of dysfunctions. It also reveals difficulties connected with conducting research on dysfunctions in the Polish context.

  11. X-ray area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  12. Geodiversity assessment in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Marina; Stojković, Sanja; Rundić, Ljupko; Ćalić, Jelena; Sandić, Dejan

    2017-04-01

    Conflict over natural resources figured prominently in the urban areas. On the one hand there is a constant need for space for the construction of new buildings for housing, agriculture and industrial production, and on the other hand the resources need protection because of the threat of degradation or even complete destruction. Considering the fact that urbanization is one of the most serious threats to geodiversity, it is important that this issue is taken into account in spatial development plans and georesource management strategies in urban areas. The geodiversity, as well as natural resource, must be managed in a sustainable manner in which it is very important its protection. The mapping of specific categories of geodiversity (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil) on the basis of quantitative assessment with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can allow spatial planners and managers to take further steps that would reduce threats and protect the natural values. This work presents the application of geodiversity evaluation method by using the geodiversity index (Gd), based on the quantity of abiotic elements and relief roughness within a spatial unit in the case of the City of Belgrade, Serbia. The acquired results are analyzed in the context of sustainable use of georesources and the threats to which geodiversity is exposed due to the development of the city.

  13. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  15. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  16. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  17. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power ampersand Light Company's (PP ampersand L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP ampersand L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP ampersand L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP ampersand L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them

  18. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  19. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  20. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  1. A model for lightning in littoral areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The littoral or coastal areas are different compared to the maritime or continental areas considering lightning. Only the last years some research about these areas has been carried out. The need for a model, regarding the lightning activity in these areas is much needed. And now, with the changes

  2. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of the...

  3. A unique radiation area monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.C.; Allen, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Remote Area Monitoring Systems (RAMS) monitors four radiation areas with two independent systems in each area. Each system consists of power supplies, four ionization chambers, and four analog and digital circuits. The first system controls the warning beacons, horns, annunciation panel and interlocks. The second system presents a quantitative dose rate indication at the console and in the radiation area

  4. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  5. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  6. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  7. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  8. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  9. Large-area photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tilmann; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Gotz P.; Winkler, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Materials with a periodically modulated refractive index, with periods on the scale of light wavelengths, are currently attracting much attention because of their unique optical properties which are caused by Bragg scattering of the visible light. In nature, 3d structures of this kind are found in the form of opals in which monodisperse silica spheres with submicron diameters form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Artificial opals, with the same colloidal-crystalline fcc structure, have meanwhile been prepared by crystallizing spherical colloidal particles via sedimentation or drying of dispersions. In this report, colloidal crystalline films are introduced that were produced by a novel technique based on shear flow in the melts of specially designed submicroscopic silica-polymer core-shell hybrid spheres: when the melt of these spheres flows between the plates of a press, the spheres crystallize along the plates, layer by layer, and the silica cores assume the hexagonal order corresponding to the (111) plane of the fcc lattice. This process is fast and yields large-area films, thin or thick. To enhance the refractive index contrast in these films, the colloidal crystalline structure was inverted by etching out the silica cores with hydrofluoric acid. This type of an inverse opal, in which the fcc lattice is formed by mesopores, is referred to as a polymer-air photonic crystal.

  10. Sistem Rantai Pasok Pupuk Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Rahmadi Putra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. Pupuk Kaltim is biggest manure manufacturer in Indonesia, where its market area covering entire Sulawesi, Bali, some of Kalimantan East Java, Papua, Japan, Taiwan, India, and Australia. Main produced product of PT Pupuk Kaltim is based fertilizer. To meet the demand, PT Kaltim produce up to 2,3 million tons per year.Identifiaction process of supply chain done by accesing company website of PT Kaltim. Then it is outlined each step of supply chain from aggregate planning, production process, suppliers selection, quality mangement, warehousing, performance measure and used transportation unit. From that criteria would visible supply chain of based-fertilizer in PT Pupuk Kaltim. By having long and wide supply chain, PT Pupuk Kaltim still have bullwhip effect because of inacurate in forecasting cause over-stock or out of stock in many production period. In quality, PT Kaltim had got ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 17025 certification in production management and sea-port. Keywords: Fertilizer, supply chain, analysis

  11. China (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, China is similar to other countries in the region in that its rate of population growth has declined due to government family planning efforts while the absolute size of the population continues to increase because of the widening population base. However, China's enormous population of over 1 billion sets it apart and places great strain on economic development efforts. In the past decade the Chinese government has provided population education for the masses, explaining the relationship between population and socioeconomic development, and its overall family planning program has helped reduce population growth from 24.82/1000 in 1974 to 10.81/1000 in 1984. The net population increase has been over 100 million in the past 10 years, and if the present rate of increase with a total fertility rate of 2.1 is maintained for another 15 years, the total population would exceed 1.3 billion by 2000, posing a grave threat to China's socioeconomic development. The nucleus of China's population policy is its birth policy, whose main points are to promote family planning so that population growth will be in keeping with socioeconomic development and the utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. The policy is in line with the principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in 1974. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979 to carry out the population policy and limit the total population to about 1.2 billion by the century's end. 28.17 million couples, 18.25% of the 150 million married couples of childbearing age, had received 1-child certificates by the end of 1984. Generally speaking, most couples in urban areas would be satisfied with 1 child, while those in rural areas usually prefer 2 children. The family planning program is carried out through publicity

  12. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  13. The metro area of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Montreal, one of the most civilized and cosmopolitan of North American cities, is the 2nd city in Canada in size and the largest French-speaking city. Of the 2.8 million people who lived there at census time in 1981, 45% chose both French and English as their official language, 41% chose French, and 1% used some other language. Fully 68% of Montreal residents said their mother tongue was French, and 68% also said they spoke French at home. The importance of bilingualism to the business culture of Montreal cannot be overemphasized. In the last decade, French-Canadians have taken an increasingly stronger role in business. Upper-middle-class suburbs that as little as 10 years ago had only 10% of their residents who were of French-Canadian descent now have as many as 50-60% of their residents who are French-Canadians. Most residents of Montreal willingly learn 2 languages. US firms should assume that all representatives who are sent to Montreal should be fluent in both French and English. Montreal's 2,828,349 people create a population density of 1004.9 persons per square kilometer. Montreal has 665 census tracts, which are described in the Metropolitan Atlas Series. Nearly 62% of Montreal's population fall between the ages of 20 and 64--the prime working ages. Although Montreal is 79% Catholic, it does not have the high fertility levels often associated with Catholic areas. There were 1,026,920 households in Montreal in 1981 with an average of 2.7 persons per household. 71% of these were census family households. Montreal had 1,026,895 occupied dwellings in 1985 with an average of 5 rooms each. About 71% of the population aged 15 and over that were not in school were in the labor force; 41% of the labor force was female. The largest employment category for men was manufacturing (16%) and the largest for women was clerical work (39%).

  14. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianda, B.

    2004-01-01

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their

  15. Philippines (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the 1980 Philippine census enumerated 48.1 million persons, a more than 6-fold increase over the 7.6 million of 1903. The 1913-39 average intercensal growth rate of 2.22% declined during World War II but soared to 3.06% from 1948-60. The growth rate was 2.71% between 1975-80. The median age was 20.2 in 1903, 16.9 in 1970 and 18.6 in 1980. The crude birth rate declined from 46.0/1000 in 1960 to 34.8 in 1975, while the crude death rate declined from 13.7/1000 in 1960 to 9.3 in 1975. The average age of Filipino women at marriage increased from 23.2 in 1975 to 24 in 1978, causing a decline of the total fertility rate from 5.89 to 4.70. The infant mortality rate was expected to decline from 59.3 in 1983 to 54.2 in 1987. The Philippines was still 63% rural in 1980 despite the concentration of urban growth in Manila. As of 1983, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration had processed 434,207 employment contracts, of which 65.5% were for production process workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers, 15.3% were for service workers, and 13.9% were for professional and technical workers. The Philippine Family Planning program aims to reduce population growth from an estimated 2.54% in 1983 to 1.92% by 1993 and to achieve replacement level fertility by 2010. As a result of the 1978 review of the Philippine Population Programme, the focus is now on longterm planning to ensure more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. The Population Education Program aims to inculcate values supporting family planning in the areas of family size and welfare, responsible parenthood, and delayed marriage, while the Adolescent Fertility Program seeks to reduce the incidence of early marriage and pregnancy. 3496 clinics, hospitals, and sterilization centers provide family planning and related services

  16. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  17. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  18. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  19. Science and Technology Business Area Strategic Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The S&T Business Area Strategic Plan has been updated to include lessons learned over the last two years, identifies areas that need to be reviewed further, addresses business opportunities and threats...

  20. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict wilderness areas within the state of New Mexico managed by the Bureau of Land Management These wilderness areas are officially...

  1. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  2. Reserve Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  3. Hawaii ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for artificial reefs, designated critical habitats, national parks, marine sanctuaries, special management areas,...

  4. Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...

  5. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  6. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  7. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  8. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... launch adjacent to Officer's Club Beach on American Lake—Beachwood area Cat Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See Para 3 below) Fiander lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20 Johnson Marsh—Training Area 10 Lewis Lake Picnic and Fishing...

  10. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  11. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... company to be other than such company's study area, the Commission will consider that proposed definition... definition of a service area served by a rural telephone company. (2) The Commission shall issue a Public... to consider a definition of a service area served by a rural telephone company that is different from...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.959 - Area plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and time lines based on a realistic assessment of the area, including, but not limited to, the... possibilities for industrial recruitment in the area; (5) The potential for development of tourism in the area... expansion of existing businesses; and (7) The potential to produce value-added agricultural products in the...

  13. 32 CFR 1605.51 - Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area. 1605.51 Section 1605.51 National Defense... ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.51 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall divide each State into local board areas and establish local boards. There shall be at least one local board in each county...

  14. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde...

  15. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production area...

  16. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by the...

  17. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of American...

  18. Low Impact Development for Industrial Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    copper gutters can also be significant sources of metal pollutants. Other studies indicate that vehicle disc brake pads and car tires can be a...industrial areas to develop the performance criteria for LID systems that specifically targeted these areas. Areas targeted include scrap metal recycling

  19. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  20. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura...... 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring...

  1. 300 Area Revitalization Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    The 300 Area Revitalization Team has been tasked with the responsibility to develop an integrated path forward for the 300 Area, as part of a commitment stemming from the 300 Area Disposition Workshop that was held on March 17, 1998. The integrated path forward that is needed must ensure that budget, schedule, and work scopes are complementary between the Programs that are involved in the 300Area. This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the roles and responsibilities, and the overall approach, to development of a prioritized schedule for 300 Area activities that will achieve the end-state condition

  2. On population growth near protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the first, and often only, line of defense in efforts to conserve biodiversity. They might be detrimental or beneficial to rural communities depending on how they alter economic opportunities and access to natural resources. As such, protected areas may attract or repel human settlement. Disproportionate increases in population growth near protected area boundaries may threaten their ability to conserve biodiversity.Using decadal population datasets, we analyze population growth across 45 countries and 304 protected areas. We find no evidence for population growth near protected areas to be greater than growth of rural areas in the same country. Furthermore, we argue that what growth does occur near protected areas likely results from a general expansion of nearby population centers.Our results contradict those from a recent study by Wittemyer et al., who claim overwhelming evidence for increased human population growth near protected areas. To understand the disagreement, we re-analyzed the protected areas in Wittemyer et al.'s paper. Their results are simply artifacts of mixing two incompatible datasets. Protected areas may experience unusual population pressures near their edges; indeed, individual case studies provide examples. There is no evidence, however, of a general pattern of disproportionate population growth near protected areas.

  3. Radioactive mineral occurrences in the Bancroft area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterly, J

    1958-12-31

    The report summarizes three years of field work conducted in the Bancroft area investigating occurrences of radioactive minerals, and also includes accounts of properties in the area for which drill logs and survey reports have been filed. It begins with a history of exploration and development of radioactive mineral deposits in the area, a review of the area`s general geology (Grenville metasediments, plutonic rocks), and general descriptions of the types of radioactive mineral deposits found in the area (deposits in granitic and syenitic bodies, metasomatic deposits in limy rocks, hydrothermal deposits). It also describes the mineralogy of radioactive minerals found in the area and the Geiger counter technique used in the investigation. The bulk of the report consists of descriptions of radioactive mineral properties and mine workings, containing (where available) information on exploration history, general and economic geology, and production.

  4. Conceptual geohydrological model of the separations area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W.; Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface drilling in and around the Separations Areas (F-Area and H-Area of the Savannah River Plant) is providing detailed information for a conceptual model of the geology and hydrology underlying these areas. This conceptual model will provide the framework needed for a mathematical model of groundwater movement beneath these areas. Existing information substantiates the presence of two areally extensive clay layers and several discontinuous clay and sandy-clay layers. These layers occur in and between beds of clayey and silty sand that make up most of the subsurface material. Within these sand beds are geologic units of differing hydraulic conductivity. For the present scale of the model, the subsurface information is considered adequate in H-Area, but additional drilling is planned in F-Area

  5. [Cortical Areas for Controlling Voluntary Movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal. The supplementary motor area, which occupies the mesial aspect, is involved in planning and executing actions based on internalized or memorized signals. The supplementary motor area plays a central role in bimanual movements, organizing multiple movements, and switching from a routine to a controlled behavior. Thus, Brodmann areas 4 and 6 are considered as central motor areas in the cerebral cortex, in which the idea of an action is transformed to an actual movement in a variety of contexts.

  6. Environmental literacy in agriculture and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianti, N.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aim to investigate the environmental literacy of junior high school students in agricultural and coastal areas in Subang based on knowledge, cognitive skill and attitudes toward to environment. This research used descriptive method. The subjects of the research were 7 grade students of junior high school and involved 62 participants in agriculture area and 64 participants in coastal area. The instrument of environment literacy adapted from Middle School Environment Literacy Survey (MSELS) and adapted to the context of agricultural and coastal area. The results showed that: environmental literacy in agricultural areas is 169.30 with moderate category and environmental literacy in the coastal area is 152.61 in the moderate category.

  7. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  8. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  9. Soil Quality of Bauxite Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terezinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The study on soil quality index (SQI) aims to assess the current state of the soil after use and estimating its recovery through sustainable management practices This type of study is being used in this work in order to check the efficiency of forest recovery techniques in areas that have been deeply degraded by bauxite mining process, and compare them with the area of native forest, through the determination of SQI. Treatments were newly mined areas, areas undergoing restoration (topsoil use with planting of native forest species), areas in rehabilitation (employment of the green carpet with topsoil and planting of native forest species) and areas of native forests, with six repetitions, in areas of ALCOA, in the municipality of Poços de Caldas/MG. To this end, we used the additive pondered model, establishing three functions: Fertility, water movement and root development, based on chemical parameters (organic matter, base saturation, aluminum saturation and calcium content); physical (macroporosity, soil density and clay content); and microbiological testing (basal respiration by the emission of CO2 ). The SQIs obtained for each treatment was 41%, 56%, 63% and 71% for newly mined areas, native forest, areas in restoration and rehabilitation, respectively. The recovering technique that most approximates the degraded soil to the soil of reference is the restoration, where there was no statistically significant difference of areas restored with native forest. It was found that for the comparison of the studied areas must take into account the nutrient cycling, that disappear with plant removal in mining areas, once the soil of native forest features low fertility and high saturation by aluminum, also taking in account recovering time.

  10. N Area Post-Deactivation ALARA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about a wide range of radiological work activities at the N Area Deactivation Project. The report is divided into sections that are based on specific N Area scopes of work. Each section contains specific information that was of significant radiological importance in completing N Area Deactivation work. The information presented in this report may be applicable and beneficial to similar projects throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and in commercial industry

  11. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative based on reviews of various regulatory and guidance documents, as well as phone interviews with federal/state/local government agencies and private organizations. ESAs include, but are not limited to, wetlands, biological resources, habitats, national parks, archaeological/historic sites, natural heritage areas, tribal lands, drinking water intakes, marinas/boat ramps, wildlife areas, etc.

  12. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  13. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  14. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  15. Area Regge calculus and continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity

  16. Overcoming the isolation of disadvantaged housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    Disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently subject to more thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to overcome the isolated character of the housing estates. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... penthouse flats, new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and discussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas. The analysis shows that especially everyday-route strategies adding new public functions...

  17. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  18. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 552 - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... guests. Boat launch adjacent to Officer's Club Beach on American Lake/Beachwood area Cat Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and *Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See para 2 below) Ecology Park Hiking Path—North Fort, CTA A West Fiander Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20...

  20. Protected areas system planning and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Vth World Parks Congress to be held in Durban, South Africa, September 8-17, 2003 will evaluate progress in protected areas conservation and stipulate strategic policies for the coming decade. Most countries of the world have at least a collection of protected areas, and have signed the

  1. Solar Cels With Reduced Contact Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.; Kachare, A. H.; Lewis, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells increased about 20 percent using smaller metal-contact area on silicon at front and back of each cell. Reduction in contact area reduces surface recombination velocity under contact and thus reduces reverse saturation current and increases opencircuit voltage..

  2. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  3. [Determination of joint contact area using MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Koichi; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji

    2009-10-20

    Elevated contact stress on the articular joints has been hypothesized to contribute to articular cartilage wear and joint pain. However, given the limitations of using contact stress and areas from human cadaver specimens to estimate articular joint stress, there is need for an in vivo method to obtain such data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a valid method of quantifying the human joint contact area, indicating the potential for in vivo assessment. The purpose of this study was to describe a method of quantifying the tibiofemoral joint contact area using MRI. The validity of this technique was established in porcine cadaver specimens by comparing the contact area obtained from MRI with the contact area obtained using pressure-sensitive film (PSF). In particular, we assessed the actual condition of contact by using the ratio of signal intensity of MR images of cartilage surfaces. Two fresh porcine cadaver knees were used. A custom loading apparatus was designed to apply a compressive load to the tibiofemoral joint. We measured the contact area by using MRI and PSF methods. When the ratio of signal intensity of the cartilage surface was 0.9, the error of the contact area between the MR image and PSF was about 6%. These results suggest that this MRI method may be a valuable tool in quantifying joint contact area in vivo.

  4. Determination of joint contact area using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Koichi; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Elevated contact stress on the articular joints has been hypothesized to contribute to articular cartilage wear and joint pain. However, given the limitations of using contact stress and areas from human cadaver specimens to estimate articular joint stress, there is need for an in vivo method to obtain such data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a valid method of quantifying the human joint contact area, indicating the potential for in vivo assessment. The purpose of this study was to describe a method of quantifying the tibiofemoral joint contact area using MRI. The validity of this technique was established in porcine cadaver specimens by comparing the contact area obtained from MRI with the contact area obtained using pressure-sensitive film (PSF). In particular, we assessed the actual condition of contact by using the ratio of signal intensity of MR images of cartilage surfaces. Two fresh porcine cadaver knees were used. A custom loading apparatus was designed to apply a compressive load to the tibiofemoral joint. We measured the contact area by using MRI and PSF methods. When the ratio of signal intensity of the cartilage surface was 0.9, the error of the contact area between the MR image and PSF was about 6%. These results suggest that this MRI method may be a valuable tool in quantifying joint contact area in vivo. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 948.50 - Area committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...' cooperative marketing associations. (c) Area No. 3: Five Producers and four handlers selected as follows... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... forth in this section or as reestablished by § 948.53. (a) Area No. 1 (Western Slope): Four producers...

  6. Fault tree analysis for vital area identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ortiz, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of fault tree analysis techniques to systematically identify (1) the sabotage events which can lead to release of significant quantities of radioactive materials, (2) the areas of the nuclear power plant in which the sabotage events can be accomplished, and (3) the areas of the plant which must be protected to assure that release does not occur are discussed

  7. (ajst) structural evolution of bode saadu area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    2, pp. 17-24. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF BODE SAADU AREA,. SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA. C. T. Okonkwo. Department of Geology, University of Ilorin P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. E-mail cokonkwo@unilorin.edu.ng. ABSTRACT: The Bode Saadu area comprises metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks which have.

  8. The geology of the Olkiluoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Paulamaeki, S.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Koistinen, T.; Front, K.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant deep in the Finnish bedrock. An area close to the power plant at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, was one of the five areas selected in 1987 for the preliminary site investigations. A summary of the geological conditions at the Olkiluoto site is presented in the report

  9. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  10. L p -Dual geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lutwak proposed the notion of Lp -geominimal surface area according to the Lp -mixed volume. In this article, associated with the Lp -dual mixed volume, we introduce the Lp -dual geominimal surface area and prove some inequalities for this notion. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 52A20 52A40.

  11. The European Large Area ISO Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Alexander, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12 deg(2) at 15 mu m with ISOCAM and at 90 mu m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the...

  12. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on…

  13. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, C.; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the extent to which area-based management may have influenced the fishing efficiency of the Danish and Dutch demersal fleets harvesting cod, plaice and sole in the North Sea. Special consideration is given to the `plaice box', a restricted area where fishing

  14. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting

  15. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational support...

  16. Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes purchasing power parity (PPP) for the euro area. We study the impact of the introduction of the euro in 1999 on the behavior of real exchange rates. We test the PPP hypothesis for a panel of real exchange rates within the euro area over the period 1973-2003. Our

  17. Wetted surface area of recreational boats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; van Vlaardingen PLA; ICH; VSP

    2018-01-01

    The wetted surface area of recreational craft is often treated with special paint that prevents growth of algae and other organisms. The active substances in this paint (antifouling) are also emitted into the water. The extent of this emission is among others determined by the treated surface area.

  18. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

  19. Countering resistance to protected-area extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David; Thorn, Simon; Noss, Reed

    2018-04-01

    The establishment of protected areas is a critical strategy for conserving biodiversity. Key policy directives like the Aichi targets seek to expand protected areas to 17% of Earth's land surface, with calls by some conservation biologists for much more. However, in places such as the United States, Germany, and Australia, attempts to increase protected areas are meeting strong resistance from communities, industry groups, and governments. We examined case studies of such resistance in Victoria, Australia, Bavaria, Germany, and Florida, United States. We considered 4 ways to tackle this problem. First, broaden the case for protected areas beyond nature conservation to include economic, human health, and other benefits, and translate these into a persuasive business case for protected areas. Second, better communicate the conservation values of protected areas. This should include highlighting how many species, communities, and ecosystems have been conserved by protected areas and the counterfactual (i.e., what would have been lost without protected area establishment). Third, consider zoning of activities to ensure the maintenance of effective management. Finally, remind citizens to think about conservation when they vote, including holding politicians accountable for their environmental promises. Without tackling resistance to expanding the protected estate, it will be impossible to reach conservation targets, and this will undermine attempts to stem the global extinction crisis. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  1. Areas naturales protegidas de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solórzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    En este mapa mostramos las areas naturales protegidas designadas para la conservacion de los recursos naturales en Puerto Rico y regiones reguladas por ley con el potencial de mejorar la conservacion de los mismos. La designacion de areas protegidas es un proceso dinamico debido a que es el resultado de la constante evolucion de valores en los diferentes sectores de la...

  2. Content Area Literacy in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Abbigail; Ming, Kavin; Helf, Shawnna

    2018-01-01

    Content area literacy has an important role in helping students understand content in specific disciplines, such as mathematics. Although the strategies are not unique to each individual content area, they are often adapted for use in a specific discipline. For example, mathematicians use mathematical language to make sense of new ideas and…

  3. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  4. Protected Natural Areas of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solorzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    Protection of natural areas is essential to conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. Benefits and services provided by natural areas are complex, interwoven, life-sustaining, and necessary for a healthy environment and a sustainable future (Daily et al. 1997). They include clean water and air, sustainable wildlife populations and habitats, stable...

  5. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  6. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...

  7. Preservation of wilderness areas in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A unique momentum has been created over the past few years for strengthening the protection of wilderness in Europe. Policy makers started to pay attention to the importance of truly untouched and non-managed areas and the European Parliament adopted a special report on wilderness in February 2009. The report was followed by the EC Presidency Conference in Prague, May 2009, on Wilderness Areas. The most important outcome of this event was the approval of the ‘Agenda for Wilderness’, which eventually led to the inclusion of wilderness in the new EU Biodiversity Strategy. This paper argues that these political successes have yet to be put into practice. Threats to wilderness areas are still increasing and there have been no improvements in the management of these areas. There are emerging threats, especially from tree felling and mining, which is driven by increase in commodity prices. In order to save the last pieces of wilderness in Europe and utilize the current opportunities to restore wilderness areas, science and field conservation must develop a common Wilderness Research Agenda for Europe. The main questions are: (i What are the ecosystem services and benefits that humans obtain for wilderness areas? (ii What is the potential contribution of such wilderness areas for reducing biodiversity loss, halt species extinctions and support biodiversity restoration in Europe? (iii What is the social perception of wilderness in different countries and across different sectors of society? (iv What should be considered wilderness in a densely populated area such as Europe?

  8. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors

  9. 40 CFR 258.13 - Fault areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault areas. 258.13 Section 258.13... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.13 Fault areas. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located within 200 feet (60 meters) of a fault that has had displacement in Holocene...

  10. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas...

  11. Career Area Rotation Model: User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard B.; And Others

    The Career Area Rotation Model (CAROM) was developed as a result of the need for a computer based model describing the rotation of airmen within a specific career area (occupational specialty) through various categories of tour duty, accommodating all policies and interactions which are relevant for evaluation purposes. CAROM is an entity…

  12. 7 CFR 948.4 - Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Huerfano, Las Animas, Mineral, Archuleta, in the State of Colorado, and all counties in said State, south... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.4 Area. Area means any of the subdivisions of the State of Colorado as...

  13. Some Knowledge Areas in Blindness Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, J. Martin; Cavenaugh, Brenda S.; Johnson, Cherie A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an outline of knowledge areas in rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation teaching related to visual impairments such as: core areas; planning and delivery services; job development, placement, and follow-along; job engineering; Braille and other tactual systems; communication systems; computers for individuals with visual…

  14. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...... the time required and the precision of the estimator. Furthermore, we compare the precision of point counting for three different grid intensities with that of several standard leaf area measurement techniques. Results showed that the precision of the plant leaf area estimator based on point counting...

  15. Use of the Cumbrian coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The primary objective of the research was to establish the recreational usage made of the Cumbrian coastal area. Observations of the numbers of adults and children in each area included in the study were undertaken, as well as an interview survey among adults which identified patterns of use by different groups. The interview survey comprised 7070 interviews, 80% of which were with residents of, rather than visitors to, Cumbria. Additional investigations and analyses were conducted to: determine hours of occupancy at coastal areas; observe usage made of particular areas outside the locations and times of the main survey; assess the usage made of coastal areas and inland waterways by members of the public likely to be excluded from the main study (eg. bird watchers, water-sport participants). (author)

  16. Large area damage testing of optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed open-quotes functional damage thresholdclose quotes was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold

  17. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  18. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  19. 3000 Area Phase 1 environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranade, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to sell the 3000 Area to prospective buyers. Environmental Services was requested by the WHC Economic Transition group to assess potential environmental liabilities in the area. Historical review of the area indicated that the site was the location of ''Camp Hanford'' in 1951 and has been used for a variety of purposes since then. The activities in the area have changed over the years. A number of Buildings from the area have been demolished and at least 15 underground storage tanks (USTs) have been removed. Part of the 3000 Area was identified as Operable Unit 1100-EM-3 in the Tri-Party Agreement and was cleaned up by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The cleanup included removal of contaminated soil and USTS. WHC and ICF KH had also performed sampling and analysis at some locations in the 3000 Area prior to USACE's work on the Operable Unit 1100-EM-3. They removed a number of USTs and performed remediation

  20. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  1. [Neuroanatomy of the Parietal Association Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-11-01

    The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule. Visual information is processed through the dorsal visual pathway and it reaches the inferior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus. Acoustic information is transferred posteriorly from the primary acoustic area, and it reaches the posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule. The areas in the intraparietal sulcus project to the premotor area, the frontal eye fields, and the prefrontal area. These areas are involved in the control of ocular movements, reaching and grasping of the upper extremities, and spatial working memory. The posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule and the precuneus both project either directly, or indirectly via the posterior cingulate gyrus, to the parahippocampal and entorhinal cortices. Both these areas are strongly associated with hippocampal functions for long-term memory formation.

  2. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  3. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  4. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  5. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  6. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  7. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  8. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  9. Development of web monitoring radiation area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoon Jin; Lee, Jun Hee; Namkoong, Phil; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Su Hong; Lee, Gun Bae

    2005-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of radioisotope industry and nuclear facility have ever raised the possibility of radiation safety accident. As such a result, radioisotope companies and nuclear facility operators have become to be much interested in radiation area monitoring for efficient radiation protection. At present, almost of the radiation area monitors which are imported products are outdated in aspect of their functions. Diversification of the monitoring work is urgently demanding additional functions to be added. Thus we have developed new-type digital area monitor which enables remote web monitoring with image and radiation dose rate value at distant places through using internet, the latest IT technology, and radiation measurement technology

  10. Regional hydrogeological study in the Tono area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhisa; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Tsubota, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    Regional hydrogeological studies have been carried out since fiscal 1992 to determine the regional groundwater flow in the Tono area of Japan. The following items have been investigated: 1) Understanding the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment in the Tono area. 2) Constructing conceptual models of the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry. 3) Developing appropriate techniques to investigate the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment. This report presents the results of the last six years of the study in the Tono area. (author)

  11. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  12. Broca's area: a supramodal hierarchical processor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Weniger, Dorothea

    2006-05-01

    Despite the presence of shared characteristics across the different domains modulating Broca's area activity (e.g., structural analogies, as between language and music, or representational homologies, as between action execution and action observation), the question of what exactly the common denominator of such diverse brain functions is, with respect to the function of Broca's area, remains largely a debated issue. Here, we suggest that an important computational role of Broca's area may be to process hierarchical structures in a wide range of functional domains.

  13. New Area Law in General Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Engelhardt, Netta

    2015-08-21

    We report a new area law in general relativity. A future holographic screen is a hypersurface foliated by marginally trapped surfaces. We show that their area increases monotonically along the foliation. Future holographic screens can easily be found in collapsing stars and near a big crunch. Past holographic screens exist in any expanding universe and obey a similar theorem, yielding the first rigorous area law in big bang cosmology. Unlike event horizons, these objects can be identified at finite time and without reference to an asymptotic boundary. The Bousso bound is not used, but it naturally suggests a thermodynamic interpretation of our result.

  14. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Khan, M.A.; Chowdhury, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm -3 inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm -3 inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408±98Bqm -3

  15. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  16. Program Contacts for Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  17. FLOODPLAIN, MARION COUNTY, OHIO, AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, AUGUSTA COUNTY, USA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  20. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  1. PM 2.5 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 2.5 and have been...

  2. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  3. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  4. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobach, Mark P

    2007-02-01

    To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each waiting area (brochures, books, illuminated new trailer, children's play area, etc.). Per patient each activity was registered, and at each pharmacy the behaviour was studied for 2 weeks. Most patients only waited during the waiting time at the studied pharmacies. Few consumers obtained written information during their wait. The waiting area may have latent possibilities to expand the information function of the pharmacy and combine this with other activities that distract the consumer from the wait. Transdisciplinary research, combining knowledge from pharmacy practice research with consumer research, has been a useful approach to add information on queueing behaviour of consumers.

  5. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  6. 14 CFR 139.309 - Safety areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... construction, reconstruction, or expansion began if construction, reconstruction, or significant expansion of... grading or storm sewers to prevent water accumulation. (3) Each safety area must be capable under dry...

  7. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  8. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  9. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  10. Nonattainment Area - Particulate Matter - 10 (1990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  11. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative...

  12. Protected Areas Database for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by USGS GAP, that illustrates and describes public land ownership, management...

  13. Discreteness of area in noncommutative space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: amelino@roma1.infn.it; Gubitosi, Giulia; Mercati, Flavio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-06-08

    We introduce an area operator for the Moyal noncommutative plane. We find that the spectrum is discrete, but, contrary to the expectation formulated by other authors, not characterized by a 'minimum-area principle'. We show that an intuitive analysis of the uncertainty relations obtained from Moyal-plane noncommutativity is fully consistent with our results for the spectrum, and we argue that our area operator should be generalizable to several other noncommutative spaces. We also observe that the properties of distances and areas in the Moyal plane expose some weaknesses in the line of reasoning adopted in some of the heuristic analyses of the measurability of geometric spacetime observables in the quantum-gravity realm.

  14. Discreteness of area in noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Mercati, Flavio

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an area operator for the Moyal noncommutative plane. We find that the spectrum is discrete, but, contrary to the expectation formulated by other authors, not characterized by a 'minimum-area principle'. We show that an intuitive analysis of the uncertainty relations obtained from Moyal-plane noncommutativity is fully consistent with our results for the spectrum, and we argue that our area operator should be generalizable to several other noncommutative spaces. We also observe that the properties of distances and areas in the Moyal plane expose some weaknesses in the line of reasoning adopted in some of the heuristic analyses of the measurability of geometric spacetime observables in the quantum-gravity realm.

  15. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 400 Area at Hanford is home primarily to the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a DOE-owned, formerly operating, 400-megawatt (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled...

  16. Protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key words: Protected Areas, Aesthetics, Cultural Heritage, Guidebook. ... International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). ... and tourism within the city of Evanston, U.S.A ... that were protected and designated as forest reserves.

  17. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  18. N Area Final Project Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.; Duncan, G.M; Trent, S.J.

    1998-07-01

    The N Area Final Project Program Plan is issued for information and use by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) for the Hanford Site, and other parties that require workscope knowledge for the deactivation of N Reactor facilities and remediation of the 100-N Area. This revision to the program plan contains the updated critical path schedule to deactivate N Reactor and its supporting facilities, cleanout of the N Reactor Fuel Storage Basin (105-N Basin), and remediate the 100-N Area. This document reflects notable changes in the deactivation plan for N Reactor, including changes in deactivation status, the N Basin cleanout task, and 100-N Area remediation

  19. The dose-area product in DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfirtner, H.

    1995-01-01

    In DSA, the dose-area product shows a very good correlation with the maximum incidence dose. It may therefore serve as a reliable basis for the assessment of radiation doses to patients. The dose-area product is also a useful tool for the detection pf peak shifts in the radiation curves for certain investigations. In view of the considerable scatter of the values for the dose-area product these must, however, be subjected to an additional statistical analysis. Provided that this rule is observed, the dose-area product will considerably gain in importance for the monitoring of radiation exposures of patients. A very noteworthy learning effect could be achieved, if it would be made mandatory for those statistical analyses to be carried out not only on an investigation-specific but also an investigator-specific basis. The latter is particularly true of teaching hospitals. (orig./VHE) [de

  20. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  1. Protected Areas: How much is enough?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollands, Martin [Fauna and Flora International (International organizations without location); Roe, Dilys

    2004-07-01

    Protected areas have long been the cornerstone of international conservation policy. The 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas shows that in the last 40 years coverage has increased dramatically from 2.4 to 18.8 million km2. At the same time, the continuing decline of biodiversity has been a cause for international concern culminating in the agreement of an international Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at the 1992 'Earth Summit'. In the same year, the IUCN World Parks Congress (WPC) set a target for protected area coverage at 10 per cent of the world's surface area – a target that was endorsed by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). The following year, at the 2003 IUCN World Parks Congress it was announced that total coverage had actually exceeded the 10 per cent target and was in fact closer to 12 per cent.

  2. Caolines Program. N1 area prospective soundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Mari, C.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about The Caolines program. After several stages was designed a network of drilling to be developed in prospective areas. The support of this network was a geological cartography performed in a devonian region.

  3. Robust small area prediction for counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray

    2015-06-01

    A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Cancer Related-Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates are produced using statistical models that combine data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, and auxiliary variables obtained from relevant sources and borrow strength from other areas with similar characteristics.

  5. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  6. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, MILLER COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, CLINCH COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, BAKER COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, EARLY COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. Annual cropped area expansion and agricultural production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... considerable annual increase of varying extent over time and space for both annual output and area ... The study suggests improving productivity through sustainable agricultural ...

  12. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's), within the state of New Mexico, identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as having...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, ATKINSON COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. FLOODPLAIN, COFFEE COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  16. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  17. FLOODPLAIN, DARKE COUNTY, OHIO, AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, WORTH COUNTY, GEORGIA and INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. Tourism Areas - MDC_GolfCourse

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of all known Golf Courses within Miami-Dade County. Data was extracted from U.S. GDT Large Area Landmarks dataset, which represents common...

  1. Identifying national freshwater ecosystem priority areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights the use of systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas for managing the health of freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity and ecosystem services....

  2. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  3. Electromagnetic Field Evaluation: Assessment of exclusion areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, J.P.V.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents simulations done using the AWAS tool for the definition of areas that exceed reference levels, within the context of the implementation of Recommendation 1999/519/CE of the European Commission

  4. FLOODPLAIN, DEKALB COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. An Automated Processing Method for Agglomeration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agglomeration operations are a core component of the automated generalization of aggregated area groups. However, because geographical elements that possess agglomeration features are relatively scarce, the current literature has not given sufficient attention to agglomeration operations. Furthermore, most reports on the subject are limited to the general conceptual level. Consequently, current agglomeration methods are highly reliant on subjective determinations and cannot support intelligent computer processing. This paper proposes an automated processing method for agglomeration areas. Firstly, the proposed method automatically identifies agglomeration areas based on the width of the striped bridging area, distribution pattern index (DPI, shape similarity index (SSI, and overlap index (OI. Next, the progressive agglomeration operation is carried out, including the computation of the external boundary outlines and the extraction of agglomeration lines. The effectiveness and rationality of the proposed method has been validated by using actual census data of Chinese geographical conditions in the Jiangsu Province.

  6. FLOODPLAIN, STEWART COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, PUTNAM COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, SEMINOLE COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, VAN BUREN COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, VERNON PARISH (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, COLQUITT COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, THOMAS COUNTY, GEORGIA and INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  14. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  15. Environmental conflicts in urban regeneration areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsborg, Christian; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2006-01-01

    in more land-based freight and less shipping, amalgamation of industries and re-location due to new localization parameters. As the case may be, these structural alterations bring about more or less abandoned and worn-down areas. Typically, the areas are located centrally in the towns. With that......, they hold a substantial need for redevelopment and revitalization from an urban planning and management point of view as well as a considerable development potential, as the areas generally offer an attractive possibility for building new housing, offices and other white-collar workplaces. However......, redevelopment of these older business areas faces great challenges; especially compared to urban (re)development in general. The property structure and ownerships are often complex and need re-composition to meet new land uses, the soil may be polluted from former activities implying large clearing costs...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, GLOUCESTER COUNTY, VA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. FLOODPLAIN, POINTE COUPEE PARISH (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, TOOELE COUNTY, UTAH (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, PIERCE COUNTY, WISCONSIN, AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. Highway runoff in areas of karst topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Karst terrain is characterized by sinkholes, depressions, caves, and underground drainage, generally underlain by soluble rocks such as limestone and dolomite. Because natural filtration through soil is limited in karst areas, pollutants in highway s...

  1. Optimizing sales areas of combined transport chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Michalk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined transport chains (such as intermodal transport, have certain advantages. The main advantage from customer points of view is the possibility to bundle freight and thereby decrease transport costs. On the other hand, a combined transport chain can cause longer transport times, due to the necessary transshipment processes. Methods: The area around a terminal, in which a combined service has favourable properties to a customer in comparison to a direct transport, can be understood as a sales-area, in which a combined transport product is marketable. The aim of this paper was to find a method to determine the best shape and size of this area. Results and conclusions: The paper at hand lined out a method in order to calculate such a sales area and determine which geographical points around a terminal have an advantage in comparison to a direct transport service.

  2. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  3. FLOODPLAIN, BERRIEN COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, BLOUNT COUNTY AND INCORPORATED AREAS, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. National Association of Area Agencies on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Area Agencies on Aging Search Member Login Forgot Password? Menu ABOUT n4a Mission, Vision & Work AAAs & Title VI Aging Programs Membership Board of Directors Staff Contact ...

  6. HUD Low and Moderate Income Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN PARISH (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. 7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processes to operate with a minimum of human intervention. Manipulations may be required on natural areas to... contained in the following publications: Soil Taxonomy, a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and...

  9. Radioactive waste management of urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.

    1993-01-01

    The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area

  10. Nonattainment Area - Particulate Matter - 10 (1987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  11. Western Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, and State Parks. Vector polygons in this data...

  12. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  13. 14 CFR 417.413 - Hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public has access to the associated hazard area. (5) Do not allow sources of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, such as, x-rays, nuclear power sources, high-energy radio transmitters, radar, and lasers to be...

  14. Virginia ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for management areas, national parks, state and local parks, and wildlife refuges in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. FLOODPLAIN, MACON COUNTY, TENNESSEE and INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, COOK COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. 2006 PM-2.5 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 2006 PM-2.5 standards....

  18. Alabama ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for designated critical habitats, state parks, wildlife refuges, and wildlife management areas in Alabama. Vector...

  19. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Louisiana ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for managed lands in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent the management areas. Location-specific type and...

  1. Louisiana ESI: PARISH (Parish Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for parishes in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent parish management areas. Location-specific type and...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, COFFEE COUNTY AND INCORPORATED AREAS, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. Directory of southern African conservation areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greyling, T

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available and Swaziland. The data sheets for each of the 155 areas described include details on date of proclamation, geographical features, vegetation, flora and fauna, infrastructure and principal reference material. A synthesis of the data examines the historical...

  4. State Wildlife Management Area Boundaries - Publicly Accessible

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This polygon theme contains boundaries for approximately 1392 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state covering nearly 1,288,000 acres. WMAs are part of the...

  5. Wildlife Private Lands Specialist Support Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents the areas of Minnesota that MNDNR Wildlife Private Lands Specialists cover. These boundaries are provided for support mapping and to show...

  6. FLOODPLAIN, WOOD COUNTY, OHIO, AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  8. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  9. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  10. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  11. Accomplish the Application Area in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Nidhi; Awasthi, Amit

    2012-01-01

    In the cloud computing application area of accomplish, we find the fact that cloud computing covers a lot of areas are its main asset. At a top level, it is an approach to IT where many users, some even from different companies get access to shared IT resources such as servers, routers and various file extensions, instead of each having their own dedicated servers. This offers many advantages like lower costs and higher efficiency. Unfortunately there have been some high profile incidents whe...

  12. Analisis Kinerja Local Area Network Menggunakan Router.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Yosua

    2012-01-01

    Perangkat internetworking menawarkan komunikasi di antara segmen Local Area Network (LAN). Ada empat tipe utama perangkat internetworking ini: repeater, bridge, router, dan gateway. Perangkat ini dibedakan atas dasar system lapisan Open System Interconnection (OSI) yang digunakan, berfungsi sebagai media komunikasi dari LAN ke LAN. Pada Tugas Akhir ini penulis tertarik untuk membahas analisis kinerja Local Area Network (LAN) menggunakan Router yang menggunakan sistem antrian M/M/1 dimana j...

  13. Area Regge calculus and discontinuous metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, Chris; Williams, Ruth M

    2004-01-01

    Taking the triangle areas as independent variables in the theory of Regge calculus can lead to ambiguities in the edge lengths, which can be interpreted as discontinuities in the metric. We construct solutions to area Regge calculus using a triangulated lattice and find that on a spacelike or timelike hypersurface no such discontinuity can arise. On a null hypersurface however, we can have such a situation and the resulting metric can be interpreted as a so-called refractive wave

  14. [Touch: Brodmann Areas 3, 1, and 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-01

    A brief history of cytoarchitectonic studies of Brodmann areas 3, 1, and 2 is presented here. Results of neurophysiological studies, i.e., recordings of single neuronal activities in these three cytoarchitectonic areas of the monkey brain are described and interpreted on the basis of a hierarchial schema model of information processing. Finally, recent studies on the human postcentral gyrus are reviewed and compared with the results of the aforementioned monkey studies.

  15. E-COMMERCE AREA FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Aileni; D. Farima; M. Ciocoiu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some management aspects concerning the e-commerce area for textile industry.Here it can have database management – customers, products and brand visualisation management. The databasemanagement can be doing by using a database management system. For database management it was use therelational model based on first-order predicate logic [1]. In this paper it was analyzed the relational databasemodel. The e-commerce area is born from need to simplify the buying and selling g...

  16. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  17. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  18. Area distribution of an elastic Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabpour, M A

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the excursion and meander area distributions of the elastic Brownian motion by using the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian of the free quantum particle on the half line. We also give some comments on the area of the Brownian motion bridge on the real line with the origin removed. We will focus on the power of self-adjoint extension to investigate different possible boundary conditions for the stochastic processes. We also discuss some possible physical applications.

  19. Bolder science needed now for protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James E M; Darling, Emily S; Venter, Oscar; Maron, Martine; Walston, Joe; Possingham, Hugh P; Dudley, Nigel; Hockings, Marc; Barnes, Megan; Brooks, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing that protected areas (PAs) are essential for effective biodiversity conservation action, the Convention on Biological Diversity established ambitious PA targets as part of the 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Under the strategic goal to "improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species, and genetic diversity," Target 11 aims to put 17% of terrestrial and 10% of marine regions under PA status by 2020. Additionally and crucially, these areas are required to be of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative, and well-connected and to include "other effective area-based conservation measures" (OECMs). Whereas the area-based targets are explicit and measurable, the lack of guidance for what constitutes important and representative; effective; and OECMs is affecting how nations are implementing the target. There is a real risk that Target 11 may be achieved in terms of area while failing the overall strategic goal for which it is established because the areas are poorly located, inadequately managed, or based on unjustifiable inclusion of OECMs. We argue that the conservation science community can help establish ecologically sensible PA targets to help prioritize important biodiversity areas and achieve ecological representation; identify clear, comparable performance metrics of ecological effectiveness so progress toward these targets can be assessed; and identify metrics and report on the contribution OECMs make toward the target. By providing ecologically sensible targets and new performance metrics for measuring the effectiveness of both PAs and OECMs, the science community can actively ensure that the achievement of the required area in Target 11 is not simply an end in itself but generates genuine benefits for biodiversity. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Muscle area of knee O.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Onozawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Minoru; Yamasita, Izumi; Kitsunai, Isamu; Asano, Akira

    1983-01-01

    The cross sectional area of the thigh muscles were studied by means of C.T. scan. Twelve normal knees, twelve primary knee O.A. knees, and six R.A. knees were examined. The cross sectional area of the Quadriceps femoris decreased significantly in the patient of the knee O.A. although flexors did not decrease. We discussed the etiology of the knee O.A. from this result. (author)

  1. 75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The.../Restoration; and 14 acres of Forest Plan Special Area to Primitive. The FPSA classification will be removed in.../Restoration. Smith Creek Roadless Area: Change 14 acres of Forest Plan Special Area to Primitive. Correction...

  2. On the area expectation values in area tensor Regge calculus in the Lorentzian domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wick rotation in area tensor Regge calculus is considered. The heuristical expectation is confirmed that the Lorentzian quantum measure on a spacelike area should coincide with the Euclidean measure at the same argument. The consequence is validity of probabilistic interpretation of the Lorentzian measure as well (on the real, i.e. spacelike areas)

  3. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA. 165.838 Section 165.838 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.838 Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA... Ponchartrain and to the Mississippi River in New Orleans, LA; (2) The Harvey Canal, between the Lapalco...

  4. Identifying the Prospective Area of Sulfide Groundwater within the Area of Palvantash Oil and Gas Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zhurayev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology of prospecting for sulfide groundwater in the area of Palvantash oil fields. In result of study allowed determining the favorable conditions for the sulfide waters formation, and mapping the areas of different sulfide water concentration. The relatively permeable areas were established and the water borehole positions were recommended.

  5. 78 FR 72028 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Curecanti National Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...-substantive edits. The final rule revises the section heading for Sec. 7.51 from ``Curecanti Recreation Area... paragraph 7.51(e) to designate three groups of routes and areas where motor vehicles may be used off park...) and (f). The revisions and additions read as follows: Sec. 7.51 Curecanti National Recreation Area...

  6. Transforming a low value coastal area into a high value natural and recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zone in the Netherlands takes a very peculiar place in the discussion about sustainability in the Netherlands. Large areas are left unused and they remain low cost value areas due to the lack of progressive decision-making. These areas have a low value in economic, recreational and

  7. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The civil divisions and parts of civil divisions described below are designated as golden nematode regulated areas within the meaning of the provisions of this subpart; and such regulated areas are hereby... areas. 301.85-2a Section 301.85-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  8. Priority of areas for agricultural radiovulnerability mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Silva, Diogo N.G., E-mail: diogongs@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho

    2013-07-01

    The methodology for classifying areas according to soil properties for the vulnerability to a {sup 137}Cs contamination is of high importance to the preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas. The priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plant that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order for priority of areas to be mapped based on EMBRAPA database on soil properties. The 16 municipalities previously selected to define parameters for dose assessment simulations related to the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants, located in the district of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, have been investigated in order to create this rank order to direct the research on radio vulnerability mapping, considering their relevance to public exposure based on their agricultural productivity. The two aspects selected in this study account for the maximum loss of income and to the collective doses that can be averted due to the banning of agricultural products. These quantities are inputs to optimization analysis. The priority defined shall then guide research on both the adequate values for the transfer factors and on the agricultural countermeasures suitable to each area according to the cause(s) of their vulnerability and their typical agricultural crops. (author)

  9. Priority of areas for agricultural radiovulnerability mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Perez, Daniel V.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for classifying areas according to soil properties for the vulnerability to a 137 Cs contamination is of high importance to the preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas. The priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plant that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order for priority of areas to be mapped based on EMBRAPA database on soil properties. The 16 municipalities previously selected to define parameters for dose assessment simulations related to the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants, located in the district of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, have been investigated in order to create this rank order to direct the research on radio vulnerability mapping, considering their relevance to public exposure based on their agricultural productivity. The two aspects selected in this study account for the maximum loss of income and to the collective doses that can be averted due to the banning of agricultural products. These quantities are inputs to optimization analysis. The priority defined shall then guide research on both the adequate values for the transfer factors and on the agricultural countermeasures suitable to each area according to the cause(s) of their vulnerability and their typical agricultural crops. (author)

  10. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  11. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  12. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  13. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg  = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  14. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy's proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized

  15. E-Area LLWF Vadose Zone Model: Probabilistic Model for Estimating Subsided-Area Infiltration Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    A probabilistic model employing a Monte Carlo sampling technique was developed in Python to generate statistical distributions of the upslope-intact-area to subsided-area ratio (AreaUAi/AreaSAi) for closure cap subsidence scenarios that differ in assumed percent subsidence and the total number of intact plus subsided compartments. The plan is to use this model as a component in the probabilistic system model for the E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), contributing uncertainty in infiltration estimates.

  16. Summary of the Ahankashan Area of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Mars, John C.; Bogdanow, Anya K.

    2015-09-15

    This report summarizes and interprets results of the work in the Ahankashan Area of Interest in northwestern Afghanistan and four study areas—the Ahankashan Prospect Area, Syahsang-Kushkak, Taghab-Soni, and Zakak-e ‘Olya—delineated for their potential undiscovered mineral occurrences with specific emphasis on porphyry copper and related occurrence types. The Area of Interest is underlain by rocks of three different geologic domains that cross from east to west—the Band-e-Bayan Block/Central Pamirs Domain in the south, the Hindu Kush Domain in the Paropamisus Mountains, and the Afghan Turkestan Domain in the north. The domains are sutured remnants of Tethyan tectonic elements. Interpretation of the geologic maps indicates the presence of thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and granitic intrusions emplaced in ground prepared by faulting. Thrust faulting was followed by strike-slip faulting and then followed by magmatic intrusions. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data were used to map minerals that have been altered by hydrothermal fluids typically associated with mineralization to delineate new potential occurrences of copper, gold, and silver. Propylitic-, argillic-, and phyllic-altered intrusive rocks are found in the area, as well as very minor amounts of hydrothermal silica-rich rocks. This area of interest is vastly underexplored and contains only seven known mineral occurrences, of which the Ahankashan copper (gold) skarn occurrence is the best known. Gold has been found in stream sediments near the Ahankashan skarn, in the Taghab-Soni study area, and possibly other parts of the Area of Interest, suggesting potential for at least small-scale placer occurrences.

  17. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  18. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  19. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  20. Hydrogeologic study of Cafam area. Melgar (Tolima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, Carlos E; Perez C, Rosalbina

    1989-06-01

    The hydrogeologic study covers an area of 50 km 2 with the objectives of to determine the possibility of use of the underground waters and to locate places to carry out exploratory perforations in lands of Cafam, equally the elaboration of a hydrogeologic map of the region; for the effect it was carried out cartography geologic scale 1:10.000, inventory and sampling of water point, geoelectric prospecting and some permeability tests. In the area the exploitation of underground water is incipient, alone there are 20 points of water, of which none produce more than 1L/seg. The water has in general good physical chemistry quality for the human consumption. Geologically was recognized the groups Guadalupe and Gualanday, also some quaternary deposits; the previous ones were subdivided in 11 geological units for its composition and morphology, which are framed structurally in the E flank of the synclinal of Carmen de Apicala and displaced by traverse faults with address E-W and N-W. From the point of hydrogeologic view the units were grouped in 8 aquifer systems, of which four are considered of hydrogeologic importance for the area; the sector with better possibilities to capture these aquifer systems is the W of the area (in the terraces area) that extends to the Sumapaz River. For the Cafam sector a place was selected to build an exploratory well of 200 mts. of depth that would capture an aquifer of low transmissivity, corresponding to the Unit T3