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Sample records for hungry horse selective

  1. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, 1992-1993 Progress Report.

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    DosSantos, Joe; Vashro, Jim; Lockard, Larry

    1994-06-01

    In February of 1900, over forty agency representatives and interested citizens began development of the 1991 Mitigation Plan. This effort culminated in the 1993 Implementation Plan for mitigation of fish losses attributable to the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The primary purpose of this biennial report is to inform the public of the status of ongoing mitigation activities resulting from those planning efforts. A habitat improvement project is underway to benefit bull trout in Big Creek in the North Fork drainage of the Flathead River and work is planned in Hay Creek, another North Fork tributary. Bull trout redd counts have been expanded and experimental programs involving genetic evaluation, outmigrant monitoring, and hatchery studies have been initiated, Cutthroat mitigation efforts have focused on habitat improvements in Elliott Creek and Taylor`s Outflow and improvements have been followed by imprint plants of hatchery fish and/or eyed eggs in those streams. Rogers Lake west of Kalispell and Lion Lake, near Hungry Horse, were chemically rehabilitated. Cool and warm water fish habitat has been improved in Halfmoon Lake and Echo Lake. Public education and public interest is important to the future success of mitigation activities. As part of the mitigation team`s public awareness responsibility we have worked with numerous volunteer groups, public agencies, and private landowners to stimulate interest and awareness of mitigation activities and the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this biennial report is to foster public awareness of, and support for, mitigation activities as we move forward in implementing the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan.

  2. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Hansen, Barry (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-06-09

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the interconnected Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring

  3. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

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    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2005-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and

  4. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

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    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and

  5. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

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    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2008-12-22

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  6. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

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    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2009-08-06

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  7. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1995 Annual Report.

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    Fredenberg, Wade; Carty, Daniel (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Kalispell, MT); Cavigli, Jon (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1996-06-01

    The operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork-of the Flathead River reduced the reproductive success of kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning in the Flathead River. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) authored a mitigation plan to offset those losses. The mitigation goal, stated in the Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributed to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, is to: {open_quotes}Replace lost annual production of 100,000 kokanee adults, initially through hatchery production and pen rearing in Flathead Lake, partially replacing lost forage for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Flathead Lake.{close_quotes}

  8. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan, 1990-2003 Progress (Annual) Report.

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    Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    1993-03-10

    In this document the authors present mitigation implementation activities to protect and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan only addresses non-operational actions (mitigation measures that do not affect dam operation) described in the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' (Mitigation Plan) submitted to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in March 1991 and in accordance with subsequent Council action on that Mitigation Plan. Operational mitigation was deferred for consideration under the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR) process. This document represents an implementation plan considered and conditionally approved by the Council in March of 1993.

  9. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

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    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT); DosSantos, Joseph M. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  10. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

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    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  11. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

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    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  12. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1996 Progress Report.

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    Carty, Daniel [Fish and Wildlife Service, Kalispell, MT (United States); Knoetek, W. Ladd [Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT (United States)] Hansen, Barry [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were introduced into Flathead Lake in 1916. The kokanee population declined in the 1960s and 1970s, and kokanee disappeared from Flathead Lake in the late 1980s. Their disappearance has been attributed to the long-term effects of the construction and operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr dams, excessive harvest by anglers, and changes in the lake food web induced by the introduction of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Attempts to reestablish kokanee in the Flathead Lake ecosystem between 1988 and 1991 were unsuccessful. In 1991, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) wrote a mitigation plan to restore kokanee to Flathead Lake. In 1993, MFWP, CSKT, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wrote a mitigation implementation plan that initiated a 5-year test program to use hatchery-reared fish to reintroduce kokanee to the lake. Stocking hatchery-reared kokanee into Flathead Lake began in 1993; the 5-year {open_quotes}kokanee test{close_quotes} started in 1994 and is scheduled to continue through 1998. The annual stocking objective is 1 million yearling kokanee (6-8 in long). Criteria used to evaluate the success of the 5-year test are (1) 30% survival of kokanee 1 year after stocking, (2) yearling-to-adult survival of 10%, and (3) annual harvest of 50,000 kokanee ({ge} 11 in) and fishing effort {ge} 100,000 angler hours.

  13. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

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    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  14. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

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    May, Bruce

    1986-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, passed in 1980 by Congress, has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is one of the many agencies implementing the Council's program. The Hungry Horse Reservoir (HHR) study is part of the Council's program. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  15. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

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    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  16. Determination of Fishery Losses in the Flathead System Resulting from the Construction of Hungry Horse Dam, 1986 Final Completion Report.

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    Zubik, Raymond J.; Fraley, John

    1987-01-01

    This study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's residential fish and wildlife plan, which is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River basin. The major goal of this study was to provide estimates of fishery losses to the Flathead system as a result of the completion of Hungry Horse Dam and to propose mitigation alternatives for enhancing the fishery. Construction of Hungry Horse Dam had the greatest adverse impacts on cutthroat and full trout from Flathead Lake and mitigative measures should be taken to offset these losses, if biologically and economically feasible. Also, other losses to fish and wildlife have been documented in the Flathead basin due to hydroelectric facilities and their operation. Some of these research projects will not be completed until 1989, when mitigation will be recommended using a basin-wide approach. Since HHR is at the headwaters of the Columbia system, mitigative measures may also affect downstream projects. Therefore, we presented an array of possible mitigation alternatives for consideration by decision-makers, with suggestions on the ones we feel are the most cost effective. Possible mitigation measures are included.

  17. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

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    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  18. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

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    May, Bruce; Weaver, Tom (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1987-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May 1983 and is scheduled for completion in 1988. This report contains a summary of the limnological, food habits, fish abundance and fish distribution data collected primarily in 1986. A thorough statistical analysis of the data will be presented in the completion report in 1988. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal game fish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major game fish species; (2) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; (3) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (4) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (5) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (6) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; and (7) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species.

  19. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

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    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  20. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1984 Final Report.

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    May, Bruce

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews activities of the Hungry Horse Reservoir fisheries study from May 16-October 14, 1983. The first six months of the project were concerned with testing of equipment and developing methodologies for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, seasonal distribution and abundance of fish, migration patterns of westslope cutthroat trout and habitat quality in tributary streams. Suitable methods have been developed for most aspects of the study, but problems remain with determining the vertical distribution of fish. Catch rates of fish in vertical nets were insufficient to determine depth distribution during the fall. If catches remain low during the spring and summer of 1984, experimental netting will be conducted using gang sets of standard gill nets. Purse seining techniques also need to be refined in the spring of 1984, Sample design should be completed in 1984. A major activity for the report period was preparation of a prospectus which reviewed: (1) environmental factors limiting gamefish production; (2) flexibility in reservoir operation; (3) effects of reservoir operation on fish populations and (4) model development. Production of westslope cutthroat trout may be limited by spawning and rearing habitat in tributary streams, reservoir habitat suitability, predation during the first year of reservoir residence and fish food availability. Reservoir operation affects fish production by altering fish habitat and food production through changes in reservoir morphometrics such as surface area, volume, littoral area and shoreline length. The instability in the fish habitat caused by reservoir operation may produce an environment which is suitable for fish which can utilize several habitat types and feed upon a wide variety of food organisms. Analysis of factors governing reservoir operation indicated that some flexibility exists in Hungry Horse operation. Changes in operation to benefit gamefish populations would

  1. Flathead Lake Angler Survey; Monitoring Activities for the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Plan, 1992-1993 Final Report.

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    Evarts, Les; Hansen, Barry; DosSantos, Joe (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    1994-02-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana from May 17, 1992 to May 19, 1993. The primary objective of the survey was to quantify the baseline fishery and exploitation rates existing prior to Hungry Horse Dam mitigation efforts. Anglers were counted on 308 occasions, comprising 5,618 fishing boats, 515 shore anglers, and 2,191 ice anglers. The party interviews represented 4,410 anglers, made up of 2,613 boat anglers, 787 shore anglers, and 1,010 ice anglers. A total of 47,883 angler days (190,108 angler hours) of pressure and a harvest of 42,979 fish (including lake trout, lake whitefish, yellow perch, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) were estimated. Pressure was distributed between shore, boat, and ice anglers as 4%, 87%, and 9%, respectively. Seventynine percent of the total effort was directed at lake trout during the study period. Limited comparisons were made to previous creel surveys on Flathead Lake due to differences in methods and radical changes in the fishery. Potential sources of bias are explained in detail. Future creel surveys must employ methods consistent with this survey to obtain estimates that are statistically distinguishable.

  2. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

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    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  3. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

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    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  4. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1984-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This report covers the 1983-84 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance and reproductive success in the upper Flathead River system. This report also addresses the projected recovery of the main stem kokanee run under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation and Bonneville Power Administration in 1982. An estimated 58,775 kokanee reached spawning grounds in the Flathead River System in 1983. The 1983 spawning run was composed of 92% age III + fish, as compared to an average of 80% from 1972-1983. A total of 6883 kokanee redds were enumerated in the main stem Flathead River in 1983. A total of 2366 man-days of angling pressure was estimated during the 1983 kokanee lure fishery in the Flathead River system. Estimated numbers of fry emigrating from McDonald Creek, the Whitefish River and Brenneman's Slough were 13,100,000, 66,254 and 37,198, yielding egg to fry survival rates of 76%, 10.4% and 19.2%.

  5. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1988-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March

  7. Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake; Effects of Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on Reproductive Success, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker-Hess, Janet; McMullin, Steve L.

    1983-11-01

    Domrose (1968) found live eggs and fry only in shoreline spawning areas wetted by groundwater seeps. Impacts of the operation of Kerr Dam on lakeshore spawning have not been quantified. Recent studies have revealed that operation of Hungry Horse Dam severely impacted successful kokanee spawning and incubation in the Flathead River above Flathead Lake (Graham et al. 1980, McMullin and Graham 1981, Fraley and Graham 1982 and Fraley and McMullin 1983). Flows from Hungry Horse Dam to enhance kokanee reproduction in the river system have been voluntarily met by the Bureau of Reclamation since 1981. In lakeshore spawning areas in other Pacific Northwest systems, spawning habitat for kokanee and sockeye salmon was characterized by seepage or groundwater flow where suitable substrate composition existed (Foerster 1968). Spawning primarily occurred in shallower depths (<6 m) where gravels were cleaned by wave action (Hassemer and Rieman 1979 and 1980, Stober et al. 1979a). Seasonal drawdown of reservoirs can adversely affect survival of incubating kokanee eggs and fry spawned in shallow shoreline areas. Jeppon (1955 and 1960) and Whitt (1957) estimated 10-75 percent kokanee egg loss in shoreline areas of Pend Oreille Lake, Idaho after regulation of the upper three meters occurred in 1952. After 20 years of operation, Bowler (1979) found Pend Oreille shoreline spawning to occur in fewer areas with generally lower numbers of adults. In studies on Priest Lake, Idaho, Bjornn (1957) attributed frozen eggs and stranded fry to winter fluctuations of the upper three meters of the lake. Eggs and fry frozen during winter drawdown accounted for a 90 percent loss to shoreline spawning kokanee in Donner Lake, California (Kimsey 1951). Stober et al. (1979a) determined irrigation drawdown of Banks Lake, Washington reduced shoreline survival during five of the seven years the system was studied. The goal of this phase of the study was to evaluate and document effects of the operation of Kerr Dam

  8. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited

  10. HUNGRY GHOSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    这部《HUNGRY GHOSTS》是一个以主观视点的3D 动作冒险游戏作品,事的剧情是各位玩家进入这个死亡的世界后努力为了生存而经历各种难关,后来到"命运之门"前接受审判。而这个审判的标准和结局会根据玩家在戏途中的选择和表现而决定,不同的表现会带来多种审判结局,最终向你开的出口中会有什么等待着你呢?而你是否能得到返回真实世界的出口呢?这一切的一切都需要你自己去证实和发掘,在这里先祝你能有好运。

  11. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 27 pages] CDC Safety and Health in the Horse Racing Industry CDC Heads Up: Preventing Concussion fact sheet [PDF – 2 pages] CDC Horse Stabled at Tennessee Walking Horse 2006 National Celebration ...

  12. Determination of ivermectin efficacy against cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum on horse farms using selective therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette L.; Ritz, Christian; Petersen, Stig L.

    2011-01-01

    cyathostomins and P. equorum in Danish horses. A total of 196 animals were selected from 52 farms, all of which were using a selective anthelmintic treatment strategy. ERP was investigated with weekly samples from 96 horses from nine farms. Horses were treated with ivermectin oral paste by their owners...... resistance were found in either cyathostomins or P. equorum in the studied horses....

  13. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Petlachová; Eva Sobotková; Iva Jiskrová; Markéta Píšová; Iveta Bihuncová; Hana Černohorská; Martina Kosťuková

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH), American Paint Horse (APH), Appaloosa (Appa), the Lipizzaner horse (LH) and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH). Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa) due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type ...

  14. Marked assisted selection for horses racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although equines have participated in the forming and development of several civilizations around the world since their domestication 6,000 years ago in comparison to other species that have zootechnical interest, few researches have been done related to animal breeding area, especially in Brazil. Some reasons for that are difficulties associated with the species as well as operational aspects. However, developments in genetics in the last decades contributed to a better understanding of the traits related to reproduction, heath, behavior and performance of domestic animals, including equines. Recent technologies as next generation sequencing methods and the high density chips of SNPs for genotyping allowed some advances in the researches already done. These researches used basically the candidate gene strategy, and identified genomic regions related to diseases and syndromes and, more recently, the performance in sport competition and specific abilities. Using these genomic analysis tools, some regions related to race performance have been identified and based on this information; genetic tests to select superior animals for racing performance have started to be available in the market.

  15. A genome scan for positive selection in thoroughbred horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Gu

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking mapping approach we performed a genome scan using 394 autosomal and X chromosome microsatellite loci and identified positively selected loci in the extreme tail-ends of the empirical distributions for (1 deviations from expected heterozygosity (Ewens-Watterson test in Thoroughbred (n = 112 and (2 global differentiation among four geographically diverse horse populations (F(ST. We found positively selected genomic regions in Thoroughbred enriched for phosphoinositide-mediated signalling (3.2-fold enrichment; P<0.01, insulin receptor signalling (5.0-fold enrichment; P<0.01 and lipid transport (2.2-fold enrichment; P<0.05 genes. We found a significant overrepresentation of sarcoglycan complex (11.1-fold enrichment; P<0.05 and focal adhesion pathway (1.9-fold enrichment; P<0.01 genes highlighting the role for muscle strength and integrity in the Thoroughbred athletic phenotype. We report for the first time candidate athletic-performance genes within regions targeted by selection in Thoroughbred horses that are principally responsible for fatty acid oxidation, increased insulin sensitivity and muscle strength: ACSS1 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1, ACTA1 (actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle, ACTN2 (actinin, alpha 2, ADHFE1 (alcohol dehydrogenase, iron containing, 1, MTFR1 (mitochondrial fission regulator 1, PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 and TNC (tenascin C. Understanding the genetic basis for exercise adaptation will be crucial for the identification of genes

  16. Horse mouth behaviour related to selected kinematic variables representing horse-rider interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Eisersiö, Marie; Roepstorff, Lars; Weishaupt, MA; Egenvall, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the influence of rein contact and the movement of the rider’s hand on the horse’s behaviour, analysing data on horses ridden in two different head and neck positions. We hypothesized that the rider’s hand movements and rein tension generate behavioural responses from the horse, and more so when ridden on the bit compared to free and unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horses/riders in sitting trot on a high-speed treadmill...

  17. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  18. Serological survey of African horse sickness in selected districts of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Molalegne; Andargie, Ashenafi; Bekele, Mihreteab; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was undertaken in selected districts of different agro-ecology of Jimma zone (Dedo, Yebu, Seka, Serbo, and Jimma town) from November 2009 to February 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of African horse sickness virus and associated risk factors of the disease. Two hundred seventy-four equids (189 horses, 43 mules, and 47 donkeys) with a history of non-vaccination for at least 2 years were selected randomly from the above areas. Sera samples were collected and assayed for the presence of specific antibody against African horse sickness virus using blocking ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of 89 (32.5%) was found and it was 24 (51.1%) for donkeys, 13 (30.2%) for mules, and 52(28.3%) for horses. Seroprevalence was significantly (X(2) = 11.05, P 0.05 and X(2) = 3.38, P > 0.05, respectively) associated with seroprevalence of AHSV. The present study showed that African horse sickness (AHS) is highly prevalent disease for the horses followed by mules and then donkeys in Jimma zone explained by lower seroconversion rate. Therefore, control strategy against AHS should target at high risk species of all age and sex in their locality in the initial stage for better containment of the disease.

  19. Evidence of positive selection for a glycogen synthase (GYS1) mutation in domestic horse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Annette M; Schaefer, Robert; Petersen, Jessica L; Morrell, Peter L; Slamka, Megan A; Mickelson, James R; Valberg, Stephanie J; McCue, Molly E

    2014-01-01

    A dominantly inherited gain-of-function mutation in the glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene, resulting in excess skeletal muscle glycogen, has been identified in more than 30 horse breeds. This mutation is associated with the disease Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy Type 1, yet persists at high frequency in some breeds. Under historical conditions of daily work and limited feed, excess muscle glycogen may have been advantageous, driving the increase in frequency of this allele. Fine-scale DNA sequencing in 80 horses and genotype assays in 279 horses revealed a paucity of haplotypes carrying the mutant allele when compared with the wild-type allele. Additionally, we found increased linkage disequilibrium, measured by relative extended haplotype homozygosity, in haplotypes carrying the mutation compared with haplotypes carrying the wild-type allele. Coalescent simulations of Belgian horse populations demonstrated that the high frequency and extended haplotype associated with the GYS1 mutation were unlikely to have arisen under neutrality or due to population demography. In contrast, in Quarter Horses, elevated relative extended haplotype homozygosity was associated with multiple haplotypes and may be the result of recent population expansion or a popular sire effect. These data suggest that the GYS1 mutation underwent historical selection in the Belgian, but not in the Quarter Horse.

  20. Genome-wide analysis reveals selection for important traits in domestic horse breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Petersen

    Full Text Available Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an F(ST-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3. The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Selection for Important Traits in Domestic Horse Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jessica L.; Mickelson, James R.; Rendahl, Aaron K.; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Andersson, Lisa S.; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Brama, Pieter; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Cothran, E. Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T.; Guérin, Gérard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A.; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Piercy, Richard J.; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Røed, Knut H.; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M.; McCue, Molly E.

    2013-01-01

    Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an FST-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3). The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse. PMID:23349635

  2. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration.

  3. Helminths in horses : use of selective treatment for the control of strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The current level of anthelmintic resistance in the horse-breeding industry is extremely high and therefore more emphasis is being placed on studies that focus on the judicious use of anthelmintic products. The aims of the study were to: 1 establish if there is variation in the egg excretion pattern of strongyles between the different age classes of Thoroughbred horses in the Western Cape Province (WCP, 2 test if a selective treatment approach successfully reduces the number of anthelmintic treatments and maintains acceptably low helminth burdens in adult Thoroughbred horses, and 3 evaluate the efficacy of subsampling large horse herds for faecal egg counts (FECs to monitor the strongyle burden. In 2001 the FECs of 4 adult mare, 5 yearling and 3 weanling herds from 8 different farms were compared in the WCP. Within the mare herds there were generally fewer eggexcreting individuals with lower mean FECs compared with the younger age classes. Individual faecal samples were collected every 3-4 weeks from 52 adult Thoroughbred mares from 1 farm in the WCP during a 12-month period (2002/2003. Animals with strongyle FECs > 100 eggs per gram (epg were treated with an ivermectin-praziquantel combination drug (Equimax oral paste, Virbac. The mean monthly strongyle FEC for the entire group was < 300 epg throughout the study and the number of treatments was reduced by 50 %. Resampling methods showed that an asymptote to mean FEC was reached at 55 animals for each of the pooled weanling, yearling and mare egg counts. Resampling within 4 different mare herds recorded asymptotes of between 24 and 28 animals. Subsampling entire herds for FECs therefore provided an effective approach to treatment management. This study demonstrates that selective treatment is both a practical and an effective approach to the management of anthelmintic resistance.

  4. Prospection of genomic regions divergently selected in racing line of Quarter Horses in relation to cutting line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, C T; Curi, R A; Farah, M M; de Oliveira, H N; Béltran, N A R; Silva, J A V; Mota, M D S da

    2014-11-01

    Selection of Quarter Horses for different purposes has led to the formation of lines, including racing and cutting horses. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions divergently selected in racing line of Quarter Horses in relation to cutting line applying relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis, an extension of extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) analysis, and the fixation index (F ST) statistic. A total of 188 horses of both sexes, born between 1985 and 2009 and registered at the Brazilian Association of Quarter Horse Breeders, including 120 of the racing line and 68 of the cutting line, were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. On the basis of 27 genomic regions identified as selection signatures by REHH and F ST statistics, functional annotations of genes were made in order to identify those that could have been important during formation of the racing line and that could be used subsequently for the development of selection tools. Genes involved in muscle growth (n=8), skeletal growth (n=10), muscle energy metabolism (n=15), cardiovascular system (n=14) and nervous system (n=23) were identified, including the FKTN, INSR, GYS1, CLCN1, MYLK, SYK, ANG, CNTFR and HTR2B.

  5. A Genome-wide Scan for Selective Sweeps in Racing Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sunjin; Lee, Jin Woo; Shin, Donghyun; Shin, Kwang-Yun; Kim, Jun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Heebal

    2015-01-01

    Using next-generation sequencing, we conducted a genome-wide scan of selective sweeps associated with selection toward genetic improvement in Thoroughbreds. We investigated potential phenotypic consequence of putative candidate loci by candidate gene association mapping for the finishing time in 240 Thoroughbred horses. We found a significant association with the trait for Ral GApase alpha 2 (RALGAP2) that regulates a variety of cellular processes of signal trafficking. Neighboring genes around RALGAP2 included insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1), pallid (PLDN), and Ras and Rab interactor 2 (RIN2) genes have similar roles in signal trafficking, suggesting that a co-evolving gene cluster located on the chromosome 22 is under strong artificial selection in racehorses. PMID:26333666

  6. A Genome-wide Scan for Selective Sweeps in Racing Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjin Moon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using next-generation sequencing, we conducted a genome-wide scan of selective sweeps associated with selection toward genetic improvement in Thoroughbreds. We investigated potential phenotypic consequence of putative candidate loci by candidate gene association mapping for the finishing time in 240 Thoroughbred horses. We found a significant association with the trait for Ral GApase alpha 2 (RALGAP2 that regulates a variety of cellular processes of signal trafficking. Neighboring genes around RALGAP2 included insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1, pallid (PLDN, and Ras and Rab interactor 2 (RIN2 genes have similar roles in signal trafficking, suggesting that a co-evolving gene cluster located on the chromosome 22 is under strong artificial selection in racehorses.

  7. Hungry Guard Foils Heroin Delivery in Burrito

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞海丽

    2001-01-01

    奇闻之奇,往往发端于巧合。美国Albuquerque城有一监狱,其警卫人员竟然大嚼外面送入班房的玉米煎饼,不料,嚼出异物,这个异物不是别的,而是海洛因!事情因此败露。文章的作者两次对此监管人员使用形容词hungry,如果真是hungry,那倒又是一则奇闻了。】

  8. A Baecklund transformation between two integrable discrete hungry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Akiko, E-mail: j1409704@ed.kagu.tus.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Information Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yusaku [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Masashi [Department of Informatics and Environmental Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishiwata, Emiko [Department of Mathematical Information Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshimasa [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    The discrete hungry Toda (dhToda) equation and the discrete hungry Lotka-Volterra (dhLV) system are known as integrable discrete hungry systems. In this Letter, through finding the LR transformations associated with the dhToda equation and the dhLV system, we present a Baecklund transformation between these integrable systems.

  9. Twenty-five thousand years of fluctuating selection on leopard complex spotting and congenital night blindness in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Arne; Reissmann, Monika; Benecke, Norbert; Bellone, Rebecca; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Fortes, Gloria G; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Hofreiter, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie

    2015-01-19

    Leopard complex spotting is inherited by the incompletely dominant locus, LP, which also causes congenital stationary night blindness in homozygous horses. We investigated an associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the TRPM1 gene in 96 archaeological bones from 31 localities from Late Pleistocene (approx. 17 000 YBP) to medieval times. The first genetic evidence of LP spotting in Europe dates back to the Pleistocene. We tested for temporal changes in the LP associated allele frequency and estimated coefficients of selection by means of approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our results show that at least some of the observed frequency changes are congruent with shifts in artificial selection pressure for the leopard complex spotting phenotype. In early domestic horses from Kirklareli-Kanligecit (Turkey) dating to 2700-2200 BC, a remarkably high number of leopard spotted horses (six of 10 individuals) was detected including one adult homozygote. However, LP seems to have largely disappeared during the late Bronze Age, suggesting selection against this phenotype in early domestic horses. During the Iron Age, LP reappeared, probably by reintroduction into the domestic gene pool from wild animals. This picture of alternating selective regimes might explain how genetic diversity was maintained in domestic animals despite selection for specific traits at different times.

  10. Influence of a calmative on selected blood parameters in horses under stressful conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec-Svete Alenka; Čebulj-Kadunc Nina; Kruljc P.

    2008-01-01

    The results of few studies on tryptophan supplementation conducted in horses are contradictory and none of these studies have shown that tryptophan is an effective calmative in horses. The objective of the present study was to determine changes in hematological parameters, plasma lactate, serum cortisol and biochemical profile, as well as the behavior of untreated and calmative treated horses under stressful conditions in order to determine the effects of the applied calmative. The study also...

  11. Pathological changes seen in horses in New Zealand grazing Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) causing equine fescue oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J S; Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; Fletcher, L R

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2). Blood samples were taken up to 7 days after the start of feeding to detect changes in concentrations of total protein in serum and packed cell volume. Any horse showing clinical evidence of disease was subject to euthanasia and necropsy. Within 6 days, both horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 became depressed and lethargic. One horse grazing fescue infected with endophyte AR584 became depressed within a 5-day feeding period while another horse in this group died shortly after being removed from the AR584 pasture. The third horse in this group did not develop clinical signs within the 5-day feeding period. However, haemoconcentration and hypoproteinaemia was detected in all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 endophyte. No abnormalities were observed in horses grazing fescue that was endophyte-free. Necropsy examination was performed on two horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 and one horse grazing fescue infected with AR584. All three horses had marked oedema of the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, the oedema was accompanied by large numbers of eosinophils, but no necrosis. Horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 developed hypoproteinaemia and haemoconcentration, most likely due to leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these selected endophytes produce a compound that is toxic to horses, although the toxic principle

  12. Selective inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in vivo in horses by the feed-through larvacide Equitrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Subramanya; Holbrook, Todd; MacAllister, Charles; Pope, Carey N

    2008-03-01

    The organophosphate insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP, Rabon) is the active ingredient in "feed-through" larvacides (e.g., Equitrol) for fly control around horse stables. As with other organophosphates, TCVP elicits toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, leading to accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and cholinergic signs. Relatively little is known, however, on the effects of TCVP-containing larvacides on acetylcholinesterase or other esterases in horses. Previous in vitro studies indicated that horse plasma cholinesterase activity was substantially (>10,000-fold) more sensitive than erythrocyte cholinesterase activity to inhibition by TCVP. In the current study, we examined the relative proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in horse plasma and muscle, and evaluated the in vivo effects of Equitrol on target and non-target esterases following oral feeding in horses. In vitro inhibition studies suggested that essentially all cholinesterase activity in horse plasma was butyrylcholinesterase, while muscle contained >90% acetylcholinesterase activity. For in vivo studies, adult, male horses (364-590kg; n=3/treatment group) were given either sweet feed alone or sweet feed supplemented with Equitrol daily for 21 consecutive days at the recommended rate. Clinical signs (vital signs, abdominal auscultation, ophthalmic exam, body temperature) were recorded on a daily basis. Heparinized blood samples were taken at days -1, 1, 3, 7, 21, 28, and 42 while muscle (semimembranosus) biopsies were taken under aseptic conditions on days -1 and 21. No signs of overt toxicity were noted at any time during the study. Plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited (33%) in larvacide-treated horses as early as one day after treatment and peak inhibition (69-71%) was noted at days 7 and 21. Following cessation of dosing, plasma cholinesterase activity recovered (46% and 83% of control on days 28 and 42, respectively

  13. Feeding practice and influence on selected blood parameters in show jumping horses competing in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Liesegang, A; Weiss, S; Wichert, B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional management of show jumping horses in practice with recommendations from the literature. Additionally, the effects of these feeding practices on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise were studied. Blood samples were collected in the field from 27 different horses at 71 trials on the level M1 to S2 show jumping competitions in Switzerland and questionnaires on feeding practice of the studied horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training and on tournament days horses received on average 3.1 kg of concentrate per day (min. 2.0 kg, max. 6.6 kg) divided into two to three meals. The horses were fed on average 6.9 kg of roughage per day (min. 4.0 kg, max. 13.0 kg). Additionally, it was observed that the horses received the last meal on average 6 h 10 min (min. 1 h 50 min, max. 12 h 30 min) before the start of the first show jumping turn, respectively, 7 h 30 min (min 1 h 50 min, max. 13 h 0 min) before the second turn. Seven horses (35%) had access to hay waiting in the trailer between two turns. The statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the concentrate feeding time point on lactate, triglyceride and insulin levels, but a significant influence on free fatty acids (FFA) and blood glucose concentrations. Roughage feeding of the show jumping horses 2-4 h prior to exercise revealed the most remarkable changes in blood parameters during the show jumping course. These results received under field conditions should be approved in future under standardized conditions.

  14. Multiple-trait selection for radiographic health of the limbs, conformation and performance in Warmblood riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2008-12-01

    Information on 26 434 German Warmblood horses born between 1992 and 2001 was used for multivariate genetic analyses of radiographic health, conformation and performance traits to compare different modes of single- and multiple-trait selection of sires. Results of standardized radiological examinations of 5155 Hanoverian Warmblood horses, conformation evaluations from studbook inspections of 20 603 mares, and performance evaluations from mare performance tests and auction horse inspections of 16 098 horses were used for multivariate genetic analyses. Genetic parameters were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood (REML), and relative breeding values (RBV) were predicted with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) in multivariate linear animal models for four radiographic health traits, three conformation traits and five performance traits. Heritability estimates for osseous fragments in fetlock joints (OFF), osseous fragments in hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) ranged between 0.15 and 0.35 after transformation to the liability scale. Front limb conformation, hind limb conformation, withers height, walk, trot, canter, rideability and free jumping showed heritabilities between 0.09 and 0.49 and additive genetic correlations with OFF, OFH, DAH and DNB ranging between -0.53 and +0.52. Selection of sires was based on RBV or combinations of RBV, with selection for individual traits or traits from one of the three considered trait groups being considered as single-trait selection, and selection for traits from more than one trait group being considered as multiple-trait selection. The selection modes were compared by means of the expected selection response after one generation, calculated as the relative change in the prevalences of the radiographic findings or the mean conformation or performance scores in the offspring of the selected sires when compared with the offspring

  15. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of cobalt following a single intravenous administration to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Mitchell, M M; Holser, I; Poppenga, R; Smith, L L; Helm, M N; Sams, R A; Gaskill, C L

    2015-07-01

    Cobalt has been used by human athletes due to its purported performance-enhancing effects. It has been suggested that cobalt administration results in enhanced erythropoiesis, secondary to increased circulating erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations leading to improvements in athletic performance. Anecdotal reports of illicit administration of cobalt to horses for its suspected performance enhancing effects have led us to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of this compound when administered in horses, so as to better regulate its use. In the current study, 18 horses were administered a single intravenous dose of cobalt chloride or cobalt gluconate and serum and urine samples collected for up to 10 days post administration. Cobalt concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pharmacokinetic parameters determined. Additional blood samples were collected for measurement of equine EPO concentrations as well as to assess any effects on red blood cell parameters. Horses were observed for adverse effects and heart rate monitored for the first 4 h post administration. Cobalt was characterized by a large volume of distribution (0.939 L/kg) and a prolonged gamma half-life (156.4 h). Cobalt serum concentrations were still above baseline values at 10 days post administration. A single administration of cobalt had no effect on EPO concentrations, red blood cell parameters or heart rate in any of the horses studied and no adverse effects were noted. Based on the prolonged gamma half-life and prolonged residence time, regulators should be able to detect administration of a single dose of cobalt to horses.

  17. Exercise induced stress in horses: Selection of the most stable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrelli Maurizio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate stress response is a critical factor during athlete horses' training and is central to our capacity to obtain better performances while safeguarding animal welfare. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, several studies have been conducted that take advantage of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR technologies to analyse the expression of candidate genes involved in the cellular stress response. Appropriate application of qRT-PCR, however, requires the use of reference genes whose level of expression is not affected by the test, by general physiological conditions or by inter-individual variability. Results The expression of nine potential reference genes was evaluated in lymphocytes of ten endurance horses during strenuous exercise. These genes were tested by qRT-PCR and ranked according to the stability of their expression using three different methods (implemented in geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT always ranked as the two most stably expressed genes. On the other hand, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, transferrin receptor (TFRC and ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32 were constantly classified as the less reliable controls. Conclusion This study underlines the importance of a careful selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of exercise induced stress in horses. Our results, based on different algorithms and analytical procedures, clearly indicate SDHA and HPRT as the most stable reference genes of our pool.

  18. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to bark-stripp

  19. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  20. Designing an early selection morphological linear traits index for dressage in the Pura Raza Español horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerrero, M J; Cervantes, I; Molina, A; Gutiérrez, J P; Valera, M

    2017-06-01

    Making a morphological pre-selection of Pura Raza Español horses (PRE) for dressage is a challenging task within its current breeding program. The aim of our research was to design an early genetic selection morphological linear traits index to improve dressage performance, using 26 morphological linear traits and six dressage traits (walk, trot, canter, submission, general impression - partial scores - and total score) as selection criteria. The data set included morphological linear traits of 10 127 PRE (4159 males and 5968 females) collected between 2008 and 2013 (one record per horse) and 19 095 dressage traits of 1545 PRE (1476 males and 69 females; 12.4 records of average) collected between 2004 and 2014. A univariate animal model was applied to predict the breeding values (PBV). A partial least squares regression analysis was used to select the most predictive morphological linear traits PBV on the dressage traits PBV. According to the Wold Criterion, the 13 morphological linear traits (width of head, head-neck junction, upper neck line, neck-body junction, width of chest, angle of shoulder, lateral angle of knee, frontal angle of knee, cannon bone perimeter, length of croup, angle of croup, ischium-stifle distance and lateral hock angle) most closely related to total score PBV, partial scores PBV and gait scores PBV (walk, trot and canter) were selected. A multivariate genetic analysis was performed among the 13 morphological linear traits selected and the six dressage traits to estimate the genetic parameters. After it, the selection index theory was used to compute the expected genetic response using different strategies. The expected genetic response of total score PBV (0.76), partial scores PBV (0.04) and gait scores PBV (0.03) as selection objectives using morphological linear traits PBV as criteria selection were positive, but lower than that obtained using dressage traits PBV (1.80, 0.16 and 0.14 for total score PBV, partial scores PBV and gait

  1. Effects of seasons on the concentration of selected trace elements in horse hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on a group of 20 mares of the Hucul breed kept in free range system. The horses made use of pastures in summer periods while being fed with hay or silage during the winter. Mares that bore offspring regularly, in good conditions and healthy were involved in the analysis. Hair samples of about 500 mg were taken from areas around the neck under the mane of each horse four times a year. The concentration of 6 elements, i.e., B, Ni, Si, Mo, I and Cr were measured in each sample. Much higher concentrations of molybdenum and nickel were found in hair samples collected in spring, but more of boron in autumn while those from winter contained more of chromium, silicon and iodine. The concentration of all the analyzed minerals differed significantly in relation to the season. A significant positive relationship between levels of nickel and molybdenum on the one hand as well as between silicon and chromium on the other was demonstrated. A negative correlation was, however, observed between the levels of iodine and molybdenum as well as between iodine and nickel.

  2. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: use of a ligand-lytic peptide for selective destruction of symbiotic protozoa within termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a 'Trojan-Horse' that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates.

  3. The pH dependence of phototautomerism in horse radish peroxidase monitored by fluorescence site-selection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidy, Judit; Koloczek, Henryk; Paul, Karl-Gustav; Vanderkooi, Jane M.

    1987-12-01

    Fluorescence site-selection spectra of mesoporphyrin horse radish peroxidase C 2 were measured at cryogenic temperatures in 50% glycerol-water. With irradiation at ≈ 17300 cm -1 interconverting emission lines were detected, which are attributed to phototautomerization within the excited sites. The reactivity for tautomerization was found to be much higher at pH 5.1 than at pH 8.0. The fluorescence decay for the two tautomers is single exponential with lifetimes of 23 and 21 ns, respectively. pH sensitivity is discussed in terms of possible conformational changes of the amino acid chain or a role of the liberated histidine in the reaction pathway.

  4. Hungry Volterra equation, multi boson KP hierarchy and Two Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hisakado, M

    1998-01-01

    We consider the hungry Volterra hierarchy from the view point of the multi boson KP hierarchy. We construct the hungry Volterra equation as the ``fractional '' BT. We also study the relations between the (discrete time) hungry Volterra equation and two matrix models. From this point of view we study the reduction from (discrete time) 2d Toda lattice to the (discrete time) hungry Volterra equation.

  5. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  7. Sport horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro

    on dressage and show-jumping, and pedigree information. Firstly, the effect of specialisation was studied on the connectedness between the subpopulations of dressage and show-jumping horses, using the pedigree information. Results indicated that relatedness between horses in the two subpopulations has been...... parameters of traits recorded in the two subpopulations. Traits recorded at studbook-entry inspection were defined as a dressage trait or a show-jumping trait according to the type of horse that received the inspection. Bivariate analyses were performed to estimate the genetic correlation between the two...... traits. Results indicated that the specialisation process has resulted in a difference in mean trait values between dressage and show-jumping horses. However, differences in heritabilities for traits defined as dressage or show-jumping did not differ significantly, and the genetic correlations between...

  8. Heritability and prevalence of selected osteochondrosis lesions in yearling Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J; Matika, O; Russell, T; Reardon, R J M

    2017-05-01

    Osteochondrosis is considered multifactorial in origin, with factors such as nutrition, conformation, body size, trauma and genetics thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. Few studies have investigated the effects of genetic variability of osteochondrosis in Thoroughbreds. To describe the prevalence and genetic variability of a subset of osteochondrosis lesions in a group of Thoroughbred yearlings. Retrospective cohort study. Radiographs of 1962 Thoroughbred yearlings were retrieved from clinical records obtained between 2005 and 2013. Pedigree information was obtained from the Australian Stud Book. Osteochondrosis lesions were documented in selected joints and estimates of heritability were obtained by fitting linear mixed models in ASREML software. The overall prevalence of osteochondrosis was 23%. Osteochondrosis was identified in 10% of stifle joints, 6% of hock joints and 8% of fetlock joints. The heritability estimates ranged from 0 to 0.21. The largest estimates were 0.10, 0.14, 0.16 and 0.21 for lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia, dorso-proximal proximal phalanx (P1), any stifle osteochondrosis, and lesions of the lateral trochlear ridge of the distal femur, respectively. Although calculated heritability estimates had high standard errors, meta-analyses combining the present results with published estimates were significant at 0.10, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.20 for stifle, tarsal, fetlock and these joints combined, respectively. In addition, there was a permanent environment attributable to the dam effect. Inclusion criteria were based on radiographic findings in specific joints at a specific age range in Thoroughbreds. The present results indicate that only a proportion of osteochondrosis in Thoroughbreds is heritable. The permanent environment effects of the dam were observed to have effects on some categories of osteochondrosis. © 2016 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  9. Investigation of selected biochemical indicators of Equine Rhabdomyolysis in Arabian horses: pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Wael Mohamed; El-Bahr, Sabry M

    2010-12-01

    A total of 30 horses were divided into two groups, one served as a control whereas other was rhabdomyolysis diseased horses. After blood collection, the resulted sera were used for estimation of the activities of creatin kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactic acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, Triiodothyronine (T(3)), calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride, vitamin E, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α). In addition, whole blood was used for determination of selenium, reduced glutathione (G-SH) and prostaglandin F2-α (PGF2α). The erythrocyte hemolysates were used for the determination of the activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The present findings revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the values of CK, AST, LDH, glucose, lactate, TAG, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, MDA, TNF- α, IL6 and PGF2- α in diseased horses when compared with the control. Furthermore, the values of calcium, SOD, CAT, TAC, NO and GSH in diseased horses were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than the control. The other examined parameters were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the examined pro-inflammatory cytokines were useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of Equine rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses beside the old examined biomarkers. In the future, efforts should be made to confirm this in other breed. If this could be achieved, it would open up new perspectives in research fields dealing with ER.

  10. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annette

    horses referred to as Friesians, was during mediaeval times, when the knights in armour mostly used Friesian ..... example, in the selection of horses for riding under the saddle, the emphasis will be on a shorter ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC,.

  11. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation : Montana Wildlife Habitat Protection : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and undertake specific wildlife habitat protection/enhancement actions in northwest Montana as outlined in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Three waterfowl projects were evaluated between September 1989 and June 1990. Weaver's Slough project involved the proposed acquisition of 200 acres of irrigated farmland and a donated conservation easement on an additional 213 acres. The proposal included enhancement of the agricultural lands by conversion to upland nesting cover. This project was rated the lowest priority based on limited potential for enhancement and no further action was pursued. The Crow Creek Ranch project involved the proposed acquisition of approximately 1830 acres of grazing and dryland farming lands. The intent would be to restore drained potholes and provide adjacent upland nesting cover to increase waterfowl production. This project received the highest rating based on the immediate threat of subdivision, the opportunity to restore degraded wetlands, and the overall benefits to numerous species besides waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited was not able to participate as a cooperator on this project due to the jurisdiction concerns between State and tribal ownership. The USFWS ultimately acquired 1,550 acres of this proposed project. No mitigation funds were used. The Ashley Creek project involved acquisition of 870 acres adjacent to the Smith Lake Waterfowl Production Area. The primary goal was to create approximately 470 acres of wetland habitat with dikes and subimpoundments. This project was rated second in priority due to the lesser threat of loss. A feasibility analysis was completed by Ducks Unlimited based on a concept design. Although adequate water was available for the project, soil testing indicated that the organic soils adjacent to the creek would not support the necessary dikes. The project was determined not feasible for mitigation implementation. Although no waterfowl/wetland projects were implemented using mitigation funds, 1,550 acres were protected based on work done under this project.

  12. Selection of a rare neutralization-resistant variant following passive transfer of convalescent immune plasma in equine infectious anemia virus-challenged SCID horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra D; Leib, Steven R; Carpenter, Susan; Mealey, Robert H

    2010-07-01

    Vaccines preventing HIV-1 infection will likely elicit antibodies that neutralize diverse strains. However, the capacity for lentiviruses to escape broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not completely understood, nor is it known whether NAbs alone can control heterologous infection. Here, we determined that convalescent immune plasma from a horse persistently infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) neutralized homologous virus and several envelope variants containing heterologous principal neutralizing domains (PND). Plasma was infused into young horses (foals) affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), followed by challenge with a homologous EIAV stock. Treated SCID foals were protected against clinical disease, with complete prevention of infection occurring in one foal. In three SCID foals, a novel neutralization-resistant variant arose that was found to preexist at a low frequency in the challenge inoculum. In contrast, SCID foals infused with nonimmune plasma developed acute disease associated with high levels of the predominant challenge virus. Following transfer to an immunocompetent horse, the neutralization-resistant variant induced a single febrile episode and was subsequently controlled in the absence of type-specific NAb. Long-term control was associated with the presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Our results demonstrate that immune plasma with neutralizing activity against heterologous PND variants can prevent lentivirus infection and clinical disease in the complete absence of T cells. Importantly, however, rare neutralization-resistant envelope variants can replicate in vivo under relatively broad selection pressure, highlighting the need for protective lentivirus vaccines to elicit NAb responses with increased breadth and potency and/or CTL that target conserved epitopes.

  13. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  14. "When I go to bed hungry and sleep, I'm not hungry": Children and parents' experiences of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Evidence demonstrates food insecurity has a detrimental impact on a range of outcomes for children, but little research has been conducted in the UK, and children have rarely been asked to describe their experiences directly. We examined the experiences of food insecure families living in South London. Our mixed-methods approach comprised a survey of parents (n = 72) and one-to-one semi-structured interviews with children aged 5-11 years (n = 19). The majority of parents (86%) described their food security during the preceding year as very low. Most reported they had often or sometimes had insufficient food, and almost all had worried about running out of food. Two thirds of parents had gone hungry. Most parents reported they had been unable to afford a nutritionally balanced diet for their children, and just under half reported that their children had gone hungry. Four themes emerged from the interviews with children: sources of food; security of food, nutritional quality of food, and experiences of hunger. Children's descriptions of insufficient food being available indicate that parents are not always able to shield them from the impact of food insecurity. The lack of school-meals and after-school clubs serving food made weekends particularly problematic for some children. A notable consequence of food insecurity appears to be reliance on low-cost takeaway food, likely to be nutritionally poor.

  15. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  16. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  17. Food loss in a hungry world, a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Martínez Z.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mainly in developing countries, food loss and waste is a problem that is difficult to measure. Investigations have been conducted in industrialized countries; however, consistent evidence of how much is really being depleted is limited. The accessible data give the illusion of evidence, but are supported by very restricted facts. In recent years, food waste and loss have gained importance because more than 35% of food is wasted. Nevertheless, with this percentage of food, most of the 800 million people that go hungry every day in the world could be fed. This reflection paper aims to describe the different approaches and meanings of food waste, food loss and food wastage. Similarly, this article identifies the phases of the food supply chain where food is being lost and wasted. Based on the available data, developed and developing countries are compared. It was concluded that, in developed countries, the most important losses are in the consumption phase; in developing countries, the losses take place in the growing and harvesting phase. Changing consumption habits as well as the improvement of cropping and harvesting processes could be an option for reducing this problem, especially in developing countries.

  18. Fear in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  19. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  20. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.

  2. Salinomycin toxicosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Magdesian, K Gary; Peterson, Tracy S; Galey, Francis D

    2007-06-15

    A 4-month-old American Paint filly was evaluated because of sudden onset of ataxia that progressed to recumbency. Five additional horses from the same and neighboring premises developed signs of poor performance, generalized weakness, ataxia, and recumbency; 2 of those horses were also evaluated. A new batch of a commercial feed supplement had been introduced to the horses' diet on each farm within the preceding 3 days. Other than recumbency, findings of physical and neurologic examinations of the foal were unremarkable. The other 2 horses had generalized weakness and mild ataxia, and 1 horse also had persistent tachycardia. The foal had mild leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hyperglycemia, and mildly high serum creatine kinase activity. Results of cervical radiography, CSF analysis, and assessments of heavy metals and selenium concentrations in blood and vitamin E concentration in serum were within reference limits. Feed analysis revealed high concentrations of the ionophore antimicrobial salinomycin. The 5 affected horses survived, but the foal was euthanized. At necropsy, a major histopathologic finding was severe vacuolation within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, which was compatible with ionophore toxicosis. The surviving horses developed muscle atrophy, persistent weakness, and ataxia. In horses, ionophore toxicosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acute weakness, ataxia, recumbency, or sudden death. Furthermore, ionophore toxicosis should be considered as a cause of poor performance, weakness, muscle wasting, and cardiac arrhythmias in horses. Surviving horses may have impaired athletic performance.

  3. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate p

  4. The Revolution Fails Here: Cherrie Moraga's "The Hungry Woman" as a Mexican Medea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues that Moraga's recent play, "The Hungry Woman," is a meditation on the failure of the "Queer Aztlan" project articulated in 1993 as part of her collection "The Last Generation." It views the play through the lens of Mexican dramatic structures and historiography, explicating how Moraga interrogates the possibilities of indigenismo…

  5. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate

  6. Reading: Making It Personal Again--Now Serving PIE to Hungry Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nancy; Oleynik, Myra; Sacco, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Something wonderful happens when children are asked to choose their own books and are given ample time to read and discuss them. They become hungry readers with an appetite for books! This simple strategy was the basis for developing the program known as PIE (Personalized Independent Enrichment) and its recipe for reading success. The goal of the…

  7. The Revolution Fails Here: Cherrie Moraga's "The Hungry Woman" as a Mexican Medea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues that Moraga's recent play, "The Hungry Woman," is a meditation on the failure of the "Queer Aztlan" project articulated in 1993 as part of her collection "The Last Generation." It views the play through the lens of Mexican dramatic structures and historiography, explicating how Moraga interrogates the possibilities of indigenismo…

  8. Veterinary and Equine Science Students' Interpretation of Horse Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica; Martinez, Audrey; Bolwell, Charlotte

    2017-08-15

    Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses' welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students' interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses. The students (N = 127) were shown six short video clips and asked to select the most applicable terms, from a pre-determined list, to describe the behavioural expression of each individual horse. A wide variation of terms were selected by students and in some situations of distress, or situations that may be dangerous or lead to compromised welfare, apparently contradictory terms were also selected (happy or playful) by students with less experience with horses. Future studies should consider the use of Qualitative Behavioural Analysis (QBA) and free-choice profiling to investigate the range of terms used by students to describe the expressive demeanour and arousal levels of horses.

  9. Colombian Creole horse breeds: same origin but different diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%, followed by haplogroups A (19%, C (8% and F (6%. The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  10. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  12. Differential Gene Expression Profiles and Selected Cytokine Protein Analysis of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Horses with Chronic Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO Support an Interleukin-17 Immune Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Korn

    Full Text Available Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO is a pulmonary inflammatory condition that afflicts certain mature horses exposed to organic dust particulates in hay. Its clinical and pathological features, manifested by reversible bronchoconstriction, excessive mucus production and airway neutrophilia, resemble the pulmonary alterations that occur in agricultural workers with occupational asthma. The immunological basis of RAO remains uncertain although its chronicity, its localization to a mucosal surface and its domination by a neutrophilic, non-septic inflammatory response, suggest involvement of Interleukin-17 (IL-17. We examined global gene expression profiles in mediastinal (pulmonary-draining lymph nodes isolated from RAO-affected and control horses. Differential expression of > 200 genes, coupled with network analysis, supports an IL-17 response centered about NF-κB. Immunohistochemical analysis of mediastinal lymph node sections demonstrated increased IL-17 staining intensity in diseased horses. This result, along with the finding of increased IL-17 concentrations in lymph node homogenates from RAO-affected horses (P = 0.1 and a down-regulation of IL-4 gene and protein expression, provides additional evidence of the involvement of IL-17 in the chronic stages of RAO. Additional investigations are needed to ascertain the cellular source of IL-17 in this equine model of occupational asthma. Understanding the immunopathogenesis of this disorder likely will enhance the development of therapeutic interventions beneficial to human and animal pulmonary health.

  13. Chiral Selectivity in Inter-reactant Recognition and Electron Transfer of the Oxidation of Horse Heart Cytochrome c by Trioxalatocobaltate(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R; Bronshtein, Michael D; Zinkicheva, Tamara T; Hansen, Niels Sthen; Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2016-09-19

    Outer-sphere electron transfer (ET) between optically active transition-metal complexes and either other transition-metal complexes or metalloproteins is a prototype reaction for kinetic chirality. Chirality as the ratio between bimolecular rate constants of two enantiomers mostly amounts to 1.05-1.2 with either the Λ or Δ form the more reactive, but the origin of chirality in ET parameters such as work terms, electronic transmission coefficient, and nuclear reorganization free energy has not been addressed. We report a study of ET between the Λ-/Δ-[Co(Ox)3](3-) pair (Ox = oxalate) and horse heart cytochrome c (cyt c). This choice is prompted by strong ion-pair formation that enables separation into inter-reactant interaction (chiral "recognition") and ET within the ion pair ("stereoselectivity"). Chiral selectivity was first addressed experimentally. Λ-[Co(Ox)3](3-) was found to be both the more strongly bound and faster reacting enantiomer expressed respectively by the ion-pair formation constant KX and ET rate constant kET(X) (X = Λ and Δ), with KΛ/KΔ and kET(Λ)/kET(Δ) both ≈1.1-1.2. rac-[Co(Ox)3](3-) behavior is intermediate between those of Λ- and Δ-[Co(Ox)3](3-). Chirality was next analyzed by quantum-mechanical ET theory combined with density functional theory and statistical mechanical computations. We also modeled the ion pair K(+)·[Co(Ox)3](3-) in order to address the influence of the solution ionic strength. The complex structure of cyt c meant that this reactant was represented solely by the heme group including the chiral axial ligands L-His and L-Met. Both singlet and triplet hemes as well as hemes with partially deprotonated propionic acid side groups were addressed. The computations showed that the most favorable inter-reactant configuration involved a narrow distance and orientation space very close to the contact distance, substantiating the notion of a reaction complex and the equivalence of the binding constant to a bimolecular

  14. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  15. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  16. Culling Rate of Icelandic Horses due to Bone Spavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árnason Th

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survival analysis was used to compare the culling rate of Icelandic horses due to the presence of radiographic and clinical signs of bone spavin. A follow-up study of 508 horses from a survey five years earlier was performed. In the original survey 46% of the horses had radiographic signs of bone spavin (RS and/or lameness after flexion test of the tarsus. The horse owners were interviewed by telephone. The owners were asked if the horses were still used for riding and if not, they were regarded as culled. The owners were then asked when and why the horses were culled. During the 5 years, 98 horses had been culled, 151 had been withdrawn (sold or selected for breeding and 259 were still used for riding. Hind limb lameness (HLL was the most common reason for culling (n = 42. The rate of culling was low up to the age of 11 years, when it rose to 0.05 for horses with RS. The risk ratio for culling was twice as high for horses with RS compared with horses without RS and 5.5 times higher for culling because of HLL. The risk of culling (prognostic value was highest for the combination of RS with lameness after flexion test, next highest for RS and lowest for lameness after flexion test as the only finding. It was concluded that bone spavin affects the duration of use of Icelandic horses and is the most common cause of culling due to disease of riding horses in the age range of 7–17 years.

  17. Putative uremic encephalopathy in horses: five cases (1978-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, M A; Johnson, J S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Savage, C J; Fettman, M J; Gould, D H

    2001-02-15

    To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy. Design-Retrospective study. Animals-5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system. Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed. Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy. A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses.

  18. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  19. Northwest Montana Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation; Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse, 1990-1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, Michael G. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)]|[Montana Dept. of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Distribution, habitat use and survival of transplanted Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in the Tobacco Plains, Montana were studied from April, 1990 to August, 1991. For transplant purposes, 12 grouse (5 female and 7 male) were trapped on dancing grounds near Douglas Lake, British Columbia, Canada during spring, 1990. In April, 1991, trapping of 4 female and 2 male grouse for transplant occurred on the Sand Creek Wildlife Management Area in southeast Idaho while 3 additional males were transplanted from Douglas Lake. Minimum annual survival of transplanted grouse in the Tobacco Plains is relatively high (47%). High survival is possibly due to 2 factors: (1) topography and habitat characteristics that discourage dispersal and (2) the presence of limited but relatively good habitat. Two of 18 radio-equipped grouse dispersed out of the study area, while 2 others survived in the area for over 590 days. A negative correlation in distances moved between consecutive relocations and length of survival was seen in radio-equipped grouse in this study. Data collected during this study showed the importance of habitat associated with the Dancing Prairie Preserve. Three of 5 females transplanted in 1990 attempted to nest after being released. Nesting and brood rearing sites were characterized by dense grass cover with an average effective height {ge}20 cm. Shrub cover was associated only with brood rearing sites. Overall habitat use by transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed grouse showed an apparent avoidance of agricultural land and use of other habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  20. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskill, Mark (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  1. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management.

  2. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  3. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  4. "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" Meets "Beowulf" in Secondary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Judith C.; Moore, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that picture books are appropriate supplementary materials for use with secondary students. Provides a rationale for incorporating them into the secondary school curriculum. Describes the selection of appropriate picture books for use with older students and provides sample teaching strategies in selected subject areas (English/reading,…

  5. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. 110 undergraduate participants (MAge=20.9±2.3; MBMI=22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbinovski, Bruno; Magno, Michele; Edwards-Murphy, Fiona; Pakrashi, Vikram; Popovici, Emanuel

    2016-03-28

    Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA) for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind). Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA) in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources) and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors). The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA.

  7. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  9. Tolerance Induction of Horse Allergy by Horse Contact with Curly Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C

    2017-07-01

    A horse allergic rider completed 60 riding lessons on Curly Horses within six months. This rider has become clinically tolerant to normal horse breeds within this time. This case may indicate that riding and brushing ABCR Curly Horses after 60 riding hours facilitates tolerance induction. Our data indicate that this could be a valid alternative to the common recommendation to strictly avoid horse riding. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Development of the body size in stallions of selected Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan NAVRÁTIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the basic body measurements (stick height at withers - KVH, tape height at withers - KVP, chest perimeter - OHR, shin perimeter - OHOL from data available from the 40th years of the 20th century in the Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds. The evaluation included a total of 1,080 stallions aged 2-3 years, used in mating and breeding. Processing and evaluation of a data set was done using Microsoft Office Excel and the statistical program SAS 9.3. Numerous statistically significant differences were found among the evaluated breeds (P < 0.05 to 0.01. The highest values of KVH, KVP and OHR were achieved by stallions of Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse. The increase of the basic dimensions from 40´s years to 70´s – 90´s years was found during a detailed evaluation focusing on decade of stallions’ birth year. After year 2000, there was a dramatic +drop in the values of the fundamental physical dimensions. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 to 0.01 were evaluated primarily between stallions born in the 70´s years, and most other decades. A declining tendency in all assessed dimensions was observed during evaluation of the race and decade interaction effect mainly for the Czech-Moravian Belgian horse stallions born from 70´s, respectively 80´s. Apparent downward trend between the 90´s and stallions born after year 2000 was detected especially for stallions of Silesian Noriker breed. Decline of body size parameters was not observed for stallions of Noriker breed. The more likely slightly increased tendencies for KVH, KVP, OHR and OHOL were determined in Noriker stallions.

  11. The efficacy of fenbendazole on horse strongyle infestation from Bazosul nou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu S.,

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years horse strongyles became very important because they are harmful and prejudicious for horses and horse owners. The large number of strongyle species and the possibility of apparition ofbenzimidazole compounds resistance phenomenon were on the basis of this study. After administration of 10% fenbendazole (Panacur to randomic selected horses from Bazosul Nou, the efficacy of the anthelmintic by classical method FECRT and supplementary, by Borgsteede and Presidente relations, was calculated. The anthelmintic efficacy was over 99% by the mean of all three methods. The faeces examination from treated horses revealed the presence of 19 species of strongyles.

  12. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  13. The Last Horse Trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Horse trains used to be the chief means of transport in southwest China's mountainous areas, areas that were almost inaccessible because of the difficult terrain. They have largely disappeared as most such areas are already serviced by modern road systems. At binzhonluo, however, the last horse trains can still be found, their drivers being Nus, Lisus and Tibetans. As I discovered at country fairs, goods shipped in by horse trains from Tibetan are mostly butter tea, edible fungus and wild orchid plants, and goods shipped to Tibet include drinks, batteries, salt and instant noodles. For centuries,horse trains have traversed the Nujiang Canyon or the Tibetan-Yi Corridor which, to be accurate, should be called an economic and cultural corridor linking Tibet and the rest of China.

  14. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  15. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  16. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  17. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  18. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Srbinovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind. Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors. The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA.

  19. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate participants (MAge = 20.9 ± 2.3; MBMI = 22.3 ± 2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body...

  20. 林丽The very hungry caterpillar绘本教学赏析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颜明

    2015-01-01

    绘本(Pielure Book)是指以绘画为主体,并配有简练文字的书籍。它因丰富多彩的图画和动人的故事情节深受学生喜爱。在日常教学中,教师应如何进行绘本教学?本文以南京市林.丽老师.的观摩课“The very hungry caterpillar”为例,探讨小学英语绘本教学的有效途径。

  1. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-07-04

    The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.

  2. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, E Kathalijne; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Blokhuis, Mari Zetterqvist; Morgan, E Karin M; Hassmén, Peter; Rundgren, T Margareta M; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, knowledge, and personality of the rider on one hand and the temperament, experience, and physical abilities of the horse on the other. A study with 16 riders and 16 warm-blood riding horses tested the effect of personality of riders and temperament of horses on cooperation between riders and horses. More emotionally reactive horses showed more evasive behavior during riding. Riders preferred to ride those horses who were assessed by the riders as being attentive to the rider's aid. The frequency of evasive behaviors during riding--as assessed by riders, in contrast to the assessments made by an external judge--influenced the cooperation between rider and horse. On average, a rider's personality did not affect the cooperation between rider and horse; however, it is suggested that a rider's personality does affect the cooperation with more emotionally reactive horses.

  3. Horse Allergy: Curly Horses Allow Horse Allergic Riders To Ride Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C; Niggemann, B

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that so called hypoallergenic horses (Curly horses) allow horse allergic riders to ride again, we investigated 40 horse allergic riders in a period of 37 months. Methods: We tested these patients (pts.) by skin prick test (SPT) with different non-curly and Curly horses and studied the riding hours and horse brushing by measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau tests (FEV1) as well as peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) over 12 months. The results in 37/40 pts. showed no relevant reactions of the lower airways or nasal flow. Only in 3/40 patients an initial significant fall of FEV1 was observed, reversed by a single inhalation of salbutamol and not repeated despite further riding contact. In contrast to other allergic events (e. g. baker's asthma) a further and regular contact with these horses abolished the mild allergic reactions of the start period of contact. This may be due to hypoallergenic properties of these horses, whose test material produces weaker reactions in the SPT than that of normal horses. After a period of three years, a loss of reactivity to normal horses could be confirmed in some of the riders. Conclusion: The tested purebreed Curly horses may be a suitable alternative for horse allergic riders if the methodological precautions of this study are followed.

  4. Reading the Postcolonial Island in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fletcher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that literature has much to contribute to the theoretical work of island studies, and not just because literary texts provide evidence of the ways islands are conceptualized in different historical and cultural contexts. To this end, it discusses Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide (2004, a novel which actively theorizes key concepts in island studies. The Hungry Tide is set in the Sundarbans, an “immense archipelago” in the Ganges delta, and tells the largely forgotten history of the forced evacuation of refugees from the island of Morichjhãpi in 1979. The liminal space of the Sundarbans, the “tide country”, is an extraordinary setting for a literary exploration of the relationship between postcolonial island geographies and identities. Ghosh’s depiction of the “watery labyrinth” (Ghosh, 2004: 72 and “storm-tossed islands” (Ghosh, 2004: 164 of the Sundarbans raises and addresses questions, which should be at the heart of the critical meta-discourse of island studies.

  5. Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A T

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of selected studbook records of the American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene. More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo. Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in other breeds.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuba Štrbac; Snežana Trivunović; Mirjana Baban

    2015-01-01

    Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. ...

  7. Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C; Henry, S; Fureix, C; Hausberger, M

    2016-03-01

    Some captive/domestic animals respond to confinement by becoming inactive and unresponsive to external stimuli. Human inactivity is one of the behavioural markers of clinical depression, a mental disorder diagnosed by the co-occurrence of symptoms including deficit in selective attention. Some riding horses display 'withdrawn' states of inactivity and low responsiveness to stimuli that resemble the reduced engagement with their environment of some depressed patients. We hypothesized that 'withdrawn' horses experience a depressive-like state and evaluated their level of attention by confronting them with auditory stimuli. Five novel auditory stimuli were broadcasted to 27 horses, including 12 'withdrawn' horses, for 5 days. The horses' reactions and durations of attention were recorded. Non-withdrawn horses reacted more and their attention lasted longer than that of withdrawn horses on the first day, but their durations of attention decreased over days, but those of withdrawn horses remained stable. These results suggest that the withdrawn horses' selective attention is altered, adding to already evidenced common features between this horses' state and human depression.

  8. The feral horse foot. Part B: radiographic, gross visual and histopathological parameters of foot health in 100 Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Walsh, D M; Pollitt, C C

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the feral horse foot is a benchmark model for foot health in horses. However, the foot health of feral horses has not been formally investigated. To investigate the foot health of Australian feral horses and determine if foot health is affected by environmental factors, such as substrate properties and distance travelled. Twenty adult feral horses from five populations (n = 100) were investigated. Populations were selected on the basis of substrate hardness and the amount of travel typical for the population. Feet were radiographed and photographed, and digital images were surveyed by two experienced assessors blinded to each other's assessment and to the population origin. Lamellar samples from 15 feet from three populations were investigated histologically for evidence of laminitis. There was a total of 377 gross foot abnormalities identified in 100 left forefeet. There were no abnormalities detected in three of the feet surveyed. Each population had a comparable prevalence of foot abnormalities, although the type and severity of abnormality varied among populations. Of the three populations surveyed by histopathology, the prevalence of chronic laminitis ranged between 40% and 93%. Foot health appeared to be affected by the environment inhabited by the horses. The observed chronic laminitis may be attributable to either nutritional or traumatic causes. Given the overwhelming evidence of suboptimal foot health, it may not be appropriate for the feral horse foot to be the benchmark model for equine foot health. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Cantharidin toxicosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, D G

    1989-01-01

    Cantharidin toxicosis in horses has become an increasing problem in certain regions of the United States. Toxicosis occurs when horses ingest alfalfa hay or products that are contaminated with "blister" beetles. Clinical signs may vary from depression to severe shock and death, depending upon the amount of toxin ingested. The most frequently observed signs include varying degrees of abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, and signs suggestive of oral irritation. Many horses make frequent attempts to void urine. Less commonly observed signs include synchronous diaphragmatic flutter and erosions of the oral mucosal surfaces. Clinical laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cantharidin toxicosis include persistent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, development of hypoproteinemia, microscopic hematuria, and mild azotemia with inappropriate urine specific gravity. Chemical analysis for cantharidin is accomplished by evaluation of urine or stomach contents. Treatment of cantharidin toxicosis is symptomatic, but must include removal of toxin source. Gastrointestinal protectants, laxative, intravenous fluids, analgesics, diuretics, calcium gluconate, and magnesium are all included in the treatment regimen. Early and vigorous therapy is imperative if it is to be successful. In horses that remain alive for several days, persistence of elevated heart and respiratory rates and increasing serum creatine kinase concentration are associated with a deteriorating condition. Prevention is aimed at timely harvesting of alfalfa hay. Hay fields should be inspected for the presence of beetle clusters before harvesting. Involved areas of the field should not be harvested.

  10. Homegrown Olympic Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Potential equine Olympians prepare for 2008 "All the horses for the modern pentathlon at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be made-in-China," said Zhang Bin, Deputy Director of the Competition Office of the Modern Pentathlon WorldCup Final, which was recently held in Beijing.

  11. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  12. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field.

  13. The Hungry Mind: Intellectual Curiosity Is the Third Pillar of Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Hell, Benedikt; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2011-11-01

    Over the past century, academic performance has become the gatekeeper to institutions of higher education, shaping career paths and individual life trajectories. Accordingly, much psychological research has focused on identifying predictors of academic performance, with intelligence and effort emerging as core determinants. In this article, we propose expanding on the traditional set of predictors by adding a third agency: intellectual curiosity. A series of path models based on a meta-analytically derived correlation matrix showed that (a) intelligence is the single most powerful predictor of academic performance; (b) the effects of intelligence on academic performance are not mediated by personality traits; (c) intelligence, Conscientiousness (as marker of effort), and Typical Intellectual Engagement (as marker of intellectual curiosity) are direct, correlated predictors of academic performance; and (d) the additive predictive effect of the personality traits of intellectual curiosity and effort rival that the influence of intelligence. Our results highlight that a "hungry mind" is a core determinant of individual differences in academic achievement.

  14. Parathyroid Adenoma Located on Anterior Mediastinum and Hungry Bone Syndrome ; Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Celik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Anterior mediastinum is a rare localization for ectopic parathyroid adenoma. This localization seen about 1-2 % in the patient that looked for primary  ypherparathyroidism etiology. On a 33 - years old male patient who had searched for primary   perparathyroidism etiology, an anterior mediastinal lesion which referred to be an ectopic parathyroid adenoma was detected via Tc-99m MIBI. After, total mass excision was performed via sternotomy, pathologic examination reported as parathyroid adenoma. In early postoperative period, hungry bone syndrome was occured. After treatment, the patient whose clinic and laboratory results was normal discharged uneventful. The ectopic paratroid adenomas and their surgical  options and postoperative management has reviewed with literature knowladge  due to this case.

  15. A periodic phase soliton of the ultradiscrete hungry Lotka-Volterra equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shinya [Major in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Graduate School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: s-nakamura@moegi.waseda.jp

    2009-12-11

    We propose a new type of solution to the ultradiscrete hungry Lotka-Volterra (uhLV) equation. For the solution, the periodic phase is introduced into the known soliton and the extended soliton becomes a traveling wave showing a periodic variation. We call this type of wave a 'periodic phase soliton' (PPS). The solution has two forms of expression: one is the 'perturbation form' and the other is the 'ultradiscrete permanent form'. We analyze the interaction among PPSs and solitons. Moreover, we give the outline of proof to show that the solution satisfies the bilinear equation of the uhLV equation.

  16. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses...

  17. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Tatjana Tušek; Damir Alagić; Josip Ljubešić

    2000-01-01

    Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slau...

  18. Incidence of and risk factors for hungry bone syndrome in 84 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latus J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Joerg Latus,1 Meike Roesel,1 Peter Fritz,2 Niko Braun,1 Christoph Ulmer,3 Wolfgang Steurer,3 Dagmar Biegger,4 M Dominik Alscher,1 Martin Kimmel1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Robert Bosch Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany; 2Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Robert Bosch Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany; 3Department of Surgery, Robert Bosch Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany; 4Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Tuebingen, Stuttgart, Germany Introduction: Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops in nearly all patients with end-stage renal disease. Parathyroidectomy is often performed when medical therapy fails. The most common postoperative complication, hungry bone syndrome (HBS, requires early recognition and treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 84 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy because of secondary hyperparathyroidism were investigated. Detailed analysis of laboratory parameters (calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, and urea levels and baseline characteristics (age at time of surgery, duration of renal replacement therapy, and medication was performed to detect preoperative predictors for the development of HBS. Results: Average overall follow-up of the cohort was 4.7 years. Within this time frame, 13 of 84 patients had to undergo a second surgery because of recurrent disease, and HBS occurred in 51.2%. Only decreased preoperative calcium levels and younger age at time of surgery were significant predictors of HBS. Minimal levels of calcium were detected 3 weeks after surgery. Preoperative vitamin D therapy could not prevent HBS and could not shorten the duration of intravenous calcium supplementation. Conclusion: HBS is a very common complication after parathyroidectomy. Younger patients and patients with low preoperative calcium levels were at higher risk for the development of HBS. Remarkably, preoperative vitamin D therapy could not prevent HBS and had no

  19. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  20. Leptospirosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh; Stevenson, Brian; Adler, Ben

    2013-11-29

    Leptospirosis in horses has been considered a relatively uncommon infection. However, recent data suggest that the infection is widespread, with the incidence and infecting serovars varying considerably in different geographical regions. The majority of infections remain asymptomatic. Clinical signs in equine leptospirosis resemble those seen in other animal species. However, leptospirosis as a cause of acute respiratory distress is becoming more frequently recognised. A particular feature of equine leptospirosis is post infection recurrent uveitis (moon blindness or periodic ophthalmia), which appears to be mediated by autoimmune mechanisms involving cross reactivity between ocular tissues and leptospiral membrane proteins. There are no leptospiral vaccines licensed for use in horses, with no prospect for any becoming available in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, prevention of equine leptospirosis must rely on good hygiene practices, minimisation of rodent contact, and vaccination of other species of production and companion animals.

  1. No Fools with Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    HORSES have been around China for a long time. The Mongols conquered China on horseback and ruled as the Yuan Dynasty for a century. The terracotta warriors in Xi'an, cavalrymen by their steeds, date from the pre-millennial Qin Dynasty. Tang Dynasty ceramics depic thorses and camels, and many generals of the Republic of China in the 1920s had a predilection for equestrian statues of themselves.

  2. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Finno, Carrie J; Higgins, Robert J; Puschner, Birgit; Gericota, Barbara; Gohil, Kishorchandra; LeCouteur, Richard A; Madigan, John E

    2011-09-15

    To describe epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses (QHs) on a single farm. Prospective case series. Animals-148 horses. Neurologic, pathological, and toxicological evaluations were completed in selected neurologically affected horses over a 2-year period. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. 87 QHs and 1 QH-crossbred horse were affected. Most (50/88 [56.8%]) affected horses were 1 to 2 years old (median age, 2 years [range, 2 months to 34 years]). Neurologic deficits included obtundation (53/88 [60%] horses), decreased to absent menace response (33/88 [37.5%]), proprioceptive positioning deficits, wide-based stance, ataxia, and dysmetria (88/88 [100%]). Most (78/88 [88.6%]) horses had mild ataxia, but some (10/88 [11.4%]) had moderate to severe ataxia. Low serum concentrations of vitamin E (≤ 2 mg/L) were detected in 3 index case horses and 16 of 17 randomly selected horses (13/14 affected and 3/3 unaffected) during study year 1. Dietary vitamin E supplementation did not improve neurologic deficits in affected horses; vitamin E administration in pregnant mares appeared to decrease but not prevent disease development among offspring born the following year. Lesions detected at necropsy included bilaterally symmetric neuroaxonal degeneration with axonal spheroids in the nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus medialis, nucleus cuneatus lateralis, and nucleus thoracicus (5/5 horses). Neuroaxonal dystrophy should be considered in evaluation of young horses with ataxia and proprioceptive positioning deficits. Vitamin E deficiency may contribute to disease severity.

  3. Horse chestnut pollen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality of horse chestnut, expressed as pollen productivity, viability and germination was studied. Anthers of horse chestnut genotypes had pollen production from 3.66 to 5.06 x 103 pollen grains per anther, depending of genotype. Also, pollen of horse chestnut Ah1-Ah4 genotypes showed different viability (from 56 to 68%, after staining with fluorescein diacetate. Pollen germination of Ah1-Ah4 genotypes varied from 50-66% on basic medium. Inclusion of polyethylene glycol-PEG from 10%, 15% and 20% v/w increased pollen germination. The best results were achieved on medium with the largest PEG concentration. On these medium 76-91% pollen grains were germinated, depending of genotype. The best pollen quality, for all tested parameters, had genotype Ah2. Knowledge about morphology, production, viability, in vitro germination, tube growth as well as pollen: ovule ratio can be of great importance for future pollen biology studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173015

  4. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  5. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, kn

  6. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills,

  7. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-02-09

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  8. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food, were of the same sex (geldings, and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile. Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be

  9. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  10. Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Animals that live in stable social groups need to gather information on their own relative position in the group's social hierarchy, by either directly threatening or by challenging others, or indirectly and in a less perilous manner , by observing interactions among others. Indirect inference of dominance relationships has previously been reported from primates, rats, birds, and fish. Here, we show that domestic horses, Equus caballus, are similarly capable of social cognition. Taking advantage of a specific "following behavior" that horses show towards humans in a riding arena, we investigated whether bystander horses adjust their response to an experimenter according to the observed interaction and their own dominance relationship with the horse whose reaction to the experimenter they had observed before. Horses copied the "following behavior" towards an experimenter after watching a dominant horse following but did not follow after observing a subordinate horse or a horse from another social group doing so. The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer.

  11. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  12. Nutrient needs of performance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lawrence

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the National Research Council (NRC Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition defined three categories of exercise: light, moderate or intense. In the 6th revised edition of "The Nutrient Requirements of Horses" (NRC, 2007, there are four categories for exercising horses: light exercise, moderate exercise, heavy exercise and very heavy exercise. Light exercise is described as 1 to 3 hours/week of mostly walking and trotting. Many horses kept for recreational riding would be included in the light exercise category. Moderate exercise consists of 3 to 5 hours/week of mostly trotting with some walking, some cantering and possibly some jumping or other type of more difficult activity. Horses used for horse shows, ranch work and frequent recreational riding would fit into the moderate exercise category. Heavy exercise is described as 4 to 5 hours/week of trotting, cantering, galloping and some jumping, cattle work, etc. Horses engaged in three day eventing, polo, endurance racing or other competitive events would be in this category. The very heavy exercise category includes racehorses and a few other horses that compete at the elite level of endurance or three day eventing. The NRC (2007 provides recommendations for nutrient intakes by mature exercising horses and for yearlings and two year olds that are receiving regular exercise. Many of the recommendations are similar to those in the 1989 publication, but others have been increased or decreased. For example, crude protein recommendations for exercising horses are generally lower than in the last edition. However, lysine requirements are relatively similar and the publication suggests that protein quality should be emphasized more than in the past. The 2007 NRC contains more information about the factors that influence the requirements for each nutrient, making it easier for users to develop diets for individual horses.

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  14. Septic arthritis in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M

    2010-01-01

    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  15. Two-Dice Horse Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  16. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  17. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... organizations, veterinary associations, horse and animal welfare advocacy groups, participants in the horse... of inflammation. If the horse is not free of these symptoms, it is considered to be sore under Sec... sometimes sends veterinary medical officers (VMOs) to conduct inspections of horses at horse shows...

  18. Complex evolutionary patterns revealed by mitochondrial genomes of the domestic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, T; Li, J; Lin, K; Xiao, H; Wylie, S; Hua, S; Li, H; Zhang, Y-P

    2014-01-01

    The domestic horse is the most widely used and important stock and recreational animal, valued for its strength and endurance. The energy required by the domestic horse is mainly supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, selection may have played an essential role in the evolution of the horse mitochondria. Besides, demographic events also affect the DNA polymorphic pattern on mitochondria. To understand the evolutionary patterns of the mitochondria of the domestic horse, we used a deep sequencing approach to obtain the complete sequences of 15 mitochondrial genomes, and four mitochondrial gene sequences, ND6, ATP8, ATP6 and CYTB, collected from 509, 363, 363 and 409 domestic horses, respectively. Evidence of strong substitution rate heterogeneity was found at nonsynonymous sites across the genomes. Signatures of recent positive selection on mtDNA of domestic horse were detected. Specifically, five amino acids in the four mitochondrial genes were identified as the targets of positive selection. Coalescentbased simulations imply that recent population expansion is the most probable explanation for the matrilineal population history for domestic horse. Our findings reveal a complex pattern of non-neutral evolution of the mitochondrial genome in the domestic horses.

  19. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in horses naturally infected with Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, M; Davitkov, D; Borozan, S; Stojanovic, S; Stevanovic, J; Krstic, V; Stanimirovic, Z

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in horses infected by Theileria equi. Initial screening of 110 horses with duplex PCR enabled the selection of 30 infected horses with T. equi and 30 free of infection (control). Specimens from the 60 horses were further analysed by determining the following oxidative stress parameters: extent of haemolysis (EH), plasma free haemoglobin (PHb), catalase (CAT), Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), paraoxonase (PON1), nitrite (NO2(-)), total nitrate and nitrite (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and free thiol groups (-SH). In addition, relative distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1-LDH5) activity and the DNA-damaging effects of T. equi infection were evaluated. Compared to control horses, horses infected with T. equi had significantly higher SOD1 activities (P horses had significantly increased LDH5 isoenzyme activities (P horses, which resulted in changes in osmotic fragility, damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, haemolysis and hepatocellular damage. Oxidative stress in horses naturally infected with T. equi could contribute to the pathogenesis of the infection.

  20. Morphological and biochemical changes in the blood of horses naturally infected with Gasterophilus sp. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlas-Opiela, M; Sołtysiak, Z; Gorczykowski, M

    2010-01-01

    Gasterophilus sp. constitute a group of specific parasites, which larval forms are found in horses and other phylogenetically related species--donkeys, mules and zebras. Their invasion is associated with marked fluctuations of hematological and biochemical blood parameters, including the activity of many enzymes and the electrolyte concentration. The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in selected biochemical and morphological blood parameters of horses infected with botfly larvae. The experimental group was formed of horses infested by Gasterophilus sp. larvae whereas the control group consisted of noninfested horses. The study was performed in two periods: at the beginning and at the most advanced invasion. Significant differences between horses at early and late stage of invasion were found in terms of erythrocyte parameters. Mean red and white blood cell counts and mean hemoglobin concentration were lower in horses with late invasion compared to those with the invasion at its early stage. The values of all the aforementioned erythrocyte parameters remained within the reference limits for both groups of horses. Moreover, both in horses infected with botfly larvae and in those from the control group, biochemical parameters studied did not exceed the respective reference limits. Our results suggest that larvae of botfly which colonize the gastrointestinal tract have relatively insignificant influence on the basic hematological and biochemical parameters of horse blood.

  1. Number, causes and destinations of horses leaving the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P C; Hayek, A R; Jones, B; Evans, D L; McGreevy, P D

    2014-08-01

    Significant proportions of horses leave the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, which has ramifications for both the economic sustainability and the public perception of racing. The aim of this study was to quantify potential horse wastage, describe the destinations of exiting horses and identify risk factors for horses going to these destinations. Questionnaires were sent to 1258 selected Thoroughbred and 981 Standardbred trainers, with response rates of 30% and 32%, respectively. The survey investigated the role of various risk factors for wastage, including horse age, sex and number of years in training. The destination of departing horses was also examined in relation to these risk factors. Total horse exit rates for the 2002-03 official race year were 39.7% and 38.7% for the Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, respectively. Reasons for leaving included 'poor performance/slow' (36.5% Thoroughbreds, 35.2% Standardbreds), 'illness/injury' (31.0%, 27.1%), 'to breed' (9.4%, 10.1%), 'unsuitable temperament/behaviour' (6.4%, 6.4%) and 'other' (16.8%, 21.2%). Statistically significant (P racing horses included whether the trainer owned the horses, sex, age and reasons for leaving. In addition, some factors were specific to one breed or the other. Improved behaviour training and early identification of the causes of poor performance could assist in reducing wastage. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  3. Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses,…

  4. A Scheme for Evaluating Feral Horse Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Feral horses are an increasing problem in many countries and are popular with the public, making management difficult. Aims. To develop a scheme useful in planning management strategies. Methods. A model is developed and applied to four different feral horse herds, three of which have been quite accurately counted over the years. Key Results. The selected model has been tested on a variety of data sets, with emphasis on the four sets of feral horse data. An alternative, nonparametric model is used to check the selected parametric approach. Conclusions. A density-dependent response was observed in all 4 herds, even though only 8 observations were available in each case. Consistency in the model fits suggests that small starting herds can be used to test various management techniques. Implications. Management methods can be tested on actual, confined populations.

  5. A Dark Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康成

    2012-01-01

    What s the meamng of a "dark horse "? It's soineone who wins while no one expects it. Han Xiaopeng became an Olympic "dark horse" by winning the gold medal in men's freest~ie aerial skiing ( 自由式滑雪空中技巧) in Turin, Italy. He made two almost perfect jumps for the highest score: Han had never won a world gold medal before, let alone (更不用说) in the Olympics!

  6. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  7. Genetic parameters for earnings in Quarter Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P A; Curi, R A; Langlois, B; Silva, J A Ii V

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we estimated the heritability (h(2)) of earnings in the Quarter Horse in order to evaluate the inclusion of this trait in breeding programs. Records from 14,754 races of 2443 horses from 1978-2009 were provided by Sorocaba Hippodrome, São Paulo, Brazil. All ancestors of the registered horses were included in the pedigree file until the 4th generation. Log-transformed performance measures (LPM) were analyzed for animals aged 2, 3, and 4 years and during their entire career. The h(2) estimates were obtained using a multi-trait model and Gibbs sampling that included the effects of sex, year of race, and animal in all analyses. Five analyses were performed: 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of prizes, 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of race starts, and 3 analyses that included the number of prizes, number of race starts, and both (LPM_cNPS) as covariates. Analysis was performed with and without inclusion of the maternal effect. Models were compared based on the deviance information criterion and LPM_cNPS including maternal effects was found to be the best model. The h(2) estimates and standard deviation obtained using model LPM_cNPS were 0.19 ± 0.08, 0.21 ± 0.08, 0.22 ± 0.09, and 0.21 ± 0.07 for earnings at 2, 3, and 4 years of age and total career, respectively. Our analyses indicate that earnings are subject to selection and can be included in breeding programs to improve the racing performance of Quarter Horses.

  8. The match between horse and rider

    OpenAIRE

    Axel-Nilsson, Malin

    2015-01-01

    A successful relationship between horse and rider is a partnership based on compatibility and is often referred to as a good match. In the present thesis, ‘match’ includes the good interaction, interplay and cooperation between horse and rider as well as the related positive experience. A good horse-rider match is important for horse welfare, rider safety and good performance. The aim of this thesis was to investigate which parameters riders consider important for a good match, if horse tempe...

  9. The implementation of biosecurity practices and visitor protocols on non-commercial horse properties in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; Rogers, C W; Cogger, N; Benschop, J; Stevenson, M A

    2012-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate biosecurity practices on non-commercial horse properties, to describe the number of visits by horse professionals and any protocols that visitors were required to follow before interacting with resident horses. Data were collected in November 2009 during a cross-sectional study of non-commercial horse properties, in New Zealand, selected using generalised random-tessellated stratified design and a self-administered postal questionnaire. Data were described and the associations between property-level factors and biosecurity practices were analysed using logistic regression analysis. In total there were 791 respondents from non-commercial horse properties, of which 660 (83%) answer at least one question relating to biosecurity practices. Of the respondents, 95% had at least one biosecurity practice for arriving horses. Only 31% of properties isolated horses for more than four days, and few respondents checked for pyrexia or other clinical signs of infectious disease in new horses. Moving horses from a property was associated with the implementation of biosecurity practices and practices specific to the clinical signs of respiratory disease. Overall, 79% of properties had horse professional's visit, but only 33% of respondents reported biosecurity protocols for these visitors. Most properties had some knowledge about newly arriving horses, but the effectiveness of these practices for biosecurity were questionable, as few practices would stop disease spread to resident horses. Horse professionals are likely candidates for disease spread due to contact with horses, limited visitor protocols and the frequency of visits. The development of a plan to improve biosecurity for endemic and exotic disease is recommended.

  10. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Negroni

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes.

  11. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Julia; Meunier, Nicolas; Monnerie, Régine; Salesse, Roland; Baly, Christine; Caillol, Monique; Congar, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes.

  12. At the Table with Hungry Ghosts: Intimate Borderwork in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duruz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the project of sustaining cultural diversity within global cities’ intimate spaces. Specifically, it sketches the culinary histories of an Anglo-Australian woman (who, in 1968, settled permanently in Mexico and her male partner (who grew up in Mexico; his mother Mexican, his father Cantonese. Drawing on the tools of ‘borderwork’ (Hodge and O’Carroll, the argument positions culturally diverse landscapes of ‘Sydney’, ‘China’ and ‘Mexico City’ as distinct yet overlapping geographies. Meanwhile, analysis of curious moments in the couple’s intersecting histories contributes much fluidity to this cartography. In the process, a company of hungry ghosts appears at the dinner table – ghosts of diversity, diaspora and cosmopolitanism; nostalgia and memory; gender and ethnicity; home and belonging. The article concludes that even when borderwork is conducted amiably behind closed doors, it relies on contradictions for cultural sustenance. At the same time, its tensions resonate with possibilities for creative practice.

  13. Are you hungry? Are you thirsty?--fasting times in elective outpatient pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Thomas; Wilson, Graham; Horne, Lesley; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed the duration of pre-operative fasting in children and its impact on the subjective feeling of hunger and thirst prior to elective outpatient anesthesia. Pediatric fasting guidelines are designed to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during general anesthesia, and a fasting regimen of 6-8 h for solids, 4 h for breast milk, and 2 h for clear fluids is commonly used. Anecdotal evidence suggests that fasting times are often excessive. A total of 1350 consecutive healthy children aged fasting times were 12:05 (00:45-21:50) hours and 07:57 (00:05-20:50) hours for solids and fluids, respectively. The majority of children were very hungry or starving (756/1350=56%), but less than a third of all children were very thirsty (361/1350=27%). Duration of solid food fast and severity of hunger correlated for patients fasted from before midnight (r=0.92) but not for food after midnight. No correlation was found for fluid intake and perception of thirst. This study shows that children presenting for elective outpatient surgery are suffering from a considerable amount of pre-operative discomfort because of excessive fasting. Strategies to guarantee minimal fasting at hospital admission are urgently needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  15. Trojan Horse Method: recent applications in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Pizzone, R.G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Tumino, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Enna ' Kore' , Enna (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is a powerful indirect technique to extract the bare nucleus cross section (or equivalently the bare nucleus astrophysical factor) for astrophysically relevant reactions. The theory has been discussed in many works in relation to the different types of reactions studied. Here we present the methodology to select the quasi free mechanism in order to extract this important parameter.

  16. A note on the heritability of reactivity assessed at field tests for Danish Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne Rothmann; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Søndergaard, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Temperament traits in horses, especially reactivity, are an important trait in relation to human–horse accidents and the welfare of the horses. However, so far, temperament is often not included in many horse breeding programs. Most of the behavioral genetic studies in horses have been based......, a high standard error was untainted. Nevertheless, results suggested a genetic variation of reactivity when assessed at field tests, but further research is needed before reactivity can be incorporated as a selection criteria into a breeding program....... on indirect indications of a sire effect and not on estimations of the heritability of temperament traits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of behavior reactions related to reactivity observed in a practical situation, that is, during the evaluation of the conformation...

  17. Postanesthetic Poliomyelomalacia in a Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, M. Christine

    1985-01-01

    A clinically normal horse was anesthetized preparatory to surgery in dorsal recumbency for removal of a retained testicle. After recovery from the anesthetic, the horse was weak in the hind legs, subsequently deteriorated and became unable to rise and died on the eighth day after surgery. On microscopic examination, extensive poliomalacia of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was found. It is postulated that this lesion was a result of ischemic insult to the spinal cord during anesthesia and...

  18. Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5 m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions.

  19. Don't fence me in: managing psychological well being for elite performance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Antonia J Z

    2007-01-01

    This article posits that stereotypical behavior patterns and the overall psychological well being of today's performance horse could be substantially enhanced with care that acknowledges the relationship between domesticated horses and their forerunners. Feral horses typically roam in stable, social groups over large grazing territories, spending 16-20 hr per day foraging on mid- to poor-quality roughage. In contrast, today's elite show horses live in relatively small stalls, eat a limited-but rich-diet at specific feedings, and typically live in social isolation. Although the horse has been domesticated for more than 6000 years, there has been no selection for an equid who no longer requires an outlet for these natural behaviors. Using equine stereotypies as a welfare indicator, this researcher proposes that the psychological well being of today's performance horse is compromised. Furthermore, the article illustrates how minimal management changes can enhance horses' well being while still remaining compatible with the requirements of the sport-horse industry. The article discusses conclusions in terms of Fraser, Weary, Pajor, and Milligan's "integrative welfare model" (1997).

  20. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C; Henry, S; Sankey, C; Nassur, F; Góracka-Bruzda, A; Hausberger, M

    2014-01-01

    As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of "agitated" behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a "window" of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning.

  1. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary cost projections were computed for several alternative strategies that could be used by BLM to manage three wild horse populations. The alternatives included existing gather and selective removal methods, combined with potential contraceptive applications of varying duration and other potentially useful management techniques. Costs were projected for a 20-year economic life using the Jenkins wild horse population model and cost estimates from BLM that reflect state-by-state per horse removal, adoption, long-term holding, and contraceptive application expenses. Important findings include: Application of currently available 2-year contraceptives appears capable of reducing variable operating costs for wild horse populations by about 21% on average.

  2. The very hungry people: By hand of nature, politics, and beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the subject is what people ate and how they transformed during the period of drought in Ottoman at 1945 and 1869-1875; Salvation, First and Second World Wars; hunger strike after 1980 and anorexia nervosa patients. There are three purposes to be achieved: to describe the very hungry people, to create a model of the hunger, and to detect transformed human (in both physiological and cultural by hunger. The categories developed with the influence of structuralism are used to determine common aspects of four different hungers and the fundamental structures of the human mind against hunger, and to detect the differences between menu of hunger and fullness. The categories are as follows: Food phases and cooking methods (Claude Lévi-Strauss, meal (Mary Douglas and the nature of consumption and social layer of consumers (Pierre Bourdieu. Some of the data which is obtained at the end of the study are as the following: External circumstances are made pressure on the people at all kind hungers. People are remain hunger as necessary (drought and wars or as a result of personal decision (strike and anorexia. The very hungers are agent of specific social layers (low-income city dwellers, peasants, women and opponents. Fullness of the hungers are possible by removed external circumstances are caused to hunger. But it is the possible that worn out human body by hunger is never fully recovered. The hunger body is generally sick and dirty. Sometimes it is faced to death. Daily diet of hungers which is different from the full people, is consisted of culturally inedible things or only liquid. It is less number of daily meal and amount of the consuming things than the full people. Discharge might be a part of the daily diet of the hungers (anorexia. Because of effect of consuming things or physiological.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of Arabian horse blood during training regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk-Szmukier, Monika; Żukowski, Kacper; Piórkowska, Katarzyna; Gurgul, Artur; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika

    2017-04-05

    molecular pathways and genes that are essential for maintaining body homeostasis during long-term exercise in Arabian horses. Selected DEGs should be further investigated as markers that are potentially associated with racing performance in Arabian horses.

  4. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified...

  5. Marked increase in bone formation markers after cinacalcet treatment by mechanisms distinct from hungry bone syndrome in a haemodialysis patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsuke; Fujii, Hideki; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    A 59-year-old female who was on dialysis due to diabetic nephropathy was referred to our hospital for severe hyperparathyroidism refractory to intravenous vitamin D receptor activator treatment. With subsequent cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were only slightly suppressed. However, progressive increases were observed in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels with mild hypocalcaemia. A bone biopsy, obtained immediately before surgical parathyroidectomy after 3 months of cinacalcet treatment, revealed no disappearance of osteoclasts. These data suggest that cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment may induce a marked promotion of bone formation by mechanisms distinct from hungry bone syndrome that usually develops after parathyroidectomy. PMID:25949410

  6. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  7. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the proximal metacarpus in Quarter Horses used for cutting: Retrospective analysis of 32 horses 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M F; Manchon, P T; Hersman, J; Kawcak, C E

    2017-08-18

    Injury to the proximal suspensory ligament is a common cause of lameness in cutting horses. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of lesions responsible for lameness can provide ambiguous results. MRI provides the most comprehensive diagnostic imaging evaluation of lesions specifically affecting cutting horses. To describe the distribution and severity of bone and soft tissue lesions present in the proximal metacarpus of Quarter Horse cutting horses and to assess the impact of these lesions on return to competition. Retrospective case series. Retrospective analysis of 32 cutting horses referred for MRI of the proximal metacarpus between 2009 and 2012 with a 2-year follow-up period. MRI studies were evaluated by a board-certified veterinary radiologist; the severity of lesions was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total of 20 right and 24 left forelimbs (12 bilateral studies) of 32 horses were evaluated. The most common findings were: third metacarpal (McIII) sclerosis at the proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) origin (42/44), McIII resorption at the PSL origin (32/44), PSL dorsal margin fibre irregularity (30/44) and McIII bone contusion (22/39). Of the 30 horses, 22 horses successfully returned to competition, irrespective of severity of injury. Strong correlation exists between the degree of resorption in the palmar cortex of proximal McIII, degree of McIII sclerosis and severity of dorsal margin fibre irregularity. Statistical significance was limited by small study population. Further analysis of prognosis was limited by availability of comprehensive medical records. Cutting horses with proximal metacarpal pain have significant pathological change within the proximal suspensory ligament and its enthesis on the palmar cortex of McIII. Severity of lesions and degree of lameness at the time of diagnosis does not influence return to performance. Accurate diagnosis of proximal metacarpal lesions based on MRI offers clinicians the capacity to select

  9. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  10. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  11. Osteomyelitis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Laurie R

    2006-08-01

    Much has been learned in the past decade about osteomyelitis. The inhibitory mechanisms of the "biofilm slime" layer that is formed by bacterial extracapsular exopolysaccharides and binds to bone, joints, and implants are now better understood than in the past. The surface colonization of bacteria that occurs within these biofilms is a biologic phenomenon that is somewhat unique to orthopedic infections. This survival strategy of bacteria is effective, and it is important for veterinarians who treat osteomyelitis to be aware of current diagnostic and therapeutic treatment modalities. The practitioner should be aware of the most common bacteria associated with osteomyelitis and the traditional treatments that are still used. Current therapeutic treatment modalities, such as antibiotic- impregnated polymethylmethacrylate, antibiotic-impregnated plaster of Paris, and regional perfusion, have become routine, however, and have been responsible for improving the prevention and outcome of osteomyelitis in the horse. It is the intent of this article to make equine veterinarians aware of current information as well as the future treatments of osteomyelitis.

  12. Wound care in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, Stephanie S

    2012-04-01

    Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.

  13. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    OpenAIRE

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis.

  14. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  15. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses.

  16. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the

  17. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the ho

  18. Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

    2014-02-01

    In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-27) - Abbot Creek Fish Barrier Project (Hungry Horse Mitigation / Habitat Improvements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarde, Richard [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-06-28

    BPA proposes to fund a fishery enhancement project where a fish passage barrier will be installed in Abbot Creek to remove introduced rainbow trout and prevent hybridization with westslope cutthroat trout. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) will operate a fish trap downstream of the barrier for 6-10 consecutive years to manually remove the rainbow trout and hybrid spawners from the population. Removal of rainbow trout and hybrids from the stream will eradicate the existing hybrid population spawning in Abbot Creek and ultimately reduce the threat of hybridization in the Flathead River system. Pending completion of a successful disease screening and authorization from MFWP Fish Health Committee, live fish captured in the fish trap will be transported to a nearby close-basin lake for use in MFWP’s Urban Fishing Program.

  20. Atypical Parathyroid Adenoma Complicated with Protracted Hungry Bone Syndrome after Surgery: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungry Bone Syndrome refers to the severe and prolonged hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia, following parathyroidectomy in patients with hyperparathyroidism. We present the case of an eighteen-year-old woman with a four-year history of hyporexia, polydipsia, weight loss, growth retardation, and poor academic performance. The diagnostic work-up demonstrated primary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia of 13.36 mg/dL, a PTH level of 2551 pg/mL, bone brown tumors, and microcalcifications within pancreas and kidneys. Neck ultrasonography revealed a parathyroid adenoma of 33 × 14 × 14 mm, also identified on 99Tc-sestamibi scan. Bone densitometry showed decreased Z-Score values (total lumbar Z-Score of −4.2. A right hemithyroidectomy and right lower parathyroidectomy were performed. Pathological examination showed an atypical parathyroid adenoma, of 3.8 g of weight and 2.8 cm in diameter. After surgery she developed hypocalcemia with tetany and QTc interval prolongation. The patient required 3 months of oral and intravenous calcium supplementation due to Hungry Bone Syndrome (HBS. After 42 months, she is still under oral calcium. Usually HBS lasts less than 12 months. Therefore we propose the term “Protracted HBS” in patients with particularly long recovery of 1 year. We present a literature review of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HBS.

  1. Atypical Parathyroid Adenoma Complicated with Protracted Hungry Bone Syndrome after Surgery: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-León, Óscar Alfredo; Gómez-Sámano, Miguel Ángel; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; López-Flores A La Torre, Manuel Alejandro; Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo Adolfo; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hungry Bone Syndrome refers to the severe and prolonged hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia, following parathyroidectomy in patients with hyperparathyroidism. We present the case of an eighteen-year-old woman with a four-year history of hyporexia, polydipsia, weight loss, growth retardation, and poor academic performance. The diagnostic work-up demonstrated primary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia of 13.36 mg/dL, a PTH level of 2551 pg/mL, bone brown tumors, and microcalcifications within pancreas and kidneys. Neck ultrasonography revealed a parathyroid adenoma of 33 × 14 × 14 mm, also identified on 99Tc-sestamibi scan. Bone densitometry showed decreased Z-Score values (total lumbar Z-Score of −4.2). A right hemithyroidectomy and right lower parathyroidectomy were performed. Pathological examination showed an atypical parathyroid adenoma, of 3.8 g of weight and 2.8 cm in diameter. After surgery she developed hypocalcemia with tetany and QTc interval prolongation. The patient required 3 months of oral and intravenous calcium supplementation due to Hungry Bone Syndrome (HBS). After 42 months, she is still under oral calcium. Usually HBS lasts less than 12 months. Therefore we propose the term “Protracted HBS” in patients with particularly long recovery of 1 year. We present a literature review of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HBS. PMID:26640724

  2. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  3. African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  4. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  5. A rapid detection method for the ryanodine receptor 1 (C7360G) mutation in Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, J E; Aleman, M

    2009-01-01

    Anesthetic-induced malignant hyperthermia has been documented in Quarter Horses and is caused by a single-point mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 gene at nucleotide C7360G generating a R2454G amino acid substitution. An accurate, faster molecular test that is less prone to contamination would facilitate screening for the mutation in horses intended for breeding, in those undergoing surgical procedures, and in those with clinical signs compatible with malignant hyperthermia. To report a rapid and accurate method for the detection of the ryanodine receptor 1 C7360G mutation. Eleven diseased, 10 healthy, and 225 randomly selected Quarter Horses. This study included horses with the ryanodine receptor 1 C7360G mutation as detected by gene sequencing. Available genomic and complementary DNA extracted from whole blood, hair or skeletal muscle was used for genetic analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) melting curve analysis was performed by equine specific primers and 2 hybridization probes (sensor and anchor probes) that contain the site of the mutation. Results from this method were blinded and compared with nucleic acid sequencing for validation. A rapid genotyping assay with fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes and melting curve analysis was accurate (100% agreement, K= 1) for identification of affected horses. The prevalence of the mutation in a random population of Quarter Horses was 1.3%. Malignant hyperthermia in Quarter Horses can be rapidly and accurately detected by RT-PCR melting curve genotyping with hybridization probes.

  6. Linear kinematics at take-off in horses jumping the wall in an international Puissance competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Pippa

    2005-07-01

    Sagittal plane SVHS video recordings (50 Hz) were made of horses jumping the wall at an international Puissance competition. Video sequences were manually digitized and six kinematic variables at take-off were analyzed. Nine horses started the competition with the fence height at 1.80 m, and two horses attempted the fence in the fifth and final round with the fence height at 2.27 m. For successful performances, fence height was correlated with the following take-off variables: vertical velocity of the centre of mass (r = 0.45, p = 0.03); height of centre of mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.04); distance of centre of mass from fence (r = 0.46, p = 0.03); and distance from leading hind limb to centre of mass (r = -0.61, p horses jumping over a Puissance wall. The results should help horse riders and trainers improve performance in Puissance jumping horses, and perhaps help in the early selection of horses with a talent for jumping high fences.

  7. Increased plasma fructosamine concentrations in laminitic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Withers, J M; Mair, T S

    2012-03-01

    The use of plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) as a marker of abnormal glucose homeostasis in laminitic horses has not been investigated. Plasma fructosamine concentration may be higher amongst laminitic horses than normal horses; this might relate to underlying insulin resistance. 1) To compare [fructosamine] between laminitic and normal horses. 2) To investigate associations between [fructosamine] at presentation in laminitic horses with a) single sample markers of insulin resistance and b) outcome. Plasma fructosamine concentration, fasting serum insulin concentration (insulin) and fasting plasma glucose concentration (glucose) were measured in 30 horses that presented with laminitis. Clinical details and follow-up data were recorded. Plasma fructosamine concentration was also measured in 19 nonlaminitic control horses. Laminitic horses had significantly higher mean [fructosamine] than normal horses (P<0.001). Thirteen of 30 laminitic horses had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, 2/30 had fasting hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant univariable correlations were identified between [fructosamine] and [glucose], [insulin] and the proxies RISQI and MIRG. Trends for association between [fructosamine] and negative outcome did not reach statistical significance. Increased mean [fructosamine] in laminitic horses may represent abnormal glycaemic control and [fructosamine] may become a clinically useful marker. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Kleingrass-associated hepatotoxicosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, J L; Carter, G K; Bridges, C H

    1988-10-15

    Chronic hepatic disease was diagnosed in 6 horses with history of anorexia and weight loss. These horses consistently had abnormally high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, total and direct bilirubin and blood ammonia values, and sulfobromophthalein clearance times, whereas serum iditol dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were variable. In the 6 horses, histologic examination of the liver revealed lesions of chronic hepatitis with varying degrees of fibrosis. All 6 horses had ingested kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) for variable periods. Three healthy horses fed kleingrass hay for 90 days developed hepatic lesions and increases in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities similar to those in the 6 horses with chronic hepatitis. Characteristic hepatic lesions in both groups of horses included bridging hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, and hepatocellular regeneration.

  9. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 12 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnas, C M; Welch, R D; Ford, T S; Vacek, J R; Watkins, J P

    1992-01-01

    The medical records of 12 horses with septic arthritis of a distal interphalangeal joint were reviewed to determine clinical features and response to treatment. Sepsis was caused by trauma or an injection that resulted in an open or contaminated distal interphalangeal joint. All horses were severely lame. Treatment included broad-spectrum parenterally administered antimicrobial drugs (ten horses), percutaneous through-and-through joint lavage (eight horses), indwelling drains (three horses), immobilization of the limb in a cast (three horses), intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate (one horse), intraarticular injection of antimicrobial drugs (five horses), curettage of the distal phalanx (one horse), and cancellous bone grafting to promote fusion (one horse). Five horses were euthanatized. Ankylosis of the affected joint developed in five horses, four of which are pasture sound. Two horses treated medically are sound although one underwent subsequent palmar digital neurectomy for treatment of navicular syndrome.

  10. Tegaserod (HTF 919) stimulates gut motility in normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, B S; Hildebrand, J; Straub, R

    2004-11-01

    It has been shown that the selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist tegaserod induces an increase in frequency and amplitude of contractions in isolated muscle preparations of equine ileum and pelvic flexure. To investigate the effects of tegaserod on gut motility and transit of spheres in normal horses. Six mature Freiberger horses were kept under standardised conditions. Effects of tegaserod (0.02 mg/kg bwt i.v. b.i.d. for 2 days) or vehicle on intestinal transit of barium-filled spheres, defaecation and gut sounds were studied in a cross-over design. Spheres were given via stomach tube prior to the first dosing of tegaserod or vehicle. Faeces were collected every 3 h and spheres eliminated were identified radiologically in the faeces. Tegaserod significantly accelerated the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time of spheres and increased the frequency of defaecation and scores of gut sounds compared to vehicle. The compound was well tolerated; no effects on behaviour, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and clinical laboratory data were observed. Tegaserod efficaciously stimulated motility and accelerate GI transit in healthy horses. Tegaserod may offer therapeutic potential in horses suffering from impaction or paralytic ileus.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Equine ( Gene in Horse (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Duk Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics of the horse vascular endothelial growth factor alpha gene (VEGFα by constructing a phylogenetic tree, and to investigate gene expression profiles in tissues and blood leukocytes after exercise for development of suitable biomarkers. Using published amino acid sequences of other vertebrate species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken and dog, we constructed a phylogenetic tree which showed that equine VEGFα belonged to the same clade of the pig VEGFα. Analysis for synonymous (Ks and non-synonymous substitution ratios (Ka revealed that the horse VEGFα underwent positive selection. RNA was extracted from blood samples before and after exercise and different tissue samples of three horses. Expression analyses using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR showed ubiquitous expression of VEGFα mRNA in skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, lung, appendix, colon, spinal cord, and heart tissues. Analysis of differential expression of VEGFα gene in blood leukocytes after exercise indicated a unimodal pattern. These results will be useful in developing biomarkers that can predict the recovery capacity of racing horses.

  12. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Cl...

  13. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  14. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  15. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  16. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, Ryan

    2012-02-17

    BACKGROUND: The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse\\'s genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  17. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Morbidity was reported in 7.5% of patients. There were three deaths in Queensland. Helmet use is recommended for non-riders when handling horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (priders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options.

  19. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  20. Starry sky hepatic ultrasonographic pattern in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kelly L; Chaffin, M Keith; Corapi, Wayne V; Snowden, Karen F; Schmitz, David G

    2011-01-01

    The starry sky hepatic pattern is an unusual ultrasonographic appearance of equine liver characterized by numerous small, hyperechoic foci, some of which cast an acoustic shadow, distributed randomly throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Our objectives were to describe the signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, primary disease process, and ultrasonographic findings of horses with this ultrasonographic pattern, as well as determine the associated gross and histologic changes. The starry sky pattern was identified in 18 adult horses of mixed gender and breed. The horses had various clinical signs, with weight loss and anorexia reported most commonly. Liver size and parenchymal echogenicity were normal in most horses. The hyperechoic foci frequently caused acoustic shadowing. Biliary dilation was noted rarely. The ultrasonographic pattern was the result of numerous fibrosing hepatic granulomas in all horses evaluated histologically. γ-Glutamyltransferase was the most commonly elevated hepatic enzyme, though it was increased in fewer than half the horses. Fifteen horses had an additional disease that was identified as the apparent cause of clinical signs. Three horses had primary hepatic disease while 12 had diseases of other body systems. Therefore, the starry sky ultrasonographic pattern is likely incidental in most horses and not clinically significant. Improved recognition of this pattern and further investigation of affected horses may help refine the etiology and clinical significance of the granulomas.

  1. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    . The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine......The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected...

  2. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected....... The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine...

  3. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (Phorse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE AND CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN HEALTHY HORSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Arroyo, Luis; Staempfli, Henry

    than feces and variability in shedding over time. The objectives were to investigate the presence of C. difficile and C. perfringens in healthy horses over time and assess prevalence in different gastrointestinal compartments. Feces were collected monthly from 25 horses for one year. Ingesta were...... collected from nine GI compartments of a separate group of 15 euthanized horses. Selective enrichment culture was performed, followed by toxin gene detection and ribotyping (C. difficile) and multiplex PCR (C. perfringens). Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from 15/275 (5.5%) samples from 10/25 (40......%) horses over one year. Three horses were positive in consecutive months, but different ribotypes were found in 2/3. Ribotypes included 078 (n=6), 001 (n=5) and an A+B+CDT+ ribotype previously identified as toxinotype IX in this laboratory (n=4). C. perfringens was not recovered despite a detection...

  5. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  6. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... penalties for infractions of the Horse Protection Act; Enhancing the reputation and integrity of the walking... regional economies; and Improving the value of the walking horse breeds. Under these circumstances, the...

  7. Flowmetric comparison of respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A; Kuehn, H; Riedelberger, K; Kupcinskas, R; Miskovic, M B

    2001-12-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmographic (RIP) and pneumotachographic (Pn) flows were compared dynamically in horses with bronchoconstriction. On a breath-by-breath basis, RIP was normalized to inspiratory volume from Pn, and peak [peak of subtracted final exhalation waveform (SFE(max))] and selected area [integral of subtracted final waveform during first 25% of exhaled volume (SFE(int))] differences between RIP and Pn flows during early expiration were measured in three settings: 1) healthy horses (n = 8) undergoing histamine bronchoprovocation; 2) horses with naturally occurring lower airway obstruction (AO) (n = 7); and 3) healthy horses (n = 6) given lobeline. HCl to induce hyperpnea. In setting 1, histamine challenge induced a dose-dependent increase in SFE(max) and SFE(int) differences. A test index of airway reactivity (interpolated histamine dose that increased SFE(max) by 35%) closely correlated (r(s) = 0.93, P = 0.001) with a conventional index (histamine dose that induced a 35% decrease in dynamic compliance). In setting 2, in horses with AO, SFE(max) and SFE(int) were markedly elevated, and their absolute values correlated significantly (P < 0.005) with pulmonary resistance and the maximum change in transpulmonary pressure. The effects of bronchodilator treatment on the SFE(max) and SFE(int) were also highly significant (P < 0.0001). In setting 3, hyperpnea, but not tachypnea, caused significant (P < 0.01) increases in SFE(max) but not in SFE(int). In conclusion, dynamic comparisons between RIP and Pn provide a defensible method for quantifying AO during tidal breathing, without the need for invasive instrumentation.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  9. Genetic predictions of racing performance in quarter horses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willham, R. L; Wilson, D. E

    1991-01-01

    .... Research on the racing performance of quarter horses has been used to develop genetic prediction summaries on all horses with at least one start on record at the American Quarter Horse Association...

  10. Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team leaves its mark in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team completed a successful spring competition season with a win at the American Paint Horse Association's Spring Intercollegiate Horse Judging Sweepstakes in Fort Worth, Texas.

  11. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eRochais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers’ grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR as positive reinforcement increased horses’ selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of agitated behavior. However, individual plotting of attention versus rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a window of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses’ pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e. highest and lowest attention had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debates on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and open new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is, attentional processes and learning.

  12. Terminal-Nerve-Derived Neuropeptide Y Modulates Physiological Responses in the Olfactory Epithelium of Hungry Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Polese, Gianluca; Marks, Nikki J.; Eisthen, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertebrate brain actively regulates incoming sensory information, effectively filtering input and focusing attention toward environmental stimuli that are most relevant to the animal's behavioral context or physiological state. Such centrifugal modulation has been shown to play an important role in processing in the retina and cochlea, but has received relatively little attention in olfaction. The terminal nerve, a cranial nerve that extends underneath the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium, displays anatomical and neurochemical characteristics that suggest that it modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly present in the terminal nerve in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic salamander. Because NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in many vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that NPY modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium in relation to the animal's hunger level. We therefore characterized the full length NPY gene from axolotls to enable synthesis of authentic axolotl NPY for use in electrophysiological experiments. We find that axolotl NPY modulates olfactory epithelial responses evoked by L-glutamic acid, a food-related odorant, but only in hungry animals. Similarly, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that bath application of axolotl NPY enhances the magnitude of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward current, but only in hungry animals. These results suggest that expression or activity of NPY receptors in the olfactory epithelium may change with hunger level, and that terminal nerve-derived peptides modulate activity in the olfactory epithelium in response to an animal's changing behavioral and physiological circumstances. PMID:16855098

  13. Terminal nerve-derived neuropeptide y modulates physiological responses in the olfactory epithelium of hungry axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Polese, Gianluca; Marks, Nikki J; Eisthen, Heather L

    2006-07-19

    The vertebrate brain actively regulates incoming sensory information, effectively filtering input and focusing attention toward environmental stimuli that are most relevant to the animal's behavioral context or physiological state. Such centrifugal modulation has been shown to play an important role in processing in the retina and cochlea, but has received relatively little attention in olfaction. The terminal nerve, a cranial nerve that extends underneath the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium, displays anatomical and neurochemical characteristics that suggest that it modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly present in the terminal nerve in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic salamander. Because NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in many vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that NPY modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium in relation to the animal's hunger level. We therefore characterized the full-length NPY gene from axolotls to enable synthesis of authentic axolotl NPY for use in electrophysiological experiments. We find that axolotl NPY modulates olfactory epithelial responses evoked by l-glutamic acid, a food-related odorant, but only in hungry animals. Similarly, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that bath application of axolotl NPY enhances the magnitude of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward current, but only in hungry animals. These results suggest that expression or activity of NPY receptors in the olfactory epithelium may change with hunger level, and that terminal nerve-derived peptides modulate activity in the olfactory epithelium in response to an animal's changing behavioral and physiological circumstances.

  14. Autosomal genetic diversity in non-breed horses from eastern Eurasia provides insights into historical population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth, Vera; Manica, Andrea; Eriksson, Anders; Barker, Graeme; Bower, Mim

    2013-02-01

    Many events in the history of eastern Eurasia, including the process of domestication itself, the initial spread of domestic horses and subsequent movements, are believed to have affected the genetic structure of domestic horse populations in this area. We investigated levels of within- and between-population genetic diversity in 'non-breed horses' (working horses sampled in remote areas) from 17 locations in Asia and parts of Eastern Europe, using 26 autosomal microsatellite loci. Non-breed horses have not been subject to the same intensity of artificial selection and closed breeding as have most breed animals and are thus expected to better reflect the population history of domestic horses. Despite geographic distances of between 300 and 7000 km between sampling locations, pairwise F (ST) was very low (range: horses revealed a pattern of isolation by distance and a significant decline in genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity and allelic richness) from east to west, consistent with a westward expansion of horses out of East Asia. Although the timing of this putative expansion is unclear, our results highlight the benefit of studying animals that do not belong to particular breeds when investigating aspects of a population's history. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  16. A CRITICAL SITUATION WITH POSAVIAN HORSE IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sukalić, Miroslav; Gegec, Ivo; Stanković, B.; Ljubešić, Josip

    1994-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia there is a need for making an attempt to save Posavian horse. Croatian coldblooded horse is not endangered breed, as it is noticed in World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity (p.243). The Posavian horse in croatian scientific literature is described as an autochton breed from the Sava river valley. Its origin begins with crossings of autochton horses with Illyrian, Celtic, Roman, Avarian and other horse still the middle of our century. Posavian horse is a Prze...

  17. Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

    2014-02-01

    In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses.

  18. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  19. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  20. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-10-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  1. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet-Melou, A; Bernard, S; Schneider, M; Toutain, P L

    2002-07-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic expected to be effective in the treatment of infections involving gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria in horses. In order to design a rational dosage regimen for the substance in horses, the pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin were investigated in 6 horses after i.v., subcutaneous and oral administration of a single dose of 2 mg/kg bwt and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) assessed for bacteria isolated from equine infectious pathologies. The clearance of marbofloxacin was mean +/- s.d. 0.25 +/- 0.05 l/kg/h and the terminal half-life 756 +/- 1.99 h. The marbofloxacin absolute bioavailabilities after subcutaneous and oral administration were 98 +/- 11% and 62 +/- 8%, respectively. The MIC required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.027 microg/ml for enterobacteriaceae and 0.21 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. The values of surrogate markers of antimicrobial efficacy (AUIC, Cmax/MIC ratio, time above MIC90) were calculated and the marbofloxacin concentration profiles simulated for repeated administrations. These data were used to determine rational dosage regimens for target bacteria. Considering the breakpoint values of efficacy indices for fluoroquinolones, a marbofloxacin dosage regimen of 2 mg/kg bwt/24 h by i.v., subcutaneous or oral routes was more appropriate for enterobacteriaceae than for S. aureus.

  3. The Horse in Arabia and the Arabian Horse: Origins, Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Schiettecatte, Jérémie; Zouache, Abbès

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Publishing an issue devoted to the horse in Arabia and in Arabian culture stems from the discovery of equid statues on the Neolithic site of al‑Maqar (Saudi Arabia) in 2010. This discovery was prematurely presented as the earliest testimony of horse breeding and horse riding. It was dated to 7,300–6,700 BC —i.e. 3,500 years before the first evidence of horse domestication known so far. It has stirred up controversy about the ongoing issue of horse domestication, agains...

  4. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  5. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah D; Sawyer, Jason; Ghaffari, Noushin; Johnson, Charlie D; Dindot, Scott V

    2012-02-17

    The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  6. Whole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Ryan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs, and copy number variants (CNVs in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Results Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. Conclusions This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  7. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Leppälä

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  8. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Gabriella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11. Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype, whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype. It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber

  9. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  10. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken;

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  11. Retrospective analysis of exploratory laparotomies in 192 Andalusian horses and 276 horses of other breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, E; Argüelles, D; Areste, L; Miguel, L San; Prades, M

    2008-03-08

    The medical records of 468 horses that underwent 490 exploratory laparotomies for the correction of gastrointestinal diseases were reviewed to search for differences between Andalusian horses and other breeds. The seasonal distribution of surgical colics and their outcome and complications were also investigated. Bivariant analysis was used to compare the horses' age, gender and breed with the type of surgery, the bowel affected and the type of colic, and all these variables were compared in relation to euthanasia during surgery, complications, short-term survival and seasonal distribution. A total of 405 horses survived the surgery and 329 were discharged from the hospital. Horses less than one year old had better short-term survival than older horses. Andalusian horses suffered more inguinal hernias than the other breeds and were more prone to suffer laminitis as a complication. Colic surgery and inguinal hernias were also more common in the summer.

  12. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  13. The current 'state of play' of regenerative medicine in horses: what the horse can tell the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger Kw; Garvican, Elaine R; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The horse is an attractive model for many human age-related degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system because it is a large animal species that both ages and exercises, and develops naturally occurring injuries with many similarities to the human counterpart. It therefore represents an ideal species to use as a 'proving ground' for new therapies, most notably regenerative medicine. Regenerative techniques using cell-based therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal disease have been in use for over a decade. This review article provides a summary overview of the sources, current challenges and problems surrounding the use of stem cell and non-cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine in horses and is based on presentations from a recent Havemeyer symposium on equine regenerative medicine where speakers are selected from leading authorities in both equine and human regenerative medicine fields from 10 different countries.

  14. The importance of social relationships in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    2006-01-01

    Feral horses are social animals, which have to rely on survival strategies centered on the formation of cohesive social bonds within their bands. Many problems in the husbandry of social animals such as horses, are due to the fact that the limits of their adaptive abilities are exceeded. Evidence su

  15. Musculoskeletal injuries in nonracing quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mike

    2008-04-01

    Quarter horses used for western performance competitions commonly sustain a variety of musculoskeletal injuries. It is important for the veterinarian to have an understanding of some of the breed characteristics and the nature of the competitions in which individual horses are being used so as to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury as effectively as possible.

  16. Corneal sensitivity in five horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Santos de Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine and compare corneal sensitivity values in different regions of the cornea in five horse breeds. One hundred and forty five healthy horses, adults of both sexes, of the following breeds - Arabian horse (AH; n=20, Mangalarga Marchador (MM; n=50, Pure Blood Lusitano (PBL; n=35, Quarter Horse (QH; n=20, Brazilian Sport Horse (BSH; n=20-were investigated. Corneal touch threshold (CTT was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer in five different corneal regions. Measurements of the median central CTT were: 4.50±0.50cm (AH, 3.50±0.56cm (MM, 3.00±0.25cm (PBL, 2.50±0.44cm (QH and 2.50±0.00cm (BSH. The central region was the most sensitive and the dorsal region the least sensitive corneal region for all breeds. CTT values differed for corneal regions and horse breeds. The CTT values were different among the corneal regions and the horse breeds. Arabian horses presented higher sensitivity values being the most sensitive in all of the corneal regions.

  17. Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.

  18. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  19. International Competition Yeongcheon Horse Park in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grigorieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The international project competition for the design of a Horse Park in Yeongcheon, Korea was organized by the Korean Racing Authority (KRA and approved by the UIA. The jury awarded three prizes and eight honourable mentions for projects that successfully integrated the themes of horses and nature with the local history and culture.

  20. The Transvaal Horse Artillery History Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Neil D. Open

    2012-01-01

    The Transvaal Horse Artillery History Fund has kindly sent me a copy of R.J. Bouch's review of 'The History of the Transvaal Horse Artillery, 1904-1974', in which the reviewer raises a very interesting point which I think should be clarified.

  1. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolframm, I.A.; Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe

  2. Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Jónsson, Hákon; Chang, Dan; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Albrechtsen, Anders; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Foucal, Adrien; Petersen, Bent; Fumagalli, Matteo; Raghavan, Maanasa; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Stenderup, Jesper; Hoover, Cindi A; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; MacHugh, David E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; MacLeod, James N; Rubin, Edward M; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Andersson, Leif; Hofreiter, Michael; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Nielsen, Rasmus; Excoffier, Laurent; Willerslev, Eske; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2014-12-30

    The domestication of the horse ∼ 5.5 kya and the emergence of mounted riding, chariotry, and cavalry dramatically transformed human civilization. However, the genetics underlying horse domestication are difficult to reconstruct, given the near extinction of wild horses. We therefore sequenced two ancient horse genomes from Taymyr, Russia (at 7.4- and 24.3-fold coverage), both predating the earliest archeological evidence of domestication. We compared these genomes with genomes of domesticated horses and the wild Przewalski's horse and found genetic structure within Eurasia in the Late Pleistocene, with the ancient population contributing significantly to the genetic variation of domesticated breeds. We furthermore identified a conservative set of 125 potential domestication targets using four complementary scans for genes that have undergone positive selection. One group of genes is involved in muscular and limb development, articular junctions, and the cardiac system, and may represent physiological adaptations to human utilization. A second group consists of genes with cognitive functions, including social behavior, learning capabilities, fear response, and agreeableness, which may have been key for taming horses. We also found that domestication is associated with inbreeding and an excess of deleterious mutations. This genetic load is in line with the "cost of domestication" hypothesis also reported for rice, tomatoes, and dogs, and it is generally attributed to the relaxation of purifying selection resulting from the strong demographic bottlenecks accompanying domestication. Our work demonstrates the power of ancient genomes to reconstruct the complex genetic changes that transformed wild animals into their domesticated forms, and the population context in which this process took place.

  3. Heritability and factors associated with number of harness race starts in the Spanish Trotter horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Valera, M; Gómez, M D; Sölkner, J; Molina, A; Mészáros, G

    2017-05-01

    Longevity/durability is a relevant trait in racehorses. Genetic analysis and knowledge of factors that influence number of harness race starts would be advantageous for both horse welfare and the equine industry. To perform a genetic analysis on harness racing using number of races as a measure of longevity/durability and to identify factors associated with career length in Spanish Trotter Horses (STH). Longitudinal study. Performance data (n = 331,970) on the STH population for harness racing at national level between 1990 and 2014 were used. A grouped data model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of ending harness racing career and to estimate the heritability and breeding values for total number of harness races starts as an indicator of horses' longevity and durability. The model included sex, age at first race and first start earnings as time-independent effects, and the calendar year, driver, trainer, racetrack category and season of competition as time-dependent effects. Across the whole dataset, the average number of harness races horses achieved in Spain was 54.7 races, and this was associated with the horses' sex, age at first race and first start earnings, calendar year, driver, racetrack category, and season. The heritability estimated (0.17 ± 0.01) for number of harness race starts indicates that a beneficial response to direct genetic selection can be expected. Data on horses' health status were not available. Horses' total number of harness race starts is a promising tool for genetic analysis and the evaluation of racing longevity and durability. The estimated heritability provides evidence to support the application of genetic selection of total career number of races to improve longevity/durability of STH. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  4. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  5. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  6. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  7. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  9. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  10. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  11. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  12. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by...

  13. A review of the human-horse realtionship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  14. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... period. (b) Horses of United States origin that are imported into Canada under an export health... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in...

  15. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  16. A review of the human-horse realtionship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  17. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system.

  18. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue.

  19. Horses Hotel: Proust a Contrapelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho articula uma crítica da peça Horses Hotel, dirigida por Alex Cassal e Clara Kutner e que esteve em cartaz no Oi Futuro do Flamengo, no Rio de Janeiro, de dezoito de abril a dois de junho de 2013. A partir de uma investigação do projeto estético disposto sobre o palco, percurso ao longo do qual convido Gustave Flaubert e Marcel Proust, discuto em que medida esse projeto constitui uma estética sintomática, cuja base está na defesa de uma arte pela sensação em si.

  20. Minimally invasive proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a locking compression plate and tissue engineering in horses: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    SEO, Jong-Pil; Yamaga, Takashi; TSUZUKI, Nao; YAMADA, Kazutaka; HANEDA, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; SASAKI, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the efficacy of 2 minimally invasive techniques for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis in horses. The PIP joints of both forelimbs (n = 6) were stabilized with locking compression plates (LCP) using a minimally invasive technique (LCP technique). Subsequently, for 1 randomly selected PIP joint of each horse, surgical drilling (SurD) was performed and tissue engineering (TE) was applied (LCP/SurD/TE technique). Minimally invasive PIP joint arthrodesis wi...

  1. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among Italian horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti Marta

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variability of the mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence in seven horse breeds bred in Italy (Giara, Haflinger, Italian trotter, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Thoroughbred and Sarcidano was analysed. Five unrelated horses were chosen in each breed and twenty-two haplotypes were identified. The sequences obtained were aligned and compared with a reference sequence and with 27 mtDNA D-loop sequences selected in the GenBank database, representing Spanish, Portuguese, North African, wild horses and an Equus asinus sequence as the outgroup. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated and a cluster analysis using the Neighbour-joining method was performed to obtain phylogenetic trees among breeds bred in Italy and among Italian and foreign breeds. The cluster analysis indicates that all the breeds but Giara are divided in the two trees, and no clear relationships were revealed between Italian populations and the other breeds. These results could be interpreted as showing the mixed origin of breeds bred in Italy and probably indicate the presence of many ancient maternal lineages with high diversity in mtDNA sequences.

  2. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. (a) In connection with the entry of articles, including...

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called “Jaleo Menorquín”. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called “el bot”. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females, with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76, those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36 as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21. The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses.

  4. Estimation of genetic parameters for morphological and functional traits in a Menorca horse population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, M.; Cervantes, I.; Gutierrez, J. P.; Gomez, M. D.; Valera, M.

    2014-06-01

    Functional conformation and performance in Classic and Menorca Dressage are the main selection criteria in the Menorca Horse breeding program. Menorca Dressage is an alternative Classical Dressage discipline which is exclusive of the Menorca Island, but including a series of movements that the animals perform in the traditional festivities called Jaleo Menorquin. One of these movements involves the horse raising its forelimbs and standing or walking on its hindlimbs, which is called el bot. To make the Menorca horse breed more competitive in the equestrian market, it is necessary to understand the genetic background that characterizes the aptitude for Menorca Dressage and its relationship with conformation traits. The analysed data consisted of 15 conformation traits from 347 Menorca horses (200 males and 147 females), with 1,550 performance records in Menorca Dressage competitions. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The heritabilities for heights and lengths were high (0.45-0.76), those for angulations and binary conformation traits were low to moderate (0.10-0.36) as were the scores for dressage performance (0.13-0.21). The results suggest that the analyzed traits could be used as an efficient tool for selecting breeding horses. (Author)

  5. Identification of chromosome abnormalities in the horse using a panel of chromosome-specific painting probes generated by microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno, Monika; Słota, Ewa; Pieńkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Schelling, Claude

    2009-09-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a panel of molecular probes for all chromosome pairs obtained by chromosome microdissection of the domestic horse ( Equus caballus ) was used to diagnose karyotype abnormalities in 35 horses (32 mares, 2 stallions and 1 intersex), which were selected for the study due to infertility (23 horses), reduced fertility (10 horses) and developmental anomalies (2 horses). The use of the FISH technique with probes for each horse chromosome pair enabled the diagnosis of many different chromosome aberrations in this population. Among the horses analysed, 21 animals had normal karyotype - 64,XX (19 mares) and 64,XY (2 stallions). Fourteen animals, constituting 40% of the population studied, showed the following chromosome abnormalities: 63,X (1 mare); 63,X/64,XX (6 mares); 63,X/64,XX/65,XXX (3 mares); 63,X/65,XXX (1 mare); 64,XX/65,XX+Xp (1 mare); 63,X/64,XX/65,XX+Xq (1 mare), and 63,X/64,XX/65,XX+delY (1 intersex). When only the mares studied because of complete infertility were taken into consideration, this proportion exceeded 56%. Due to the increased frequency of the above-mentioned aberrations in the mosaic form of two or more lines, it was necessary to analyse a large number (100-300) of metaphase spreads. The use of specific molecular probes obtained by chromosome microdissection made these diagnoses much easier.

  6. Chronic methylmercurialism in a horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, A.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Costigan, P.

    1978-02-01

    Chronic methylmercurialism was produced in a horse given 10 g methylmercury chloride over 10 weeks. Neurological signs, particularly proprioceptive disturbances, were apparent by the final week of dosing and became more severe thereafter. An exudative dermatitis, a reluctance to move, weight loss, reduced appetite and dullness were among the earlier clinical signs, and renal changes characterized by a steadily increasing BUN and glucosuria were detected later. Pathological lesions were confined to the kidneys and the nervous system. There was mild neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellar cortex, axonal demyelination in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and extensive degeneration of ganglion cells in the dorsal root ganglia. The blood organic mercury level, which had plateaued in the second month, increased rapidly in the last weeks of dosing with a sharp rise terminally. This pattern was repeated for the much lower inorganic mercury levels except for a terminal decrease. The proportion of inorganic mercury was five times greater in the dorsal root ganglia than elsewhere in the CNS, although total mercury levels were similar. Highest tissue mercury levels were found in the liver and kidneys, over 50% being in the form of inorganic mercury. As dealkylation of the methylmercury appeared to be more efficient in the dorsal root ganglia and the kidneys, inorganic mercury derived therefrom may have been responsible for some of the clinical and pathological features of this intoxication in the horse. 21 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggett, Emily; Magdesian, K Gary; Maas, John; Puschner, Birgit; Higgins, Jamie; Fiack, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Exercise causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which can result in oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium. Deficiency of antioxidants can further alter this balance in favor of pro-oxidation. Selenium (Se) is one of many antioxidant catalysts, as a component of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Soils and forages vary widely in Se concentration and a deficient diet can lead to sub-clinical or clinical deficiency in horses. Endurance horses are prone to oxidative stress during long periods of aerobic exercise and their performance could be affected by Se status. This study investigated the blood Se concentration in a group of endurance horses (n=56) residing and competing in California, a state containing several regions that tend to produce Se-deficient forages. The rate of Se deficiency in this group of horses was low, with only one horse being slightly below the reference range. Higher blood Se concentrations were not associated with improved performance in terms of ride time. There was no significant difference in Se concentration between horses that completed the ride and those that were disqualified, although blood Se concentrations were significantly higher in horses that received oral Se supplementation. An increase in blood Se concentration was observed following exercise and this warrants further study.

  8. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  9. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods.

  10. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  11. RESEARCES REGARDING THE SANGUINE CORTISOL EVOLUTION, AS BIOCHEMICAL INDEX, IN SPORT HORSES IN COMPLETE HORSE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIA ŞOVĂREL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the horse for sport activities needs a good training and an optimization ofphysical and psychical qualities, both contributing to achieve the wantedperformances. Physical effort impose to the horse in different competitions is a stresssituation, fact which induce an endocrine answer, materialised through increasingthe sanguine levels of some hormones and decreasing of others. The purpose of thisstudy was to verify if the training and the effort intensity is reflected in the sanguinecortisol behaviour in sport horses.

  12. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine.

  13. [HYPP: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in the horse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    1999-03-15

    Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis(HYPP) is characterized by intermittent episodes of muscular tremor, weakness, and collapse, and is probably caused by abnormal electrolyte transport in the muscle cell membrane. During an episode of HYPP, most animals are severely hyperkalaemic. HYPP is a hereditary disease and occurs only in American Quarter horses or crossbreds. Because these horses are now being imported into the Netherlands, HYPP should be included in the differential diagnosis of horses showing signs of muscle tremor, paresis, or paralysis. The present article reviews the literature on HYPP and describes a case showing typical signs of the disease.

  14. Parasitemia in an immunocompetent horse experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Schott, H C; Murphy, A J; Kaneene, J B; Sellon, D C; Hines, M T; Hochstatter, T; Bell, J A; Mansfield, L S

    2005-01-04

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurological disease of horses in Americans. Most cases are attributed to infection of the central nervous system with Sarcocystis neurona. Parasitemia has not been demonstrated in immunocompetent horses, but has been documented in one immunocompromised foal. The objective of this study was to isolate viable S. neurona from the blood of immunocompetent horses. Horses used in this study received orally administered S. neurona sporocysts (strain SN 37-R) daily for 112 days at the following doses: 100/day for 28 days, followed by 500/day for 28 days, followed by 1000/day for 56 days. On day 98 of the study, six yearling colts were selected for attempted culture of S. neurona from blood, two testing positive, two testing suspect and two testing negative for antibodies against S. neurona on day 84 of the study. Two 10 ml tubes with EDTA were filled from each horse by jugular venipuncture and the plasma fraction rich in mononuclear cells was pipetted onto confluent equine dermal cell cultures. The cultures were monitored weekly for parasite growth for 12 weeks. Merozoites grown from cultures were harvested and tested using S. neurona-specific PCR with RFLP to confirm species identity. PCR products were sequenced and compared to known strains of S. neurona. After 38 days of in vitro incubation, one cell culture from a horse testing positive for antibodies against S. neurona was positive for parasite growth while the five remaining cultures remained negative for parasite growth for all 12 weeks. The Sarcocystis isolate recovered from cell culture was confirmed to be S. neurona by PCR with RFLP. Gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was identical to the challenge strain SN-37R and differed from two known strains UCD1 and MIH1. To our knowledge this is the first report of parasitemia with S. neurona in an immunocompetent horse.

  15. Attentional bias for food cues in advertising among overweight and hungry children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias theory suggests that an increased motivation to receive or avoid a rewarding substance elevates automatic selective attention toward cues that are related to that specific substance. Until now, no study has examined attentional bias toward food cues in food advertisements, even thou

  16. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between...

  17. Frequency of and risk factors associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horses at two Midwestern racetracks: 67 cases (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, Andrea; McClure, Scott; Rezabek, Grant; Soring, Keith H; Wang, Chong

    2014-11-15

    To determine the incidence and anatomic location of and potential risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) in racing Quarter Horses. Retrospective matched case-control study. 67 racing Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs and 134 matched controls. Data for Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs and the total number of race starts for each year were obtained from 2 Midwestern racing jurisdictions from 2000 through 2011. Information for each horse with a CMI and for 2 randomly selected control horses that ran in the same race but did not incur a CMI were obtained from race records, past performance reports, and video analysis. There were 61,797 race starts and 82 CMIs from 2000 through 2011 at the 2 racetracks studied, for an overall CMI incidence of 1.33 CMIs/1,000 starts. Sixty-seven horses with CMIs for which complete data were available and 134 matched control horses were included in the study. There was no difference in the incidence of CMIs between the 2 racetracks or over the years studied. The right forelimb was injured in 38 of the 67 (56.7%) horses. Injures to the carpus (24/67 [35.8%]) and metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock joint; 23/67 [34.3%]) occurred most frequently. Case-control data indicated that the horses with a CMI had fewer starts, were more likely to have stumbled at the break, had a more erratic stride, were fatigued, and trailed in the race, compared with matched controls from the same races. Irrespective of race distance, most of the horses (47/67 [70.1%]) were injured after or within 10 yards before the finish line. The results of the present study may aid in the identification of racing Quarter Horses at risk for CMIs. The cluster of injuries near the finish line provides a specific focus for future research into methods of injury prevention in this population of racehorses.

  18. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  19. Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyne, van C.; Ras, E.; Vos, de A.E.W.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.

    2009-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors

  20. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  1. Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyne, van C.; Ras, E.; Vos, de A.E.W.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.

    2009-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors

  2. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  3. DIAGNOSTICATION OF HYPERKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS IN HORSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S.E. GEORGESCU; MARIA ADINA MANEA; ANCA DINISCHIOTU; C.D. TESIO; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2013-01-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is a muscle disease which has been firstreported in 1985 in the USA, in a group of 4 horses with episodic weaknessassociated with intermittent serum hyperkalemia...

  4. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  5. Immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin genes of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies of the horse were studied intensively by many notable immunologists throughout the past century until the early 1970's. After a large gap of interest in horse immunology, additional basic studies on horse immunoglobulin genes performed during the past 10 years have resulted in new insights into the equine humoral immune system. These include the characterization of the immunoglobulin lambda and kappa light chain genes, the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (IGHC) gene regions, and initial studies regarding the heavy chain variable genes. Horses express predominately lambda light chains and seem to have a relatively restricted germline repertoire of both lambda and kappa chain variable genes. The IGHC region contains eleven constant heavy chain genes, seven of which are gamma heavy chain genes. It is suggested that all seven genes encoding IgG isotypes are expressed and have distinct functions in equine immune responses.

  6. Intra-articular morphine in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Casper

    Regardless of species, optimal pain management of animals subjected to various painful procedures is of outmost importance for several reasons, including animal welfare considerations, improved convalescence and improved final outcome. One way of improving pain management in horses is through...... and laboratory animals. Recent discovery of opioid receptors in the synovial membrane of horses has made it reasonable to expect IA morphine to be analgesic in horses too. Treatment with IA morphine after arthroscopic surgery, or for other painful joint diseases, might therefore be an important contribution...... to a multimodal analgesia protocol. Despite that no research has investigated this issue in horses so far, IA injection of morphine after arthroscopic surgery has become common practice in several veterinary university teaching hospitals in Europe and USA. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the analgesic...

  7. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Creatine Kinase Muscle ( Gene in Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Tak Do

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient days, domestic horses have been closely associated with human civilization. Today, horse racing is an important industry. Various genes involved in energy production and muscle contraction are differentially regulated during a race. Among them, creatine kinase (CK is well known for its regulation of energy preservation in animal cells. CK is an iso-enzyme, encoded by different genes and expressed in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and leucocytes. We confirmed that the expression of CK-M significantly increased in the blood after a 30 minute exercise period, while no considerable change was observed in skeletal muscle. Analysis of various tissues showed an ubiquitous expression of the CK-M gene in the horse; CK-M mRNA expression was predominant in the skeletal muscle and the cardiac muscle compared to other tissues. An evolutionary study by synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism ratio of CK-M gene revealed a positive selection that was conserved in the horse. More studies are warranted in order to develop the expression of CK-M gene as a biomarker in blood of thoroughbred horses.

  8. Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emmeline W; Ryan, Donal P; MacHugh, David E

    2012-12-01

    Variation at the myostatin (MSTN) gene locus has been shown to influence racing phenotypes in Thoroughbred horses, and in particular, early skeletal muscle development and the aptitude for racing at short distances. Specifically, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of MSTN (g.66493737C/T) is highly predictive of best race distance among Flat racing Thoroughbreds: homozygous C/C horses are best suited to short distance races, heterozygous C/T horses are best suited to middle distance races, and homozygous T/T horses are best suited to longer distance races. Patent applications for this gene marker association, and other linked markers, have been filed. The information contained within the patent applications is exclusively licensed to the commercial biotechnology company Equinome Ltd, which provides a DNA-based test to the international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding industry. The application of this information in the industry enables informed decision making in breeding and racing and can be used to assist selection to accelerate the rate of change of genetic types among distinct populations (Case Study 1) and within individual breeding operations (Case Study 2).

  9. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  10. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  11. Use of Fats in the Diet of Sport Horses Has Its Pros and Cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hučko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have focused on the use of fats in the diet of sport horses. We watched the fat, and his effect as an energy source. But we watched also the influence of fat additions and their potential impact on the metabolic conversion of other received nutrients. For the addition of fat, we used evening primrose oil - EPO by which can be assumed to influence the metabolism in the body of sport horses. The 16 weeks experiment was performed on clinically healthy racehorses. All the horses were enrolled in a regular training program. Addition of EPO was 150 g per day. The blood samples were collected every 4 weeks during the experiment. There were analysed a selected biochemical parameters. Values of glucose and cholesterol were after administration of EPO significantly higher.

  12. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  13. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  14. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  15. Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change. PMID:17422768

  16. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  17. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  18. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  19. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT.

  20. Neutrophil function in healthy aged horses and horses with pituitary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Dianne; Hill, Kim; Anton, Jason

    2015-06-15

    Immunosuppression leading to opportunist bacterial infection is a well-recognized sequela of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction in PPID however, are as of yet poorly characterized. Horses with PPID have high concentrations of hormones known to impact immune function including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and insulin. α-MSH and related melanocortins have been shown in rodents and people to impair neutrophil function by decreasing superoxide production (known as oxidative burst activity), migration and adhesion. The goal of this study was to determine if neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID and, if so, to determine if plasma α-MSH or insulin concentration correlated with the severity of neutrophil dysfunction. Specifically, neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity, chemotaxis and adhesion were assessed. Results of this study indicate that horses with PPID have reduced neutrophil function, characterized by decreased oxidative burst activity and adhesion. In addition, chemotaxis was greater in healthy aged horses than in young horses or aged horses with PPID. Plasma insulin: α-MSH ratio, but not individual hormone concentration was correlated to neutrophil oxidative burst activity. In summary, neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID, likely due to altered hormone concentrations and may contribute to increased risk of opportunistic infections. Whether regulation of hormone concentration profiles in horses with PPID using therapeutic intervention improves neutrophil function and reduces infections needs to be explored.

  1. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable.

  2. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  3. Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Wijk-Jansen, van E.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    A reduced level of welfare of horses is related to management factors such as low forage feeding, short feeding time, social isolation, and lack of unrestrained exercise. It has been assumed that welfare problems can be reduced and/or partly prevented by improving the knowledge and skills of horse

  4. Genetic diversity in the modern horse illustrated from genome-wide SNP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Petersen

    Full Text Available Horses were domesticated from the Eurasian steppes 5,000-6,000 years ago. Since then, the use of horses for transportation, warfare, and agriculture, as well as selection for desired traits and fitness, has resulted in diverse populations distributed across the world, many of which have become or are in the process of becoming formally organized into closed, breeding populations (breeds. This report describes the use of a genome-wide set of autosomal SNPs and 814 horses from 36 breeds to provide the first detailed description of equine breed diversity. F(ST calculations, parsimony, and distance analysis demonstrated relationships among the breeds that largely reflect geographic origins and known breed histories. Low levels of population divergence were observed between breeds that are relatively early on in the process of breed development, and between those with high levels of within-breed diversity, whether due to large population size, ongoing outcrossing, or large within-breed phenotypic diversity. Populations with low within-breed diversity included those which have experienced population bottlenecks, have been under intense selective pressure, or are closed populations with long breed histories. These results provide new insights into the relationships among and the diversity within breeds of horses. In addition these results will facilitate future genome-wide association studies and investigations into genomic targets of selection.

  5. Genetic Diversity in the Modern Horse Illustrated from Genome-Wide SNP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jessica L.; Mickelson, James R.; Cothran, E. Gus; Andersson, Lisa S.; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Brama, Pieter; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Distl, Ottmar; Felicetti, Michela; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T.; Guérin, Gérard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A.; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M. Cecilia T; Piercy, Richard J.; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Røed, Knut H.; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; M. Wade, Claire; McCue, Molly E.

    2013-01-01

    Horses were domesticated from the Eurasian steppes 5,000–6,000 years ago. Since then, the use of horses for transportation, warfare, and agriculture, as well as selection for desired traits and fitness, has resulted in diverse populations distributed across the world, many of which have become or are in the process of becoming formally organized into closed, breeding populations (breeds). This report describes the use of a genome-wide set of autosomal SNPs and 814 horses from 36 breeds to provide the first detailed description of equine breed diversity. FST calculations, parsimony, and distance analysis demonstrated relationships among the breeds that largely reflect geographic origins and known breed histories. Low levels of population divergence were observed between breeds that are relatively early on in the process of breed development, and between those with high levels of within-breed diversity, whether due to large population size, ongoing outcrossing, or large within-breed phenotypic diversity. Populations with low within-breed diversity included those which have experienced population bottlenecks, have been under intense selective pressure, or are closed populations with long breed histories. These results provide new insights into the relationships among and the diversity within breeds of horses. In addition these results will facilitate future genome-wide association studies and investigations into genomic targets of selection. PMID:23383025

  6. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...

  7. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Iveta Bihuncová; Iva Jiskrová; Martina Kosťuková; Hana Černohorská; Ivana Oravcová; Eva Sobotková

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The datab...

  8. Comparative characteristics of DNA polymorphisms of κ-casein gene (CSN3) in the horse and donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, M; D'Alessandro, A G; Dario, C

    2015-11-19

    The aims of this study were to assess the genetic variability in the exon 1 of the κ-casein gene in four Italian horse populations (Italian Saddle horse, Italian Trotter, Italian Heavy Draught horse, and Murgese horse) and in a sample of Martina Franca donkey by estimating genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as several population genetic indices. Genotyping of the selected polymorphisms was performed using the PCR-RFLP technique with two restriction enzymes: PstI and BseYI aimed to discover the presence of c.-66A>G and c.-36C>A polymorphism, respectively. Both these loci were found to be polymorphic in horses with some differences depending on the breed. No genetic variability was observed in Martina Franca donkey breed. In the equine species no selective pressure for milk purpose was performed, therefore the polymorphisms at milk protein loci were mainly considered as result of natural selection or as indirect consequence of selection oriented to increase body size or to improve conformation. From this point of view these two single nucleotide polymorphisms and particularly the c.-36C>A one could be useful instruments for population studies.

  9. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  10. OGLE16aaa - a signature of a hungry supermassive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Zieliński, M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Hamanowicz, A.; Jonker, P. G.; Arcavi, I.; Guillochon, J.; Brown, P. J.; Kozłowski, S.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K. A.; Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Bolmer, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Maguire, K.; Smith, K.

    2017-02-01

    We present the discovery and first three months of follow-up observations of a currently on-going unusual transient detected by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) survey, located in the centre of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.1655. The long rise to absolute magnitude of -20.5 mag, slow decline, very broad He and H spectral features make OGLE16aaa similar to other optical/UV tidal disruption events (TDEs). Weak narrow emission lines in the spectrum and archival photometric observations suggest the host galaxy is a weak-line active galactic nucleus, which has been accreting at higher rate in the past. OGLE16aaa, along with SDSS J0748, seems to form a sub-class of TDEs by weakly or recently active supermassive black holes (SMBHs). This class might bridge the TDEs by quiescent SMBHs and flares observed as `changing-look quasars', if we interpret the latter as TDEs. If this picture is true, the previously applied requirement for identifying a flare as a TDE that it had to come from an inactive nucleus, could be leading to observational bias in TDE selection, thus affecting TDE-rate estimations.

  11. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  12. The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions.

  13. Repeatability of gait pattern variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units in nonlame horses during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio M; Maninchedda, Ugo E; Burger, Dominik; Wanda, Sabine; Vidondo, Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine repeatability of gait variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses during trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. ANIMALS 10 horses. PROCEDURES Six IMUs were strapped to the metacarpal, metatarsal, and distal tibial regions of each horse. Data were collected in a standardized manner (3 measurements/d on 3 d/wk over a 3-week period) while each horse was trotted on a treadmill. Every measurement consisted of a minimum of 20 strides from which a minimum of 10 strides was selected for analysis. Spatial and temporal variables were derived from the IMUs. Repeatability coefficients based on the within-subject SD were computed for each gait analysis variable at each week. RESULTS Most of the temporal and spatial variables had high repeatability (repeatability coefficients variables, specifically the symmetry variables (which were calculated from other variables), had somewhat higher repeatability coefficients (ie, lower repeatability) only in the last week. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With the exceptions of some symmetry variables, which may reflect individual variations during movement, the extremity-mounted IMUs provided data with high repeatability for nonlame horses trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. Repeatability was achieved for each instrumented limb segment with regard to the spatial relationship between 2 adjacent segments (joint angles) and the temporal relationship among all segments (limb phasing). Extremity-mounted IMUs could have the potential to become a method for gait analysis in horses.

  14. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ri

  15. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was

  16. Trypanosoma evansi control and horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl AF

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of three treatment strategies for Trypanosoma evansi control on horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal based on four size categories of cattle ranches is explored. The region's 49,000 horses are indispensable to traditional extensive cattle ranching and T. evansi kills horses. About 13% of these horses would be lost, annually, due to T. evansi if no control were undertaken. One preventive and two curative treatment strategies are financially justifiable in the Pantanal. The best available technology for the treatment of T. evansi from a horse mortality perspective is the preventive strategy, which spares 6,462 horses, annually. The year-round cure spares 5,783 horses, and the seasonal cure saves 5,204 horses on a regional basis relative to no control strategy. Regardless of the strategy adopted, 39% of the costs or benefits fall to the largest ranches, while 18% fall to the smallest ranches.

  17. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M

    2006-09-09

    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  18. Discussing the Negative Influence and Enforcement Term of the Hungry Marketing Tactics%论“饥饿营销”策略的负面影响和实施条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金锋; 文亚青

    2011-01-01

    Based on the phenomenon of some enterprises like to apply the "Hungry Marketing", this article discussed the negative influence and put forward some enforcement terms on the "Hungry Marketing".%文章在观察部分企业热衷于实施"饥饿营销"策略的基础上,对企业实施"饥饿营销"策略的负面影响进行分析,提出了"饥饿营销"策略的实施条件。

  19. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  20. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  1. Are Eyes a Mirror of the Soul? What Eye Wrinkles Reveal about a Horse's Emotional State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Sara; Smith, Samantha; Patt, Antonia; Bachmann, Iris; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    Finding valid indicators of emotional states is one of the biggest challenges in animal welfare science. Here, we investigated in horses whether variation in the expression of eye wrinkles caused by contraction of the inner eyebrow raiser reflects emotional valence. By confronting horses with positive and negative conditions, we aimed to induce positive and negative emotional states, hypothesising that positive emotions would reduce whereas negative emotions would increase eye wrinkle expression. Sixteen horses were individually exposed in a balanced order to two positive (grooming, food anticipation) and two negative conditions (food competition, waving a plastic bag). Each condition lasted for 60 seconds and was preceded by a 60 second control phase. Throughout both phases, pictures of the eyes were taken, and for each horse four pictures per condition and phase were randomly selected. Pictures were scored in random order and by two experimenters blind to condition and phase for six outcome measures: qualitative impression, eyelid shape, markedness of the wrinkles, presence of eye white, number of wrinkles, and the angle between the line through the eyeball and the highest wrinkle. The angle decreased during grooming and increased during food competition compared to control phases, whereas the two phases did not differ during food anticipation and the plastic bag condition. No effects on the other outcome measures were detected. Taken together, we have defined a set of measures to assess eye wrinkle expression reliably, of which one measure was affected by the conditions the horses were exposed to. Variation in eye wrinkle expression might provide valuable information on horse welfare but further validation of specific measures across different conditions is needed.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  3. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  4. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  5. Genetic structure of nine horse populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Burócziová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was estimate the genetic diversity and relationships among nine horses breeds in Czech and Slovak Republic.In conclusion, the main objective of study was to show the level of genetic distance among the horse breeds with different history of breeding of each country. Furthermore, it should be clarified whether these populations and subpopulations are distinct enough from each other to justify defining separate breeds. This research concerns the variability of microsatellite markers in genotypes of horse. We compared the genetic diversity and distance among nine horse breeds Czech and Slovak Warmblood both of Czech origin, Slovak Warmblood of Slovak origin, Hucul, Hafling, Furioso, Noriker, Silesian Noriker and Bohemian-Moravian Belgian Horse.In total, 932 animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellites markers (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, VHL20, HTG6, HMS2, HTG7, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3 recommended by the International Society of Animal Genetics.In the different population size, the allele frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosity, test for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Polymorphism information content have been calculated for each breed. We analyzed genetic distance and diversity among them on the base of the dataset of highly polymorphic set of microsatellites representing all autozomes using set of PowerMar­ker v3.25 analysis tools and Structure 2.2. programme for results comparison.

  6. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  7. Learning performances in young horses using two different learning tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Barneveld, A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve optimal performance in equine sports as well as in leisure not only the physical abilities of the horse should be considered, but also the horse's personality. Besides temperamental aspects, like emotionality, or the horse's reactivity towards humans in handling situations, the learning a

  8. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  9. 75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will be conducting a public workshop and meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day event. Monday, June 14, 2010, will...

  10. 76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet...

  11. 76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a meeting on matters pertaining to management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory...

  12. 78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., 2013, Advisory Board meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

  13. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacques

    2003-03-26

    Mar 26, 2003 ... period, its first mounted troops were deployed to the Border region by ... Sergeant Major, in the eyes of the Defence Force, officially the horse was a ... psychology of training, serving to reinforce identification with the horse. As .... and given to horses in trial and control groups to measure the feed's benefit.

  14. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  15. Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Susana; Bobbert, Maarten F; Back, Willem; Barneveld, Ab; van Weeren, P Rene

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at 6 months of age. Subsequently, they were allocated into a control group that was raised conventionally and an experimental group that received 30 months of early training starting at 6 months of age. At 4 years of age, after a period of rest in pasture and a short period of training with a rider, both groups were analyzed kinematically during free jumping. Subsequently, both groups started a 1-year intensive training for jumping, and at 5 years of age, they were again analyzed kinematically during free jumping. In addition, the horses competed in a puissance competition to test maximal performance. Whereas there were no differences in jumping technique between experimental and control horses at 6 months of age, at 4 years, the experimental horses jumped in a more effective manner than the control horses; they raised their center of gravity less yet cleared more fences successfully than the control horses. However, at 5 years of age, these differences were not detected. Furthermore, the experimental horses did not perform better than the control horses in the puissance competition. Specific training for jumping of horses at an early age is unnecessary because the effects on jumping technique and jumping capacity are not permanent.

  16. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we performed a population viability analysis on 3 domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus) of Danish origin, namely, the Frederiksborg, the Knabstrupper, and the Jutland breeds. Because of their small population sizes, these breeds are considered endangered. The Vortex software...... available. The results of this analysis accord with other studies on the Prezwalski horse, indicating robustness in the parameter sensitivity for horses....

  17. A description of the demographic characteristics of the New Zealand non-commercial horse population with data collected using a generalised random-tessellation stratified sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; Cogger, N; Rogers, C W; Benschop, J; Stevenson, M A

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the demographic characteristics of non-commercial horses in New Zealand. A sampling frame of properties with non-commercial horses was derived from the national farms database, AgriBase™. Horse properties were stratified by property size and a generalised random-tessellated stratified (GRTS) sampling strategy was used to select properties (n=2912) to take part in the survey. The GRTS sampling design allowed for the selection of properties that were spatially balanced relative to the distribution of horse properties throughout the country. The registered decision maker of the property, as identified in AgriBase™, was sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the demographic characteristics of horses on the property, including the number and reason for keeping horses, as well as information about other animals kept on the property and the proximity of boundary neighbours with horses. The response rate to the survey was 38% (1044/2912) and the response rate was not associated with property size or region. A total of 5322 horses were kept for recreation, competition, racing, breeding, stock work, or as pets. The reasons for keeping horses and the number and class of horses varied significantly between regions and by property size. Of the properties sampled, less than half kept horses that could have been registered with Equestrian Sports New Zealand or either of the racing codes. Of the respondents that reported knowing whether their neighbours had horses, 58.6% (455/776) of properties had at least one boundary neighbour that kept horses. The results of this study have important implications for New Zealand, which has an equine population that is naïve to many equine diseases considered endemic worldwide. The ability to identify, and apply accurate knowledge of the population at risk to infectious disease control strategies would lead to more effective strategies to control and prevent disease spread during an

  18. A decision-tree-based model for evaluating the thermal comfort of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Assis Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is of great importance in preserving body temperature homeostasis during thermal stress conditions. Although the thermal comfort of horses has been widely studied, there is no report of its relationship with surface temperature (T S. This study aimed to assess the potential of data mining techniques as a tool to associate surface temperature with thermal comfort of horses. T S was obtained using infrared thermography image processing. Physiological and environmental variables were used to define the predicted class, which classified thermal comfort as "comfort" and "discomfort". The variables of armpit, croup, breast and groin T S of horses and the predicted classes were then subjected to a machine learning process. All variables in the dataset were considered relevant for the classification problem and the decision-tree model yielded an accuracy rate of 74 %. The feature selection methods used to reduce computational cost and simplify predictive learning decreased model accuracy to 70 %; however, the model became simpler with easily interpretable rules. For both these selection methods and for the classification using all attributes, armpit and breast T S had a higher power rating for predicting thermal comfort. Data mining techniques show promise in the discovery of new variables associated with the thermal comfort of horses.

  19. Brazilian Sport Horse: pedigree analysis of the Brasileiro de Hipismo breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethânia R. Medeiros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH represents an open population that permits genetic input from breeds recognised by the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses. The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation of the population as the first of a series aiming at the consolidating the current selection programme. The Brazilian Association of the Brazilian Sport Horse Breeders provided genealogical data from 1977 to 2011. A data bank containing 34,393 horses was analysed for population genetic parameters including: individual inbreeding (F, effective population size (Ne, effective number of founders (fe, effective number of ancestors (fa, and number of founder genome equivalents (fg. Analysis were run twice: for animals born until 1995 (PREVIOUS and for those born in the last 15 years (15YEARS. Ne estimated via paired increase in coancestry consisted of 188.59 (±3.24 animals. fe was 466 and 222 for PREVIOUS and 15YEARS, respectively. Ancestors were represented by fa of 274 and 129. Mean F for 15YEARS was 0.6%; 1444 animals were inbred, with mean inbreeding of 3.33%. The difference found in fa and fe parameters, between PREVIOUS and 15YEARS, indicated the loss of original alleles. The increase in contribution from some founders represents the breeder’s preference for a few horses, without the negative effect of high inbreeding levels. Brasileiro de Hipismo genetic variability agrees with its large based formation history, and should allow for genetic gain of heritable traits through selection.

  20. Horse-Expert: An aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.

  1. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the origin, history, and health status of the horses; the lack of satisfactory information necessary... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at quarantine...

  2. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable.

  3. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  4. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

    2000-01-01

    Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses h...

  5. Cross-validation analysis for genetic evaluation models for ranking in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ballesteros, S; Varona, L; Valera, M; Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I

    2017-06-21

    Ranking trait was used as a selection criterion for competition horses to estimate racing performance. In the literature the most common approaches to estimate breeding values are the linear or threshold statistical models. However, recent studies have shown that a Thurstonian approach was able to fix the race effect (competitive level of the horses that participate in the same race), thus suggesting a better prediction accuracy of breeding values for ranking trait. The aim of this study was to compare the predictability of linear, threshold and Thurstonian approaches for genetic evaluation of ranking in endurance horses. For this purpose, eight genetic models were used for each approach with different combinations of random effects: rider, rider-horse interaction and environmental permanent effect. All genetic models included gender, age and race as systematic effects. The database that was used contained 4065 ranking records from 966 horses and that for the pedigree contained 8733 animals (47% Arabian horses), with an estimated heritability around 0.10 for the ranking trait. The prediction ability of the models for racing performance was evaluated using a cross-validation approach. The average correlation between real and predicted performances across genetic models was around 0.25 for threshold, 0.58 for linear and 0.60 for Thurstonian approaches. Although no significant differences were found between models within approaches, the best genetic model included: the rider and rider-horse random effects for threshold, only rider and environmental permanent effects for linear approach and all random effects for Thurstonian approach. The absolute correlations of predicted breeding values among models were higher between threshold and Thurstonian: 0.90, 0.91 and 0.88 for all animals, top 20% and top 5% best animals. For rank correlations these figures were 0.85, 0.84 and 0.86. The lower values were those between linear and threshold approaches (0.65, 0.62 and 0.51). In

  6. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  7. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brandariz-Fontes

    Full Text Available Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

  8. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

  9. The suitability of horse manure and bedding materials for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyni, S.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: sanna.tyni@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    The number of horses has increased in Finland since 1994 approximately by 2000 horse/ year and 2008 there was almost 70000 registered horses and ponies in Finland. This has derived to a considerable number of new stables at city area where the waste management, particularly of the mixture of manure and bedding material, is a challenge. These stables have disposed their residues often by land filling. The present legislation prohibits the dispose of organic material by land filling since the anaerobic decomposition emits for example methane that is a greenhouse gas. The legislation also regulates using of manure as fertilizer in fields. This leads to the situation where stable owners have urge for new ways to dispose of residues. In Finland peat, sawdust, and straw are commonly used as a bedding material for horses in stable boxes. The more important function of the bedding material is to keep the boxes dry and clean by absorbing urine. The selection of bedding material depends on the properties of the materials such as availability, price, absorption capacity, and hygiene properties. Composting of sawdust is slower than peat, therefore mixture of manure and sawdust is not preferred for utilization as fertilizer. Additionally use of the manure residues as fertilizers is limited by impurities such as plant seeds in manure. Combustion would be attractive way to solve disposal problems of the mixture of manure and bedding materials. At the moment legislation in Finland defines manure residues as a waste. Therefore the combustion is only allowed in waste combustion units. If the combustion of the manure residues would be allowed at farms or at small local boilers, it enables farms to have better degree of self-sufficiency of energy. The utilization of these new materials as a fuel demands study of combustion properties of these biomasses. It is also essential to have knowledge of chemical composition and behaviour of ashes, when the final disposing is considered e.g. as

  10. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A

    1993-01-01

    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  11. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.

  12. Staphylococcal septic arthritis in three horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R J; Love, D N

    1979-04-01

    Three horses were diagnosed as having monarticular septic arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of culture of articular cartilage, synovial membrane and/or synovial fluid. The organisms were all well recognised human phage types and in two cases demonstrated beta-lactamase (penicillinase) activity. Details of case histories are presented and the bacteriological techniques and antibiotic management with cloxacillin, methicillin and penicillin discussed. Following treatment, sterile cultures of synovial fluid were achieved in all cases, but in two horses the infections resulted in degenerative articular changes. This necessitated arthrodesis of the fetlock joint in one case.

  13. Safety in the housing of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Checchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety within an equestrian facility is given also by the sizes of the places in which horses are lodged. The stalls are considered to be the basic modular element of breeding and hosting places, but in Italy there are no specific references about the most appropriate surface related both to different breeds and safety of the workers taking care of them. We sought to determine the size of individual spaces, based on the height at the withers of horses, and to formulate a specific forming and informing course for employees on the likely risks of contact which could generate traumatic events.

  14. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations.

  15. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    OpenAIRE

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been comm...

  16. Proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in 22 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, T P; Bramlage, L R; Embertson, R M; Hance, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method of internal fixation technique for pastern arthrodesis. Pastern arthrodeses are performed commonly in horses with chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern joint or, in cases of acute traumatic injury to the pastern, in which the weightbearing bony column must be restored. Chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern is a frequent cause of lameness in the equine athlete and is evidenced by chronic lameness localised to the pastern joint, and supported radiographically by periosteal proliferation and loss of joint space. Nonsurgical and surgical treatments have both been described in the literature. Complications following pastern arthrodesis have been reported on several occasions and appear to focus on excessive periarticular exostoses and increased time in a cast due to prolonged time to bony fusion. The hospital records of horses presenting for pastern arthrodesis to the Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, were reviewed and 22 met criteria for inclusion in the study. Horses with chronic osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint or horses with an acute traumatic injury to the pastern undergoing pastern arthrodesis with one of the following techniques were included in the study. Horses with severe comminution of the middle phalanx were excluded. Three 5.5 mm cortical bone screws placed in lag fashion alone or in combination with a 4 or 3 hole dynamic compression plate affixed with 4.5 mm cortical bone screws were compared. A lower limb fibreglass cast was applied in all cases. Period in cast, time to return to intended use, complications encountered and outcome were evaluated. Seven of the 8 hindlimbs treated with the combination technique became sound. Three out of 6 of the front limbs treated with the combination technique became sound. Four of the 5 horses with hindlimbs, and one of the 2 with front limbs, treated with screws only returned to their intended use. The type of internal

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M

    2011-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  18. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez; Susy Mendez; Susana Dunner; Javier Cañón; Óscar Cortés

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds su...

  19. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Kienapfel; Yvonne Link; Uta König V Borstel

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an “appropriate” Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories ...

  20. Hungry for solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Cait

    2016-11-01

    As obesity rates continue to rise in many parts of the world, Cait MacPhee explains how soft-matter physicists could help reverse the trend by crafting “functional” foods that promote feelings of fullness and satisfaction

  1. Has Hungry Outgrown Kodaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents critical reactions to the Kodaly method of of classroom music teaching. Describes a radio panel discussion in Hungary, where the Kodaly teaching method originated and is used exclusively in the schools; while panel members were opposed to the rigid application of the method in Hungary, there is much to be learned from it and its meaning…

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in horses with septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jeremiah T; Brokken, Matthew T; Zubrod, Chad J; Morton, Alison J; Garrett, Katherine S; Holmes, Shannon P

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen horses with septic arthritis underwent high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Septic arthritis was diagnosed based on results from historical and clinical findings, synovial fluid analyses and culture, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, arthroscopic, and histopathologic findings. MR findings included diffuse hyperintensity within bone and extracapsular tissue on fat-suppressed images in 14/14 horses (100%), joint effusion, synovial proliferation, and capsular thickening in 13/14 horses (93%), bone sclerosis in 11/14 horses (79%), and evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone damage in 8/14 horses (57%). Intravenous gadolinium was administered to five of the 14 horses and fibrin deposition was noted in all horses. Other findings after gadolinium administration included synovial enhancement in 4/5 (80%) horses, and bone enhancement in 1/5 (20%) horses. The MR findings of septic arthritis in horses were consistent with those reported in people. MRI may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis in horses as compared with other imaging modalities, especially when the clinical diagnosis is challenging. It also provides additional information not afforded by other methods that may influence and enhance treatment.

  3. Boots on horses: limb protection or hyperflexion training aids in the showjumping horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal hind limbs to alter equine JSK has become popular. There are two broad categories of PE boots: weighted and pressure. Some riders use so-called weighted boots on the horses' hind limbs during training and in competition to improve the jump stride. The application of so-called pressure boots may be little more than an adaptation of this technique. It appears that the PE boots induce hyperflexion of the hind limbs and incline the horse to jump fences cleanly. In the absence of scientific appraisal, it is unclear if such boots are acceptable and innovative training aids within equitation.

  4. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena...... access during 3 min was given after completion of a predetermined number of responses on a panel. Fixed ratios (FR) of 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 responses per arena access were applied in a random order, one per daily test session, within each test week (Monday to Friday), and the number of rewards per daily...

  5. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  6. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    Domestic horses are faced with social challenges throughout their lives due to limitations in social contact, space restrictions and frequent changes in social companionship. This is in contrast to natural conditions where horses live in relatively stable harem bands. Currently, little is known...... about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty......, to repeated regrouping. Compared to horses in Stable groups, more agonistic behaviour was shown by horses in Unstable groups (i.e. non-contact agonistic; F1,65 = 5.60, P = 0.02), whereas there was no treatment effect on other variables. The level of play behaviour appeared, however, to be more variable...

  7. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  8. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated.

  9. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface.

  10. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Haeger-Eugensson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3. Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

  11. Ocular findings in Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochal, Cathleen A; Miller, William W; Cooley, A James; Linford, Robert L; Ryan, Peter L; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA. The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period. Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

  12. Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds.

  13. It's Time to Get Another Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Josue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

  14. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect path to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. This is done by measuring the quasi free cross section of a suitable three body process. The basic features of the THM will be presented together with some applications to demonstrate its practical use.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pizzone, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach.

  16. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  17. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  18. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A

    2003-05-19

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U{sub e} was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments.

  19. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, G; Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is of special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due...

  20. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Typel, S

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S-factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail.

  1. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  2. Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Marvin

    This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

  3. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  4. A comparative antibody study of the potential susceptibility of Thoroughbred and non-Thoroughbred horse populations in Ireland to equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Cullinane, Ann

    2010-11-01

    In Ireland, horses may be protected against equine influenza virus (EIV) as a result of natural exposure or vaccination. Current mandatory vaccination programmes are targeted at highly mobile horses. A correlation between antibody levels as measured by single radial haemolysis (SRH) and protective immunity against EIV has been established. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of selected populations of horses by quantifying their antibodies to EIV. Blood samples were collected from Thoroughbred weanlings, yearlings, racehorses and broodmares, teaser stallions and non-Thoroughbred horses. Antibodies against EIV H3N8 and H7N7 were measured by SRH. The order of susceptibility to Equine Influenza (EI) in the populations examined in Ireland was as follows: Thoroughbred weanlings > teasers > non-Thoroughbred horses and ponies > Thoroughbred yearlings > Thoroughbred horses in training > Thoroughbred broodmares. The H3N8 antibody levels of the weanlings, yearlings, broodmares and horses in training were similar to their H7N7 antibody levels, suggesting that their antibodies were primarily vaccinal in origin. The teasers and non-Thoroughbreds had higher H3N8 antibody levels than H7N7 antibody levels, suggesting that the majority of seropositive horses in these populations had been exposed to H3N8 by natural infection. Weanlings, teasers and non-Thoroughbred horses were identified as most susceptible to EIV. The results suggest that it would be advisable that weanlings are vaccinated prior to attendance at public sales, that teaser stallions are vaccinated prior to each breeding season and that mandatory vaccination be implemented for participation in non-Thoroughbred events. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, Kathrin; Link, Yvonne; König V Borstel, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an "appropriate" Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion), and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05). A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434) but not in the higher (P = 0.9629) competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015) conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical.

  6. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kienapfel

    Full Text Available Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an "appropriate" Head-Neck-Position (HNP. The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171 were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion, and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001 more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05. A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434 but not in the higher (P = 0.9629 competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015 conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical.

  7. Use of the Accusport semi-automated analyser to determine blood lactate as an aid in the clinical assessment of horses with colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Schulman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The most useful diagnostic methods in the initial evaluation of horses with colic assess the morphological and functional status of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular status. This evaluation is best achieved using a combination of clinical and laboratory data. Blood lactate concentration (BL is one of these variables. BL rises mainly due to poor tissue perfusion and anaerobic glycolysis associated with shock, providing an indicator of both the severity of disease and its prognosis. A hand-held lactate meter, Accusport, provides a rapid (60 seconds, inexpensive dry-chemical-based determination of BL. This trial evaluated the Accusport's ability to provide BL data as an adjunct to the initial clinical evaluation of horses with colic. The accuracy of the Accusport was tested by evaluation of its interchangeability with the benchmark enzymatic kit evaluation of BL in a trial using data collected firstly from 10 clinically normal control horses and subsequently from 48 horses presented with signs of colic. The BL values were recorded together with the clinical variables of heart rate (HR, capillary refill time (CRT, haematocrit (Hct, and pain character and severity on the initial assessment of the colic horses. Information regarding choice of therapeutic management (medical or surgical and eventual case outcome (full recovery or died/euthanased was recorded. The Accusport was found to be interchangeable with the enzymatic kit for recording BL values in colic horses with BL <10 mmol/ , which is within the BL range associated with survival. The interchangeability of an additional, laboratory-based wet chemical assay for BL, the Stat 7 was simultaneously evaluated for the colic and control horses. The Stat 7 was found to be interchangeable with the enzymatic kit for BL determination of colic horses. No linear associations between BL values with HR, CRT, Hct or pain assessment were observed. No relationship with either selection of therapeutic

  8. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Adrenergic Receptor Beta 2 ( Gene before and after Exercise in the Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The adrenergic receptor beta 2 (ADRB2 plays a role in various physiological responses of the muscle to exercise, such as contraction and relaxation. Given its important role in muscle function, we investigated the structure of the horse ADRB2 gene and its expression pattern after exercise to determine if it can serve as a putative biomarker for recovery. Evolutionary analyses using synonymous and non-synonymous mutation ratios, were compared with other species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken, dog, and cat, and revealed the occurrence of positive selection in the horse ADRB2 gene. In addition, expression analyses by quantitative polymerase chain reaction exhibited ubiquitous distribution of horse ADRB2 in various tissues including lung, skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, appendix, colon, spinal cord and heart, with the highest expression observed in the lung. The expression of ADRB2 in skeletal muscle was significantly up-regulated about four folds 30 minutes post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. The expression level of ADRB2 in leukocytes, which could be collected with convenience compared with other tissues in horse, increased until 60 min after exercise but decreased afterward until 120 min, suggesting the ADRB2 expression levels in leukocytes could be a useful biomarker to check the early recovery status of horse after exercise. In conclusion, we identified horse ADRB2 gene and analyzed expression profiles in various tissues. Additionally, analysis of ADBR2 gene expression in leukocytes could be a useful biomarker useful for evaluation of early recovery status after exercise in racing horses.

  9. Inheritance of hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia in Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Robert C; White, Stephen D; Famula, Thomas R; Schultheiss, Patricia C; Hamar, Dwayne W; Bannasch, Danika L

    2005-03-01

    To assess heritability and mode of inheritance for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) in Quarter Horses. 1,295 horses with Quarter Horse bloodlines, including 58 horses affected with HERDA. Horses were classified as affected or unaffected or as undetermined when data were insufficient to assess phenotype. Pedigree data were analyzed to determine the probable mode of inheritance. Heritability was estimated by use of Bayesian statistical methods. Heritability (mean+/-SD) of HERDA was estimated to be 0.38+/-0.13, with both sexes having an equal probability of being affected. Results for evaluation of the pedigrees were consistent with a single Mendelian autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. HERDA in Quarter Horses is an inherited disease, and affected horses are more likely to produce affected offspring. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance should be considered by people making breeding decisions involving Quarter Horses when a first-degree relative has been confirmed with HERDA or has produced affected offspring. In addition, breeders whose horses have produced affected offspring can reduce the likelihood of producing affected horses in the future by avoiding inbreeding.

  10. 如何开展英文绘本阅读教学——赏闵洁“The Hungry Little Snake”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳

    2015-01-01

    英语学习需要大量阅读输入,《英语课程标准》要求小学阶段学生能尝试阅读英语故事。对于小学生来说,欣赏着唯美的绘本,感受着有趣的情节,是件无比愉快的事情。闵洁老师教授的一节五年级英文绘本阅读课"The Hungry Little Snake"为英语绘本阅读课教学提供了示范。下面笔者就以这节课为例,谈谈如何开展小学英文绘本阅读课的教学。

  11. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies.

  12. EFFECTS OF CLONIDINE AND RILMENIDINE ON CARDIORESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEMS OF HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    José Edgard de Oliveira Alves; Scarlath Ohana Penna dos Santos; Fábio Sartori; Marcelo Flores Catelli

    2016-01-01

    Clonidine and rilmenidine are drugs used in human medicine as central acting antihypertensive agents due to their actions on the alpha2-adrenoceptor and I1 imidazoline receptors in the central nervous system. Currently, clonidine is also used as a pre-anesthetic medication and in spinal anesthesia, and rilmenidine, despite the lower selectivity for alpha2-adrenergic receptors than clonidine, has also shown antinociceptive potential in experimental pain models. In this study, six horses were s...

  13. Episodic blindness and ataxia in a horse with cholesterinic granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofflemire, Kyle L; Whitley, R David; Wong, David M; Waller, Kenneth R; Myers, Ronald K; Pillatzki, Angela E; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2013-03-01

    An 11-year-old Oldenburg mare presented following three episodes of acute, transient blindness, ataxia, and disorientation within the preceding 7 months. Clinical improvement, including return of vision, occurred within 1 week of initiating corticosteroid therapy for each of the three episodes. However, mild right-sided miosis was a consistent finding on ophthalmic examinations. Routine clinicopathologic testing revealed no significant abnormalities, and testing of cerebral spinal fluid for selected infectious diseases was unrewarding. Computed tomography of the brain demonstrated a hyperattenuating mass with peripheral mineralization in the rostroventral aspect of each lateral ventricle. The mare was euthanized due to a guarded to poor prognosis. On histopathology, the masses consisted of clusters of cholesterol clefts admixed with leukocytes, mineral deposits, and connective tissue. Cholesterinic granulomas of the lateral ventricles and hydrocephaly were diagnosed. Cholesterinic granulomas should be considered a differential diagnosis in horses presenting for intermittent blindness. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Rolling technique for treatment of left displacement of the large colon in horses: 11 cases (2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Canola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The left displacement of the large colon, a condition that commonly occurs in horses, has two clinical manifestations. Different treatments including medical treatment, rolling the horse under general anesthesia or surgical correction have been recommended. The diagnosis can often be made by rectal examination and confirmed by percutaneous ultrasonography. During the period between 2004 and 2009, 11 horses were treated for left displacement of the large colon by rolling the horses under general anesthesia, using a slightly different technique than the ones previously described. The clinical case selection was based on rectal palpation confirmed with ultrasonogram. Nine animals were successfully treated and two had to be submitted to surgery after three attempts of rolling. No short or long term complications were observed after the procedure. Only one animal had a recurrence of the clinical manifestation 10 months after the first treatment and was successfully rolled once again. Despite a bit different from the other rolling procedures, this also proved to be an effective procedure. Rolling a horse even when attempted more than once showed to be a safe procedure, however, we reinforce the need for special attention following the procedure in order to establish proper emergency procedures in case complications occur.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY, PARENTAGE VERIFICATION AND GENETIC BOTTLENECKS EVALUATION IN IRANIAN TURKMEN HORSE BREED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Mianji, G; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Farhadi, A

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to genetically evaluate Turkmen horses for genetic diversity and to evaluate whether they have experienced any recent genetic bottlenecks. A total of 565 individuals from Turkmen horses were characterized for within breed diversity using 12 microsatellite markers. The estimated mean allelic diversity was (9.42 ± 1.78) per locus, with a total of 131 alleles in genotyped samples. A high level of genetic variability within this breed was observed in terms of high values of effective number of alleles (4.70 ± 1.36), observed heterozygosity (0.757 ± 0.19), expected Nei's heterozygosity (0.765 ± 0.13), and polymorphism information content (0.776 ± 0.17). The estimated cumulative probability of exclusion of wrongly named parents (PE) was high, with an average value of 99.96% that indicates the effectiveness of applied markers in resolving of parentage typing in Turkmen horse population. The paternity testing results did not show any misidentification and all selected animals were qualified based on genotypic information using a likelihood-based method. Low values of Wright's fixation index, F(IS) (0.012) indicated low levels of inbreeding. A significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models, as revealed from Sign and Wilcoxon sign rank test suggested that Turkmen horse population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. But, the Mode-shift indicator test showed a normal 'L' shaped distribution for allelic class and proportion of alleles, thus indicating the absence of bottleneck events in the recent past history of this breed. Further research work should be carrying out to clarify the cause of discrepancy observed forbottleneck results in this breed. In conclusion, despite unplanned breeding in Turkmen horse population, this breed still has sufficient genetic variability and could provide a valuable source of genetic material that may use for meeting the demands of future breeding programs.

  16. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  17. Immunogenicity of two adjuvant formulations of an inactivated African horse sickness vaccine in guinea-pigs and target animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines against African horse sickness, prepared with serotypes 5 and 9, were tested on guinea-pigs to select the formulation that offered the greatest immunity. The final formulation of the vaccines took into account the immune response in the guinea-pig and the inflammatory properties of two types of adjuvant previously tested on target animals. A pilot study was subsequently conducted on horses using a vaccine prepared with serotype 9. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibodies from the first administration and, after the booster dose, 28 days later; high antibody levels were recorded for at least 10 months. The guinea-pig appears to be a useful laboratory model for the evaluation of the antigenic properties of African horse sickness vaccines.

  18. Minimally invasive proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a locking compression plate and tissue engineering in horses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-pil; Yamaga, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    This pilot study assessed the efficacy of 2 minimally invasive techniques for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis in horses. The PIP joints of both forelimbs (n = 6) were stabilized with locking compression plates (LCP) using a minimally invasive technique (LCP technique). Subsequently, for 1 randomly selected PIP joint of each horse, surgical drilling (SurD) was performed and tissue engineering (TE) was applied (LCP/SurD/TE technique). Minimally invasive PIP joint arthrodesis with LCP demonstrated low postoperative infection rates. Gross and histological evaluations revealed considerable destruction of the articular cartilage in the LCP/SurD/TE-treated joints. In contrast, almost no destruction of the cartilage was observed in the LCP-treated joints. Our results suggest that the LCP technique alone is not sufficient for PIP joint arthrodesis and that the LCP/SurD/TE technique may be useful for PIP joint arthrodesis in horses.

  19. STUDIES CONCERNING SOME TRAINING ASPECTS IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BOCHIŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Show jumping is a competitive international event, and is one of the world's mostpopular equestrian sports. There are many determining factors involved in theobtained results of a horse-rider couple. Always trainers and riders want to improvejumping performance and ability in horses. As a result the schedules of training aredifferent from horse to horse, from the competition season to the winter season, froma team to another of course all these linked to the level of performance. Thus, in ourcountry, many horse-people have gained knowledge through years of experience andword of mouth, and not through scientific literature. This is where science meets theart, and it’s up to the rider to adapt himself. The purpose of this paper is to analyzeand compare some aspects of the training programs in eight riding locations. Foreach base was registered the specific training program, the afferent training arenas,paddocks, other equestrian facilities and hygiene horse conditions with individual observations.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Jill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

  1. Evaluation of an intravenous catheter for use in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, B A; Meagher, D M

    1981-02-01

    A commercially available polyvinyl chloride intravenous catheter was studied in 9 horses for 3 to 10 days to evaluate the catheter's suitability for use in the horse, to develop a new insertion technique, and to establish a protocol for catheter care. Seven of the animals were clinically normal horses receiving parenteral nutrition; one was a horse with hypocalcemia receiving frequent intravenous injections of calcium gluconate, and one was a clinically normal horse receiving no infusions. The catheter dressings were changed every 48 hours, and an aspirate from the catheter and the catheter tip was cultured at the time of catheter removal. One catheter became infected following a break in the protocol. It was concluded that the polyvinyl catheter is suitable for use in the horse and that the proposed protocol for catheter insertion and maintenance may reduce the likelihood of complications such as catheter sepsis, thrombophlebitis, and embolism.

  2. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... of fearfulness. Known handlers may ‘mask’ behavioural responses of horses in fear tests and thus handling by a known handler during testing may not be appropriate for objective evaluation of fearfulness in a practical situation....... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...

  3. An outbreak of equine influenza at a harness horse racetrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, M J; Frank, R A; Babish, J B

    1985-04-01

    An outbreak of an influenza-like illness affected approximately 1/3 of the 1050 race horses stabled at a standardbred racetrack and resulted in a 3-day suspension of racing. A/Equi-2 influenza virus was isolated from 1 affected horse and 8 of 10 horses sampled seroconverted. Threshold protective levels of HI antibody against A/Equi-2 influenza virus were not demonstrated in unaffected horses. Resistance in unaffected horses was assumed to result from other factors following previous exposure. Few of the horses had been vaccinated against equine influenza. It was felt that an outbreak of this magnitude might have been prevented if a vaccination program had been followed.

  4. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  5. Horses – A Natural Fit for Camp Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Galloway

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 4-H Member’s Horse Camp allows horse project members to enjoy their equine partner in a non-competitive, outdoor setting. Campers learn about leave-no-trace outdoor ethics, trail riding, maneuvering trail obstacles, equine emergency first aid, and low impact camping. 4?H has long understood that providing opportunities for youth to learn about things that interest them is just one aspect of the program. Project specific content, in this case horses, helps youth in 4?H programs to develop important life skills. In the positive atmosphere at 4?H horse camp, youth may feel a sense of belonging, and are provided opportunities to develop mastery, independence, and a spirit of generosity? which are all essential elements in high quality youth development programs. Horse camps are a natural extension of opportunities for horse project members, and they can be added to existing camps, or create new camping lessons.

  6. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular.......2% and non-glandular lesions in 40.6% of the horses. The amount of starch in the feed (P = 0.006) and paternal stallion (P = 0.031) influenced ulceration in the non-glandular region only; it should be noted that our study does not allow for separating hereditary from environmental influences, as offspring...

  7. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  8. INFLUENCE STRES ON THE TRAINING PROCESS OF THE HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Halo; P. Strapák; A Hollý; Mlyneková, E.; E Kovalčík; HORNÝ, M.

    2008-01-01

    Etological and physiological tests were realized on 48 horses. There were observed following activities: spontaneous kinetic activity, voice display; the elimination behavior (excretion and urination) and motionless standing. The horses were observed in 40 minute periods during the morning hours. The horses were classed into the following groups: EHB+ - crossing more than 220 sq. per 40 min. (high sensitiveness to stress), EHB+/- - crossing 131 - 220 sq. per 40 min. (mean sensitiveness to str...

  9. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  10. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( horses were using the closed shelter ( 0.05). Results showed that horses made use of shelters during the summer even when weather conditions were moderate. A shelter with roof and covers on 3 sides was preferred over a shelter with roof only and can reduce insect-defensive behavior.

  11. On the origin and spread of horse domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Warmuth, Vera

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, the origin of domestic horses has been the focus of research across multiple disciplines, yet many aspects of the horse domestication process remain poorly understood. One of the reasons for the difficulty in establishing a coherent scenario of horse domestication is that archaeological, mtDNA, and Y chromosome data have yielded ambiguous results, possibly because each class of markers reflects different aspects of the domestication process. In this thesis, I use large au...

  12. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A

    2016-08-30

    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; phorses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the relation of age of the horses and structure of the strongylid communities revealed that foals (horses (>16years old) were significantly less infected by large strongyles as compared to other horses. Species from the

  13. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Kathrin Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Studbook inspection (SBI) data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR) data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF) and hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB) which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14-0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09-0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of r(g) = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of r(g) = 0.37-0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF.

  14. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distl Ottmar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studbook inspection (SBI data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF and hock joints (OFH, deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14–0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09–0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of rg = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of rg = 0.37–0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF.

  15. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  16. Fenbendazole pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and potentiation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Q A; Gokbulut, C; Muzandu, K; Benchaoui, H

    2002-11-01

    The present study was designed to describe the pharmacokinetics and fecal excretion of fenbendazole (FBZ) and fenbendazole sulphoxide (FBZSO) and their metabolites in horses, to investigate the effects which concurrent feeding has on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of FBZ, and to determine the effect of coadministration of the metabolic inhibitor piperonyl-butoxide on the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro liver microsomal metabolism of sulfide and sulfoxide benzimidazoles. The effect of piperonyl-butoxide on the enantiomeric genesis of the sulfoxide moiety was also investigated. Following administration of FBZSO and FBZ, the fenbendazole sulphone metabolite predominated in plasma, and the C(max) and area under the plasma curve (AUC) values for each moiety were larger (P 4:1 to 1:1. It is concluded that in horses efficacy of FBZSO and FBZ could be improved by administration to unfed animals and coadministration with piperonyl-butoxide.

  17. A RACE-HORSE CALLED PHERENIKOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Henderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aptly-named stallion Pherenikos (Victory-bearer raced and won for Hieron,tyrant of Gela (485 BC and Syracuse (485-467/6 BC. This is the only horse thatis named in the surviving victory odes (epinikia of Pindar and Bacchylides.1 Hemakes his first victorious appearance in the single-horse event, the κέλης, of sixlaps (just over 1 km in the hippodrome at the Pythia in 478, to which Pindar refersin P. 3.72-74, composed sometime after 476.2 This is probably the victory to whichBacchylides (5.41 refers when he states that Pherenikos won at Delphi before hisvictory at Olympia in 476.

  18. [HYPP--hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilmann, M

    1993-12-01

    A literature review of the clinical syndrome HYPP (Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) affecting Quarter Horses is given. HYPP is characterized by sporadic attacks of muscle tremors, weakness and/or collapse, lasting for variable periods of time. Diagnosis is based on physical findings in association with hyperkalemia. In horses with HYPP, the regulation of ion transport through the sodium channels in the muscle cells occasionally fails, causing uncontrollable muscle twitching. Further investigations into molecular genetics reveals a mutation in the gene responsible for sodium and potassium regulation. The identification of this gene mutation is the basis for the blood test used to diagnose HYPP. HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Treatment of HYPP attacks by intravenous application of calcium gluconate, bicarbonate and glucose results in rapid recovery. Consequent dietary management and daily administration of acetazolamide effectively controls the disease.

  19. Trimming and shoeing the chronically affected horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S; Ferguson, D W; Luikart, R; Ovnicek, G

    1999-08-01

    Several of the technical approaches applied to the foot overlap with regard to intent. Frog or solar support, for example, may be provided either to stabilize the distal phalanx within the hoof capsule or in an effort to unload regional pain arising from the solar surface of the foot. It is likewise obvious that some techniques such as lowering the heels to achieve phalangeal realignment and raising the heels to relieve deep digital flexor tendon tension are contradictory. In these instances, it is not that one technique is always correct but that differences exist among horses. Currently, it is something of an art to define what specific technique is needed or, alternatively, how to best apply a specific technique. As more facts regarding how the normal and foundered foot function, the farrier's role in the rehabilitation of affected horses is likely to increase.

  20. Actinobacillus lignieresii infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, J L; Baptiste, K E; Chirino-Trejo, J M

    1999-09-15

    A 10-year-old pregnant Norwegian Fjord horse was examined for gross swelling of the muzzle of 2 years' duration. Examination of biopsy specimens revealed diffuse dermal fibrosis, micropustule formation, and vascular thrombosis; large numbers of Actinobacillus lignieresii were isolated in pure culture. Prolonged treatment with i.v. administration of sodium iodide and oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole caused regression of the swelling and did not induce abortion. A 5-month-old American Paint filly was examined for swelling in the udder region. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material obtained from the left teat revealed A lignieresii. Treatment with oral administration of rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. To the authors' knowledge, these findings represent the first report of mastitis and chronic nasal cellulitis caused by A lignieresii infection in horses.

  1. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  2. INFLUENCE STRES ON THE TRAINING PROCESS OF THE HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Halo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Etological and physiological tests were realized on 48 horses. There were observed following activities: spontaneous kinetic activity, voice display; the elimination behavior (excretion and urination and motionless standing. The horses were observed in 40 minute periods during the morning hours. The horses were classed into the following groups: EHB+ - crossing more than 220 sq. per 40 min. (high sensitiveness to stress, EHB+/- - crossing 131 - 220 sq. per 40 min. (mean sensitiveness to stress, EHB- - crossing 130 and less sq. per 40 min. (low sensitiveness to stress. After the evaluating of mineral, energetic, lipid, nitrogen, and enzymatic profile of sport horses there were not observed significant differences from the reference values.

  3. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  4. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gronqvist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  5. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson Larry E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  6. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate.

  7. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  10. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state.

  11. [Flunixin and its use in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaussaud, P

    1986-01-01

    Flunixin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, with a potent analgesic activity and a slight toxicity. It is largely used in horses, in the form of meglumine salt, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases or colics, and often identified in dopage cases. Physical and chemical properties of the drug, its pharmacological and toxicological properties, and its use in equine species are depicted.

  12. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-01-01

    A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm), reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their fo...

  13. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A.; Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  14. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, α)4He, 6Li(p, α)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, α)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, α)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise.

  16. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  17. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  18. The Horse Doesn't Eat Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任民

    2004-01-01

    One day it is raining (下雨) hard, and a traveller isriding a horse in the rain. He is all wet and cold. Just then he gets to a country inn (乡村小店). The inn is very crowded (拥挤有)with people,so he can not get near the fire.What can he do? After a shorttime, he has a good idea.

  19. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir in the adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, L K; Bentz, B G; Bourne, D W A; Erkert, R S

    2008-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of equine herpes virus type-1 infections have stimulated renewed interest in the use of effective antiherpetic drugs in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir (VCV), the prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), in horses. Six adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over design. Treatments consisted of 10 mg/kg ACV infused intravenously, 5 g (7.7-11.7 mg/kg) VCV delivered intragastrically (IG) and 15 g (22.7-34.1 mg/kg) VCV administered IG. Serum samples were obtained at predetermined times for acyclovir assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. Following the administration of 5 g VCV, the mean observed maximum serum ACV concentration (C(max)) was 1.45 +/- 0.38 (SD) microg/mL, at 0.74 +/- 0.43 h. At a dose of 15 g VCV, the mean C(max) was 5.26 +/- 2.82 microg/mL, at 1 +/- 0.27 h. The mean bioavailability of ACV from oral VCV was 60 +/- 12% after 5 g of VCV and 48 +/- 12% after 15 g VCV, and did not differ significantly between dose rates (P > 0.05). Superposition suggested that a loading dose of 27 mg/kg VCV every 8 h for 2 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 18 mg/kg every 12 h, will maintain effective serum ACV concentrations.

  1. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,α)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  2. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  3. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery.

  4. Horses for courses:China’s equestrian scene——Posh families turn to horses,golf and piano lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Godfrey

    2004-01-01

    <正> Inever expected to ride a retired race horse in Beijing on Saturdays. But in this city of unknown equestrian quantities I have found some of the best horse-riding training and facilities I’ve ever encountered, anywhere. Most of the instructors come from Inner Mongolia, home to most of China’s horse culture. The horses meanwhile have been brought here from stables in Hong Kong and Australia. Many are retired racehorses, mild-mannered, gentle beasts who take students gently around the training pens. Lessons aren’t cheap by any standards but the qual-

  5. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  6. Developing a 670k genotyping array to tag ~2M SNPs across 24 horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Robert J; Schubert, Mikkel; Bailey, Ernest; Bannasch, Danika L; Barrey, Eric; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Brem, Gottfried; Brooks, Samantha A; Distl, Ottmar; Fries, Ruedi; Finno, Carrie J; Gerber, Vinzenz; Haase, Bianca; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lopes, Maria Susana; Mach, Núria; da Câmara Machado, Artur; MacLeod, James N; McCoy, Annette; Metzger, Julia; Penedo, Cecilia; Polani, Sagi; Rieder, Stefan; Tammen, Imke; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Wade, Claire M; Wallner, Barbara; Orlando, Ludovic; Mickelson, James R; McCue, Molly E

    2017-07-27

    To date, genome-scale analyses in the domestic horse have been limited by suboptimal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density and uneven genomic coverage of the current SNP genotyping arrays. The recent availability of whole genome sequences has created the opportunity to develop a next generation, high-density equine SNP array. Using whole genome sequence from 153 individuals representing 24 distinct breeds collated by the equine genomics community, we cataloged over 23 million de novo discovered genetic variants. Leveraging genotype data from individuals with both whole genome sequence, and genotypes from lower-density, legacy SNP arrays, a subset of ~5 million high-quality, high-density array candidate SNPs were selected based on breed representation and uniform spacing across the genome. Considering probe design recommendations from a commercial vendor (Affymetrix, now Thermo Fisher Scientific) a set of ~2 million SNPs were selected for a next-generation high-density SNP chip (MNEc2M). Genotype data were generated using the MNEc2M array from a cohort of 332 horses from 20 breeds and a lower-density array, consisting of ~670 thousand SNPs (MNEc670k), was designed for genotype imputation. Here, we document the steps taken to design both the MNEc2M and MNEc670k arrays, report genomic and technical properties of these genotyping platforms, and demonstrate the imputation capabilities of these tools for the domestic horse.

  7. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  8. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yun Xie

    Full Text Available Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus and wild horse (E. przewalskii, and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  9. Effects of phenylbutazone alone or in combination with flunixin meglumine on blood protein concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shannon K; Messer, Nathaniel T; Tessman, Ronald K; Keegan, Kevin G

    2006-03-01

    To assess effects of treatment with phenylbutazone (PBZ) or a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine in horses. 24 adult horses. 13 horses received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in a crossover design. Eleven control horses were exposed to similar environmental conditions. Treated horses received PBZ (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days) and a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine (PBZ, 2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days; flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h, for 5 days). Serum samples were obtained on day 0 (first day of treatment) and day 5, and total protein, albumin, and globulin were measured. 1 horse was euthanatized with severe hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and colitis during the combination treatment. Comparisons revealed no significant difference between control horses and horses treated with PBZ alone. There was a significant difference between control and treated horses when administered a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine. Correction for horses with values >2 SDs from the mean revealed a significant difference between control horses and horses administered the combination treatment, between control horses and horses administered PBZ alone, and between horses receiving the combination treatment and PBZ alone. Gastroscopy of 4 horses revealed substantial gastric ulcers when receiving the combination NSAID treatment. Analysis of results of the study indicates the need for caution when administering a combination NSAID treatment to horses because the detrimental effects may outweigh any potential benefits.

  10. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inex

  11. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  12. Klossiella equi in the Kidneys of a Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, R J; Dies, K H

    1981-01-01

    The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented.

  13. Klossiella equi in the kidneys of a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R J; Dies, K H

    1981-05-01

    The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented.

  14. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  15. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  16. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  17. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  18. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  19. Analgesia in the horse, assessing and treating pain in equines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Thijs van

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on pain and nociception in horses and is based on the PhD thesis “Analgesia in the Horse, various approaches for assessment and treatment of pain and nociception in equines” by J.P.A.M. van Loon. Apart from a scientific review of the related literature, a multi-disciplinary appro

  20. Visual expertise for horses in a case of congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nilly; Mardo, Elite; Avidan, Galia

    2016-03-01

    A major question in the domain of face perception is whether faces comprise a distinct visual category that is processed by specialized mechanisms, or whether face processing merely represents an extreme case of visual expertise. Here, we examined O.H, a 22 years old woman with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), who despite her severe deficits in face processing, acquired superior recognition skills for horses. To compare the nature of face and horse processing, we utilised the inversion manipulation, known to disproportionally affect faces compared to other objects, with both faces and horses. O.H's performance was compared to data obtained from two control groups that were either horse experts, or non-experts. As expected, both control groups exhibited the face inversion effect, while O.H did not show the effect, but importantly, none of the participants showed an inversion effect for horses. Finally, gaze behaviour toward upright and inverted faces and horses was indicative of visual skill but in a distinct fashion for each category. Particularly, both control groups showed different gaze patterns for upright compared to inverted faces, while O.H presented a similar gaze pattern for the two orientations that differed from that of the two control groups. In contrast, O.H and the horse experts exhibited a similar gaze pattern for upright and inverted horses, while non-experts showed different gaze patterns for different orientations. Taken together, these results suggest that visual expertise can be acquired independently from the mechanisms mediating face recognition.

  1. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  2. Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2012-12-01

    The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (≥ 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ≥ 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals.

  3. Postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis in a Spanish-bred horse

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, M. Jesús; Aguirre, Carla; Buendía, Antonio J.; Belda, Eliseo; Laredo, Francisco G.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a case of postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis affecting only the left forelimb of a horse. A fatal unilateral postanesthetic myonecrosis has not been previously reported in the horse. This article describes the factors in the horse’s history, the anesthetic protocol, and the treatment that may have led to this condition.

  4. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak…

  5. Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jorge E; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E

    2014-06-01

    Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1).

  6. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  7. Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.

    OpenAIRE

    Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F

    1985-01-01

    We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect.

  8. Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F

    1985-06-01

    We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect.

  9. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  10. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.; Madsen, O.; Norberg, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Ducro, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between the sub

  11. Local and systemic inflammatory and immunologic reactions to cyathostomin larvicidal therapy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Loynachan, A T; Jacobsen, S; Stewart, J C; Reinemeyer, C R; Horohov, D W

    2015-12-15

    Encysted cyathostomin larvae are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Arrested development occurs in this population and can lead to an accumulation of encysted larvae. Large numbers of tissue larvae place the horse at risk for developing larval cyathostominosis. This disease complex is caused by mass emergence of these larvae and is characterized by a generalized acute typhlocolitis and manifests itself as a profuse protein-losing watery diarrhea with a reported case-fatality rate of about 50%. Two anthelmintic formulations have a label claim for larvicidal therapy of these encysted stages; moxidectin and a five-day regimen of fenbendazole. There is limited knowledge about inflammatory and immunologic reactions to larvicidal therapy. This study was designed to evaluate blood acute phase reactants as well as gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, both locally in the large intestinal walls and systemically. Further, mucosal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically as well as analyzed for gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface proteins, and select transcription factors. Eighteen juvenile horses with naturally acquired cyathostomin infections were randomly assigned to three treatment groups; one group served as untreated controls (Group 1), one received a five-day regimen of fenbendazole (10mg/kg) (Group 2), and one group received moxidectin (0.4mg/kg) (Group 3). Horses were treated on day 0 and euthanatized on days 18-20. Serum and whole blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 18. All horses underwent necropsy with collection of tissue samples from the ventral colon and cecum. Acute phase reactants measured included serum amyloid A, iron and fibrinogen, and the cytokines evaluated included interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukins 1β, 4, 5, 6, and 10. Transcription factors evaluated were FoxP3, GATA3 and tBet, and CD markers included

  12. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding

  13. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    .e. testing for object recognition) and ii) a novel object (new shape and colour, i.e. testing for object generalisation), compared to CONTROLS. In the second experiment we investigated whether TEST horses reacted to a change in object order and object location. Behavioural reactions to the object, latency...... to eat, total eating time and heart rate were recorded. Compared to CONTROLS, TEST horses reacted significantly less towards objects, which were previously part of the complex object (e.g. mean heart rate; P = 0.006), indicating object recognition. In contrast to our expectations, TEST horses also...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...

  14. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (minimal surgical trauma, n=11), correction of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy by laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy (intermediate surgical trauma, n=10) or removal of an ovarian tumor by laparotomy (major surgical trauma, n=5). METHODS: Horses had a thorough clinical examination every day. White blood cell....... RESULTS: Postoperative concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were significantly higher in horses that had laparotomy and ovariectomy than in horses that had laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy, or arthroscopy. Iron concentrations decreased to lower levels after intermediate and major surgical trauma than...

  15. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  16. Racing speeds of quarter horses, thoroughbreds and Arabians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B D; Turner, K K; Ventura, B A; Woodward, A D; O'Connor, C I

    2006-08-01

    While Quarter Horses are recognised as the fastest breed of horse, direct comparisons to race times with other breeds can be misleading. Quarter Horse races begin when the starting gates open. Thoroughbred and Arabian races begin a short distance from the gates after horses have started running. This study compared speeds of these breeds as they accelerate from the starting gates and during the middle and end of races. To compare racing speeds of the 3 breeds, and to compare speeds during various segments of the races. Video tapes of races were obtained from a local track. The various race segments were viewed and the winning horse timed by 5 individuals. Fastest and slowest times were removed and the 3 remaining times averaged. Quarter Horses averaged faster speeds than Thoroughbreds even when Thoroughbreds were raced at a distance (402 m) similar to Quarter Horse races. Both breeds were substantially faster than Arabians. Quarter Horses racing 336 m or less gained speed in each segment of the race while Arabians and Thoroughbreds racing 1006 m ran fastest during the middle of the race and had decreased their speed in the final segment of the race. Despite similar race times reported for 402 m, Quarter Horses averaged faster speeds than Thoroughbreds when timed from a standing start. In short races, both breeds accelerate throughout the race. Arabians, despite being known for endurance, had slowed by the end of the race. This study demonstrates that Quarter Horses achieve faster racing speeds than do other breeds. It also reveals a potential flaw in race-riding strategy as a more consistent pace throughout the Arabian and longer Thoroughbred races may be more efficient and result in a faster overall race time.

  17. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Kexin; Yue, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Tao; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869) and one Y-indel (Y-45288) were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A) revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%), whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/-) and Y-45701/997 (G>T) locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (π = 5.6×10(-4)) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527), while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00000) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000). The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses.

  18. Feasibility and safety of lumbosacral epiduroscopy in the standing horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrauner, B; Blikslager, A; Davis, J; Campbell, N; Law, M; Lustgarten, M; Prange, T

    2017-05-01

    The large size of the adult horse prevents the use of advanced imaging modalities in most areas of the axial skeleton, including the lumbosacral vertebral column. Traditional imaging techniques are frequently unable to pinpoint the underlying pathology in horses with caudal back pain. In man, lumbosacral epiduroscopy is used to diagnose and treat subjects with chronic back and leg pain. This technique may close the diagnostic gap in horses with similar clinical signs. To evaluate the safety and feasibility of lumbosacral epiduroscopy in the standing adult horse. Descriptive, experimental study. Seven adult horses weighing 504-578 kg were sedated and restrained in stocks in preparation for aseptic surgery. Vascular dilators of increasing size were inserted cranial to the first moveable vertebra caudal to the sacrum to facilitate a minimally invasive approach into the epidural space. A flexible video-endoscope was introduced and advanced as far as its 60-cm working length permitted. Pre-, intra- and post-operative plasma cortisol samples were collected, and neurological and lameness examinations were performed prior to and during the 2 weeks following the procedure. Post-mortem examinations were conducted in 5 of the 7 horses. Standing lumbosacral epiduroscopy was well tolerated by all horses. The anatomic structures in the epidural space (dura mater, spinal nerve roots, fat and blood vessels) were followed as far cranial as the thoracolumbar region. No complications related to the procedure were noted in the 2-week monitoring period following epiduroscopy. Small, organised haematomas were identified in the sacral epidural space during necropsy in one horse. No abnormalities were seen in the other 4 animals. Lumbosacral epiduroscopy can be performed safely in sedated standing horses. The procedure may become a valuable diagnostic tool in horses with caudal back or hindlimb pain of unknown origin. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyuan Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869 and one Y-indel (Y-45288 were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%, whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/- and Y-45701/997 (G>T locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (π = 5.6×10−4 and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527, while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00000 and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000. The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses.

  20. In vitro metabolic studies using homogenized horse liver in place of horse liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

    2011-06-01

    The study of the metabolism of drugs, in particular steroids, by both in vitro and in vivo methods has been carried out in the authors' laboratory for many years. For in vitro metabolic studies, the microsomal fraction isolated from horse liver is often used. However, the process of isolating liver microsomes is cumbersome and tedious. In addition, centrifugation at high speeds (over 100 000 g) may lead to loss of enzymes involved in phase I metabolism, which may account for the difference often observed between in vivo and in vitro results. We have therefore investigated the feasibility of using homogenized horse liver instead of liver microsomes with the aim of saving preparation time and improving the correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. Indeed, the preparation of the homogenized horse liver was very simple, needing only to homogenize the required amount of liver. Even though no further purification steps were performed before the homogenized liver was used, the cleanliness of the extracts obtained, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, was similar to that for liver microsomes. Herein, the results of the in vitro experiments carried out using homogenized horse liver for five anabolic steroids-turinabol, methenolone acetate, androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione, testosterone, and epitestosterone-are discussed. In addition to the previously reported in vitro metabolites, some additional known in vivo metabolites in the equine could also be detected. As far as we know, this is the first report of the successful use of homogenized liver in the horse for carrying out in vitro metabolism experiments. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.