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Sample records for hungary poland romania

  1. Part I. Feasibility Study for a Plan of Action to Investigate the Effects of Air Pollution on Health in PHARE Countries Part II. Air Pollution and Health. Country Descriptions for the PHARE countries. Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland and Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret E; Wolters N; Elliott P; Fletcher T

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility study was carried out on behalf of CEC-DG-I(OPS) in the PHARE countries Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic. Two country visits to each of the countries were involved. On the basis of information supplied by experts met during these visits and

  2. Becoming a Mother in Hungary and Poland during State Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transition to motherhood in the first co-residential union in the dual-earner context of state socialism, namely in Hungary and Poland between the late 1960s and the end of the 1980s. Our analyses are based on data extracted from the Polish and the Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of the early 1990s. We use the hazard regression method as our analytical tool. Our results for Hungary indicate that women's employment does not necessarily reduce the propensity to become a mother if the combination of labor-force participation and family life has been facilitated by policy measures. In Poland however, this was more difficult, and state support was somewhat less generous, thus part-time workers and housewives had substantially higher first-birth intensity than full-time employed women. Even so, we find indication for Poland, that as policy measures increasingly improved the conditions to combine employment and family responsibilities, the propensity to have the first child increased. The timing of first birth varied greatly across educational levels. Highly educated women were more likely to postpone the transition to motherhood, which in turn resulted in their overall lower propensity to have the first child in both countries, but less so in Hungary than in Poland.

  3. APPLICATION OF THE EU-PRINCIPLES IN ROMANIA AND HUNGARY CONCERNING THE BOARDS OF LISTED COMPANIES

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    Gabriella KECZER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance ensures that boards are able to exercise appropriate scrutiny over management and that shareholders, as owners of the company, are able to hold boards accountable. As such, a high level of corporate governance contributes significantly to investors' confidence and market stability, thus fostering business efficiency. In 2005 the European Commission launched a recommendation on the boards of listed companies and invited Member States to follow the guidelines. In 2008 both Romania and Hungary launched a new Code of Corporate Governance on the basis of the EU recommendations. In my paper I present the EU principles, and by examining the national codes of Romania and Hungary I analyze to which extent and in what issues these two countries have adopted the EU recommendations. I concluded that by the new codes of corporate governance issued in 2008 Romania and Hungary have followed to a large extent the provisions of the EU recommendation.

  4. Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market economy

  5. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  6. Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven M.

    This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the…

  7. The Hard Work of Interpretation: The National Politics of PISA Reception in Hungary and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eszter; Kiss, Adel; Fejes, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamic interaction between global policy and knowledge flows and two post-communist education systems--Hungary and Romania--with special attention to the appropriation of post-bureaucratic regulation tools and the structural changes enhanced by the knowledge transmitted by the Programme for International Student…

  8. The New Public Management is not that bad after all : Evidence from Estonia, Hungary and Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dan (Sorin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews the New Public Management (NPM) literature in Central and Eastern Europe, looking particularly at reforms in Estonia, Hungary and Romania. It finds that research that assessed changes in internal processes and activities within the public sector by far outnumber rese

  9. Democracy and Identity in the Danube Region (the Case of Romania and Hungary

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    Boryana Stancheva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at researching the interconnection between two key concepts in political sciences Ŕ Ŗdemocracyŗ and Ŗidentityŗ. The analysis is focused on the Danube Region as an example of a macro-regional construct in the multi-level governance system of the European Union. The author is working on a PhD dissertation dedicated to the democratic deficits in the European Union, with a specific focus on two of the newest member states Ŕ Hungary and Romania. Since both Ŗdemocracyŗ and Ŗidentityŗ are notions that have not been defined by consent in the post-communist member states of the Union, the paper chooses to particularly examine their impact in Romania and Hungary by researching different information sources and statistical data. The paper has to examine the level of interdependency of the post-communist political identity of Hungary and Romania and the state of democracy and its institutions. The results have to be further discussed not only in the context of both countriesř EU-membership, but also with a view to their belonging to the newly established Danube macro-region. The following paper and its results are part of the long-term PhD research of the author. The study will add value to the analysis of two fundamental notions in the theory of political and social sciences by trying to examine the level of their interconnection in two Danube countries.

  10. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

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    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  11. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

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    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  12. Administrative Appeals in Romania and Poland - A Topical Comparative Perspective

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    Dacian C. DRAGOŞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of administrative appeal and analyzes how the appeal functions in two different jurisdictions: Poland and Romania. The authors start by providing information on the nature of the administrative appeal (mandatory or not, deadlines for exercising it, suspensive effect for the action in court etc. All these aspects are examined from a comparative perspective. The aim of the comparative perspective is to highlight that currently the European national systems are fluid and continuously changing; in addition, the goal is to identify best practices that could be transferred from one system to the other. One of the key topics addressed in the context of this theme refers to the relationship that exists between the administrative appeal and the action in court. Authors try to answer the question whether the citizens’ access to justice is breached in cases when the appeal is mandatory. The authors also discuss the fact that very often a mandatory appeal can lead to a high number of cases being solved outside the courts.

  13. Exchange rate and oil price interactions in transition economies: Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

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    Bayat Tayfur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates causal dynamics between crude oil prices and exchange rates in Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary by employing monthly data from the beginning of flexible exchange regime in each country to December 2011. The study benefits from the recent advance in the time series econometric analysis and carries out linear causality, non-linear causality, volatility spillover and frequency domain causality tests. The frequency domain causality analysis results imply that oil price fluctuations affect real exchange rates in the long run in Poland and Czech Republic. On the other hand, frequency domain causality test results indicate that oil price fluctuations do not affect exchange rate in any period in Hungary despite its economy’s high imported energy dependency.

  14. The New Public Managementis Not That Bad After All: Evidence From Estonia, Hungary and Romania

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    Sorin DAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the New Public Man-agement (NPM literature in Central and Eastern Europe, looking particularly at reforms in Estonia, Hungary and Romania. It fnds that research that assessed changes in internal processes and ac-tivities within the public sector by far outnumber research that assessed changes in outputs and outcomes. Signifcant challenges in assessing impacts make sweeping claims about whether NPM ‘works’ diffcult to support with solid evi-dence. The paper shows that NPM policy is still considered as an option for public sector mod-ernization in Central and Eastern Europe, and suggests that a number of components of NPM, if not the model as a whole, are likely to contin-ue to exert infuence on the public sector in the future.

  15. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists' professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism.

  16. FISCAL COMPETITION AND DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS: ROMANIA VERSUS POLAND

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    Lazar Paula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Economic Community treaty defines indirect taxation common rules taking into consideration their impact upon free merchandise’s circulation and upon international commercial exchanges. Once the Roma treaty has been signed (1957 the established scope was creating a common market. But, how is it possible to create a common market without any monetary and fiscal instruments? Thus, these instruments have had to be created in order to achieve such an objective. If from the monetary point of view introducing euro as a common currency was a big step ahead, from the fiscal point of view things haven’t evolved in such an easy manner. Fiscal objectives are achieved only if the national market is running normally and correctly. Indirect taxation is harmonized base upon article 113 from the European Union Treaty, while regarding direct taxation legal recommendations and regulations approval we can’t talk about harmonization but about fiscal competition. We are stating this because there are 27 states in the European Union and each one is sustaining its own direct taxation system. Furthermore, the taxation system (fiscal system is influencing member states economical performances through economies, investments and human capital formation by affecting the revenue’s distribution, research and development expenses level and type and by fiscal competition – an effect more and more profound. In this context we aim at analyzing the way fiscal competition had had a positive impact upon attracting foreign direct investments in Romania and Poland. We also aim at underlining positive and negative points for fiscal competition taking into consideration that not only a decrease in micro or macro-economic fiscal burden will have a positive impact upon investments in-flows and there are other factors to be taken into consideration, like: infrastructure, labor expenses

  17. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Surós Montserrat; Janicka Lucja; Stachlewska Iwona S.; Nemuc Anca; Talianu Camelia; Heese Birgit; Engelmann Ronny

    2016-01-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two s...

  18. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  19. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  20. Romania A Beautiful Land Beyond Your Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Location Romania is situated in the southeastern part of Central Europe and shares borders with Hungary to the northwest,Yugoslavia to the southwest, Bulgaria to the south, the Black Sea and Ukraine to the southeast and to the north and the Republic of Moldova to the east.Roughly the size of Oregon, Romania is the second largest country in the area,after Poland.

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MACROECONOMIC STABILISATION PENTAGON IN ROMANIA, CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY

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    Ionita Rodica Oana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to achieve the pentagon analysis of macroeconomic stabilization in Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary in the period 2000 to 2013. It is a comparative analysis of the countries above mentioned in terms of the five key targets of economic policy, aiming the increasing, dynamic balance of each economy: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the budget deficit as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, the current account deficit of the balance of payments as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product. The main objective of each economy which passes from planned to market economy should be to cease the economic decline, followed by the elimination of internal and external imbalances and only after that it should be followed by a continuous growth process. All the above mentioned indicators shall be represented on an ad hoc graduated scale. The period of research was chosen so as to obtain a view of the macroeconomic policies in transition from one period to another, in order to highlight the common as well as the main differences in the approach used for economy stabilization. Therefore I have computed the graphical analysis of macroeconomic stabilization pentagon for the three countries in the period 2000- 2013 to captures the dynamics of the economic policy mix. This benchmark tool shows the interdependence which exists between inflation and other important economic indicators. The events occurred in the period starting with 2007/2008 have raised the interest of economics researchers, highlighting the need for significant improvements in the surveillance of the economic and financial system. The global fragility generated concerns regarding the vulnerabilities and causes which led to the occurrence of such events, thus generating different measurement techniques. Despite all its advantages, this approach has a significant limitation consisting in the fact that it can only reveal a picture without surprising other

  2. Ownership Characteristics and Access to Finance: Evidence from a Survey of Large Privatised Companies in Hungary and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenkova, N; Mickiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We examine financial constraints and forms of finance used for investment, by analysing survey data on 157 large privatised companies in Hungary and Poland for the period 1998 - 2000. The Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling is carried out to obtain inferences about the sample companies' access to finance from a model for categorical outcome. By applying alternative measures of financial constraints we find that foreign companies, companies that are part of domestic industrial groups and en...

  3. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Surós Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  4. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nemuc, Anca; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2016-06-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  5. Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Hungary is a country of 93,000 sq km with 10 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Its constitution was written on August 20m 1949, substantially revised in 1989, and amended in 1990. The terrain is flat with low mountains in the North and Northeast and north of Lake Balaton, with a climate which is temperate. Primarily Magyar is spoken by the 92% population of Magyar, though Gypsies, Germans, Slovaks, Jews, southern Slavs, and other ethnic groups are also resident. Inhabitants are variously of Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, and other faiths. Life expectancy is 67-75 years. GDP is $35 billion, declining at a rate of 3%. Per capita income is $3300. The country's natural resources include fertile land, bauxite, and brown coal. Meat, corn, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables, fruits, sunflower seeds, machinery, buses and other transportation equipment; precision and measuring equipment; textiles; medical instruments; and pharmaceutical are areas of economic production. Energy, raw materials, machinery, and transportation equipment are imported, and machinery, buses, and other transportation equipment; medical instruments; pharmaceutical; textiles; other consumer manufactures; and agricultural products are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  6. THE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN POLAND AND ROMANIA IN THE LAST 100 YEARS. THEORY OF PATH DEPENDENCY

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    IVANOV LAURENTIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present economic crisis has highlighted a country in transition to a market economy, which has not experienced economic recession: Poland. The Polish experience cannot be overlooked because the country‘s positive economic evolution was completely different from the evolution of the largest European economies, many of them facing distressful situations for long periods of time. The question to be addressed in this paper is „Could the present economic realities be partially influenced by the historical evolution of a country? “ The theory of path dependency is rooted in economic history, but it has a relevant contribution latest from Paul David (1985 which explains excellent the existing gap of economic development existing between Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe, highlighted by the GDP / capita over the last 200 years. Regarding this theory, the present paper will highlight the industrial developments in Romania and Poland in relation to developed countries for the period 1918 to present and will conduct a comparative analysis between the two countries. The conclusions of the present study will be a part of my doctoral research.

  7. The Influence of Trade Unions on Pension Reform in Romania and Hungary: The Role of Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Policy-Making

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    Monica BUCURENCIU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although both Romania and Hungary have inherited pay-as-you-go defined benefit (PAYG-DB pensions systems, they have both moved towards a three-pillar pensions system, in which PAYG-DB becomes just one of three pillars together with the mandatory and the voluntary private pension funds.Trade unions have had an important influence on pension reform in both countries. The analysis of pension reform in Hungary and Romania brings evidence that trade unions’ influence on policy-making is not uniform, but it is shaped by the international policy discourse, by the institutional setting, by their relationship with other policy actors, by their organisational culture and even material inheritance.

  8. The Challenge to Soviet Interests in Eastern Europe, Romania, Hungary, East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Iota and other Romanian authors. 72See the attack on Dimitru Popescu’s novel Pumnul si Palma (The Fist and the Palm) by Pimen Buyanov in Literaturnaya... ecological issues. As for the Evangelical Church, it has never been the symbol of nationalism and national resistance that the Catholic Church in Poland

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN ROMANIA, HUNGARY AND SLOVENIA

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    Hamburg Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study is meant to be an extension of and completion to a former research paper entitled “The Role of Foreign Language Teachers in Developing Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills” concluding that students of the University of Oradea, Romania, generally lack intercultural sensitivity and it falls to a great extent to foreign language teachers to change this state of affairs. When the former study came up with proposals for methods of enhancing students’ cultural awareness (see simulation games on cultural differences like Barnga, BaFá BaFá, Randömia Balloon Factory and others, the present study focuses on an international comparison, though limited to only three academic institutions in three countries, regarding Eastern and Central European students’ intercultural sensitivity. The initial idea was to see to what extent students of the University of Oradea, Romania, studying Economics, Medicine and Law dispose of intercultural skills. For this reason a Likert-type scale questionnaire was applied to more than 200 students of the above mentioned faculties. The survey was extended in the second round in Oradea, Romania, also to the Faculty of Environmental Protection and that of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, respectively to an international level asking students of the University of Debrecen, Hungary and the University of Maribor, Slovenia, the same questions. Although we are aware of the limitations of present study, – only three institutions included in the research, having in Debrecen and Maribor less respondents than in Oradea and only from some fields of study, Slovenian students not getting a Slovenian version of the questionnaire, which may have influenced their level of understanding issues, responses not always being consistent – its results have still an informative value. They confirm the author’s initial hypothesis that in spite of the extended international relations and

  10. SOLUTIONS FOR INCREASING PUBLIC BUDGET REVENUE IN BULGARIA, CROATIA, CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND ROMANIA

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    Narcisa Roxana MOSTEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is a comparative analysis of the budget revenue in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland and Romania, taking into account the main features in light of the contribution of indirect and direct taxes and social contributions to the achievement of public revenues. Theme presents a topic of great interest, both theoretically and practically, given possible solution to increase public budget revenue in these countries, most of them being new member stated of European Union and who wants to catch up all the lost period within socialism time. As a common conclusion it can be seen that all countries need to improve their judicial system and combating crime and tax evasion. It is necessary to increase the independence of the judiciary, reducing bribery, reducing undeclared work and the establishment of independent anti-corruption institutions. Also the analyzed countries must improve public expenditure system, reducing bureaucracy and pay attention on profitable investments in order to increase budget revenues and encourage employment and unemployed university graduates, this is possible also by improving the mechanism of attraction and use of EU funds for investment within public and private sector.

  11. Demographic Tendencies in the Cross-Border Region of Satu Mare (Romania and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Hungary Counties

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    EGON NAGY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of trans-border co-operations, the inventory of the regional socio- economic relationships is indispensable for an exhaustive empirical study. Through this study we only begin to understand the demographic tendencies in Satu Mare County (Romania and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County (Hungary in order to highlight the main features of the most important resource – the human capital. The analysis of the main indicators refers, first of all, to the vital statistics, population migration, and the demographic structure. Although the economical periphery-status of the Hungarian side is not valid for the Romanian side – because Satu Mare County is a medium-developed, while Bihor County is an advanced region in Romania – the demographic periphery status is fitting to the two Romanian counties, and because the relative positive tendencies, the Hungarian counties have a quite good demographical position in comparison with other regions in Hungary. That is why we have to face a kind of contradiction because the lack of spatial interference between demographical, positional and economical peripheries. At the Hungarian side the most disadvantageous subregions from social point of view are those lying next to the border line, while in Romania the border area is the most urbanized and developed subregion. The relative good demographical situation in Hungary in great part is a consequence of the presence of the numerous Gipsy population, which in the same time represents a major reason of the disadvantaged demographic-structural indicators, such as educational level or infant-mortality.

  12. Morphometric analysis of the Koros drainage basin (Hungary/Romania) using historical topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovszki, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Körös River drainage basin is located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, west of the Apuseni Mts., in the middle of the Pannonian Basin. The channels of the river and its tributaries are mostly meandering. The channel sinuosity of this river system is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of this area. The meandering rivers can demonstrate changes, which occurred recently, and cannot be seen with other methods. The changing sinuosity indicates the location of the vertical movements of the surface. The sinuosity calculations were made on the natural, uncontrolled riverbeds. These beds were digitized from the maps of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, which were measured before or during river control implementation. Digitized features were made on the geo-referred maps, which are in the Hungarian National Grid (EOV) coordinate system. The estimated accuracy of the map sheets to the modern system is 50-100 m, but the accuracy in Hungary remains under 30 m. In the study area, we identified several points of sinuosity change. To prove, that these are of neotectonic origin, seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Five fault lines are indicated to be neotectonically active according to the river planform changes. Activity of two of these five faults, and the subsidence in-between them caused the formation of the Nagy-Sárrét marshland. A Romanian river section, characterized by anastomosed planform, instead of meandering, indicates recent activity of another fault.

  13. Determinants of Economic Growth in V4 Countries and Romania

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    Simionescu Mihaela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle and long-term slowdown in growth dynamics could bring serious social and political problems for V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It would threaten reaching benefits from potential of convergence process with the developed countries of the European Union. As a result, the V4 economies and Romania should find solutions to achieving a sustainable growth that is associated with an improvement of their international competitiveness. This paper provides an empirical analysis of factors that might determine a stable economic growth in the five mentioned countries. The empirical analysis conducted for the period of 2003-2016 employed Bayesian generalized ridge regression. The main results indicated that the FDI promoted economic growth in all countries, except the Slovak Republic. Only in the Czech Republic, the expenditure on education generated economic growth, while the expenditure on R&D had positive effects in Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

  14. Obstacles, Realities and Opportunities in Human Resources Management in Public Administration Institutions From Bihor County (Romania and Hajdú-Bihar County (Hungary

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    Maria-Madela ABRUDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the par-ticularities of human resources management in the public institutions from Bihor County (Ro-mania and Hajdu-Bihar County (Hungary. The comparative dimension of our study is framed in Hofstede’s categories of cultural differences in organizational culture. The data presented is derived from a broader study conducted on the implementation of New Public Management at local public administration institutions in Ro-mania and Hungary. The project entitled ‘Es-tablishment of R&D programmes in the f eld of new public management between economic faculties of higher education in Hajdu-Bihar and Bihor Counties’ (HURO/0901/277/2.2.2 was developed in partnership between Faculties of Economics from the Universities of Oradea and Debrecen. Our results on public human resour-ces provide relevant insight in the processes re-garding personnel in the public institutions in this region and propose solutions for improvement of the observed weaknesses. The employees of the 60 public institutions included in this research consider themselves participants in the decision-al process, yet the evaluation process needs to be reshaped in order to provide a better balance between performances and the rewards system.

  15. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPH...

  16. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  17. EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vermeersch

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent has the EU's growing concern for norms of minority protection influenced domestic policy-making in the candidate member states in Central Europe? In order to begin to explore this question, the present article assesses the impact of both domestic and international factors on the development of policies towards national minorities in three Central europen countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Following an introduction, which places the subject in the context of the larger debates on minority rights, the first part of the article describes the ways in which regional organizations in Europe have attempted to persuade or induce the three countries under consideration to adopt minority rights policies. The second section then describes policy developments in Central Europe and considers the factors that have contributed to policy shifts. Finally, the third part reflects on the uneven impact of the EU's accession criteria on the development of minority rights policies in the candidate countries and concludes that the EU's impact on policy has crucially depended both on domestic interests and receptivity to international concerns for internal security.

  18. Metropolisation and the Evoluti\ton of Systems of Cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland Since 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zdanowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of systems of cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland since 1950, and especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 when Central and Eastern European cities started to experience the process of metropolisation. This period corresponds to an intense globalisation of the economy which has been characterised by some researchers as an emergence of a world urban system. While the metropolises of formerly industrialised countries had already been strongly interconnected on a macro-regional level, Central and Eastern European countries took on the unique approach of prioritising relations directly at an international level. In addition to its highly exacerbated characteristics, the metropolisation in Central and Eastern Europe has been taking place within a substantially shorter time period in relation to other countries. This article investigates how these phenomena might have influenced the configuration of today’s urban systems. After presenting the methodology used to reconstruct urban agglomerations since 1950 until now, we examine the evolution of the Czech, Hungarian and Polish systems of cities by using several national databases. By analysing the changes in urban hierarchy and new urban patterns, we can stress that after 1989 the metropolisation has rather contributed to raise the predominance of the capital city in the urban systems than to diminish inequalities between the cities.

  19. Does the Common Agricultural Policy still make sense in the twenty-first century? CAP after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Daszkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU CAP has developed immensely since the 1960’s. However, its current determinants are completely different from those which formed the CAP foundations. This results mainly from the fact that the UE CAP must meet present-day challenges and threats. Moreover, further EU enlargements also significantly influenced performance of this sector of economy. It is important to determine whether the existence of the CAP in the twenty-first century still makes sense and to specify in more detail the CAP reform directions after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary.

  20. Civic Education in Emerging Democracies: Lessons from Post-Communist Poland and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    The 1999 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study revealed that most countries having recently undergone political and social transformations had lower civic knowledge scores than more stable nations. However, Poland, which instituted policies aimed at educating citizens for democratic…

  1. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Raluca Georgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern Europe has become a player on the international market of foreign direct investment (FDI with the fall of communism in 1990. Liberalization of markets has brought both advantages and disadvantages to new states in transition. Despite modest values of FDI received, the share of the region in total global FDI is increasing. Any type of investment, foreign or domestic one, is considered crucial as it generates employment and contributes to the economic growth .This paper tries to provide an analysis of the effects of FDI on the labor force of this region, and specifically in Romania and Poland. We analyzed the quantitative effect on the labor force, more precisely the effect on the employment. Foreign subsidiaries hold an important part of the occupied population, although the number of foreign firms is lower than the domestic ones. Despite the destruction of jobs in the early transition in the process of restructuring, foreign subsidiaries, both directly and indirectly create jobs and usually at a higher rate than the domestic companies manage to do. During the recent financial crisis, foreign subsidiaries proved to be more resilient and the cut off jobs was lower than in domestic firms.

  2. Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, Poland's population was 37.5 million and the annual population growth rate was 0.8%. The infant mortality rate was 19.3/1000 and life expectancy stood at 71.6 years. Of the labor force of 17.5 million, 30% were engaged in agriculture, 44% were in industry and commerce, 8% were government employees, and 11% were employed in services. Poland is a communist state. The economy is based on the Soviet model of state ownership of most of the country's productive assets, although the private sector predominates in agriculture. The rights of private farmers are now protected through a 1983 amendment to the constitution. Poland's economy has performed poorly in comparison with other Eastern European economies. The economic growth rate is 5% and inflation averages 20%. Per capita income is US$2000. Industries were centralized following World War II, and this systemic rigidity is considered to have contributed to the economy's poor performance. Another important factor has been low reliance of foreign trade, meaning that Poland's industries have failed to develop competitiveness. The government has committed itself to a so-called second-stage of economic reform, but to date there have been few concrete accomplishments.

  3. A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathryn Grow; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2017-07-27

    Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D(2) -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kus, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The concept of media accountability is a relatively new issue in Poland, both for Polish media researchers and journalists (media professionals), as well as for media users. Traditional institutions and instruments of media accountability are not very well developed (see Głowacki & Urbaniak, 2010). In this context, possible development of media accountability innovations online creates significant opportunities for fulfilling existing gaps in this area. A desk study and interviews conducted w...

  5. Achievements of Study Concerning Worm Face Gear Made in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Boloş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Worm face gears are a relatively new category of gear failure in 50 years in the USA. They are composed of a conical or cylindrical worm to engage the front wheel of a conical or flat. Geometric configuration to ensure a great contact ratio and lubrication between the flanks favorable conditions which allow their implementation of hardened steel, gray iron, bronze. Also they will produce big rapport of transmission in a single stage. Originally conceived by Illinois Tool Works Company Chicago they were taken and developed at the Institute of Mechanical Izhevsk (Russia. Experimental and theoretical developments were made in Britain, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. In the present paper is highlighted the concerns and the achievements of researchers from Romania in the period 1980-2009.

  6. South Africa and Poland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Poland, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Romania, Bosnia and ... regard, namely cross-cultural studies to determine the effect of different cultures and ..... 1The statistical analysis consisted of the following two processes: 1.

  7. TRENDS IN ROMANIA'S AGRO-FOOD FOREIGN TRADE IN THE PERIOD 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the analysis of Romania's agro-food foreign trade dynamics in the period 2007-2012 in order to identify its major trends and changes. In 2012, the agro-food export reached Euro Million 2,812, and import Euro Million 3,834. The Euro Million -1,021 balance deficit proved that Romania is still a net exporting country. The EU accounts for about 72 % in export and 70% in import value, of which agro-food trade contributes by 8.90 % and, respectively by 9.54% in Romania's import. In 2012, the agro-food export structure was the following one:Vegetable products 38.66%, Prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco 36.02 %, and Live animals and animal products 18.99 %, and the agro-food import structure was: Prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco 38.39 %, Vegetal products 30.89 %, and Live animals and animal products 25.62 %. The main Romania's trade partners are Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Greece, France, Austria and United Kingdom for agro-food export (88.14 % and Hungary, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria, Italy, France, Austria, the Czech Republic and Greece for agro-food import (88.38 %. In the period 2007-2012, an improved efficiency of the agro-food trade was noticed in terms of export/import ratio, export value per GDP and per inhabitant, and lower and lower deficit of the trade balance.

  8. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

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    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  9. COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS (ROMANIA, GERMANY, FRANCE AND POLAND FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NET ASSETS INVESTMENT OF THE ROMANIAN MANDATORY PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Cristina PETRICA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate cointegration between Bucharest Stock Exchange and three European Stock Markets: Germany,France and Poland, respectively. The choice of the European markets is based on the net assets investment of the Romanian mandatory private pension funds. On June 30, 2016, according to the Romanian Financial Supervisory Authority 91.28% of all investments in shares of private pension funds have been performed in Romanian shares, while the rest of 8.72% (0.44 billion lei have been performed in shares issued by Germany (2.34%, France (2.23%, Poland (0.89% and other countries. Having the intention of achieving maximizing returns by managing risk, and also to capture the co-movements in the above markets,we perform the cointegration analysis to examine portfolio diversification of the Romanian mandatory private pension funds. The empirical analysis is based on daily closing prices of the BET Index, DAX 30 Index, CAC 40 Index and WIG 20 Index and covers the period from 30 January 2006 to 27 September 2016 (2713 observations.

  10. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  11. Romania; Roumanie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This economic analysis provides data and information on the organizations and the energy policy of Romania. The enterprises, the energy supply for each energy sources, the prices policy, the consumption and the stakes and forecasts are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Aspects of Romania's Economic Efforts in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.

  13. Fiscality - A Relevant Factor Influencing Regional Development in Romania and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine taxation in the EU in correlation with regional development measures implemented. We started with the EU vision on regional development. If during the 2007-2013 period, were pursued three major objectives (convergence, regional competitiveness and territorial cooperation, in the current 2014-2020 funding period, money is allocated differently between countries that are deemed to be more developed, in transition and less developed. These categories are set according to GDP per capita. Next we exposed the fiscal changes made in the EU in 2010-2011 period and then we corelate them with the strategy for regional development for five member states: Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic , Hungary and Poland. We used data reported by Eurostat regarding the evolution of unemployment rate and for the foreign direct investments in 2007-2012 period. We also brought up and changes required by the new Romanian Fiscal Code. According to it, measures such as reduction of income tax for new micro enterprises or extending the VAT reverse charge mechanism in many sectors of activity, are meant to encourage foreign capital inflows and also to increase the level of regional development. As a general conclusion, we found that there is a direct link between fiscal policy and regional development; fiscal measures implemented influence the level of unemployment, economic growth, and competitiveness in the private sector.

  14. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  15. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  16. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  17. The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

    2009-02-01

    The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kvaček & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Kučlin (Bohemia).

  18. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  19. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  20. The long-range transport of Pinaceae pollen: an example in Kraków (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, Kazimierz; Myszkowska, Dorota; Worobiec, Elżbieta; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Ziemianin, Monika; Bielec-Bąkowska, Zuzanna

    2017-01-01

    High Pinaceae pollen concentrations in the air and on the surface of puddles before the main pollen season started were observed in Kraków (southern Poland) in May 2013. The paper presents the results of detailed studies of the composition and source of the "yellow rain" in 2013, and as a comparison, the Pinaceae pollen concentrations and samples collected from the ground surface in 2014 were considered. The air samples were collected using the volumetric method (Hirst-type device), while pollen grains sampled from the ground surface were processed using a modified Erdtman acetolysis method. Finally, all samples were studied using a light microscope. In 2013, the period of higher Abies, Picea and Pinus pollen concentrations was observed from the 5 to 12 of May, earlier than the main pollen season occurred. The presence of rainfall on the 12 and 13 of May 2013 caused the pollen deposition on the ground surface, where the prevalence of Pinaceae pollen was found. The synoptic situation and the analysis of the back-trajectories and air mass advection at the beginning of May 2013 indicated that Pinaceae pollen grains could have been transported from Ukraine, Romania, Hungary and Slovakia. In contrast, Pinaceae pollen grains deposited on the ground surface as a "yellow" film in May 2014, originated from local sources.

  1. Poland syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Madhur Sharma; Shrawan Kumar; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  2. Poland syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Madhur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  3. Montesquieu in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Hamza

    2012-01-01

    The interest of the great philosopher, jurist, and political thinker of the French Enlightenment, Charles-Louis de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755), turned after having published the Lettres persanes (1721) to the study on premises of the lives, customs and laws of different nations, ethnicities. When his friend, Earl James Waldgrave (1684-1741), was appointed as emissary, ambassador to Vienna, to the court of Emperor Charles VI, King of Hungary as Charles III, King o...

  4. Montesquieu in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hamza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest of the great philosopher, jurist, and political thinker of the French Enlightenment, Charles-Louis de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755, turned after having published the Lettres persanes (1721 to the study on premises of the lives, customs and laws of different nations, ethnicities. When his friend, Earl James Waldgrave (1684-1741, was appointed as emissary, ambassador to Vienna, to the court of Emperor Charles VI, King of Hungary as Charles III, King of Bohemia as Charles II (1711–1740, Montesquieu accompanied i.e. escorted him.

  5. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  6. PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT AND CREATIVE ACCOUNTING UNDER IFRS IN EX-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES: CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGAN Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting rules from each country evolve in time in order to respond the social, cultural and economical environment needs. After some communist countries (as Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania, s.o. joined the European Union an important number of local companies became to apply accounting regulation according with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the possible risks for companies management from ex-communist counties by applying (mandatory or voluntary International Financial Reporting Standards reporting regulation and professional judgment. Under the pressure of economic globalization all the ex-communist countries ware obliged to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in the field of accounting. The main objective of this paper is to find out from the experience of different companies who already adopted IFRS which are the risks related to professional judgment application under IFRS on the financial statement users. As research methodology we integrated theoretical and empirical studies from accounting and law (especially from Romanian experience in order to contribute to the cross-fertilization of our field of interest. As final results of our paper we find that the biggest risk of applying professional judgment prescribed by IFRS in ex-communist countries is to appear different creative accounting techniques which influence in a negative way the decision-making process for the financial statements users. During worldwide financial crisis the majority of Romanian companies tried to use in the most appropriate way the professional judgment in order to arrange their financial reports and to save company's money (in relation with local government or to show higher performance (in relation with financial institutions for the fund-raising process We identified several motivations including the existence

  7. ROMANIA AND THE EURASIAN UNION. PLANS, PREDICTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Cristian GHENGHEA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the events in Ukraine, Romania might represent one of the key points for the Eurasian perspectives that have circulated in the last years in Moscow. Through our text we intend to present and to highlight the main ideas and plans of Eurasian inspiration regarding Romania, as well as the interesting predictions made, in certain moments, by some representative characters for the Eurasian paradigm, like Aleksandr Dugin, for instance, who is its main ideologist and promoter. At the same time, one must not neglect the signals of discontent from Moscow about the need of dissipating the so-called sanitary cordon of the Western powers, in which the Baltic States, Poland, and Romania are included – another aspect bearing a particular importance for understanding certain gestures, attitudes and statements related to the role and the place of the Eurasian Union.

  8. Hungary health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Peter; Szigeti, Szabolcs; Csere, Marton; Gaskins, Matthew; Panteli, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Hungary has achieved a successful transition from an overly centralized, integrated Semashko-style health care system to a purchaser provider split model with output-based payment methods. Although there have been substantial increases in life expectancy in recent years among both men and women, many health outcomes remain poor, placing Hungary among the countries with the worst health status and highest rate of avoidable mortality in the EU (life expectancy at birth trailed the EU27 average by 5.1 years in 2009). Lifestyle factors especially the traditionally unhealthy Hungarian diet, alcohol consumption and smoking play a very important role in shaping the overall health of the population.In the single-payer system, the recurrent expenditure on health services is funded primarily through compulsory, non-risk-related contributions made by eligible individuals or from the state budget. The central government has almost exclusive power to formulate strategic direction and to issue and enforce regulations regarding health care. In 2009 Hungary spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health, with public expenditure accounting for 69.7% of total health spending, and with health expenditure per capita ranking slightly above the average for the new EU Member States, but considerably below the average for the EU27 in 2008. Health spending has been unstable over the years, with several waves of increases followed by longer periods of cost-containment and budget cuts. The share of total health expenditure attributable to private sources has been increasing, most of it accounted for by out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses. A substantial share of the latter can be attributed to informal payments, which are a deeply rooted characteristic of the Hungarian health system and a source of inefficiency and inequity. Voluntary health insurance, on the other hand, amounted to only 7.4% of private and 2.7% of total health expenditure in 2009. Revenue sources for health have been

  9. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  10. Study of the occurrence and distribution of „Iezer“ and „Bolătău“-based toponyms in Romania and their counterparts from Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela GRĂDINARU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the distribution and evolution of toponyms derivative of the words „iezer” and “bolătău” (Romanian and their counterparts in the neighboring countries, where such homologous words/toponyms exist, i.e. Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. We documented that at present the terms where the toponyms originated (“iezer”/”jezero”/”jezioro” and “bolătău”/”blato”/ ”błoto” are largely regarded as archaic forms, particularly “bolătău”/ ”blato”/”błoto” throughout the study area. However, toponyms based on both words are still in use in a large number of derivative variants (especially in the Slavic-speaking countries, which attest their age and relevance in the toponymical practice, albeit to a different extent and with national and regional variations in terms of occurrence. The study also indicates that, whereas the research topic requires further exploration in the shape of a quantitative approach investigation, given the complexity of toponymical studies within such an extensive area, it can be inferred that currently the vast majority of toponyms based on the two terms do not refer to water bodies, but have been transferred to other elements of the landscape

  11. Mathematics Education in Hungary Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Tamas

    1988-01-01

    Changes in mathematics education from the 1950s to the 1980s are briefly described by the author, who was a leading mathematics educator in Hungary. Illustrations focus on personal experience and small group interaction. (MNS)

  12. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribution of tourism and agro-tourism sector in accomplishment of GDP, by average made on the analyzed period and by annual growth rate, analyze that place Romania on the position 150 of 176 countries surveyed with an annual growth rate of 1.52% from GDP.

  13. INTERCULTURAL PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ENTERPRISES FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora V. FĂRCAȘ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When talking about the European economic context an attempt to equilibrate the gap between countries can be noticed. Through different projects, financed by the European Commission, the disparities between Western and Eastern Europe, in the entrepreneurial environment, are trying to be reduced. The aim of this article is to serve as model case that illustrates the intercultural partnership between Finland, Hungary and Romania in order to develop workplace innovation in Eastern Europe. The focus of this paper is to present a detailed descriptive analysis of the various practical issues that are related to effective implementation of workplace innovations in Romania and the adaptability of the Finnish model to the Romanian context. Special emphasize will be put on the pedagogical methods used by the innovation deliverer, the Finnish partner.

  14. SOCIAL ENTREPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social economy concept is relatively new in Romania, but the interest of specialists and practitioners is growing because significant funds has been allocated to stimulate the development of social economy organizations and numerous supporting statements was made by the European Commission. The present paper realizes an exploratory approach on the concept of social enterprise in Romania and clarifies some notions, given the practices of social economy in recent years. Also, a typology of the Romania's counties in terms of the presence of social enterprises has been obtained. A series of data were collected by accessing sites of specialized institutions or requesting information under the Law regarding the free access to information of public interest. After their processing a territorial distribution of social enterprises in Romania was shaped.

  15. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy.

  16. Multilateral Sprint Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development Since 1989. Budapest, Hungary, April 1-2, 1998. Report of the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report presents the proceedings of a 1998 seminar which focused on four themes related to progress in sports development in Europe since 1989. Each of the four sections includes four papers, one from each of the experts from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. "Tours de table" and discussion allowed participation by other…

  17. Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu's contribution to the development of science and culture in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Alexandru; Petrovai, Ion; Rotaru, Horatiu

    2016-01-01

    When speaking about Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863-1926) and his major contribution to the establishment of Romanian medical education in Cluj, he should be considered not only in terms of scientist and creator of the Dental School, but also through his commitment to the development of science and culture in Romania. A wealthy dentist in Budapest where he graduated from the Dental School, he supported a lot of Romanian students to attend schools and universities in the Budapest, thus contributing to the development of culture in his own country. Finally, he left his private practice in the Capital of Hungary to come to Cluj to support the efforts of building the Dental School and profession in Romania. This paper illustrates the contribution that Professor Gheorghe Bilaşcu made to the development of higher education in Romania, as well as his support of the local culture.

  18. The political and diplomatic relations between Lithuania and Romania (1935-1940

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    Dalia Bukelevičiūtė

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first contacts between Lithuanian and Romanian representatives started after the World War I when Lithuania was looking for the protection of her inhabitants who were still refugees in Russia. As Russia became entrenched with Bolshevism, the Lithuanian citizens were evacuated through Romanian territory from South Ukraine and Crimea. Lithuania and Czechoslovakia established diplomatic relations in December 1919 and eventually an attempt was made to set up ties also with Romania. As a member of the Little Entente and an ally of Poland, Romania drew the attention of the Lithuanian government. Romania recognized Lithuania de jure on August 21, 1924 and Dovas Zaunius was appointed the first Lithuanian envoy to Bucharest. Nevertheless, during the next decade no political or diplomatic contacts between Lithuania and Romania existed. With the growing influence of Germany, the Soviet Union and the Little Entente on the international arena, Edvardas Turauskas was appointed on August 27, 1935 as envoy to Romania residing in Prague and later in the year Romania accredited ConstantinValimarescu for the position of envoy to Lithuania residing in Riga. The dialogue between the two parties remained, however, occasional. When on July 21, 1940 Lithuania was occupied by Soviet Union, Turauskas visited the Romanian Legation in Bern and presented a note of protest in this respect. Romania did not acknowledge Lithuanian occupation and annexation.

  19. EVOLUTION OF ERP MARKET IN ROMANIA DURING THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ENACHESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the evolution and use of integrated ERP systems on the Romanian market during the crisis. In the context of the more developed markets as in Romania like those in France, Germany and Austria but also in Poland, Czech Republic or Russia, which shows clear signs of a sustained demand for complex business solutions, ERP domestic market remains stagnant or slightly oscillates around the same values and no signs of recovery before 2014. Thus, according to PAC studies (market analysis company Pierre Audoin Consultants in 2009, the local ERP market demand, decreased much stronger than on the entire market for software and IT services in Romania. In 2012, only 105 million euro were invested for new or the maintenance of ERP projects already implemented in previous years, proves that Romania has one of the worst appetites of Europe, reflecting the functioning of the economy and of the public sector but also of the default public administration. While in most countries in Europe, public administration accelerates adoption of ERP solutions with processes and functionalities already developed and important references, Romania still prefer to develop specific systems, sometimes around general ERP modules, without real references in the field

  20. Fritillaria Meleagroides in Romania

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    Oprea Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence in the spontaneous flora of Romania of the species Fritillaria meleagroides is reported in this paper. It was identified in the North of the village Cotu Morii (Popricani Commune, Iaşi County, on (meso- hygrophilous, slightly halophilous meadows, placed on the both sides of an old meander of the Jijia river. This place is at the western limit of natural area of F. meleagroides, which stretches from the Central Asia to the Eastern Europe (European Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Since F. meleagroides is an endangered species in large part of its natural range, we consider that urgent actions to protect its populations from Romania are necessary.

  1. Ecotourism Destinations in Romania

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    Iuliana Ioana Merce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania has about 800 protected areas, which now covers about 5% of the country. Most ecotourism destinations are located within or adjacent to these protected areas such as Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, northern communities National Park, Yosemite National Park, Apuseni Natural Park. In Romania there are still non-fragmented forest, and over a third of the population of bears, wolves and lynx in Europe, unique paradise of birds in the Danube Delta, more than 12 000 caves and, not least, full of authentic local traditions. Ecotourism allows recovery and conservation of the country's natural capital.

  2. The library system of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žužana Žoldoš

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and activity of libraries in Hungary. It presents the general characteristics of the Hungarian library system; with particular types of libraries, library legislation, the development of special libraries and their roles in social, cultural and economic areas of Hungary. The following organisations have an important role in the development of librarian activity: department for librarianship of the Ministry of Culture, Centre for Librarian Science and Work Methodology at the National Library Széchényi in Budapest. The Centre for Library Procuration, which has an important role in forming the library’s fund, is presented as a special point of interest in the Hungarian system.

  3. IMF Loans to Hungary, 1996–2008

    OpenAIRE

    György Csáki

    2013-01-01

    Hungary has been an IMF member since May 1982 and has since benefited from the IMF’s lending instruments on 11 occasions. The IMF loans supported economic transformation (in the period between 1988 and 1993), facilitated Hungary in overcoming the transformation recession (in 1996) and helped to tackle economic crisis (in 2008). This paper analyses the two latter IMF loans in order to provide background context to Hungary’s IMF negotiations, ongoing since November 2011.Ever since 1982, Hungary...

  4. Life-table representations of family dynamics in Sweden, Hungary, and 14 other FFS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a system of descriptions of family-demographic behavior in developed countries. We use life-table techniques in order to describe the experience of men, of women, and of children in processes related to family formation and family dissolution. We develop a large number of descriptive measures, and apply them to survey data from Sweden, Norway, Finland, France, the USA, Austria, Germany (East and West Germany separately, Flanders, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, in order to describe patterns in the family-demographic behavior during the late 1980s - early 1990s. We use Sweden and Hungary as examples when presenting the outline of our system of tabulations and provide results for the whole set of countries in an Appendix to the paper.

  5. FOOD SECURITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.

  6. The Gifted and Gifted Education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The article is an overview on the provision of gifted education in Hungary. It describes views and approaches that have been and are present, including beliefs and the official provisions for gifted students. A separate part of the study introduces new innovations in gifted education in Hungary, as well as the research results. A very detailed…

  7. Poland Hopeful for Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ BEIJING - Chinese companies can still win contracts in Poland and use the market as a springboard to Europe's construction sector despite the shadow cast by a failed highway project, according to Poland's ambassador to China. A Chinese business consortium including the China Overseas Engineering Group Co.,Ltd.(COVEC) and several other firms won China's first European highway contract two years ago.

  8. Consumption as a Factor of Polish Economic Growth During the Global Recession of 2008/2009: A Comparison with Spain and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jasiński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession of 2007-2009 proved to be a difficult period for most European economies. Poland was among the few countries that recorded positive gross domestic product (GDP growth during that period. The main reason for its performance was that private consumption stimulated the GDP. The goal of this study was to explore the reasons that private consumption in Poland did not collapse during the economic recession through the substantial economic literature on this topic. The study compared Spain, Hungary and Poland from 2007 to 2009 to find differences specific to the latter. The most important factors differentiating Poland identified in this study were the confidence of Polish consumers in the economy and a high propensity to spend resulting in lower savings. Additional factors were a relatively low unemployment rate and relatively easy access to credit.

  9. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  10. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to empirically study the concept of financial stability in Romania, from both a monetary policy perspective and a financial perspective. In this paper, I also compute an aggregate index of financial stability, for the period 2008-2013, explaining the correlations between several extremely important macroeconomic and sectorial variables and financial stability. The article also debates the aspect of policy instruments that aim to promote, highlighting the undertaken measures and also giving some measures recommendations, pointing out the main pillars: crises management; cross-sectoral challenges; banking sector; securities markets and capital markets; insurance sector; pensions sector; access to financial services.

  11. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  12. FDI in Hungary - the first mover's advantage and disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sass, Magdolna

    2004-01-01

    Presenting a case study of FDI in Hungary, this paper first reviews the characteristics of FDI in Hungary since the outset of transition. It then examines the determinants of FDI in Hungary, finding that early and comprehensive privatisation and the creation of a generally business-friendly policy environment played key roles in making Hungary an early leader in FDI flows to countries in Central and Eastern Europe. But the paper also observes that some of Hungary's first-mover advantage has b...

  13. A MODEL OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES BASED ON EVIDENCE FROM COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the managerial competencies of human resources in the companies from the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. A model of these competencies is provided also, according to the identified relationships between various managerial competencies. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007-2013 Programme. They were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft.

  14. On Chaotic Nature of the Emerging European Forex Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anoop S Kumar; B Kamaiah

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze the presence deterministic chaos in the forex markets of select European countries namely Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia...

  15. Efficient Market Hypothesis: Some Evidences from Emerging European Forex Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anoop S Kumar; Bandi Kamaiah

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze the presence of weak form efficiency in the forex markets of a set of select European emerging markets namely Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary Poland, Romania...

  16. Travelers' Health: Tickborne Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Asian countries with reported TBE ... available in the United States. Two inactivated cell culture-derived TBE vaccines are available in Europe, in ...

  17. The Use of State and Local Law Enforcement for Immigration Enforcement under Federal Authority 287(G): A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 147 APPENDIX L. Countries of Origen Albania Costa Rica Iran Russia Argentina Cuba Israel Scotland Australia Czech... Chile Honduras Philippines Uruguay China Hungary Poland Venezuela Colombia India Romania Vietnam 148 THIS

  18. The Tax Reform of Romania Since the Transition to Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is trying to analyze the financial and fiscal reforms in Romania since 1989. The study is based on the necessity to be built a new fiscal system that meets the market economy’s requirements. The main concentration is focused on the debate of choosing tax policy. There are presented the two models of variation of income tax policy followed by Eastern European countries: flat income tax – a simple, efficient, but inequitable system (Estonia, Russia, Romania, etc. and progressive income tax – a complex, inefficient, but equitable system (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, etc. At the end of this article are presented, also the main advantages and disadvantages of this these tax policies based on national statistics and other countries experiences.

  19. Instrumentalizing Szeklerland Autonomy Through Szekler Memory Sites and Rites in post-1989 Romania

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    Petru Szedlacsek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In post-communist Romania, Szekler political and intellectual elites have taken advantage of a long discursive tradition on Szekler autonomy, which developed throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries within the nationalizing states (Brubaker 1996 of Hungary and Romania. As part of the interwar ideology of Transylvanianism, a particular Szekler identity-construction mechanism was developed, buttressed by a rhetoric on geographical remoteness in relation to the centers of power of Budapest and Bucharest. More precisely, the Szekler-ization of geography was enabled by imagining and cultivating sites and rites of memory in the Szeklerland – from pilgrimages to the funerary monuments of Szekler cultural elites and the sanctifying of Hungarian and Szekler flags in public squares. Drawing on this context, my paper explores the post-1989 revival of Szekler commemoration narratives that have attempted to construct a Szekler life-world within Romania by linking memory to territory. Since minority rituals of memory, parallel to the official state ones, are no longer silenced in Szekler public spaces after the fall of communism, interwar realms of memory have been reframed and popularized. On the line suggested by Katherine Verdery in The Political Lives of Dead Bodies (1999, this analysis also looks at how funeral ceremonies shape the relationship between the Szekler community and “its” territory with the Romanian Other. In this respect, this study focuses on the attempt to rebury the Szekler pro-Nazi writer József Nyirő on Szekler (yet Romanian soil. Apart from triggering a huge diplomatic incident between Hungary and Romania in the summer of 2012, it also pinpoints the reformulation of Szekler identity discourse within the Romanian post-communist context. In short, I will address questions regarding the practices of memory production permitted in present, the aims of Szekler elites in popularizing such practices and the way  these aims

  20. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  1. Romania: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Cristian; Scintee, Silvia Gabriela; Olsavszky, Victor; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina; Sagan, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This analysis of the Romanian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Romanian health care system is a social health insurance system that has remained highly centralized despite recent efforts to decentralize some regulatory functions. It provides a comprehensive benefits package to the 85% of the population that is covered, with the remaining population having access to a minimum package of benefits. While every insured person has access to the same health care benefits regardless of their socioeconomic situation, there are inequities in access to health care across many dimensions, such as rural versus urban, and health outcomes also differ across these dimensions. The Romanian population has seen increasing life expectancy and declining mortality rates but both remain among the worst in the European Union. Some unfavourable trends have been observed, including increasing numbers of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses and falling immunization rates. Public sources account for over 80% of total health financing. However, that leaves considerable out-of-pocket payments covering almost a fifth of total expenditure. The share of informal payments also seems to be substantial, but precise figures are unknown. In 2014, Romania had the lowest health expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) among the EU Member States. In line with the government's objective of strengthening the role of primary care, the total number of hospital beds has been decreasing. However, health care provision remains characterized by underprovision of primary and community care and inappropriate use of inpatient and specialized outpatient care, including care in hospital emergency departments. The numbers of physicians and nurses are relatively low in Romania compared to EU averages. This has mainly been attributed to the high rates of workers emigrating abroad over the

  2. Rare Mycetes of Romania III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes PAZMANY

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available New contributions to the knowledges concerning Romania's macromycetes are presented. The 208 species enlisted in the paper are grouped in classes and orders and within these groups the species are enlisted alphabetically. The data refers to species less known to Romania, collected in Transylvania, mostly around Cluj-Napoca. From these Daldinia vernicosa, Pleurotus calyptratus, Agaricus pseudopratensis, Armillariella bulbosa, Clitocybe harmajae and Tubaria hiemalis are rare in all Europe.

  3. ECONOMIST VERSUS ACCOUNTANT IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents how it is perceived the accountant profession and the economist profession, by the companies who provide jobs for these two professions, using the most important jobs sites from Romania. The study was made in November 2015, on a total of 86 companies who offered jobs for accountant and economist, using ejos.ro job site and 61 companies who offered jobs for accountant and economist, using bestjobs.ro job site. Analyzing this practice met in Romania, through th...

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DĂNĂCICĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the patterns of migration in Romania. Labor migration in Romania has seen major growth after 1989. Permanent migration rapidly increased in the early years after the revolution, decreasing rapidly thereafter, due to difficulties of obtaining long term residence and work permit in the host countries. However, temporary migration has been found to evolve very dynamically, requiring economic analysis of potential externalities, whether positive or the negative of this phenomenon.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela DĂNĂCICĂ

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the patterns of migration in Romania. Labor migration in Romania has seen major growth after 1989. Permanent migration rapidly increased in the early years after the revolution, decreasing rapidly thereafter, due to difficulties of obtaining long term residence and work permit in the host countries. However, temporary migration has been found to evolve very dynamically, requiring economic analysis of potential externalities, whet...

  6. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (<10 μg/L) arsenic through residential drinking water consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S.; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10 μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aqui...

  7. Desecularisation in Postcommunist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS, Dénes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of the process as a result of which postcommunist Romania has moved from being an officially atheist country to being one of the most religious countries in Europe. Th e process of desecularisation is analysed in three dimensions. On the macro-level, I outline the religious headway in the most important institutions of the Romanian society, on the meso-level I analyse the changes in the organizational structure of churches and in the denominational structure of the country, while on the individual level the changes occurring in individual religiosity. In the fi nal part of the study I argue that within these dimensions desecularisation was realized to diff erent extents, while “desecularisation from above” is not likely to achieve its goals in the long run.

  8. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA

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    Ciprian Apostol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was focused on measuring the performance level of corporate governance in Romania. This is carried out by evaluating the importance level given to the principles of corporate governance in the Romanian economy, while the practices of transparency and dissemination of companies’ information in the selected sample were monitored. To achieve the objectives of the study, we need to examine the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Sample companies were selected and their information from the “Comply or Explain” Statements was analyzed.The research method is a non-participating observation—based on the information from the “Comply or Explain” Statement to determine whether companies are applying corporate governance and transparency elements. The research results highlight the progress of Romanian companies in the process of exercising to the principles of corporate governance, becoming internationally recognized, and integrating into the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  9. Corruption in Romania

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    Silviu DUȚULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide

  10. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

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    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  11. Social Contributions in Romania

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    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  12. The Zach family in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Magda

    The Zach Family moved to Hungary. In the first decades of the 18th century the population was so low in Hungary that thousands of people moved into an almost empty country. In 1740 the physician Joseph Zach (1714-1792) came from Moravia to Esztergom which at that time had only 10 000 inhabitants. Soon he became the city doctor. It is very probable, that this was the place where he met Klara Sonntag, who became his wife. In any case, Zach moved to Pest, where he became the city doctor in 1746. The Invalide-Hospital built by Martinelli in 1726 was the biggest and most elegant house in Pest at that time - and it was giving shelter to 4000 invalids, whilst the city itself had only 11 000 inhabitants. There Zach became the ``protomedicus''. In 1751 Austrian Empress Maria Theresia visited this military hospital. She was so impressed by Zach's work that she honoured him with Hungarian nobility in 1765. From the corresponding official paper we know that he had three sons and three daughters. In 1791 he received citizenship in Pest. The Hungarian Magnates favoured the talented physician. The Lord Chief Justice Count György Fekete was also among his patients. His thirteen year-old son Count János Fekete became the godfather of Zach's son Franz Xaver Zach in 1754. It is very likely that Voltairian Count János Fekete influenced the personality of Franz Xaver von Zach. Galicia became Austrian Territory in 1772. Pater Liesganig was nominated to lead the Land-Survey Office of Galicia. Anton von Zach and Franz Xaver Zach were his co-workers in this very important task. At the same time Franz Zach became a professor of mechanics at Lemberg University and in its observatory he began his life-long astronomical observations. It is very probable that he joined the Freemasons here together with his godfather, now General, Jänos Fekete. Later they stayed in the same cities very often. The military and scientific works of the two Zach brothers Anton and Franz were so highly

  13. China-Poland Local Cooperation Forum Held in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Yanxia

    2013-01-01

    <正>As a positive result of Premier Wen Jiabao’s visit to Poland in 2012,the CPAFFC and the provinces of Pomerania,West Pomerania and Lesser Poland co-sponsored the China-Poland Local Cooperation Forum in Gdansk,

  14. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  15. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  16. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  17. The Impact of Country-of-Origin, Ethnocentrism and Animosity on Product Evaluation: Evidence from Romania

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    Tana Cristina LICSANDRU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to identify whether product country image influences consumption patterns and purchase decisions of Romanian consumers, as well as to identify stereotypes regarding foreign products. Furthermore, the study aims to provide clear evidence regarding Romanian consumers’ ethnocentric tendencies and the countries towards which they exhibit animosity feelings. Research Methodology/Approach: Quantitative data collection method applied on Romanian consumers, with a sample consisting of 150 respondents, living in Bucharest, answering a tested self-administered questionnaire based on the CETSCALE. Findings: The results of the research show that country of origin impacts product evaluation, with a significantly high difference between domestic products (Romania and those from three foreign countries (Russia, Hungary and South Korea. The results suggest that the level of consumer ethnocentrism is low among Romanians, but they do exhibit certain animosity tendencies towards Russia and Hungary with substantive demographic differences identified. Originality/value: The research is the first of its kind conducted among Romanians, adding knowledge to the country-of-origin topic, as well as regarding consumer ethnocentrism and animosity issues. Practical implications: This research is of interest to those looking to export to Romania. It provides clear insight regarding the Romanian consumers’ perceptions regarding foreign products, their ethnocentric tendencies and the potential animosity feelings that they are exhibiting. Furthermore, it offers an useful tool for market segmentation. Keywords: international business, consumer behaviour, country-of-origin, ethnocentrism, animosity.

  18. [Migration of dentists within Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  19. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

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    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  20. China-Hungary Friendship City Conference Held in Budapest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Hungary, the China-Hungary Friendship City Conference was held in Budapest from February 18 to 21.

  1. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN POLAND

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    J. Turłukowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the development of administrative justice in Poland over the last centuries. In particular, the author examines administrative jurisdiction before 1918, when Poland regained its independence, the period of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland, and the practice on Polish territory under Austrian and Prussian control. The author then moves to modern law by presenting the judicial system in Poland in general, especially the differences between the separate systems of general courts and administrative courts, and analyses the jurisdiction of voivodship (regional administrative courts, and the basic principles of judicial and administrative proceedings. The focus of study is mainly devoted to judicial and administrative procedure, rather than an administrative process of citizens before administrative authorities regulated in a separate Code of Administrative Procedure. The article describes the role of the judge (pointing out the differences between the active role of first instance judges and the limited capabilities of the judges of the appeal and the powers of the Supreme Court, in particular its power to adopt resolutions, which has agreat importance for the unification of the jurisprudence. A brief analysis is given to class actions, which in the Polish legal system are inadmissible in court and administrative proceedings. The articles provides a statistical cross-section illustrating the role of administrative jurisdiction. The author concludes with observations pointing up the progress of administrative jurisdiction in Poland, not only in the legal sense, but also in the cultural sense.

  2. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

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    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard in Poland

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    Hilszczańska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum Vittad., has become a new agricultural alternative in Poland. For rural economies, the concept of landscaping is often considerably more beneficial than conventional agriculture and promotes reforestation, as well as land-use stability. Considering examples from France, Italy, Hungary and Spain, truffle cultivation stimulates economic and social development of small, rural communities. Because there is no long tradition of truffle orchards in Poland, knowledge regarding the environmental factors regulating the formation of fruiting bodies of T. aestivum is limited. Thus, knowledge concerning ectomycorrhizal communities of T. aestivum host species is crucial to ensuring successful Burgundy truffle production. We investigated the persistence of T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae on roots of hazel (Corylus avellana L. and oak (Quercus robur L. and checked the host-species influence on community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The study was conducted in an experimental plantation located in eastern Poland and established in 2008. We demonstrated that the number of fungal taxa was not significantly different between oak and hazel. However, the species composition differed between these two host trees. During the three-year study, we observed that species richness did not increase with the age of the plantation.

  4. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  5. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  6. Water Management in Poland

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    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  7. Wetlands Environmental Management For Agriculture In Hungary

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    Katai Janos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is located at the central Basin of Danube River, which is surrounded by the Alps and the Carpathians mountain range. The 84% of the Hungary area lies below 200 mBm. The rate of the flooded area is significant in the country. The average runoff of surface water exceeds hundred billion cubic meters. Streams and rivers from the surrounding area flow together with the Danube River into the Black sea. The 96% of the mentioned water quantity come from abroad; three-quarters of this water quantity enter the country in the Danube’s, Tisza’s and Drava’s riverbed. In my presentation, I would like to give an account about the status of wetlands in Hungary, its roles of agriculture and social life, difficulties encountered and future possibilities referring to literary sources.

  8. Schools and communities in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyady, Susan

    1980-09-01

    The democratic reform of public education in Hungary after the Second World War brought about a system which now includes Day-Care from the ages of 4-6 and compulsory Elementary School education up to the age of 16. A high proportion of students go on to Secondary education in vocational schools, special schools or grammar shools. The system is supplemented by career-counselling and provision for children with difficult home-backgrounds and for the mentally-retarded. District Councils are responsible for the schools in their areas and for the zoning that determines which schools children should attend. The environment of a school has a strong influence not only upon the standard of its facilities and the quality of its staff but also upon the function it is expected to fulfil in the community. Achievement is directly related to the degree of urbanization, but the increasing participation of farming-co-operatives in education in rural areas promises well for the development of better facilities and mutual understanding there. Housing estates in high-density residential areas make special demands which are being met in different ways. The role of the school in general is being expanded to include children's leisure time activities; at the same time factories are making a significant contribution locally through vocational guidance, financial help, and training-for-work programmes. Councils are implementing the requirements of public education resolutions to integrate school education into the whole scheme of public education, co-ordinating the activities of all social and cultural institutions, and developing new multi-functional complexes, to give a more effective and efficient service to the whole community.

  9. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible.

  10. How Crowdfunding Works in Romania?

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    Mădălina Bălău

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crowdfunding is increasingly becoming a good solution for entrepreneurial ventures to obtain funds, being facilitated by internet and social networks, and it is also spreading in Romania as well. The current paper aims to explore this alternative for financing in Romania in order to understand better its evolution until now, whether if it is viewed as suitable for business as well, and to compare the advices offered for entrepreneurs in Romania versus those on famous crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo. In order to achieve this we explored websites offering crowdfunding in Romania and the information they offer entrepreneurs, we identified the types of most successful campaigns and we compared advices offered to those existing on international websites, renowned for their success. The marketing strategy and the planning of the campaign seem to be essential for its success and this paper highlights in its conclusion some lessons Romanian entrepreneurs could learn from international crowdfunding campaigns and the growing scientific literature available on this subject.

  11. Population information activities in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csahok, I

    1984-12-01

    The focal point for all population information activities in Hungary is the Central Statistical Office which is responsible for the organization and implementation of the decennial population censuses and of the intercensal population surveys and other data collection activities. The Central Statistical Office publishes a large volume of population information. The results of the censuses are presented partly in special census volumes and partly in statistical yearbooks. The Demographic Yearbook and other publications present results of population studies and Hungarian statistics. The Demographic Research Institute, which is part of the Central Statistical Office, is primarily responsible for research activity. The main task of the Institute is to study and analyze population processes and phenomena, as well as explore main demographic trends, carried out by using Hungarian and international demographic data. Demografia and serial publications present results of research activities of the Institute. The Library and Documentation Service, also part of the Central Statistical Office, provides conventional library services. Its main activity is the collection of both Hungarian and foreign and international official statistical publications, as well as theoretical and methodological works. Of a stock of 650,000 volumes covering a wide range of social and economic sciences, in addition to data material, the library has nearly 120,000 official statistical publications consisting mainly of population statistics and demographic data. Another activity of the Library is the processing and dissemination of documentation and it acts as a 2dary source of both Hungarian and foreign publications, especially on demography. The documentation consists of translating articles, book chapters or documents of international organizations, editing annotated bibliographies and disseminating custom-made, user-oriented profiles. This computerized information retrieval system uses Text

  12. ENERGY CRISIS IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA

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    Pãrean Mihai - Olimpiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If during the interwar period Romania has managed to move from an agrarian economy to an industrial-agrarian one, after the 2nd world war in Romania, as in other communist countries, has monitored the further development of the industry. It wanted to be a true industrial revolution.Over time one can identify several types of industrial revolutions, each giving impetus to a given development cycle, which had its beneficiaries and the losers. At first it was steam power, and then use the internal combustion engine, which used oil instead of steam. While other countries developed would increase of production capacity of nuclear power, a higher stage of economic development, in Romania continued the industrial development on the same grounds as in the inter-war period. This has had very serious tracks for the Romanian economy and society, since before and during World War II, the German war machine operated within the national resources of energy. The time and manner in which each country is part of this race are defining the social welfare. Unfortunately, Romania has failed to take advantage, each time losing the start. Creation of some production capacity and the development of industries (metallurgy, chemical industry, iron and steel industry, which consumed significant energy amounts was the wrong decision for the future well-being of the country. Oil impacts which have affected the world economy, hit also Romania. The first oil shock (impact was more easily broken because of the continued use of internal resources (oil, coal, natural gas, but the second shock was catastrophic. It was too much for Romania after being forced to use those resources in the last decades (including the interwar period. Romanian leaders probably had in mind that Western countries were developed by enhancing industry of this type, but they did it in a different historical period when also the prices of such resources were much smaller and the lack of them was not a

  13. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  14. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It…

  15. Education of Gifted Pupils in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Zoltan; Joo, Andras

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the debate surrounding the education of gifted students in Hungary, examining whether an elitist or a democratic solution should be adopted. Considers the educational past, current problems, and psychological and pedagogical issues. Concludes that the best solution would be a democratic system that minimized social inequalities. (GEA)

  16. Hungary: Political transformation and environmental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole Jr, Laurence J.; Hanf, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    Hungary is undergoing both radical economic transformation and political change. Presently a number of challenges converge and compete simultaneously for attention and resources. Hungarian environmental policy and administration are part and parcel of these changes and the competing demands they mak

  17. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  18. Education of Mathematically Talented Students in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Julianna Connelly

    2010-01-01

    Hungary is famous for its production of large numbers of highly talented mathematicians and physicists. This study explores the Hungarian system for educating mathematically talented secondary school students with the goal of identifying successful features that may be applicable to education in the United States. Highlights of the Hungarian…

  19. Atmospheric Deposition of Copper and Zinc in Maramures County (Romania

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    Buteana Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce pollution to levels that minimize adverse effects on human health involve the monitoring of air quality, including dry depositions and their metal content. The analysis of these parameters aims to investigate the air quality in Maramures County (with nonferrous mining activities and in the Romanian - Ukraine transboundary area. The paper presents the experimental results obtained for dry atmospheric deposition of copper and zinc using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The samples were collected from four location/cities of Maramures County (Baia Mare, Sighetu Marmatiei, Viseu de Sus and Borsa during May-October 2014. The highest average values of copper concentration in the dry depositions were found in Baia Mare (199.88 μg/g, that is the most important industrial centre in Maramures County, followed by Borsa (111.49 μg/g, that used to be a nonferrous mining centre. In Viseu de Sus and Sighetu Marmatiei the average concentrations of copper in the dry depositions were lower: 75.63 μg/g and 64.26 μg/g, respectively. Zn average concentrations in dry depositions were 6.4-12 times higher than Cu concentrations. In Viseu de Sus and Borsa relative high values of Pearson correlation coefficients between the logarithm of Cu and Zn content in the dry deposition were found (0.702 and 0.737, respectively estimating that both pollutants in the ambient air have the same sources, probably the re-suspension of the dust from the tailing ponds. This study is implemented within the frame of ENPI Cross-border Cooperation Programme Hungary-Slovakia-Romania-Ukraine 2007-2013, in the project Clean Air Management in the Romania-Ukraine Transboundary Area - (CLAMROUA, financed by the European Union

  20. Comparison the Psychological Wellbeing of University Students from Hungary and Romania

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    Barth Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in our research of mental distress indicators and results of conflict management strategies are consistent with the results of international studies. Students participating in the study (N=237 reached the highest average results in the field of personal growth, while we measured the lowest value in the fields of autonomy and the dominance of the enviroment. Among the mental distress indicators the students gave the highest scores for the stress. The frequency examination showed the results of the participants to fall to 40.9% of moderate-severe and severe extreme range. While among the genders, women indicate much higher stress levels. In addition, the students preferred the avoiding conflict management strategy in preference to the other four strategies. While we compared the students from the two countries we found a significant difference between the survey field of autonomy and purpose in life. We also found a notable difference among the mental distress indicators. While the students of the University of Debrecen were moderate, the students of the universities of Oradea fell in the “slight” area (in the range of stress. For the usage of conflict management strategies we found no significant differences between the two countries' students. The students from both countries preferred the avoiding strategy. This study similiar to many national and international studies indicates the high level of stress among the students. One of the most important task of a higher education institution should be the protection of the students’ mental health which would lead to an improvement on well-being and that would cause the lowering of the stress level.

  1. [Sleep duration among school-age children in Hungary and Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Réka; Lendvai, Zsófia; Pásti, Krisztina; Szeifert, Lilla; Szabó, J Attila

    2013-10-06

    Bevezetés: A gyermekek alvásideje az utóbbi száz évben csökkenést mutat. A csökkent alvásidő egészségre gyakorolt káros hatásai ismertek, magyarországi és romániai adatokkal azonban nem rendelkezünk a gyermekek alvásidejéről. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki az alvással töltött idő felmérését Magyarországon és Romániában élő iskoláskorú gyermekek körében. Módszer: Saját szerkesztésű kérdőívvel 2446 gyermeket mértek fel. A kérdőívet Magyarországon egy nagyváros alap- és középfokú oktatási intézményeiben, Romániában egy általános és középiskolát magába foglaló intézményben osztották ki. Eredmények: Az átlagos alvásidő hétköznap 8,3±1,2 óra volt, amely a két országban szignifikáns különbséget mutatott (Magyarország vs. Románia, 8,5±1,2 óra vs. 7,8±0,9 óra, p = 0,001). A hétköznapokon mért alvásidő az életkorral negatív korrelációt mutatott (r = –0,605, p = 0,001), a hétvégi alvásidő esetében ez az összefüggés nem állt fenn. Következtetések: A vizsgálat az első, iskoláskorú gyermekek alvásidejét felmérő vizsgálat Magyarországon és Romániában. A két ország között talált különbségek hátterében életkori különbség állhat, de szerepe lehet a kulturális és életmódbeli különbségeknek, földrajzi fekvésnek is. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1592–1596.

  2. VOLUNTEERING AMONG STUDENTS IN ROMANIA AND HUNGARY CROSS-BORDER AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Saveanu Sorana Mihaela; Saveanu Tomina Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Considering the multiple benefits of volunteering, this paper analyses both the forms and the sources of volunteering among students. Community participation in all its formal or informal types, by producing collective goods is proven to be beneficial for the society. Nevertheless it has positive outcomes for the individuals involved in such activities by strengthening their social capital, empowering them and providing social skills needed for a better social integration. These effects are e...

  3. Poland syndrome with absent ribs

    OpenAIRE

    Rupam Kumar Ta; Kaushik Saha; Arnab Saha; Santanu Ghosh; Mrinmoy Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness...

  4. Poland syndrome with absent ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Kumar Ta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness of right hand.

  5. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  6. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing) and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental) of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation ...

  7. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  8. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs.

  9. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs).

  10. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  11. Responsible tourism in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Debicka; Aneta Oniszczuk-Jastrzabek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to present the concept of responsible tourism in theory, and present the results of authors’ survey on the awareness of responsible tourism in Poland. Design – Development of the tourist industry often has negative effects on wildlife and local communities, and so for these values which are most valuable in attracting tourist to a particular place. Low tourist culture of travelling persons can result in a situation in which tourism may threaten the fou...

  12. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  13. ECONOMIST VERSUS ACCOUNTANT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents how it is perceived the accountant profession and the economist profession, by the companies who provide jobs for these two professions, using the most important jobs sites from Romania. The study was made in November 2015, on a total of 86 companies who offered jobs for accountant and economist, using ejos.ro job site and 61 companies who offered jobs for accountant and economist, using bestjobs.ro job site. Analyzing this practice met in Romania, through the company offer the “accountant” job although the position is in reality for the "economist" job, I tried to explain this wrong tendency using the term accountant in place of economist.

  14. NATO’s Future and Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    is telling the truth.20 These disagreements between the U.S. and Russia may precipitate in Russian withdrawal from the New Strategic Arms Reduction...as Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania. As 9 NATO has expanded into Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, and Malta , the alliance has looked

  15. Internal migration transition in Romania?

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, István

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the shifts in the internal migration patterns in Romania for the last six decades. In the first part a literature-based brief overview of the trends and patterns of internal migration during communism will be presented. In the second (more extensive) part, a statistical-data based analysis of the internal migration trends and patterns over the last 25 years will be provided.

  16. HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRIŢESCU DOREL DUMITRU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For each higher education institution an aggregate calculation is performed and it will lead to a position in the overall ranking of universities in Romania. This overall ranking will allow education consumer - pupil / student / parent, to create its own image of the potential and possibilities they can offer each of them. This classification is expected to be a fundamental element of acknowledgment in choosing a future institution where young people will study.

  17. Female entrepreneurial activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária DÉZSI-BENYOVSZKI; Tünde Petra SZABÓ; Ágnes NAGY

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the female entrepreneurial activity in Romania. We will compare the socio-demographic characteristics, the entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions of female early-stage entrepreneurs and the female employees in order to highlight the main differences. Using a logistic regression we will identify the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming a female early-stage entrepreneur.

  18. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  19. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  20. Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae (Bryophyta in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzberger Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Racomitrioideae of the Grimmiaceae is represented in Hungary by seven species belonging to four genera, including Bucklandiella affinis (F. Weber & D. Mohr Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, B. heterosticha (Hedw. Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, B. microcarpa (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, Codriophorus aciculare (Hedw. P. Beauv., C. aquaticus (Brid. Brid., Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw. Brid. and Niphotrichum canescens (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. All species are briefly described and illustrated and their distribution in Hungary is mapped. A key for determination of genera and species is provided. Some ecological, bryogeographical and conservation questions related to particular species are discussed. The following new statuses and combinations are proposed: Codriophorus P. Beauv. sect. Hydrophilus (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., Codriophorus sect. Depressi (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., and Codriophorus sect. Andicola (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov.

  1. Political Economy of Privatization in Hungary: A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the political economy of privatization in its second phase in Hungary, the country which, overall, has gone furthest in privatizing public utilities, introducing elements of competition and setting up regulatory mechanisms and institutions to monitor them. The background to Hungary's reform path, the antecedents to privatization, the debate on the issues, the institutional framework and the progress of privatization in Hungary up to late 1993/early 1994 are well-document...

  2. [Dental care for foreigners in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter; Oesterle, August

    2008-10-01

    High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has been conducted so far, however its professional and economic significance has been indicated by day-to-day experience. Additionally, the term "dental tourism" also used in international scientific papers became a commonplace in Hungary with unfavourable connotations. The present survey was the first to study this phenomenon by scientific standards in the most involved areas, namely in the capital city Budapest and in three counties in the Western Hungarian Region. Data collecting was performed by a self-reported questionnaire sent via conventional mail to all members of the Dental Section of the Hungarian Medical Chamber practicing in those indicated regions. Respond rates were 20.65% in Budapest and 25.34% in Western Hungary. The sample obtained this way, clearly indicated dimensions of cross-border patient migration and its economic significance as well. In Western Hungary 80.81% of foreign patients came from the neighbouring Austria and two out of ten practices realized 40 to 100% of their income out of this business. In Budapest foreign patients' nationality was more diversified. The largest group arrived from the United Kingdom (9.93%). Nevertheless the economic impact of dental tourism in Budapest is not relevant and outbalanced by a considerable domestic demand on the local private market.

  3. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  4. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  5. INTERVIEW WITH MR. TADEUSZ DURCZOK, REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Pascaru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview was conducted by with with Mr. Tadeusz Durczok (T.D.,representative of the Association for Regional Cooperation Poland, during the Social economy - innovative model to promote active inclusion of disadvantaged people conference, held between the 12th and 14th of October in Bucharest. The interview covers topics like support centres, the European Social Funding, forms of social economy and recommendations from Mr. Durczok’s regarding social economy in Romania. Mr. Durczok highlighted that it is important that people working in support centres have economics and management skills and training.

  6. Seismic basement in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  7. Bilateral Trade Steadily Development Between China and Romania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On November 27, 2006, Embassy of Romania held the news conference for celebrating its National Day. 2006 is a very important year for Romania and China. The president of Romania visited to China. This year marks 57th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between People's Republic of China and the Republic of Romania.Romania and China are traditional "close friends", have been enjoyed sound and progressive cooperation and communication in wild fields.

  8. Treasury Operations Mechanism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Laurentiu ANDREI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a payment system on paper support to an electronic one in Romania was determined, on the one hand, by the development of the financial markets and the significant increase of the activity performed by means of payment systems, and on the other hand, by the need to move to a predominantly cashless society and to streamline cashless payments, as well as by the requests of the final customers for payment services that are safe, effective and low cost.

  9. Research in Foreign Language Education in Hungary (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medgyes, Péter; Nikolov, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In the past quarter century, Hungary has offered fertile ground for innovative developments in foreign language (FL) education. The appropriate, albeit disparaging, label applied to Hungary in the mid-1970s--"a land of foreign language illiterates" (Köllo 1978: 6)--no longer applies. In the wake of the dramatic changes of 1989, the…

  10. Sign Language Culture as Part of Multiculturalism in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarolta, Simigne Fenyo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate sign language culture as part of multiculturalism in Hungary. The study consists of two parts. Referring to the 13 national and linguistic minorities living in the territory of Hungary, the first part gives a short account of the narrower interpretation of multiculturalism according to which it…

  11. [Psychological status of Croatian refugees in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, N; Bosnić, D

    1993-01-01

    This presentation addresses the capability of Croatian refugees from Baranja to acclimatize themselves in the Republic of Hungary. The authors assessed the mental health of 100 refugees through a psychiatric interview using a questionnaire, specifically designed for the purpose of this research. Their ages ranged from 10 to 82 years, average age 38 years. The assessment of mental health of the refugees was conducted 6 weeks following their placement in a camp (social institution) of a small town (Maria Jüd) in Hungary. The authors found that refugees fled their homes and homeland in front of barbarous combined forces of local Serbs whom they identified as terrorists and Yugoslav Federal Army. Leaving homes and country was sudden and unexpected, but by their own will. The departure was accompanied by fear, anxiety, disbelief, despair, anger and rarely by panic behaviour. Fear for children's safety was on the first place, than fear from exposure to violent injury--torture and crippling, while threat for ones own life and life of relatives as well as loss of property were of milder intensity. Among the most dominant feelings refugees manifested during an interview were: home--and homeland sickness and uncertainty about the future. In 61% of the examinees, these feelings prevailed. Forty-two per cent of the subjects experienced emotional and psychosomatic disorders, primarily Beard's "neurasthenic syndrome". Only 5% of the refugees needed psychiatric help, mainly those who had psychic problems before they fled their homes. The authors conclude that Croats from Baranja who took refuge in Hungary had acclimatizational problems even 6 weeks after displacement, which were manifested as emotional and psychosomatic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Real-Time Systems: Reflections on higher education in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jon; Goedegebuure, Leo

    2003-01-01

    Real-time systems (An ICT definition) In real-time multiprocessing there is the extra requirement that the system complete its response to any input within a certain critical time. This poses additional problems, particularly in situations where the system is heavily loaded and is subject to many si

  14. ICT INDUSTRY R&D IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIENN FEKO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Hungarian ICT Industry related research and development is analysed. The developments and characteristics of the sector are described on one hand on the available statistics and on the other hand on interviews taken with the representatives of leading ICT companies in Hungary. In this short paper in order to have a larger database, we use a more aggregated definition of ICT sector according to European Commission DG JRC, IPTS (NACE rev.1.1. The main objectives of the paper are: to present the main characteristics of the sector and to explore the main causes of relatively low R&D activity of the ICT sector.

  15. Exploring Educational Inequalities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent period, social inequalities have become a research topic of great interest for many scientists in the world. The participation of individuals to education is an important determinant for their access to subsequent opportunities, especially labor market opportunities. Moreover, an important number of studies show that education is one of the most influential factors that explain the amount of resources available to individuals in all their life cycles. In this context, reducing school dropout and increasing the share of individuals graduating from higher education represent national objectives for Romania. This article aims to analyze factors that explain differences in participation to education. A special attention will be given to urban-rural gaps in educational attainment. While taking into account main theoretical developments in the field of educational inequalities, empirical data are analyzed in order to provide a clearer picture on the factors that influence the access of individuals to higher education in Romania. Results are useful for policy makers and managers in the education field for better designing policies and study programs that are inclusive and provide better life chances to all individuals.

  16. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  17. On Politics Personalization and Presidentialization in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tănăsescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the measure in which the process of politics personalization impacted the presidentialization of power in Romania after 1989. The general assumed thesis is that the personalization of politics, along with the style of political leadership, is the basic characteristic of intra-executive presidentialization in Romania. As such, the analysis of the main aspects of the politics personalization in post-communist Romania is preceded by some remarks on the categories of politics personalization and presidentialization.

  18. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  19. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  20. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  1. Cruiser Navy of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Yurin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the description of the history of appearance in the Navy of Poland the ships of class cruiser. The brief characteristic of the Polish fleet before World War II is given. There is given the history of the acquisition in Belgium of the former French cruiser «D’Entrecasteaux», converted into the training ship «Baltyk». Is told about the appearance in the composition of Polish Navy of the former British cruisers HMS «Dragon» and HMS «Danaya», renamed in «Conrad», their technical characteristics are given, is described the history of their building and service in the British fleet, target run in the composition of Polish Navy is outlined. There is described the sinking cruiser «Conrad» by the German guided torpedo «Neger».

  2. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal.

  3. Russian/CIS Space Capabilities: Issues and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Mapping Sensor TsAGI Central Aerodynamics Institute TsSKB Central Specialized Design Bureau TT&C Telemetry, Tracking, and Control VAB Vertical...Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Mongolia, Poland, Romania , and Vietnam, is the only ES-3 UNCLASSIFIED ;n " "" • •" "S UNCLASSIFIED operational...system to compensate for atmospheric drag. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania , and Germany were slated as additional contributors; however, as with most of these

  4. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  5. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  6. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  7. Taming the Economic Crisis - a Stringent Necessity for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru SALCEANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of this century, the financial globalisation, reflected by the integration of capital markets, gained a positive effect by leading the resources to their most productive place, contributing at the same time to the development of poorer areas. However, in time, due to a set of disturbing factors that operated upon the financial and monetary market, there appeared fallouts, present since 2006-2008, that generated the global economic crisis which was reported by some more rational experts, but ignored by banks, businessmen, governments, etc. Today, this crisis acts powerfully, without any concrete signs of improvement and the actions that were taken have failed to mitigate its negative consequences. In this case Romania, respecting the European and global context, must act through the determined effort of all actors of the economic environment in order to overcome this situation, by the improvement of natural resources (particularly agricultural, the growth of absorption of the European funds, the increment of foreign direct investments, the increment of competitiveness, reducing unemployment, reforming the administrative system which is too expensive under current circumstances. This challenge can be done if we bear in mind that during these years of crisis Poland has succeeded in achieving economic growth using concrete measures and leaving aside group interests.

  8. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.

  9. Environmental Hazards and Mud Volcanoes in Romania

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Romania, an eastern European country, is severely affected by a variety of natural hazards. These include frequent earthquakes, floods, landslides, soil erosion, and...

  10. Perspectives for Romania on adopting agricultural innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlight the efforts Romania needs to do on the path of agricultural development through innovation. A smart, modern agriculture could contribute to a wide variety of economic, societal and environmental goals. Considering its potential in this sector, Romania should learn from the experience of other European countries how to manage its rich resources. Innovative technologies, products and practices can help make the most efficient and sustainable use of natural resources, and thereby improve farming process.

  11. Tourism in Romania, after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona ARSENE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With complex representative tourist areas, Romania has had a significant tourism potential (Fagaras Country, Barsa Country, Hateg Country, Dorna Country, Prahova Valley, Buzau Valley, Olt Valley, Teleajen, Valley, Jiu Valley ,Vrancea Country, boilers Danube, Transylvanian plateau, Mountains National Park, National Park Semenic National Park Retezat, Nera Gorge, Székely, edge Sibiu, Rucar Bran road, Danube Delta, Romanian Black Stone Land respectively which, in my view, was not sufficient value.Highlighting the tourism potential of our country, creating, in fact, tourist attractiveness depends directly by basic technical and service quality without which no tourist assets, however valuable, can not be realized.Romanian tourism offer was and is, in this view, faced with numerous problems that we believe should be considered in greater development programs, developed throughout the country and regional level.Keywords: tourism potential, tourist offer, types of tourism, service quality, specific statistical indicators, value for money.

  12. Religiosity and Values in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the state supports religion. The main reason is claimed to be the fact that religion will improve the shared values (moral, social, economic or political of our society. Based on the data from the Public Opinion Barometer November 2005 (which included the questions from The World Values Survey 2005 this study explores the relationship between religiosity and work ethic, moral values and tolerance; as well as the ways in which religiosity affects political and gender-based attitudes. Regarding most of the values included a weak but significant relationship was found. A poorer work and general ethic, attitudes towards women and homosexuals or the preference for a more authoritarian regime are the most disquieting findings.

  13. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

  14. The Legal Framework for Regionalization of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Popescu-Slăniceanu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deepening relationships and interdependencies today between states and other participants in international relations, globalization issues and solutions, acceleration of socio-political phenomena bring new problems to the people.Among the issues at the heart of contemporary research interest is public law and relative to new forms of international cooperation, development cooperation and regional integration at the state and sovereignty, the need for democratic values, the development of local autonomy, the rights human. In Romania, regional experiences, in different forms, dating back to the interwar period. Currently, the institutional framework, objectives, powers and instruments of regional development policy in Romania was established by Law no. 315/2004 on regional development in Romania, but not developing regions and municipalities have no legal personality and therefore be a reform aimed at regionalization of Romania. Under the provisions of article 3, 1 of the Constitution, republished, Romanian territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. It is therefore necessary to amend the Constitution in order to create the legal framework for regionalization constitutional Romania and then passing bills related to regionalization and administrative decentralization to properly delineate the respective responsibilities of administrative units in Romania.

  15. VULNERABILITIES IN ACHIEVING AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TEODOR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fund of Romania represents a huge potential for agriculture. The potential has proved difficult to achieve, and among the main vulnerabilities researched lately, we have identified the decline in consumption of vegetable crops, fruit and meat, determined by the declining purchasing power in Romania and the European Union's common market. Therefore the degree of achievement of the agricultural potential is directly influenced by economic developments in Romania and EU Member States. The technical endowment of Romanian farmers is an old and still unresolved problem. Even though Romania has benefited from EU pre-accession funds and still benefits from it, they proved to be a poor solution for Romanian farmers with farm machinery equipment. Indicator analysis of the evolution of the number of tractors in Romania in the post-accession period, reveals that the actual number of tractors in the period under review increased overall, but even if the total number of tractors in Romania increased from 2007 until 2012, UAA (ha per a tractor is almost constant.

  16. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  17. FACTORING- CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Capital is the main factor of production, business development becomes virtually impossible without taking into account the financial market and the resources it provides to businesses. Any business, regardless of its degree of development, is involving direct contact with financial markets, namely the institutions that mediate mobilization of capital and the services they provide. Understanding the functioning of the financial system, the specific financial mechanisms through which savings are allocated to support capital investments and the costs and risks involved is essential for the development of a solid base for business. In this context, factoring operations can support economic agents, allowing a transfer of commercial receivables from their holder to a factor who commits to their recovery and guarantee such operations even if temporary or permanent insolvency of the debtor . Thus, factoring is a complex technique in at least two aspects, of the debt and the transfer of credit. . Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romania. Maybe because of poor business environment popularize the term is as little known as it was a few years ago the leasing. Present in Romanian legislation since 2002, factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent, providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor, which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part we defined the concept of factoring and international factoring, then I presented the advantages and development of factoring in Romania, and the last part conclusions.

  18. The first lowland species of the Holarctic alpine ground spider genus Parasyrisca (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Szinetár

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first lowland species of the alpine genus Parasyrisca, Parasyrisca arrabonica Szinetár & Eichardt, sp. n., is described from the sandy grasslands of Hungary. The genus was hitherto known only from Western Europe (Pyrenees and Western Alps and Eastern Europe (Crimea, and although records from Slovenia and Romania were known, these are listed in check-lists in both cases as doubtful since no voucher specimens are available. Thus this species is not only the first representative of Parasyrisca in the Hungarian fauna and in the Pannonian region, but is the first verified record of the genus in Central Europe too. Parasyrisca arrabonica seems to belong to the speciose potanini group (of which this is the first European record and the westernmost occurrence to date, and is especially similar to P. turkenica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Marusik, 1995 and P. songi Marusik & Fritzén, 2009. Detailed descriptions of the species’ ecological characteristics (habitat, co-occurring species are provided, as its habitat preference is unusual and unique within the genus. This species is quite rare: only eight specimens have been found among 20700 captured spiders. Adult specimens have been collected exclusively in late autumn and early spring (so practically outside the major collecting period, which might explain why this species was not discovered earlier.

  19. Romania en bankgarantie: een herlezing van de arresten Romania, Aukema en TEP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    In het Romania-arrest geeft de Hoge Raad in een obiter dictum aan dat in het daar voorliggende geval de garant geen regresvordering jegens de boedel geldend kan maken. Die garant was in Romania de aandeelhouder van de failliet. In deze bijdrage wordt betoogd dat de garantie van een bank - met bijbeh

  20. ANATOMIC INVESTIGATION OF HUNGARY'S COMMON SHRUB SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter ANTALFI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary a huge part of wooden plants are shrubs. Flora of hungarian forests is among the richest in Europe. Many plants can be classified as shrubs or trees as well, circumstances during their development define what they will become. The diverse world of shrubs and weeds delights the eye under 20-30 meter high trees. From these there are some well known which basically everybody recognises is lilac (Syringa vulgaris, elderberry (Sambucus nigra, dog-rose (Rosa canina, single-seeded hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica. To get these species better known – and occasionally foreshadowing their wood industry usage in some way – it is expendient to familiarize ourselves with their microscopic structure and characteristics. Nowadays there are several imaging methods known, however for examining floral tissue the optical microscope is still the most common one to be used.

  1. Seasonal Variability of Wind Climate in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉLINÉ NÉMETH, Csilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important effects of climate variability and climate change may comefrom changes in the intensity and frequency of climatic extremes. Responding to the need of newclimatologic analyses, complex wind field research was carried out to study and provide reliableinformation about the state and variability of wind climate in Hungary. First of all, special attentionwas paid on creation of a high quality, homogeneous data series. The research is based on 36-yearlong(1975–2010 wind data series of 36 Hungarian synoptic meteorological stations. The means andextremes of near-surface wind conditions assist in estimating the regional effects of climate change,therefore a complex wind climate analysis was carried out. Spatial and temporal distribution of meanand extreme wind characteristics were estimated; wind extremes and trends were interpolated andmapped over the country. Furthermore, measured and ERA Interim reanalysis data were compared inorder to estimate the effects of regional climate change.

  2. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  3. Diversity in Elementary Schools in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Szécsi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on views among Hungarian administrators, teacher educators, mentor teachers and teacher candidates concerning diversity, and explores their related life experiences. The views of 28 participants were examined with Q methodology and follow-up interviews. Results of the Q methodology suggest there were three distinguishing viewpoints. Viewpoint 1 tended to be supportive of diversity issues, Viewpoint 2 appeared to have ethnocentric attitudes, and Viewpoint 3 tended to be culturally sensitive, yet, focused on family responsibilities. Follow-up interviews indicated that the life-experiences of participants associated with the three viewpoints were significantly dissimilar. This investigation provides directions in developing more effective teacher preparation to better address the challenges of increasingly diverse students in Hungary.

  4. Are There Cultural Regions in Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER BENKŐ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing up cultural macro-regions in Hungary is hardly possible as not even two of the highly developed mezo-regions are contacting, not speaking about forming a bloc; they rather constitute a mosaic on the country map. Those on medium cultural level make up two groups, while, though the ones with a low standard are mostly found along the Danube as a single bloc, they are isolated by Pest county, statistically grouped in one region with them, with a genuine cultural level far exceeding the low cluster. Consequently, it is only justified to speak about cultural regions in the sense that, on the whole, Dunántúl is on a higher standard than the eastern half of the country.

  5. Organic food purchase habits in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary organic food market has both demand and supply oriented aspect: several times not necessary products are distributed while the selection and volume of certain products are not satisfactory. Thus our aim was to develop a coordinated benchmark strategy to increase the trade of organic products. To get more details about the Hungarian organic food market we applied the “mystery shopping” method to observe changes in organic food supply and carried out a quantitative survey using a 1,000 member countrywide panel. Our results indicate that organic origin is considered somewhat important for every 4th respondent, while only 3.7% of the interviewees paid attention to put organic food products into their cart. The most serious obstacle is the doubt of surveyed individuals about the authenticity and the alleged benefits of organic products, complete with a high perceived price. “Price” is the most influential factor on shopping decision, but the advantageous “constant quality” and “health benefit” factors are just following it. Most of the respondents stated that they buy organic products directly from the producer (27.4%, but small retail outlets are likewise popular (though to a somewhat lesser extent. In conclusion, there is potential demand for ecological food products in Hungary. Although the proportion of conscious consumers is small; it significantly exceeds the current market share of the products. Consumers should be approached with better prices, smart retailing solutions and through awareness raising.

  6. Rare and little known Collembola species from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler, D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Pseudosinella bohemica Rusek, 1979 and Folsomides marchicus (Frenzel, 1941 are recorded from Hungary, the latter species for the first time. An illustrated morphological description of the two species is presented.

  7. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  8. Higher Education in Hungary: Facing the Political Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas

    1990-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of the integration of Hungary's higher education system into Europe's, in a discussion which covers the Hungarian system's structure and functions; participation in higher education; organization and management; and finance. (DB)

  9. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  10. Fission products from the damaged Fukushima reactor observed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Árpád; Dezső, Zoltán; Bujtás, Tibor; Manga, László; Lencsés, András; Dombóvári, Péter; Csige, István; Ranga, Tibor; Mogyorósi, Magdolna; Veres, Mihály

    2014-01-01

    Fission products, especially (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) were detected in many places worldwide shortly after the accident caused by natural disaster. To observe the spatial and temporal variation of these isotopes in Hungary, aerosol samples were collected at five locations from late March to early May 2011: Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI, Debrecen, East Hungary), Paks NPP (Paks, South-Central Hungary) as well as at the vicinity of Aggtelek (Northeast Hungary), Tapolca (West Hungary) and Bátaapáti (Southwest Hungary) settlements. In addition to the aerosol samples, dry/wet fallout samples were collected at ATOMKI, and airborne elemental iodine and organic iodide samples were collected at Paks NPP. The peak in the activity concentration of airborne (131)I was observed around 30 March (1-3 mBq m(-3) both in aerosol samples and gaseous iodine traps) with a slow decline afterwards. Aerosol samples of several hundred cubic metres of air showed (134)Cs and (137)Cs in detectable amounts along with (131)I. The decay-corrected inventory of (131)I fallout at ATOMKI was 2.1±0.1 Bq m(-2) at maximum in the observation period. Dose-rate contribution calculations show that the radiological impact of this event at Hungarian locations was of no considerable concern.

  11. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

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    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  12. RISK AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA

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    Catalin Drob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the main categories (types of risks that affect the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI in Romania, such as: country risk, political risk, economic risks, sovereign risks and so on. FDI is an important factor contributing to the economic development and to the economic growth of a country. In order to recuperate its economic handicap as compared to the other countries in the EU, Romania needs a massive inflow of foreign capital, especially in the form of direct investment. The paper also presents the evolution of FDI inflows in Romania and how they were influenced by the main factors affecting the FDI. In principle, between risk and the level of FDI inflows there is a direct dependency relationship: the higher the risk is in a country, the lower the level of FDI inflows is in that country. This is demonstrated by the empirical studies regarding FDI. These studies show that countries with high risk have major difficulties in attracting foreign investment. Therefore, it is important to identify very precisely the main risks that may affect the level of FDI inflows in Romania, in order to propose and implement strategies to mitigate these risks and to attract more foreign direct investment in Romania.

  13. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

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    Elena SOARE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last years, especially concerning the sunflower crop. In 2013, Romania registered a record for sunflower, occupying the first position in the European Union for cultivated area and production. A negative aspect is represented by the fact that our country has the best conditions in Europe for soybean crop, but it is still dependent on import. Romania imports a huge quantity of soybean oilcakes for animal feeding. Nowadays, Romania is an important actor in the sunflower world market, covering almost 19% of the global demand. In perspective, one could expect significant oilseeds productions with a positive influence on the agro-food trade balance in our country.

  14. International enterprise in Poland - benefits and risks

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    Glinkowska Beata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents chosen issues of inflow of FDI to Poland. The essence and definition of international enterprise is explained as well as the FDI number in Poland in 2014. An increase trend of FDI in Poland is presented the basis of statistical data. An influence of FDI on Polish GDP in years 2000-2013 was analysed. The directions of FDI inflow in Poland in years 2008-2013 are compared. The focus was on benefits and risks related to the presence of foreign enterprises in Poland, allowing for achievement of the objective of this study.

  15. Contraception and abortion in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

    1993-04-03

    After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected.

  16. INVESTMENT FUNDS INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

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    Adela Ionescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Capital market offers those who study it and those who use it as traders or as investors, a feature similar to a paradox. Her specific routine operations are regulated to the level of detail bylaws, instructions, procedures or measures layouts while decisions on investments in securities and portfolio restructuring are taken under perpetual uncertainty. This has a twofold explanation, an objective one and a subjective one.Future prices, as well as successive conditions of stock exchange not necessarily flow from the past, thus one cannot predict their level and over them is hanging the conviction that any selected alternative action is probably the best without having any certainty that that is really correct and rational in an absolute mode.Even if the evaluation of factors influencing prices is a questionable one, there is the likelihood of good choices when doing a basic operation-selling or buying. Factors identified, evaluated and ranked may change in the next period their force of action or even the market structure so that exchange activity is at least difficult to determine.In this category is included the mutual fund industry, whose evolution in Romania was not without risk and has had a tortuous circuit thanks to immature capital markets and market actors but especially due to the permissive legislation during the start phase. A certain progress was recorded in the last 10 years,although the financial crisis made its mark on the capital market and revealed the negative impact of systemic risks.

  17. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  18. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  19. EURO CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR ROMANIA

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    Sandu Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of preparation and adoption of the European single currency is one of the most important challenges that Romania has to face in the first decade as a full time member of the European Union. This process will test both the political and the administrative capacity, requiring very clear programs for the adaptation of European regulations and directives that will ensure real and nominal convergence. This process will surely prove to be a difficult one and it will bring a high degree of pressure upon the economic system in general. The worldwide financial crisis is making the process of single European currency adoption even more difficult for Romania. Although its effects are not directly felt in Romania, the disorder created within international markets can easily transform the management of economic and currency politics into an insecure and extremely difficult task.

  20. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (II

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    Caba Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (I" where we have been presented statistics on Romania's trade with major trading partners to whom, before, or after EU accession, the legal status has changed. In this paper we try to identify the benefits and costs of accession to the EU in terms of trade. In the first part we analyze the dynamics of trade with new partners, resulting from the accession. The last part is devoted to conclusions. The main idea that emerges from this work is that, unfortunately, Romania governors, did not know to take advantage of the opening to the biggest economic market although the financial and institutional support offered by the EU.

  1. SPELEOTHERAPY DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA ON THE WORLD CONTEXT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR USE OF SOME SALT MINES AND KARST CAVES FOR SPELEOTHERAPEUTIC AND BALNEOCLIMATIC TOURISM PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speleotherapy (ST is a relatively new method of complementary medicine, although, as is well known ancient tribes appreciated isolation in underwater caves, salt or karst caves, or possessing various ores and was officially recognized in the years 1950-1960 in Germany (K.Spannagel, 1961 and Poland (M. Skulimowski, 1965. Professor Mieczyslaw Skulimowski has granted of speleotherapy in "Wieliczka" Salt Mine, the name of subterraneotherapy, soon to be also called the Skulimowski method. Number of speleotherapeutic centers and speleotherapy symposiums has increased considerably (H.Trimmel, 1994. Speleotherapy in the underground now is an effective therapeutic method for the treatment of obstructive respiratory tract diseases, especially of patients with bronchial asthma (BA, the upward and effective practice in Central and Eastern Europe, but also in the West: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Hungary etc.

  2. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  3. Informal Environmental Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Anna Maria

    2004-01-01

    Non-formal environmental education involves all educational processes conducted outside of school. It is directed to all age groups, especially mature people who have finished their studies. This paper presents the goals and forms of non-formal education in Poland. Studies on the effects of non-formal education are also presented: this form of…

  4. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  5. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  6. Making Media Policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goban-Klas, Tomasz

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the creation of the new media policy in Poland formed at the 1989 "round table" negotiations between the Polish leadership and Solidarity, a Polish trade union. Discusses the issues of censorship, access to newsprint and to the airwaves (primarily to television), and the legalization of underground publications. (KEH)

  7. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  8. PUBLIC FINANCE SUSTAINABILITY IN ROMANIA. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura Petru-Ovidiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the sustainability of public finance in Romania and to explore the fiscal threats Romania might face in the future. A sound fiscal policy implies avoiding excessive liabilities of the government, but at the same time delivering the proper public goods and services, including the necessary safety net in times of crisis. An unsustainable fiscal position negatively impacts on macroeconomic stability; moreover, if public finances are perceived to be unsustainable in the long run, the reaction of the international financial markets could generate a fiscal crisis, which might surprise the fiscal planners. The main findings of the paper are the following: i according to the multidimensional approach of the European Commission, in the short run, it seems that Romania is free from fiscal stress, there is a low risk in the medium term, and in the long run the risk becomes medium; ii a potential medium-term fiscal sustainability risk derives from the accumulation of losses and arrears in the business and companies sectors in which the state is a majority shareholder; iii Romania records one of the lowest budget revenues to GDP ratios in EU, while the Romanian tax system is characterized by a poor tax collection, inefficient administration and excessive bureaucracy; iv the structure of public spending in Romania is characterized by the predominance of wage spending and social assistance, while the poor state of the public pension system is an important vulnerability of the public finance position; v overall, the degree of tax compliance in Romania was only 55.8% in 2013, and according to the calculations made by the Fiscal Council, tax evasion represented 16.2% of GDP in 2013. All these aspects make up a grim picture of sustainability of public finances, which has to be considered by the public decision makers regarding future fiscal policy actions.

  9. THE TRANSITION AND PRIVATIZATION PROCESSES IN ROMANIA

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    Razvan HAGIMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to an economy that operates on market principles represents a period of profound changes based on redefining the paradigms of development. After more than 20 years from the 1989 events, Romania has already completed some important steps towards an open market economy. The path to this main objective was sinuous, with frequent acceleration and stumbling. This paper offers a view of the complex process of privatization in Romania after the fall of the communist regime, with a detailed approach on the transition process as well. The accent falls on the economic development of the country during the mentioned period.

  10. Standard forms of construction contracts in Romania

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    Cristian Bănică

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Romania is under pressure to modernize in order to cope with the new demands of development and convergence with EU. Contractual procedures in construction have to become an integral part in this process of modernization. The article makes an introduction to the advantages of standard forms of contract and professional contract administration in construction and presents the current state-of-the art in the use of standard construction contracts in Romania. Some practical conclusions and recommendations are presented considering the need for further contract studies.

  11. Renewable Energy in Romania after 2007

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    Daniela Enachescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires obtaining energy from alternative sources which are clean and sustainable. In Romania, there are categories of renewable energy that basically were not used, such as solar PV and wind energy by 2007. Even today, their share is minor compared to energy from conventional sources, but they were made important steps, including in legislation domain. The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in Romania after 2007, as a result of EU integration. The analysis is done separately for installed capacity in the following chapters: Hydropower, Wind Onshore, Solid biomass, Solar Photovoltaic and Biogas.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF REGIONAL POLICIES IN ROMANIA

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    Oțil (Beţa Maria - Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available If we were to consider that Romania was formed by the unification of provinces that experienced a strong unity through culture, language, religion, as well as through the intense trade relations existing between them over time, we may say that our country has an important historical experience regarding regionalisation. After 1989, Romania underwent a radical change of economic and political organisation (from a centralised economy to a free, market economy and the approximation to the Western economic structures, the European Union (EU. Under these conditions the national authorities had to take into account the principles and the organisation and functioning of the European capitalist economies. During the communist period, Romania had an administrative-territorial and economic organisation that favoured centralised decision making. In the case of market economies, organisation allows and encourages the decentralisation of decision making. In the mid '90s, the economic and social realities of Romania lead to the achieving of the regionalisation of the national territory in accordance with the subsidiarity principle of the EU. Regionalisation sought to identify the most appropriate spatial and territorial framework for guiding the economic development processes, by facilitating the use of tools and resources provided by the European Union. The regional development policy is a continuation of the policies of national economic growth and development, both aiming at improving the economic and social life of the national communities. The final aim of this paper is to identify the economic and social situation of the development regions in Romania. The study provides insight into Romania's relations with the European Union, with regard to the access and use of the pre-accession European funds. Furthermore, the paper achieves a qualitative analysis, through a positive approach, but also a quantitative one of the economic and social situation of each

  13. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Erika; Farkas, Ágnes; Kucsera, István

    2016-09-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free-living amebae that can be found in almost every range of environments. Within this genus, numerous species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK is a corneal disease that is predominantly associated with contact lens use, the epidemiology of which is related to the specific genotype of Acanthamoeba. This study reports seven (7/16; 43.75%) positive cases. Detection of Acanthamoeba in corneal scrapings is based on cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with the molecular taxonomic identification method. By PCR, seven samples were positive; cultivation was successful for five samples, probably because of the low quantity of samples. Genotype identification was carried out with a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR assay based on sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, and sensitivity and specificity were evaluated in comparison with traditional parasitological techniques. All seven detected Acanthamoeba strains belonged to the T4 genotype, the main AK-related genotype worldwide. These results confirmed the importance of a complete diagnostic protocol, including a PCR assay, for the clinical diagnosis of AK from human samples. Genotyping allowed the identification of all isolates in the T4 group, thus demonstrating the prevalence of this genotype in Hungary.

  15. Chemical Fertilizers Management Change in Hungary

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    Péter Urfi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of chemical fertilization in Hungary over the last three decades, could be divided into three periods: an extremely fast increase of consumption from the middle 60's to the middle 70's; a period of constancy till the 90's; permanent decrease, the phase of new reckless exploitation up to the present. The Hungarian nutrient-management has had a strongly negative nutrient-balance for the last 8 years. This fact is quite a problem for our country in meeting the expectations of EU member-states. Due to accumulation and consumption of nutritive materials in the soil, the income redistribution took place between the 80's and the 90's. Behind extreme soil utilization in planting practice, lie new environmental risks and negative economic effects. Although special conditions call for specific measures, these facts don't seem to be important either to legal administration or to the media. Therefore, the environment policy of not decreasing the nutrient content of soils any longer, is urgent.

  16. DIFFICULTIES OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE TISZA (TISA) REGION, HUNGARY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MÁRIA VASVÁRI; KATALIN ERDŐS MARTONNÉ

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary. In this paper the water-based tourism characteristics of Eastern Hungary are studied, mainly concerning the tourism development problems...

  17. ASPECTS OF ECOFEMINISM IN ROMANIA

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    Perticas Diana Claudia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecofeminism can be understood as the relationship between the manner in which women are treated in society and on how the environment is treated and protected. Ecofeminism starts from the idea according to which "nature is a feminist issue". The explanation for this is based on the feminist philosophy according to which the connection between woman and nature is a strong one, due to the fact that she is the one who gives birth, thus helping nature to regenerate itself. Without women, female plants and animals, the planet could not develop, perpetuate and the end would be death. Furthermore, another explanation related to the first is that animals and people in their capacity as mothers are able to provide a greater amount of love, care, protection, both to their offspring and to nature. This paper aims to analyze the manner in which women are harmed by the environmental degradation in Romania and also the principles that have governed and still govern the current economy. Nowadays society is lead largely by male gender persons. The main accusations against current policies is that they seek concrete and immediate results, such as those related to economic growth, inflation rate etc. in terms of strictly economic indicators such as: gross domestic product, net national product, gross national product etc.. On the contrary, ecofeminist policies suggest that the emphasis should be placed on quality of life issues, which within itself analyzes both economic and also social and environmental aspects. Is not this the reproach for decades now that is brought to current economic policies? The fact that they do not take into account issues related to environmental degradation, in time led to negative consequences in the world whose costs are unimaginable.

  18. The Aromanians in Contemporary Romania

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    EMIL ŢÎRCOMNICU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanians are one of the native people from this part of Europe, the only heirs of the eastern Roman Empire. Romanians were born, as showed in historical and linguistic studies, on both sides of the Danube River, an ethnical continuity on both banks of the river, until the Slav people arrived in the 6th and 7th centuries AD. The political situation created after the First World War caused serious problems for the Aromanians in the newly created Balkan states. There were substantial population exchanges among the Balkanic countries (Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria. This situation led to the change of the ethnic composition in these countries There were three main emigration centers: Meglenia, Veria and Vodena. The idea of the Macedo-Romanians' migration to Cadrilater represents a consequence of the demographic pressure put on the Aromanian population living in Greece. The difficulties, which appeared, caused the migration to Cadrilater of an important Aromanian segment (more than 25 000, between 1925 and 1933. But these circumstances did not mean the end of their tragedy because they were displaced to Constanţa and Tulcea when territory in Cadrilater was ceded to Bulgaria (September 1940. In Dobrudja, the Macedo-Romanians are a linguistic and cultural community, but, at the same time, south-Danubian Romanians, due to hostile historical events, were forced to settle here. In their native lands, they were in contact with other Balkan people, being separated from the body of Carpathian and Danubian Romanianhood. Looking after sheep, carrying merchandise and trading were the main issues that shaped the common ethnic and linguistic aspects of survival on both sides of the Danube River. The paper is focused upon the situation and specific problems of the Aromanians living in contemporary Romania.

  19. The mediation procedure in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mediation activity as an alternative way of solving conflicts occupies an important place in modernsociety. Currently, the mediation reached its maturity worldwide being adopted without reservations.The future of solving conflicts is undoubtedly closely related to mediation. XXth century is the century of solvingconflicts amiably outside the court room. In Romania and the mediation profession were regulated by the Law no.192/2006, on the basis of the idea that mediation is one of the major themes of the reform strategy of the judicialsystem 2005-2007. By adopting the mentioned law it was followed the idea of reducing the volume of activitycourts, and therefore, relieve them of as many cases, with the direct effect on the quality of justice. Mediation is avoluntary process in which the parties with a neutral and impartial third party, without power of decision - themediator - who is qualified to assist the parties to negotiate, facilitating the communication between them andhelping them to reach a unanimous effective and sustainable agreement. The parties may resort to mediation beforeor after triggering a trial. Mediation can be applied, in principle, on any type of conflict. However, theRomanian legislator has established special stipulations on conflict mediation in criminal, civil and familylaw. Although not expressly provided, the stipulations regarding the civil conflicts and also apply to commercialconflicts. Therefore, the mediation is applicable to most types of lawsuits, except those relating to personalrights. As a "win- win" principle, the mediation does not convert any of the parties defeated or victorious; allthose involved have gained by applying this procedure.

  20. Current state, habitat and potential invasiveness of Montia linearis (Douglas ex Hook. Greene in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Dembicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Montia linearis is a vascular plant originating from western North America. The expansion of this species has been observed for several decades. For the first time M. linearis was found in Europe in 1989. Further six populations were documented by 2004 within the continent: three in Poland, two in Denmark and one in Hungary. Apart from discovering a new population of M. linearis, we confirmed two out of the three previously known localities of the species in Poland. All the currently known populations of M. linearis occupied predominantly meadow habitats, especially intensively managed sites. Some individuals were also found in disturbed sites with bare soil. The studied species inhabited soils of various types with broad range of fertility as well as humidity. Montia linearis populations reached densities up to 87 individuals per 0.04 m2. The number of seeds produced by an individual was between 10 and 55 in 90% of the studied specimens, however much more fertile specimens were also observed. As the previously presented hypothesis of M. linearis dispersal with rail transport seemed not to be well supported, the connection between the M. linearis presence and cattle husbandry is considered. It is possible that the species can be transferred with living animals or manure. The species was able to survive for at least 26 years within once inhabited site. Further spread of M. linearis within Europe is highly probable. The aim of the study is to: (i describe the current state of populations of M. linearis in Poland, (ii provide information on habitat preferences and biology of the species, (iii assess the invasiveness potential of M. linearis in Poland.

  1. Teaching and Learning Science in Hungary, 1867-1945: Schools, Personalities, Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of teaching science in Hungary during both the time of the dual monarchy and the newly established independent Hungary after 1920. The integration of Hungary into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918) strengthened the effect of German speaking European science, the results of which were…

  2. Reforms of health care system in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bara, AC; van den Heuvel, WJA; Maarse, JAM; Bara, Ana Claudia; Maarse, Johannes A.M.

    Aim. To describe health care reforms and analyze the transition of the health care system in Romania in the 1989-2001 period. Method. We analyzed policy documents, political intentions and objectives of health care reform, described new legislation, and presented changes in financial resources of

  3. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  4. Professional Counseling in Romania: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andreea; Paredes, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    The formalization and professionalization processes in Romania resemble the early history of counseling in the United States, where development initially took place in the educational and career/vocational sectors. Brief accounts of the relationship between select periods in Romanian history and access to education and career/vocational support…

  5. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…

  6. Parental Migration and Children's Outcomes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…

  7. Religion and political identification in Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Cristina IRIMIE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox Church has played, from the beginning of the twentieth century, a vital role in building the political architecture of the Romanian state. The establishment of a communist regime in Romania after World War I created a new modus vivendi between Church and State, and placed the Romanian Church’s activities under strict government supervision. This article will look at the role of the religion in the ethnic identity of Romanians, during the communist times. A historical outlook is necessary in understanding the foundation of religion in the Romanian state, thus the article provides a brief background on the role of the Church in the modern Romanian history. Then, the article will examine the unique norms of cooperation between religion and national communism built in Romania, during that period. Subsequently, this will help us observe the interplay between religion and ethnicity evidenced in communist Romania. The cases of the Serbian and the Lipovan Russian communities feature the complexity of this interaction. The goal of this paper is to offer an understanding of the relationship between religious and ethnic identities in Romania, during this particular period.

  8. Restless Youth: Emigration and Enterprise in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The political changes in Romania after 1989 were followed by structural changes that affected all areas of social, economic, political, and cultural life. The transition from a 'closed' to an 'open' society has been difficult for East European countries, as the creation of institutions oriented towards competition and diversity has not led to an…

  9. Parental Migration and Children's Outcomes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…

  10. SUSTAINABILITY OF TAX SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL IN ROMANIA

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    Sorin PRADA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The past years have brought important changes into the Romanian retailsector. The changes started to rush after the moment when Romania wasbecoming a member of the European Union, was a fact. The variousresearches which have been made in the retail domain reveal thedevelopment of the new ways of trading, leaving the traditional trading onestep behind. Through this debate I intend to bring out a picture concerningthe evolution of “retail“ in the last years in Romania, to outline the retail sectorat this moment and eventually to anticipate the tendencies which will bepresent in the Romanian retail sector in perspective. The last years havebrought especially important changes in the retail sector in Romania. Thechanges began to more obviously manifest after Romania’s adhesionbecame a certainty. The results from numerous researches in retail revealthe evolution of new types of commerce in the detriment of those representedby traditional commerce and implicitly the change in the structure of the localretail. Trough this paper I seek to portray an x-ray of the evolution of retail inRomania of the last years, to underline the retails’ sector actual state, also toanticipate the tendencies that will manifest in the Romanian retail sector inthe near future.

  12. Reforms of health care system in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bara, AC; van den Heuvel, WJA; Maarse, JAM; Bara, Ana Claudia; Maarse, Johannes A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. To describe health care reforms and analyze the transition of the health care system in Romania in the 1989-2001 period. Method. We analyzed policy documents, political intentions and objectives of health care reform, described new legislation, and presented changes in financial resources of th

  13. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  14. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  15. Displaying Diaspora: Chinese Christian Presence in Hungary after 1989

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    Dorottya Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article draws attention to the significance of the “Christian” component in researching Chinese migrants’ presence in post-1989 Hungary within the framework of Chinese globalization and the globalization of Chinese Christianity. After a brief review of the dynamics of Chinese migration to Hungary and special focus on the formation of Chinese Christian Communities, the article examines how the concept of diaspora and the rhetoric built around it is used by missionaries to create new ways of understanding the world from migrants’ perspective and interpreting migration experiences as empowering and liberating divine arrangements for the well-being of their current residence and beyond. The case of Chinese migration to Hungary shows that the concept of diaspora implies a diverse range of community formation practices and the complexity of negotiating Chineseness, which highlights the need of revisiting the very concept of diaspora as reduced to a homogeneous and ethnically essentialized community.

  16. Warsaw Pact: The Question of Cohesion. Phase II, Volume 2. Poland, German Democratic Republic and Romania,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    difficult for the Poles to bend to a foreign will and has generated a history of seemingly hopeless uprisings and a reputation for romanticism . There...involved was a separate, compact, well-defined "Polish Front" intended as an exclusive theatre of operations for the Polish troops, who would enjoy the...newly reorganized theatres of military operation or TVD -- teatr voennogo dvizheniia) is composed of three Polish military districts (OW): the Warsaw OW

  17. The Relations Between Romania and European Union (1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IVAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the communism regimes in central and eastern Europe, the states from this area, among which Romania, expressed their aspiration to integrate in the big European family represented by the European Union. In this respect the European Union proposed “association agreements” to these countries, agreements to which Romania adhered in February 1993 (in 1995 Romania presented its request for admission in the EU. Further on, in 1997 Romania launched “The national program for the adoption of the acquis comunautaire”. An important moment for Romania has arrived at Helsinki during the meeting of the European Council (10-11 December 1999, which decided to organize bilateral intergovernmental conferences for all the 13 candidate states in order to begin the accession negotiations, which were opened by Romania on the 16th of February 2000. The Helsinki decision regarding the beginning of the admission negotiations with Romania was a political one; Romania having acute economical, juridical and administrative problems. In the European Commission 2003 country report regarding Romania, there are positive appreciations with regard to the fulfillment of the political criteria and for the progress made in the adoption of the acquis comunautaire as well as for the economical progress but Romania still did not receive the statute of functional market economy. On the other hand the malfunctions still persist in the domains of public administration, agriculture, justice and the fight against corruption.

  18. Is Romania Heading Towards a Presidential Republic?

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    Claudia Gilia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the issue of semi-presidential regime in Romania. Political events in recent years have highlighted major deficiencies in the functioning of public authorities in Romania. The balance of powers provided expresis verbis in the Constitution proved to be rather a pronounced imbalance. The option of the Romanian Constituent Assembly in 1991 for a semi-presidential republic has been questioned lately. In our study, we show the characteristics of semi-presidential system in terms of Romanian constitutional provisions and political experiences. The semi-presidential system in Romania was and still is subject to continuous public debates, and it is also an electoral issue, as we speak, between the political parties involved in electoral campaign. For the present research, we have used both the analytical and comparative approach. The study is relevant for the public law experts, as well as for the political authorities because it displays an image of the current semi-presidential system. We believe that a possible option for a presidential regime in Romania is not viable, but rather a clarification of the duties of each public authority would be the best solution for the recovery of the Romanian constitutional system. The study is relevant for the public law experts, as well as for the political authorities because it displays an image of the current semi-presidential system. Our conclusions regarding the evolution of semi-presidential system in Romania can be considered an onset for those who will draft the new Romanian constitutional design.

  19. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  20. OECD environmental performance reviews: Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The review surveys the environmental conditions and environmental progress of Poland. It found that although most environmental targets were met Poland still faces challenges in complying with EU environmental laws. Topics covered are: environmental management; air, water and waste management; nature and biodiversity; economy and environment; sectoral integration: transport; and international co-operation. Top issues for conformity include pollution prevention, waste water treatment, waste management, biodiversity and landscape conservation, and climate protection. The review outlines 46 recommendations for the country to take in order to improve its environmental situation. Task areas include progressing toward meeting international environmental commitments and integrating environmental considerations in to economic policies through means such as improved rice signals, subsidy removal, and fiscal reforms.

  1. The Reorganization Law in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał ADAMUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present general remarks of the legal structure of the Polish reorganization law. This is a completely new institution in Poland. The Act of 28 February 2003 the Bankruptcy and Reorganization Law (J.L. No 60, item 535 as amended, the articles 492 - 521 b.r.l. is the main source of law in the commented matter. The idea of the Polish regulation derives from the Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code of the United States. The statistics of the usage of the reorganization proceedings in Poland are not very impressive. In this respect some critics maintain that the legislative experiment called “reorganization proceedings” is unsuccessful. Nevertheless the Reorganization Law is a very important figure in the Polish commercial law. Reorganization proceedings seriously differ from bankruptcy proceedings

  2. Poland: Lone Eagle over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    and their European neighbors. Specifically, works by Bohdan Budurowycz, Todd Fisher, Grace Humphrey, Lonnie Johnson, and Ferdynand Zweig gave a...and Friends (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 128; and, Ferdynand Zweig , Poland Between Two Wars (London: Secker and Warburg), 47. 5 David. G...Zamoyski, and Ferdynand Zweig offered a broad historical account of the events between 1764 and 1939 and these sources aided in understanding the role of

  3. Lung cancer drug therapy in Hungary – 3-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldvay J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Judit Moldvay,1 György Rokszin,2 Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth,2 Lajos Katona,3 Katalin Fábián,4 Gábor Kovács5 1Department of Tumor Biology, National Korányi Institute of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2RxTarget Company Ltd, Szolnok, Hungary; 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 4Department of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 5National Korányi Institute of Pulmonology and Tuberculosis, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Hungary is a world leader in lung cancer deaths, so it is of crucial importance that patients have access to modern treatments. The aim of our analysis was to explore how drug treatments are used in Hungary and how they are compatible with international practice. The inpatient and prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary was used to study the frequency of certain chemotherapy protocols and duration of therapies during a 3-year period (2008–2010. During the study period, 12,326 lung cancer patients received first-line chemotherapy, a third of those (n=3,791 received second-line treatment, and a third of the latter (n=1,174 received third-line treatment. The average treatment duration was between 3 and 4 months. The first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly consisted of platinum treatment in combination with third-generation cytotoxic agents. A downward trend of gemcitabine, still the most common combination compound, was observed, in parallel with a significantly increased use of paclitaxel, and as a consequence carboplatin replaced cisplatin. Among the new agents, the use of pemetrexed and bevacizumab increased. Pemetrexed appeared mainly in second-line treatment, while erlotinib appeared also in second-line but mostly in third-line treatments. The first-line treatment of small-cell lung carcinoma consisted of a platinum–etoposide combination, while in the second-line setting

  4. Poland syndrome with dextrocardia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiwango, G W; Swan, M C; Nyende, R; Hodges, A M

    2010-11-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital condition presentingwith typical features including an absent costosternal head of pectoralis major andipsilateral brachysyndactyly. There are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder girdle muscle and breast hypoplasia or agenesis. Dextrocardia is rarely associated with Poland Syndrome with only 22 cases being previously reported in the worldwide literature. Whereas 'classical' Poland syndrome is predominantly right sided, all cases associated with dextrocardia have been left sided. We report a further case of left sided Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of this unusual condition.

  5. Flood Risk Management in Hungary's Upper Tisza Basin: the Potential Use of a Flood Catastrophe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linerooth-Bayer, J.; Ermoliev, Y.; Ermolieva, T.; Galambos, I.

    2001-05-01

    This paper is based on the preliminary results of an IIASA-based study of flood-risk management for the Hungarian Upper Tisza River, where recent devastating floods have been exacerbated by cyanide and heavy metal pollution episodes originating in Romania. Hungary ranks only behind countries like Bangladesh and the Netherlands with regard to the extent of its territory exposed to flood risks, yet the government does not have a clear risk-management strategy in place. In the past, the national government has taken full responsibility for flood prevention, mainly through the construction of dikes, as well as for the post-disaster compensation of losses. This policy, however, is placing an increasing strain on the national budget. Like in many other countries, Hungarians recognize that a national flood program must be developed that effectively links private and public responsibility for the losses, private insurance and loss mitigation. The development of an insurance/mitigation program, however, faces distributive-value problems (the Hungarian public is skeptical of private insurance). Moreover, if private insurance is to be a policy option, it is necessary to devise improved tools and models for estimating spatially dependent risks in cases of little historical data. This is an area in which hydrologic models can be particularly useful. In this discussion, we describe a flood catastrophe model based on Monte Carlo simulation that can be of use in analyzing policy options for reducing the losses of floods in the Upper Tisza region, as well as for improving the insurability of the losses. The policy scenarios examined in the model, which are limited by data availability, have been developed by Hungarian policy makers. While the results are modest, the study demonstrates a methodology and process that may have considerable potential for aiding Hungarian policy makers in designing a national flood program.

  6. REAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA - A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO NON-ERM II COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA SOCOL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the issue of real convergence in Central and Eastern Europe, based our approach on the literature review in the field and intended to develop a comparative approach of the main criteria of real convergence. We comparatively study Romania’s situation face to European Union Member States that did not adhere until now to ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism II and that do not benefit of special opt-outs stipulations - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. The challenges of the paper consisted in identification and choose of the criteria which properly characterize the real convergence issue of the national economies. This approach is imposed by the widespread concept of real convergence and its different meanings or measurement manners.

  7. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  8. From the historian of organisation of tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa RADU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the conception (regarding the organisation and future of tourism in Romania of Valeriu Puscariu, one of the authors of the Encyclopedia of Romania (1938. Comparing the state of tourism in Romania, in the early 20th century, with the state of tourism in developed countries, V. Puscariu was sure that this field of activity would have a great role in economy and social life, during the following decades.

  9. From the historian of organization of tourism in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Raisa RADU,

    2009-01-01

    The article shows the conception (regarding the organisation and future of tourism in Romania) of Valeriu Puscariu, one of the authors of the Encyclopedia of Romania (1938). Comparing the state of tourism in Romania, in the early 20th century, with the state of tourism in developed countries, V. Puscariu was sure that this field of activity would have a great role in economy and social life, during the following decades.

  10. SOME PARTICULARITIES OF THE MONETARY TRANSMISSION CHANNELS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the monetary policy from Romania was deeply changed. The inflation decreased considerably in comparison with the 1990s. From a few years National Bank of Romania adopted the inflation targeting strategy that implied a careful use of the monetary instruments. The success of the Central Bank depends greatly on understanding the monetary transmission mechanism. Using the VAR methodology, we analyze in this article the particularities of the monetary transmission mechanism in Romania.

  11. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  12. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

  13. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  14. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mihaly; Durko, Matyas

    This document contains two case studies which provide an idea of the types of adult education programs available in Hungary. The first case study, prepared by Mihaly Sari, describes "The Month of Protecting Our Environment," a program developed in the small town of Puspokladany by a club of amateur anglers, a society for propagating…

  15. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, B.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise

  16. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  17. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  18. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  19. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  20. The Schools of Austria-Hungary. Bulletin, 1919, No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Peter H.

    1919-01-01

    The political changes now taking place in Austria-Hungary will be followed undoubtedly by far-reaching alterations in the school system, whereby old modes will be swept away and new ones inaugurated. In the present sketch the attempt is made to treat only such problems and movements as are likely to continue in some form and thereby maintain a…

  1. Politico-economical aspects of transition in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article the author portrays the past as the resource for the post-socialist transition in Hungary. He emphasizes that the market-based reforms in Hungary and exit for the Hungarian citizens into the small markets outside the state property system prove to be an asset for the transition. In the second part of the article the author delineates the specificities of Hungarian transition especially the externally-dependent form of emerging capitalism developed by the reforms in the 1990s. Besides he deals with the fragile relationships between the capitalism and democracy in Hungary concerning the role of trade-unions and measures concerning the work place. It is important to contextualize the Hungarian case within the frame of post-socialist transition and take into account its uniqueness. In the last part the author points to the problems Hungary confronts during the implementation of the so-called second-generation of transition reforms.

  2. Perspectives, Hopes and Disappointments: Higher Education Reform in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajos, Tamas

    1993-01-01

    Broad proposals for reform of higher education in Hungary are outlined. It is argued that the change needed is so great that neither higher education nor government can accomplish it independently; instead, limited and controlled conflicts between the interest of higher education and those of society must precipitate action. (MSE)

  3. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise meanin

  4. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  5. Otter Distribution, Status and Conservation Problems in Hungary

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    Kemenes I.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The river otter Lutra lutra has been protected in Hungary since 1974 and became strictly protected in 1978. However, the first and so far only survey of its distribution was carried out by me in 1987-88. I now report the results of this survey and discuss the present status and conservation problems of otter in Hungary. Otters are most plentiful in the south west. Because of contamination of many water courses, otters are dependent on fish farms of various sizes. Until now, these were subsidised, but now they are in private hands, but no compensation for otter-related losses are available, owners on low incomes cannot afford expensive mitigation measures. They would welcome the live-trapping and removal of problem otters, but the government would need to sponsor suitable areas for release of these animals. Conservationists in Hungary are seeking support for such a scheme. We think that it would be in the interest of the conservationists of Europe to help to maintain Hungary as one of the strongholds of otter and we are inviting suggestions and ideas on how to achieve this.

  6. Education of Roma Youth in Hungary: Schools, Identities and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajeva, Jekatyerina

    2017-01-01

    Historically, schools have been homogenizing institutions that often disadvantaged people of color and ethnic and religious minorities. In this article I examine Roma education in Hungary, focusing on (re)production of racial identities and the negotiation of ethnic labels. I distinguish two models of education as they relate to ideas of…

  7. Teaching the System of Social Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyigas, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Provides an inside perspective on the development of social work education in Hungary during the final years of communism and after the country regained its independence, when there was a strong focus on re-introducing social work and social sciences which had been repressed by the socialist regime in its denial of social problems and thus, its…

  8. Occurrence of Rare Tree and Shrub Species in Hungary

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    BARTHA, Dénes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Botany has been focusing on investigating rare taxa of theHungarian dendroflora since 1989. The research dealt with nearly 50 species regarding conditions of occurrence, habitat preference, reproduction and possible conservational management up to 2003. In the investigation of species, chorology was of primary importance. Since 1993 occurrence data have been systematically collected. As a first result, CEU grid-maps of 142 species, including all the rare dendrotaxa in Hungary, were published (Bartha – Mátyás 1995 using grid squares of 10' long. × 6' lat. equalling approx. 12 × 11 km. With organizational and methodological experience, focuses have moved to processing, correction and mapping of reference, herbaria and new field records. A detailed evaluation of the distribution of 34 rare species in Hungary was made and published (Bartha et al 1999. The Department of Botany at the University of West Hungary has been project coordinator of ‘Floristic Mapping of Hungary’ since 2001. The present study describes actual distribution maps of 20 rare tree- and shrub species with short analyses of their conditions in Hungary.

  9. BANKING ETHICS IN THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS FROM ROMANIA

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    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Capital account liberalization created premises and allow Romania for final exit from the financial crisis. Promoting direct investment in Romania can lead to sustainable economic growth, create new jobs and thus, by selling labor set up new forms of saving, which will support investments. Banking ethics elements behind the development of direct investments in Romania are legislation, regulation and behavior of participants. Amid an emerging economy rocked by the global financial crisis, capital account liberalization has allowed entry direct investment, but allowed and the capital flight. Respect for ethics in the business financial banking groups provide, at least, economic development and upgrading the infrastructure of Romania

  10. On the Verge of History : Rupture and Continuity in Women’s Life Narratives from Hungary, Romania and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agardi, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304842680

    2013-01-01

    After 1989, with the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, narratives about rupture and change during a turbulent twentieth century have been told in many different forms, genres, and media alongside narratives of basic social and political continuities. Rupture and continuity emerged

  11. On the Verge of History : Rupture and Continuity in Women’s Life Narratives from Hungary, Romania and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agardi, I.

    2013-01-01

    After 1989, with the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, narratives about rupture and change during a turbulent twentieth century have been told in many different forms, genres, and media alongside narratives of basic social and political continuities. Rupture and continuity emerged

  12. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  13. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  14. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  15. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  16. HAS ROMANIA BECOME A SECULAR SOCIETY?

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    IRINA STAHL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the question of secularization of Europe, and in particular of Romania, by using multiple international data sets. Secularization has been defined separation of the state government and religious authority resulting in a decrease in church attendance, a diminished trust in religious institutions, a lessening of religions’ importance in society, an increase in religious diversity with a concomitant decrease in group cohesiveness, and the rise of situational ethics and moral relativism. Several theories of secularization are explored in an effort to determine the presence of a secular continuum. Although there may be an increase of secular behaviours in member states of the European Union, a claim of growing secularism in Romania is not supported by an examination of the multiple data sets

  17. International financial crises - chance for Romania

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    Popescu, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The international financial crisis can be a real chance for Romania. The international financial crisis has served to reveal the true and deep domestic economic crisis. Face to face with the real situation, using the European funds at full, the alternative financial support such as PPP, the particular natural and human potential, Romania could became the best in its historically traditional successful fields (such as agriculture and position on innovative fields (such as high technologies of transport, new energy sources, research and development by burning steps of development. This paper presents the present economic situation, what the unused tools are, what is the opportunity and what monetary and fiscal policies can do.

  18. Place branding: a challenging process for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dumbraveanu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a world of globalization, the marketing of places has grown in importance as countries, regions and individual destinations such as cities compete with one another to attract investment and visitors. With Romania becoming a European Union country since 2007, marketing itself as a country with identity and personality is of crucial importance when considering competition. In order to compete effectively, it is essential to identify the critical success factors and ensure these are incorporated into one’s strategic planning. Place and destination marketing indicate that image and identity play an important role in differentiating between similar alternatives. This paper is focussing on action undertaken so far by both Romania and Bucharest, presenting experts opinion and comments on results, assessing the stage and situation as it is at present.

  19. Important bioindicators for health management in Romania

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    Barliba I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement is a coherent, robust, integrated, purposeful, comprehensive, efficient and transparent system. The evaluation of healthcare performance in Romania is based on four categories of bioindicators: human resources, use of services, economic and financial aspects, as well as quality. In this work, we were mainly interested in analyzing and describing these parameters. In order to illustrate the applicability of the hospital performance indicators, we considered the results obtained for these indices from the managers of three hospitals of the same level from Romania, the “Filişanilor” Hospital from Filiaşi, the Rovinari City Hospital and the Şegarcea City Hospital, and herein present them.

  20. Internet Banking in Romania at a Glance

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    Silvia Ghita-Mitrescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the information and communication technologies and the changes brought to the business models by introducing the use of internet services in the recent decades could not be ignored by the banking industry. The emergence and the development of the internet banking have raised many questions to both academia and industry representatives, both in terms of the benefits of the new organizational models based on providing financial services online and the degree of penetration of these services at the national economy level. This paper aims to make an analysis of the extent to which the internet banking services are used in Romania. The analysis took into account various criteria for the classification of internet banking users (age, residence, occupational status. The study showed that the use of the internet banking services in Romania is still below the European average but has an upward trend.

  1. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

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    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  2. Education and labour market outcomes in Romania

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    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Education plays a central role in preparing individuals to enter the labour market, by offering them the opportunity to improve and increase their amount of knowledge, skills and abilities. Considering this aspect, the purpose of our study is to identify and analyse the relationship that exists between the educational stock, as a measure of the quality, quantity and availability of human resources, and the labour markets’ outcomes in Romania. In order to reach this goal, we have conducted an analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature. These secondary sources included various statistical yearbooks and reports, as well as different scientific researches. The results of our study show that, in Romania, the level of education is positively linked not only to the employment rate but also to the income level.

  3. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

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    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  4. EUROPE 2020 DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN ROMANIA

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    Andrei-Cosmin GLODEANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the Europe 2020 development strategy, from Romania, trough qualitative methods and the corelation analysis trough quantitative methods of the European Funds present in Romania in the period 2007-2010 with the strategy's indicators. From the indicators presented by the European Uniun for the Europe 2020 development strategy,t the following indicators were chosen: "Total expenses for Research and Development as % of GDP", "Renewable energy share of the total energy consumption", "Early school leavers rate" and an alaysis of the correlation with the "Total available allocated budget of the European Union financed projects, arithmetic mean per project" indicator, using Pearson's correlation coefficient and determining also the algebraic average, range, absolute deviation, mean absolute deviation, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis.

  5. Issues regarding environmental protection in Romania

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    Mirela Draghicescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental protection” activity in our country should be approached by taking into consideration its entire complexity, and the most reliable solutions may be provided only by direct and permanent reference to the vast issue of social development in its entirety. The present work aims to draw attention towards pollution, the main cause of environmental deterioration in Romania, as well as towards the management of waste materials, while taking into account the national strategy. In Romania, environmental protection is a distinct domain of the national policy, establishing the priority objectives by “The National Strategy for Environmental Protection”, according to the communitarian strategy, as well as to the tendencies and initiatives existing at global level. Our country’s efforts over the past years with respect to environmental protection are very important in the framework of contemporary economy and are reflected in the expenses incurred for environmental protection.

  6. Diversity and distribution of reptiles in Romania

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    Dan Cogălniceanu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own field surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scientific literature. The occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geodatabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. The spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling effort concentrated in various protected areas, and deficient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. The patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.

  7. Diversity and distribution of amphibians in Romania

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    Dan Cogălniceanu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of amphibians inhabit Romania, 9 of which reach their range limit on this territory. Based on published occurrence reports, museum collections and our own data we compiled a national database of amphibian occurrences. We georeferenced 26779 amphibian species occurrences, and performed an analysis of their spatial patterns, checking for hotspots and patterns of species richness. The results of spatial statistic analyses supported the idea of a biased sampling for Romania, with clear hotspots of increased sampling efforts. The sampling effort is biased towards species with high detectability, protected areas, and large cities. Future sampling efforts should be focused mostly on species with a high rarity score in order to accurately map their range. Our results are an important step in achieving the long-term goals of increasing the efficiency of conservation efforts and evaluating the species range shifts under climate change scenarios.

  8. What Drives Private Equity Investments in Romania?

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    Precup Mihai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting the determinants of private equity investments in Romania over the period 2000 - 2013. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution, source of funding and activities in which the private equity funds invested during the crisis. Starting from the existing literature, this paper extends the analysis of private equity drivers to Romanian market by including variables such as: economic growth, market capitalization, interest rate, unemployment rate and public R&D expenditure which were already tested in previous papers. In addition, this paper introduces new variables such us productivity and corruption index which we consider important factors in explaining the evolution of private equity investments in Romania.

  9. THE CHART ROMANIA-NATO-UE

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    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available viewed in the context of geopolitical and geostrategic current and through the elements of distinction in terms of identity and cultural institutions, chart Romania - NATO / Israel - EU stands under the sign of the common interest channel, firstly, on common values and hence the collective interests of the partners involved in the two organizational structures. Noteworthy in this context is the extent of bilateral involvement of Romania in the bodies and the politico-military, represented by NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which is primarily military values and the construction superstate permanent expansion and development - European Union , both generating as much for our country as obligations of a politico-military security, and economic, social, institutional, cultural.

  10. THE ALLOCATION OF EUROPEAN FUNDS IN ROMANIA

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    Ana Monica POP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the extent to which economic and social cohesion of the enlarged European Union in order to develop a harmonious, balanced and sustainable community has been achieved with the Funds, the European Investment Bank (EIB and other financial instruments and how Romania attracts or not such funds. We analyzed using the statistical data, the absorption and implementation of funds in Romania. Consequently, we present only the results. Conclusions outlined the reducing of the economic, social and territorial disparities which have arisen particularly in regions with developmental delays and in relation to economic and social reorganization. The most important benefits of funding (in general are the growth, the competitive advantage, the employment and improvement of the environment.

  11. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI IN ROMANIA

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    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some characteristics of economic and econometricliterature in the field of FDI after 1990, in Romania, as well as some specific issues in the process of practical modelling. A more detailed presentation of John Harry Dunning’s eclectic theory and a simple presentation of the theory of de-investment complete the general theoretical presentation of FDI. A first problem after the definition, life cycle, similarities and differences betweenportfolio and direct foreign investment, after the benefits of FDI, is given by the outstanding dynamics and structure of FDI. Some characteristic features of the value oscillation and structural dynamics of gross capital formation (GCF, gross capital fixed capital formation (GFCF and gross domestic savings (GDS in GDP are relevant for the specificity of the phenomenon of FDI in Romania after 1990.

  12. Science and business cooperation. Barriers in Poland within the context of selected European and North American countries

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    Dariusz Trzmielak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the theoretical and empirical analysis of factors affecting the cooperation between science and business. The author will present the results of empirical research conducted in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Norway, the United States of America and Canada. The analysis will indicate how and which factors: structural, systemic, competence or awareness and cultural can be utilised in the commercialisation of knowledge and technologies. The analysis of research outcomes which underpins this study is also set on the following assumptions: Every country has different barriers to cooperation between scientists and entrepreneurs; Polish scientists and entrepreneurs should rely on proven and significant factors conducive to cooperation between science and business in Poland; Academic centres in Poland can benefit from the experience gained by other countries to intensify its model of cooperation with entrepreneurs. The article will showcase the research results that relate to the identification of selected problems occurring in establishing and maintaining cooperation between Polish scientific research organisations and entrepreneurs in the context of selected countries whose respondents were subject to empirical research.

  13. Urban Sprawl Characteristics and Typologies in Romania

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    Bogdan Suditu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl limitation, moderate use of agricultural fields and ensuring the social mix are objectives of public policy of all European Community documents refering to urban and territorial planning, housing policies and territorial cohesion. In post-communist Romania the most obvious spatial effect of the liberalization of political and economical life is the multiplication of constructions from the periurban areas. The urban sprawl characteristics have an important role in the localities’ sustainable development and consequently in ensuring territorial cohesion.

  14. Study on electricity markets in Romania

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    Alexandra FLOREA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we detail about the components of the wholesale electricity market in Romania: Market for Bilateral Contracts (Central Market with continuous double negotiation of bilateral electric energy contracts (CM - OTC, Centralized Market for bilateral electric energy contracts, Day-Ahead Market (DAM, Inter-Daily Market (IM, Balancing Market (BM, Centralized Market for universal service (CMUS. In addition, for each type of market we generated diagrams with the main business processes.

  15. A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    STELIAC Nela; STELIAC Dumitru

    2012-01-01

    Tourism represents an industry of high importance in the economy of any state, especially if that country boasts a number of natural and anthropogenic resources that could interest potential tourists. Romania, a well-endowed country in this regard, has failed to this day to turn to good account its tourism potential, even if the financial efforts in this direction were not insignificant. Although our country recorded improvements as concerns accommodation, it failed nevertheless to determine ...

  16. HISTORY OF NAVAL ARMOUR CALCULATION IN ROMANIA

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    KUMBETLIAN Garabet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article below describes the history of thick plate calculation in Romania and its impact and recognition by the Department of Defense-“DoD” (Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America. The DoD has three subordinated departments: Army, Navy and Air Force. In addition, there are many Defense Agencies, such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and schools, including the National Defense University [1].

  17. Proactive Mentality for Business Development in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Riana Iren Radu

    2011-01-01

    Romania, for that matter, all countries in the world can not overcome the financial crisis without business development.The emergence of the financial crisis has created a feature based on money quadrant by Robert Kiyosaki namely that from the outset, an employee must be a good worker and a good investor. In Robert Kiyosaki's view, this means that early in career we should be aware that there are four situations in which making money ie: employee, self employed, owner and investor.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

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    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  19. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-01-01

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption. PMID:28556795

  20. Aging in Romania: research and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodogai, Simona I; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Romania has entered a period of rapid and dramatic population aging. Older Romanians are expected to make up more than 30% of the total population by 2050. Yet, gerontological research is sparse and the few studies of older Romanians that exist are not well used by policy makers. Much of the research is descriptive and focused on needs assessments. Most databases created from studies of older adults are not available for secondary analysis, nor is Romania among the countries included in the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe. The pension and health insurance systems and the system of social welfare services address the specific needs of older Romanians, but comparing the social protection systems in the European Union with those in Romania suggests the existence of a development lag. The relevant legislation exists but there are still issues regarding the implementation of specially developed social services for older persons. As a result, there are major inadequacies in the organization of the social service system: too few public services, insufficient budget funds, insufficient collaboration between public and private services, and frequently overlapping services.

  1. Romania as Participant in the Globalization Process

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    Sergiu-Lucian Sorcaru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present the EU policies, how they relate with Member States and with its partners, the multiculturalism has never been an impediment, but it has made it special, mentioning here the economic level, where the Union has the highest GDP per capita in the world. Our intention is to present the components of globalization, a phenomenon that is the basis for the European Union and the sudden evolution of Romania in the recent years. Romania was integrated in the globalization process and took advantage of all the benefits of this engine of the modern world. The result lies in a better understanding of EU policies and its effects on the Romanian economy. In this paper we have achieved an analysis of non-refundable grants offered by the European Union for the period 2007-20013 and how they helped the industrial and social development of Romania. The added value of the scientific interpretation of the Romanian situation at economic level is highlighted by the beneficial influence of the European space, opening towards a global market and the original approach in economic terms of the development analysis and participation in the globalization process.

  2. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-05-30

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption.

  3. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Petrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption.

  4. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  5. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  6. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  7. STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRITOURISM SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Carmen PIRNEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a survey conducted bz the authors in agritourism sector in Romania in November 2011 – January 2012. The research was conducted by questionnaire method. The aim of the research team, composed by the three authors and coordinated by Prof. Maurizio Lanfranchi University of Messina, is to highlight the performance of agritourism pensions in Romania.

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  9. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2008-01-01

    The European Tort Law Yearbook provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in tort law in Europe. It contains reports on most EU Member States, including the new Member States the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithunia, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania....

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  11. The U.S. Pivot to Asia-Pacific and What it Means for NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    merger between the Franco -German aerospace giant EADS and BAE, the U.K.’s largest defense contractor. The merger collapsed in October 2012 over...Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands United States Norway Portugal United Kingdom Greece 1952 Turkey...Germany 1955 Spain 1982 Czech Republic 1999 Hungary Poland Bulgaria 2004 Estonia Latvia Lithuania Romania Slovakia Slovenia Croatia

  12. Hungary 70”: Non-remembering the Holocaust in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pető, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of memory studies is usually focusing on processes of remembrance, looking at the actors, sites, processes, institutions of remembering. This article however looks at non-remembering as a conscious strategy of not participating in commemorations of the 70th Anniversary of the Holocaust in Hungary. It claims that lack of common language, the imprisonment of a “true” versus “false” dichotomy is contributing to the further pillarisation of the Hungarian memory culture.Los estudios de memoria privilegian habitualmente el análisis de los procesos de rememoración y recuerdo, tomando como base el estudio de los actores sociales, los lugares, los procesos y las instituciones del recuerdo. Este artículo, sin embargo, se enfoca en el proceso contrario, el de la ausencia de recuerdo como una estrategia consciente, en relación a la no participación en el 70 aniversario del Holocausto en Hungría. Argumenta que la carencia de un lenguaje común y la rigidez de la dicotomía “verdadero” o “falso” está contribuyendo a la polarización de la cultura memorialista húngara.

  13. SOME ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA‘S AGRICULTURE IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Burja

    2014-01-01

    Employment in agriculture is an important component of the policy of sustainable ruraldevelopment. This has implications for the effective use of agricultural potential that Romania has instabilizing rural population by achieving revenue to ensure an adequate quality of life. The analysispresented in this paper highlights common characteristics of employment in agriculture and thedisparities recorded in Romania and other countries that joined the European Union later (Poland,Hungary and Bulga...

  14. Detection of plum pox virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in some apricot and peach varieties and hybrids in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, S; Isac, M; Balan, V; Ivascu, A

    1998-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a potyvirus widely spread in many species of the Prunus genus such as plum, apricot, peach, sweet cherry and others. This potyvirus causes great damage to stone fruit trees in Romania and other European countries as Hungary, Italy, Czech Republic, France, Spain, Greece, Turkey, and Slovak Republic. The Research Station for Fruit Tree Growing Baneasa in Bucharest has realized many studies on the epidemiology and spread of PPV and also on the disease symptomatology and detection possibilities. The control of sharka disease by sanitary selection measures requires corresponding detection techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of PPV in some apricot and peach varieties and hybrids in 1995-1997 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to verify if some of our biological materials evaluated as symptom-free under field conditions for many years are also virus-free and can be considered healthy.

  15. Inclusive Education in Romania: Policies and Practices in Post-Communist Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses current inclusive education policies and practices in Romania. There are few accounts of and no systematic study published on this topic. The Romanian special educational policies began to evolve towards integration and inclusion. Today, Romanian special education functions according to democratic principles and Romanian…

  16. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  17. Quality of Multilingual Specialised Lexicography in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wojciech Łukasik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Multilingual Specialised Lexicography in Poland The aim of this paper is to evaluate the state of multilingual specialised lexicography in Poland over a period of almost 70 years. Based on the analysis of macro- and microstructures of multilingual dictionaries published in Poland since 1945, the study offers a thorough insight into the key parameters of such works, including their general lexicographic structure, presentation of the content as well as potential usefulness for users. Compared with the achievements of theoretical lexicography, the terminographic analysis has enabled the author to draw meaningful conclusions and put forward applicative proposals for future dictionaries.

  18. Climate of Hungary in the twentieth century according to Feddema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Ferenc; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Feddema's (Physical Geography 26:442-466, 2005) bioclimatic classification scheme is applied to Hungary for the twentieth century using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data series. The method is tested in two modes. In the first, its original form is used which is suitable for global scale analysis. In the second, the criteria used in the method are slightly modified for mesoscale classification purposes. In both versions, potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated using McKenney and Rosenberg's (Meteorol 64:81-110, 1993) formula. We showed that McKenney and Rosenberg's formula could be applied to Hungary. According to Feddema's global scale application, local climates of the three main geographical regions, the Great Hungarian Plain, the North Hungarian Mountains, and Transdanubia, can be distinguished. However, the spatial distribution pattern within the regions is poorly reproduced, if at all. According to Feddema's mesoscale application, a picture of climatic subregions could be observed.

  19. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) clonal seed orchards in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly Redei; Zoltán Osváth-Bujtás; Irina Veperdi

    2006-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important stand-forming tree species in Hungary and its importance is increasing in many countries. The main aim of the discussed new selection programme is to identify black locust clones with good performance and good form for setting up clonal seed orchards. As a result of selection programme 16 new black locust clones have been improved. In spring 2002 a black locust seed orchard was established with the newly selected clones. About 40% of the plants can be considered to belong to the height growth rate class 1 and 2. Hungary was the first country where micropropagated black locust planting material was used for seed orchard establishment.

  20. Living with CO{sub 2}: experiences from Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M.; Nador, A.; Toth, E. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    In areas of Hungary, seepage of CO{sub 2} to the surface is an everyday occurrence and the villagers continue to live there quite happily, having learnt to adapt their buildings to reduce any risk. Indeed, the innovative Hungarians have turned the seepage of CO{sub 2} to their advantage and created a local industry based on a therapeutic treatment of immersion in CO{sub 2} and another selling naturally carbonated water. The article describes a visit by the NASCENT project team to this volcanic area of northern Hungary where high CO{sub 2} and radon concentrations are exploited. The NASCENT project is studying natural accumulations of CO{sub 2} to understand how CO{sub 2} is trapped in these reservoirs, the safety and stability of storage and the long term effects of migration to the surface. 4 figs.

  1. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  2. Wage setting in Hungary: evidence from a firm survey

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We document results from a survey of wage setting in Hungarian enterprises. The survey was developed and coordinated by the Eurosystem Wage Dynamics Network, and it was administered in 17 European countries; this allows us to put the Hungarian findings in context. The main conclusion from the survey is that while Hungarian firms operate in a quite flexible institutional environment, their wage setting practices are relatively rigid. In its wage setting outcomes, Hungary shares more similariti...

  3. Georeferencing the historical cadastral map sheets of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, Gábor; Biszak, Sándor

    2010-05-01

    In the historical Hungary, as a part of the Habsburg Empire, the first preserved and systematic cadastral survey was carried out between 1856 and 1859. Interestingly enough, this cadastral mapping, which was called in Hungary as 'Provisional' was surveyed simultaneously with the Stable Cadastre in the Austrian regions of the Empire. By the commission of the State Archives of Hungary, the Hungarian company Arcanum Ltd. scanned over 46,000 cadastral sheets of the Provisional Cadastre, mostly covering the present-day Hungary but also some copies covering parts of the present-day Croatia, Slovakia and Austria. The base ellipsoid was the Zach-Oriani hybrid (a=6376130 m; f=1/310). The fundamental point of the geodetic datum was the eastern pillar of the later destroyed astronomical observatory on the Gellérthegy, Budapest and the abridging Molodensky parameters from this datum to WGS84 are: dX=+1763 m; dY=+282 m; dZ=+568 m. The Cassini projection can be used for GIS integration with a projection center at the Gellérthegy with longitude=19d 3m 5.55s east of Greenwich; latitude=49d 29m 15.97s. The sheets were rectified by the calculated coordinates at the corner points. With the above given projection and datum parameters, the cadastral mosaic, based on the individual sheets and the digitized borders of the administrative units, is presented in any modern coordinate systems in GIS. Using this feature, the product is published as a DVD series by old counties as well as the distribution in the Internet.

  4. Psychosocial determinants of premature cardiovascular mortality differences within Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Maria; Skrabski, Árpád; Szántó, Zsuzsa; Siegrist, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The life expectancy gap between Central‐Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Hungary, and Western Europe (WE) is mainly attributable to excess cardiovascular (CV) mortality in midlife. This study explores the contribution of socioeconomic, work related, psychosocial, and behavioural variables to explaining variations of middle aged male and female CV mortality across 150 sub‐regions in Hungary. Design Cross sectional, ecological analyses. Setting 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Participants and methods 12 643 people were interviewed in Hungarostudy 2002 survey, representing the Hungarian population according to sex, age, and sub‐regions. Independent variables were income, education, control in work, job insecurity, weekend working hours, social support, depression, hostility, anomie, smoking, body mass index, and alcohol misuse. Main outcome measures Gender specific standardised premature (45–64 years) total CV, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular mortality rates in 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Results Low education and income were the most important determinants of mid‐aged CV mortality differences across sub‐regions. High weekend workload, low social support at work, and low control at work account for a large part of variation in male premature CV mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most noticeably to variations in premature CV mortality rates among women. Low social support from friends, depression, anomie, hostility, alcohol misuse and cigarette smoking can also explain a considerable part of variations of premature CV mortality differences. Conclusion Variations in middle aged CV mortality rates in a rapidly changing society in CEE are largely accounted for by distinct unfavourable working and other psychosocial stress conditions. PMID:16905723

  5. Private pension funds in Hungary : early performance and regulatory issues

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri

    1996-01-01

    Despite the limited scope resulting from the high payroll taxes for the compulsory, unfunded public pillar in Hungary's pensions system, the early voluntary private pensions fund performance has been encouraging. Investment returns have been well above the inflation rate and participation has expanded rapidly. However, the sector is highly fragmented and regulatory weaknesses exist: no compulsory use of custodian and licensed asset managers; use of book values and cashflow accounting rather t...

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Paldy; Janos Bobvos

    2010-01-01

    In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality). Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mort...

  7. Development of millisecond and internal delayed electric detonators in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, D.

    1986-01-01

    The stages of developing millisecond and internal delayed detonators are discussed. The problems of their practical introduction in Hungary as well as the economic background of their production are outlined. The present situation, i.e. production possibilities, application of different detonator types as well as the expected progress in the field of detonator production and use in mines endangered by fire-damp are dealt with.

  8. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  9. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitorac Ruxandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study the Romania’s monetary policy, in the period 1996-2013. The research starts with a theoretical review of the monetary policy, whose main purpose is influencing the broad money supply and the lending requirements and the institution in charge of achieving this objective is the Central Bank, highlighting its impact upon the economic activity, through the Keynesian analysis model IS-LM and a correlation between the monetary policy measures and the phases of the economic cycle whose results indicate that during the recession periods it is recommended to reduce interest rates in order to stimulate investments, by raising the money supply, and during the expansion period it is recommended to increase the interest rate in order to cut back the money supply. Starting from this premises, the research takes into account the study of the monetary policy measures adopted by the governmental authority of Romania, making a quantitative analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators: the real interest rate, the lending interest rate, the deposit interest rate and the broad money supply and through a multifactorial regression, highlighting the impact of the interest rates upon the monetary aggregate M2. Moreover, a comparison between the monetary policy measures adopted in Romania and the monetary policies recommended by specialized literature has been done, and the results have indicated that during recession periods the attention of the governmental authorities is focused upon adopting the right measures, but during the expansion periods this doesn’t happen. The results of this research highlight the economic situation in Romania and the way in which the governmental authority intervened, through the monetary policy measures, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the cyclical fluctuations.

  11. Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Szlanta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Niniejszy materiał jest udostępniony na licencji Creative Commons – Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 3.0 DE. Pełne postanowienia tej licencji są dostępne pod: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/de/legalcode This paper presents the process of building an independent Polish state during the First World War, which, from the Polish perspective, was the most important result of this conflict. The article focuses mainly on the political and military ...

  12. Human trichinellosis in Hungary from 1965 to 2009*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatz K.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis was first documented in Hungary in 1891 and then there were an increased number of reports up to 1964 when the most severe outbreak occurred. After that, no information was available on the international literature on human trichinellosis which occurred from 1965 up to the present years. The aim of this study was to collect all the data available in Hungarian official data-sources on human trichinellosis which occurred from 1965 up to 2009 in Hungary. Furthermore, a comparative analysis was performed on the different serological tests used along the 45 years of investigation. In the period in question, 573 infections were documented in Hungary. Of them, 57 occurred in the years 1965-69, 130 in 1970-79, 302 in 1980-89, 27 in 1990-99, and 57 in 2000-09. The most common sources of infection were pork from backyard pigs and hunted wild boars. Sporadic cases and small family outbreaks marked the last ten years. The comparison of serological tests shows that the ELISA is a good test for the first screening, but ELISA-positive serum samples should be confirmed by western blot except for clinically clear-cut cases.

  13. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  14. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  15. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  16. A Fulbright Specialist in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Arthur M; Tarkowski, Radoslaw

    2017-02-10

    One of the greatest rewards in cancer education is working with colleagues from around the world. This manuscript reports on the development and conduct of a cancer research training program in Wroclaw, Poland, supported by the Fulbright Commission. The precipitating need for this program was the desire and lack of opportunity for medical trainees to develop skills necessary to conduct cancer education research. A 2-week program was developed consisting of didactic, Socratic, and individual/group consultations. Support from the Fulbright Commission was essential to the success of this program. Information will be presented in this paper on the completion of the funding application as well as lessons learned in the development and implementation of this program.

  17. ENERGY FOR ROMANIA FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    LUCIAN Paul

    2012-01-01

    The European Union admits the fact that energy is essential, for the development of the European economy, but that it also constitutes a challenge, due to the impact on climate change. In Romania, as well as in all the countries of the European Union, which have chosen to promote renewable energy, governments have come up with support frameworks for investors in this field. In Romania’s case, the option for green schemes and compulsory quotas was selected, meaning that each energy producer, w...

  18. EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL TRENDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CIUTACU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with demographic trends in Romania and their influence on the labour market. In this context, unemployment and emigration are factors that play a significant role in the economy. The decline in employment weakens the social security system as employers and employees have to pay greater contributions. Also, the diminution in workforce and in the number of people in paid employment and the shortage of professionals working in specialized fields of health and education are issues requiring urgent clarification.

  19. Marketing mix for rural development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLGÁR (DESZKE Klára-Dalma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development supposes a uniformly increasing of living level for the entire population of a nation. The reducing of disparities between the urban and rural regions is a purpose of the rural development policy, as a part of Community Agriculture Policy and also subject of European financing programs. A marketing approach of rural development could ensure an integrated implementation of LEADER program in Romania. This paper defines the components of marketing mix for rural development and their content for Romanian rural development marketing.

  20. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  1. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  2. Towards Sustainable Building: Case Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marinoiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the actual situation of the green buildings in our country but also the degree in which the real estate developers are involved in such projects. The study was conducted by combining a wide variety of sources, such as regulations, position papers, as well as articles and research reports. The results of the research show that the market for green buildings in Romania is at an early stage of development however, there are prerequisites for its development. In the future, green building will become the standard in the construction industry.

  3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA. EVOLUTION AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to slow way to political, legal, social and economic reform, the corporate governance appears in Romania, from concept and filing, until the early 2000`s. This paper analyzes the evolution of corporate governance in the period 2000-2015, it is presented the OECD principles of corporate governance of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange and it analyse the situation of the public entities who had the obligation to apply the provisions of O.U.G 109/2011 on corporate governance of public entities and to publish on its Web site the Annual Report

  4. Reflections on fertility dynamics in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, Eugenia Claudia; Minca, Dana Galieta

    2012-01-01

    Aims to highlight the changes occurred in the evolution of the fertility phenomenon in Romania, focusing on developments in the general fertility rate, total fertility rate, number of live births, and on the construction of specific indicators to reveal the source of demographic change. Several theories on the factors that may cause fertility decline it were outlined, underlining the presence of these factors during fertility dynamics in our country. After 1990, population decline may be explained by a close inter-relationship between economic theories (worsening economic conditions lead to decreased fertility) and the second demographic transition (postponement of births, fertility change model).

  5. DIMENSIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMIGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA FLEȘER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, under the strong impact of demographic, technological, social, economic, political, cultural, educative and religious factors, deepening economic, social and political disparities among groups of countries and regions, it generates and puts in the foreground a series of new features of migration processes as compared to previous periods, at the same time, causing transformations of migratory processes, such as the typology, volume, structure, intensity of flows, the costs and benefits. In this context, the present paper aims to highlight the main characteristics of the immigration flow from Romania.

  6. Structural Modifications Of The Employment In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Radu COJOCARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concentrated on an observing and analyzing process of grown mutations on the labor market as a result of economic and social transformations from Romania, of the problems in this area, which tend to become one of the main obstacles for development, also the configuration of some social and more reasonable solutions. The purpose of this study is represented by a conservative and objective analysis of the working force dynamics and population activity in correlation with the economic evolution on a medium and extended period.

  7. Healthcare Policy in Romania. Frameworks and Challenges

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    Buţiu Călina Ana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to review some of the healthcare policy issues of Romania and identify those challenges which may be addressed through social intervention. Based on statistical data, documents, reports and applicable laws one will review the health condition of Romanian population and the state of the national health system, and will examine the broad strategies and policies currently under the scrutiny of appropriate ministries. The findings of the study suggest looking at health policies also through the lens of social inclusion.

  8. Electoral Engineerings in Post‑communist Romania

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    Alexandru Radu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the dynamics of voting systems practiced in Romania, as resulting from changes to the legal framework during the 25 years of post-communism, trying to answer the question whether the legislative effervescence in the electoral area materialized in structural changes of the electoral mechanism, changes congruent to the the idea of reform in the field. Following their approach, the authors conclude that the main driver of change in election legislation was represented by the (subjective interests of the mainstream political parties.

  9. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  10. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  11. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  12. POLAND SYNDROME WITH DEXTROCARDIA: CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... of shoulder girdle muscles, and breast hypoplasia or agenesis athelia ... Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Clinic at CoRSU. Hospital as the ... Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the.

  13. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Switzerland and Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Qing

    2013-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Swiss-Chinese Association(SCA) and the Adam Michiewicz Institute (AMI) of Poland,a CPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Jing Dunquan visited Switzerland and Poland from October 15 to 24, 2012,and met leading members of the relevant organizations. They discussed the international situation,cultural cooperation and exchanges between local governments and pledged further coopera-

  14. CERN School of Physics travels to Romania

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    From 7-20 September, students at the European School of High-Energy Physics brought their enthusiasm for physics to Cheile Gradistei, Romania. This was the school’s first time in Romania, which is set to become a CERN Member State in 2015.   Students from the 2011 CERN School of High-Energy Physics. Every year, the School of High-Energy Physics hosts students from around the world to learn from the best in the HEP field. The Schools began in the 1960s as a CERN initiative and, since 1971, schools have been jointly organised by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Russia. “This year, we hosted almost 100 participants from 31 countries,” says Nick Ellis, director of the CERN Schools of Physics. “The Schools have always been a fantastic opportunity for the next generation of particle physicists to learn and to network with their future colleagues.” Students attended a comprehensive programme of lectures and discussion ses...

  15. Romania needs a strategy for thermal energy

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    Leca Aureliu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector in Romania consists of three sub-sectors: electricity, natural gas and heat. Among these, the sub-sector of thermal energy is in the most precarious situation because it has been neglected for a long time. This sub-sector is particularly important both due to the amount of final heat consumption (of over 50% of final energy consumption, and to the fact that it has a direct negative effect on the population, industry and services. This paper presents the main directions for developing a modern strategy of the thermal energy sub-sector, which would fit into Romania’s Energy Strategy that is still in preparation This is based on the author’s 50 years of experience in this field that includes knowledge about the processes and the equipment of thermal energy, expertise in the management and restructuring of energy companies and also knowledge of the specific legislation. It is therefore recommended, following the European regulations and practices, the promotion and upgrading of district heating systems using efficient cogeneration, using trigeneration in Romania, modernizing buildings in terms of energy use, using of renewable energy sources for heating, especially biomass, and modernizing the energy consumption of rural settlements.

  16. CONTRACTING OUT THE PENSIONS SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

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    Tatiana-Camelia DOGARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, austerity measures and the new challenges of the 21st century have determined governments to adopt new tools of public actions in order to strengthen the policy capacity. A new paradigm was born, and its main feature is collaboration among government’s level (ministries and between government and private sector. It brings new tools of public policy among others, and contracting out used by policymakers at various stages of public policy cycle and for different sets of reasons. This paper explores theoretically how this new approach strengthens the public policy capacity and provides evidence occurring in Romanian government practice. While, Romania has a legalistic, a normative approach of policy processes and street-level bureaucracies are guided by managerial targets and law, it starts to contract out some tasks that traditionally belong to government. The main scientific objective of this paper is to contribute an overall understanding of contracting out in public policy-making in Romania, particular in pensions system, focused on the rationality of introducing that.From a methodological standpoint, the paper relies on comprehensive and systematic search of the literature and document analysis (among others Annual Reports, authorities’ data, resume, obtained by using free accession to information and statistics data processing (quantitative and qualitative interpretation of data from National Institute of Statistics.

  17. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF ROMANIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE

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    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of structural changes in Romanian trade is somewhat interesting if you look at it from the perspective of mutations that occurred in the categories of goods and services subject to international trade. After the Revolution of 1989, the Romanian economy has gone through dramatic changes that had determinate a total reconfiguration of foreign trade. At the same time, the economic instability has had further repercussions on the Romanian economy manifested through higher prices, reduced wages or earnings, reduced employment and rising unemployment, increasing interest rates on loans due to the devaluation of the national currency, increase value-added tax, consumption reduction etc. We proposed in this paper an analyze for a significant period of time evolution of international trade in goods and services of Romania in order to establish the main categories of goods traded but Romania's main trading partners, too. In order to achieve the central goal of this paper we will use statistical data found in the databases provided by the WTO, Eurostat and the National Statistical Institutes and statistical methods to support our initiative.

  18. ROMANIA, THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA

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    Ion MUSCHEI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, international relationships have always witnessed the forming of alliances, bilateral agreements, mutual treaties, conventions, partnerships or founding organizations. All these agreements have lasted as long as all the actors involved have shared a common interest, but during conflictual periods they have been reduced to simple sheets of paper. Certainly, the very same states have, again and again, been both ‘friends’ and ‘enemies’ because in international relations “nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests.”1 Thus, in a world of growing interdependence and continuous change, globalization will not turn this world into a flat one, nor will it bring history to an end. On the contrary, it will generate new threats and will make differences more obvious and more striking. Moreover, the events that have taken place during the last few years clearly point this out. Starting with the 2013 Summit in Vilnius, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership, in particular, have brought about major direct changes in Eastern Europe and indirect ones in Bruxelles, culminating in territorial changes in the immediate proximity of Romania. Taking into account both its significant geopolitical and geostrategic location and its membership to the European Union, Romania finds itself, as always, at a crossroads. In this context, the present paper aims at determining the role the European Union plays in Romania’s relationship with Russia.

  19. MACRO-REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN ROMANIA

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    MARIA OŢIL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic disparities are disparities between levels of economicdevelopment of the areas or regions within a national economy. If economic literature hasfailed to explain the causes of inequalities in economic development of different regions of theEU, this issue became a priority in EU economic policy, especially after the adhesion ofGreece, Spain and Portugal, countries characterized by a lower level of development fromother EU countries and also marked by significant regional imbalances. European Unionsupports reducing disparities between different regions of Member States so that all regionsand their people to benefit from economic and social advantages of the Union. This paper aimsto highlight disparities between the macro-regions in Romania. Regional demarcation criterionin the NUTS system is the population’s number within a territory. Most pertinent argument isthat the goal of all activities in a society lies in meeting the needs of the individual and of thecommunity. This possibility is ensured by a certain level of economic development in the region.Less developed areas of Romania are located in Northern Moldova and in the South EasternRomanian Plain and the more developed areas include, in addition to Bucharest andConstanta, Transylvania and Banat regions.

  20. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

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    Adina Roxana MUNTEANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic market has been increasing in the past couple of years and it is still expected to do so. However, even though the prices are higher on the organic market, farmers do not always manage to benefit from these better prices. Romania is a country with a high potential for organic agriculture as there are 14.8 million hectares of agricultural land out of which arable land represents 8.9 million ha. According to NIS (2012a p. 89, in 2011, 29.2% of the country’s population was employed in agriculture. However, most households in rural areas produce for mere survival due mainly to the highly fragmented land owning. Therefore there is an acute need for new development strategies in order to improve living standards in rural areas. This article describes business models of organic cooperatives in Nepal and Romania. Moreover it proposes a rural development initiative based on the creation of organic cooperatives and suggests thata NGOs could implement such a program.

  1. Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists – the first road atlas in the independent Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski Jan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The 90th anniversary of the appearance of Atlas Polski Continental dla automobilistów (Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists published by Continental Caoutchouc Compagnie Ltd Warsaw is nearing. The Atlas was the first publication of its kind after Poland had regained its independence in 1918.

  2. Actual Problems in Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, International Conference Cluj/Napoca, Romania, May 25-27, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Érdi, B.; Szenkovits, F.

    2007-05-01

    In 25--27 May 2006 an International Conference on Actual Problems in Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy was organized at Cluj-Napoca. The Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science of the Babeş-Bolyai University, the host of this conference, organized this scientific meeting in collaboration with the Loránd Eötvös University (Budapest, Hungary), Sapientia University (Miercuria Ciuc, Romania), Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy (Bucharest, Romania) and Institute for Space Science (Bucharest, Romania). The main topics covered by the meeting were: - Solar-System dynamics, stability, resonances, chaos; - Dynamics of populations in the Solar System: NEAs, MBAs, Centaurs, KBOs, TNOs: observations, orbits, theoretical models; - Galactic and extragalactic dynamics; - Problems, models, methods and techniques in contemporary celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. The conference was structured into seven sessions of oral presentations, a poster session and a round table discussion. Each of the seven main sessions began with an invited lecture. These lectures reviewed the following fields: the Sitnikov problem (R. Dvorak, Austria); the age of the asteroid families (Z. Knezevic, Serbia and Montenegro); stability of exoplanetary systems (B. Érdi, Hungary); Saari's conjecture (Diacu, Canada); integrability from direct and inverse standpoints (G. Bozis, Greece); stability of exact solutions in restricted many-body problems (E. Grebenicov, Russia); actual Romanian research in post-Newtonian dynamics (V. Mioc, Romania). Beside the invited lectures, the 21 oral presentations covered the most various domains of celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. Chaotic behaviour was a premier topic. It was approached and studied by analytical, geometrical and numerical methods in many astronomical problems: the restricted three-body problem (with examples in the Solar System), the Gylden's model and its generalizations, capture domain, resonances, etc

  3. Tanks have left, Gazprom is back: Russian energy companies' expansion towards Poland, Slovakia and Hungary between 1991 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Anita

    A casual observant of post-Soviet Russian corporate activity in Central Europe finds a hectic behavior of Russian companies in the Polish, Hungarian and Slovakian economies. There were times when these companies showed great interest toward the region, followed by periods of non-activity. To solve the puzzle, the study tests neoclassical realist theory in explaining Russian corporate propensity to expand into Central Europe. Neoclassical realist theory argues that the relative distribution of power in the international system (independent variable) through the perception of state leaders (intervening variable) together with state power, to be defined as power to mobilize the necessary resources (intervening variable), explain foreign political outcomes (dependent variable). The dissertation draws the following hypothesis from neorealist theory: When the Russian leadership perceives that Russia's relative influence vis-a-vis the West is low and Russia possesses enough state power to mobilize the necessary resources, Russian energy companies will manifest expansionary moves into Central Europe. When Russia does not perceive its influence low and/or does not possess enough state power, Russian companies will not manifest any expansionary moves into Central Europe. To test the hypotheses the study uses the case study methodology. There is one case examined: Russian energy companies' activity in Central Europe between 1991 and 2004. The study splits this period into five sub-periods which correspond with the widely accepted milestones of post-Soviet Russian foreign policy: 1991-1993 Early Atlanticism, 1994-1996 Facing Nato Enlargement, 1996-1998 Against a Unipolar World, 1998-2000 Instability and Uncertainty, and 2000-2004 The First Putin Presidency. Russian energy companies were very active in two sub-periods: between 1994 and 1996, and between 2000 and 2004. However, they showed little to no interest for expansion in the other three sub-periods: 1991-1993, 1996-1998 and 1998-2000. In Chapters Four and Five the study examines in detail Russian perceptions about Russia's place in the world, changes in its state power and the Russian energy companies' activity in Central Europe where it is applicable. It finds that in the "active periods" (between 1994 and 1996 as well as between 2000 and 2004) Russian leadership assessed the relative power distribution in the international system to be disadvantageous for Russia and at the same time had considerable state power to mobilize. These two variables were not present together in the three "inactive periods". That is to say, the energy companies' Central European activities were consistent with what the hypothesis drawn from neoclassical realist theory would predict. The study proves the validity of neoclassical realist theory in explaining post-Soviet Russian foreign policy. Additionally, in the Russian studies today it is conventional wisdom that Vladimir Putin turned Russian energy companies into tools of his country's foreign policy vis-a-vis its neighbors. However, this study shows that the phenomenon is neither new, nor dependent on the current Russian president; moreover, it has never been limited to the countries of the former Soviet Union. In fact, ever since 1991, Russian corporate expansion in Central Europe has been driven by the highs and lows of Russian state power and its key decision makers' perceptions about their country's relative power vis-a-vis the West.

  4. Testing the Effectiveness of Some Macroeconomic Variables in Stimulating Foreign Trade in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts of contemporary econometrics depart from the arbitrary division of variables into endogenous and exogenous. In the estimation process of the econometric model or in prediction process, it may be important to test weak or strong exogeneity of variables. In the foreign trade modelling, we oft en deal with variables between which there may be feedback. Thus, the causality of variables in the classic sense is not always obvils and it should be tested to facilitate the proper specification of foreign trade models. This article is aimed at testing the exogeneity of selected macroeconomic variables used in foreign trade models, based on Visegrad Group countries. Exogeneity tests made in this paper are based on the results of the VEC and VAR models, which enabled to explain dynamic relations between variables in foreign trade. The results of this research can be helpful for determining the structure of actual links between variables, estimation of proper models and forecasting of variable values.

  5. ONR Europe Reports. Computer Science/Computer Engineering in Central Europe: A Report on Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Routing on Printed Circuit Boards. Computer Aided Design, Vol.12, No.5, 1980, pp.231-234. 15 Servit, M.: Heuristic Algorithms for Rectilinear Steiner ...practical utilization ver. 5.0, KOPP publ. comp., 1992 Herout P, Rudolf V., Smrha P.: ABC of Programmer in the C Language (ANSI C, Borland C and C++), KOPP

  6. The five wonders of Spain (Catalonia), Italy, France, the UK (Wales), Hungary, Poland and Estonia / Maarika Ruuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruuse, Maarika

    2014-01-01

    Melliste Algkool-Lasteaia osalemisest rahvusvahelises projektis Friends around Europe (Sõbrad Euroopas), mida rahastab Sihtasutus Archimedes. Erinevate koolide koostöö eesmärkideks on õpilaste teadmiste arendamine kultuuride ja keelte mitmekesisusest, teiste riikide rahvakommete ja traditsioonide õppimine ning oma maa rahvakultuuri jagamine

  7. The five wonders of Spain (Catalonia), Italy, France, the UK (Wales), Hungary, Poland and Estonia / Maarika Ruuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruuse, Maarika

    2014-01-01

    Melliste Algkool-Lasteaia osalemisest rahvusvahelises projektis Friends around Europe (Sõbrad Euroopas), mida rahastab Sihtasutus Archimedes. Erinevate koolide koostöö eesmärkideks on õpilaste teadmiste arendamine kultuuride ja keelte mitmekesisusest, teiste riikide rahvakommete ja traditsioonide õppimine ning oma maa rahvakultuuri jagamine

  8. Sisymbrium volgense (Brassicaceae in the flora of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian OPREA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sisymbrium volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., native from South-Western Russia, is reported in the flora of Romania. This species was found in the area of the Socola railway station, in the East of Iasi city (North-Eastern Romania. The description and general distribution of the species, as well as some data relating to its biology, ecology and phytosociology are given in the paper. An identification key for this species and other related taxa from the flora of Romania is provided.

  9. The economic and communication implications of tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena PAICU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tourism in Romania is based on diversity of relief forms, on the natural landscape, on the specific customs and on history and rich tradition, having also an important contribution to the economy. Tourism is considered one of Romania's economic sectors characterized by dynamism. So it is that the statistical data records data upon which we can support that tourism in Romania is, despite weaknesses, developing and with a high potential for expansion. In the present paper we propose a comprehensive analysis of tourism, based on statistical data obtained from specialized institutions, at the same time aiming to capture its impact on the economic level.

  10. Does Emigration Affects Wages? A Case Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin-Alexandru Ciupureanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The migration phenomenon in Romania is characterized by emigration; the number of Romanian migrants skyrocketed after the Romanian accession to the European Union in 2007. With the economic and financial crisis outlook and with the labour market liberalization across the whole European Union for the Romanian workers starting this year the number of Romanian migrants is expected to increase further. Against this background this paper analyses the effects of emigration on wages in Romania. It is found that emigration has a positive impact on wages in Romania.

  11. Bio agricultural product market in Romania and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this paper are to obtain an overview of the present market for organic agricultural products in Europe in general, and in Romania in particular. Organic agricultural production represents a small part of Romanian agricultural production and the development potential of organic agricultural production Romania is infinitely greater than what is done today. European consumers know little about the Romanian bio agriculture and even less about the huge potential of this sector. Organic food market is growing both in Europe and in Romania due to the increased interest of consumers to live healthier and improve the quality of life.

  12. NO-CASH PAYMENTS IN ROMANIA AND EU AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the non-cash payment methods used in Romania against other European Union countries to stress the main differences of the latest developments in this specific area since the crisis errupted up to present. In Romania, the most common payment method is transfer credit, because of its simplicity and because it is less risky than the other non-cash payment methods, while in EU direct debit and credit cards are more common. However, the value per transaction for any type of non-cash instruments (except for cheques is smaller in Romania than in other EU countries.

  13. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  14. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  15. Pre-World War II Romania from Latvian Perspective: An Envoy's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ēriks Jēkabsons

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The paper approaches the working environment and observations of Latvian envoy Ludvigs Ēķis in Romania from the autumn of 1939 when the Latvian Legation was opened in Bucharest until the summer of 1940 when the State of Latvia was liquidated. The main focus is on the Latvian-Romanian relations in this period of time, the Romanian foreign and economical policy and the reaction of Romanian statesmen and society to the events and processes of the first stage of World War: the policy of Soviet Union, Germany and Hungary, the Soviet-Finnish War and other conflicts in region and in Europe. The article is based on the materials stored in the State Archives of Latvia and particularly on Ludvigs Ekis’ reports. In a time when war was raging in Europe, Romania, too, was subject to considerable international pressure. Some similarities can be detected between the developments in this region and in the Baltic States.Rezumat:Lucrarea abordează mediul de lucru şi observaţiile ministrului leton în România Ludvigs Ēķis începând din toamna anului 1939, cand Legaţia letonă a fost deschisă la Bucureşti, până în vara anului 1940, când statul leton a fost lichidat. Lucrarea se va concentra în principal asupra relaţiilor letono-române în această perioadă de timp, asupra politicii externe şi a celei economice, a reacţiei oamenilor de stat şi a societăţii româneşti faţă de evenimente şi procese desfăşurate în prima etapă a primului război mondial: politicile Uniunii Sovietice, Germaniei şi Ungariei, Războiul sovieto-finlandez şi alte conflicte regionale şi europene. Articolul se bazează pe materiale păstrate în arhivele de stat din Letonia şi în special pe rapoartele lui Ludvigs Ēķis. Într-un moment în care războiul făcea ravagii în Europa, România a fost, de asemenea, supusă unor presiuni internaţionale considerabile. Unele similitudini pot fi detectate între evoluţiile din această regiune

  16. Governing through Early Childhood Curriculum, "the Child," and "Community": Ideologies of Socialist Hungary and Neoliberal Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of state ideology in the formation of kindergarten curriculum documents in socialist Hungary during the 1970s and in contemporary neoliberal Australia. The study explores two landmark curriculum documents, of Hungary and Australia, respectively, comparing the ways in which "the child" is conceptualized in…

  17. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  18. Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after…

  19. Art Education in Post-communist Hungary: Ideologies, Policies, and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Andre; Gaul, Emil

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the interdisciplinary approach to art education in Hungary. Begins with the acceptance of the Kodaly method in the 1970s during the communist regime. Continues with Hungarian independence and the adoption of the National Core Curriculum in the early 1990s. Includes a concise explanation of Hungary's educational system. (MJP)

  20. Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after…

  1. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  2. THE SZEKLERS AND HUNGARIANS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Szeklers and Hungarians from Romania. This study regards, as its main topic, the possibility of establishing at present, a geodemographical entity on Romania’s territory, since certain representatives of the Hungarian ethnical minority in our country, and with a particular insistence of those in the vicinity of the western border, always remember to bring into view the problem of establishing an autonomy, common to a Székely Land, located in the central area of our country, which would include Mureş, Harghita and Covasna counties. Without carrying out a detailed account of this situation, it needs to be mentioned, just as it will emerge of the following presentation, that such an approach has neither the most reduced geodemographical support, since the Szeklers, after being assimilated by the Hungarian ethnic group, are no longer present at the census of 20 October 2011. By taking into account the above mentioned aspects, in order to be able to respond to the insistent requests for autonomy in Transylvania, we proceeded to highlight, through a fairly detailed approach of the Hungarian ethnical minority, obviously in point of the number of inhabitants and of their distribution on Romania’s territory, resulting of this the fact that the number of Hungarians is of 1,227,623 people, value which related to those 20,121,641 inhabitants of Romania, means 6.10%. The total number of mentioned Hungarians is characterized by a pronounced concentration on Romania’s territory, standing out by creating a corridor with a diagonal aspect, on the northwestsoutheast direction, consisting of seven counties, the first four (Satu Mare, Bihor, Sălaj and Cluj being registered with 2.01% (404,561 inhabitants of those 6.10% Hungarians, the following three (Mureş, Harghita and Covasna accounting for 3.03% (609,033 inhabitants, and hence in the corridor are present 5.04% (1,013,594 Hungarians of 6.10% at the level of the entire country. The above mentioned

  3. Critical Issues in Sustainable Tourism Development in Romania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical Issues in Sustainable Tourism Development in Romania: Challenges and ... any other country in the world thus significantly contributing to the income growth. Today, the Romanian hospitality industry confronts itself with problems such ...

  4. Economic crisis and the automotive industry in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosip, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has affected many areas but the auto industry is perhaps one of the most affected. Renault, Ford, General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, BMW are just some of the big players caught unprepared. Through this paper we propose an analysis of the automotive market in Romania in order to understand the sales decrease of the last two years. At the same time we aimed at understanding the reasons that led to a decrease in car sales, what were the measures taken by the government to stop this phenomenon and how the economic crisis influenced the automotive field in Romania. An objective image of the situation in the automobile market in Romania at this moment also requires an analysis of the marketing environment and the changes it has undergone over time. Last but not least we will try to find a series of measures to re-launch the car market in Romania.

  5. RECENT EVOLUTION OF THE CAPITAL MARKETS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to emphasize the main aspects regarding the establishment, development and evolution of the capital market in Romania. This study tries to present the main milestones which marked the evolution of the national capital market from the beginning until now. Even if the first Romanian stock exchange was established in 1881, the modern capital market in Romania is a relatively young, which began to function with the reestablishment of Bucharest Stock Exchange in 1995. The capital market in Romania has a great potential of development. Statistical data presented in this paper, regarding the evolution and the development of the capital market in Romania, emphasizes that this market was and is strongly linked to developments in the real economy.

  6. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS FROM VASLUI, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu DUTA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of market economy requires issues to improve the business environment and stimulate small and medium enterprise (SME in crisis and need recovery of investment in Vaslui, Romania

  7. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA - PRIORITY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Daniel, FLOROIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research developed in the present work is mainly aimed at the development of analysis of foreign direct investment in Romania present, and highlighting positive impact on the Romanian economy. Foreign direct investment has been a growth engine for the Romanian economy, bringing transnational companies and a contribution of 70% in foreign trade of Romania. Given the international economic crisis, foreign direct investment inflows fell above the European Union average, Romania's priority is to create a competitive investment climate to attract them. Therefore, considered vital to attract foreign direct investment in the economy and particularly in agriculture and tourism, as are areas that they can make an important contribution in Romania's gross domestic product, even if at the moment of their contribution is very small.

  8. Priorities in Investment Decisions for Rural Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Popa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania joined the European Union- EU -in 2007, as an emerging economy and rural by excellence and this feature is keeping even in 2012. Difficulty in establishing investment priorities for rural development in Romania is caused by the large size and fragility of the rural area and the fact that all inputs have an inadequate level. The objectives of rural development are strongly influenced by national policy and European policy of the European Union, but also by the politics of international organizations (World Bank Group-WBG, Food and Agriculture Organization-FAO. Investment for climate changes and for infrastructure is strongly correlated and is vital in all states, including Romania. The six EU Priorities for rural development in the period 2014-2020 are also considering priorities for increasing education level and social inclusion in the rural areas, which are other pressing needs in Romania in order to move to a modern agriculture.

  9. STANDARDIZATION NEED OF THE ADAPTED DASH IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela PRECUP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting remains an important skill in school activities. Schools need handwriting assessment tools to monitor children’s performance and to identify those who might need support. The Detailed Assessment of the Speed of Handwriting (DASH is a recently developed tool with UK norms, which may be suitable for use in other countries. However, the focus of the current project is handwriting in Romania where no assessment tools are currently available. Previous study investigated construct validity by examining both age and gender. DASH was translated into Romanian and administered to 100 children from four community schools in Romania. The adapted DASH was suitable for Romanian children. Further data collection is needed to establish norms in Romania before the DASH may be usefully used in Romania.

  10. BANK LENDING EVOLUTION IN ROMANIA DURING 2008-2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentin Mihai Leoveanu

    2016-01-01

    .... Following this approach, the study focuses on analyzing the financial position of banks operating in Romania, the evolution of lending by type of entity and positive/negative aspects about the impact...

  11. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY IN ROMANIA - THE HISTORY OF A NEW BEGINNING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanneke van Bruggen; Raveica Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    ...: occupational therapy. Even the need of this profession was identified in Romania since 2002, when the European Commission strongly recommended to the Ministry of Health and to Romanian authorities for disabled people...

  12. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  13. Destined to be defaulted: Local government insolvency and bailout in post-transition Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barati-Stec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the waves of democratization and the development of the public administration and public finances in Hungary, with special attention municipalities caused by the changes in sub-national finance regulation since 2010. During the transition yeas, Hungary was very forward looking and the first among CEE countries to end central planning and to introduce market rules into the economy. Everybody expected the decentralization to be a success story. 25 years later, Hungary not only failed to meet the expectations, but also undergone though a situation in 2008 to start a massive recentralization process. This paper puts fiscal decentralization in Hungary in a historical context while critically investigating the findings of recent literatures on decentralization process in Hungary. The critical investigation of past experiences and reform steps of the current government suggest possible reform measures to solve the financial problems of Hungarian municipalities.

  14. Aspects of Anti-Semitism in Hungary 1915-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Before 1914 the vocabulary of anti-Semitism was already present in public discourses in Hungary, but it did not yet represent the central problem of a still ‘liberal Hungary.’ With the First World War, the Hungarian middle classes became the main losers in the social disruption of Hungarian society. 1916 must be seen as the turning point of the social splits and divisions. The former policy of the “Burgfrieden,” or party truce, was undermined by the profound psychological experiences of the war. In this context, old anti-Semitic stereotypes prejudices were reactivated while new ones emerged. Jews, in general, came to be treated as internal enemies, earning huge profits from the war at the expense of Christian Hungarian society that was being ruined. This paper analyzes three stages of growing anti-Semitic agitation in Hungarian society during the war: First, the attacks against the banks around 1916; second, the public debate on the Jewish question in 1917, opened by the publication of the book A zsidók útja [The Path of the Jews] by the sociologist Péter Ágoston and intensified by the “inquiry into the Jewish question” of the journal Huszadik Század [Twentieth Century]; third, the surge of anti-Semitism that began with anti-Semitic speeches in the Hungarian Diet in 1917, leading to a broad anti-Semitic campaign by predominantly Catholic newspapers, in which Otto Prohaszka and Bela Bangha were the leading figures. The thesis is that Hungarian anti-Semitism was far from being a spontaneous outburst of popular feelings. It was fairly well organized and coordinated, mainly by ecclesiastical circles. It was the First World War that proved to be the catalyst, contributing to an extreme anti-Semitism and thereby sealing the fate of “liberal Hungary.”

  15. ROMANIA AND THE EURASIAN UNION. PLANS, PREDICTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea-Cristian GHENGHEA

    2016-01-01

    Following the events in Ukraine, Romania might represent one of the key points for the Eurasian perspectives that have circulated in the last years in Moscow. Through our text we intend to present and to highlight the main ideas and plans of Eurasian inspiration regarding Romania, as well as the interesting predictions made, in certain moments, by some representative characters for the Eurasian paradigm, like Aleksandr Dugin, for instance, who is its main ideologist and promoter. At the same ...

  16. Electoral Reform In Romania – An Analytical History (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Radu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to retrace the electoral journey of modern Romania, highlighting the general synchronization procces of democratization of the vote, as well as the changes that occured in the practice of parliamentary election patterns. The favored theory suggests that the democratic development of Romania was coincident with the use of PR-type elections. The first segment of the paper examines the period of evolution between the census vote and the universal suffrage and the system of majority prize.

  17. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  18. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland.......The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  19. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  20. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis strains from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Makrai, László; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Fodor, László; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

  2. Food irradiation in Hungary: commercial processing and development work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, B.; Szikra, L.; Ferencz, P.

    2000-03-01

    The result of an experiment with irradiated frozen poultry meat is presented. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the benefit of irradiation treatment for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. We found that an average dose of 4.5 kGy kills the bacteria in the meat. Agroster was involved in an EU project on the identification of irradiation treatment of spices and data from this project are presented. Commercial irradiation of spices has been used for more than 15 years in Hungary, proving the benefit of this technology

  3. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethes, G. (Allatorvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls.

  4. Start of exploration and mining of uranium ores in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolay, I.; Szomolanyi, G. (Mecseki Ercbanyaszati Vallalat, Pecs II (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The mining of uranium ores is the youngest branch in the history of the Hungarian ore mining. The exploration for uranium ores started in Hungary in the decade from 1947, using simple methods at the beginning to apply more developed technologies later on. From the year 1952 Soviet geologists and geophysicists joined the explorations using the most advanced instruments, in co-operation with the Hungarian experts. From 1953 explorations and developments have been concentrated on the SW area of Mountain Mecsek so that by 1957 the preliminary conditions of a successful Hungarian uranium mining were established.

  5. Analysis of production capacity in coal mining operations. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csicsay, A.; Moharos, J.

    1985-01-01

    The longwall mining machines in coal mines are extremely expensive. In the intensive periods of development most of the investments were expended to this machinery but their productivity was found to stay below expectations. After the assessment of the reasons the solution for this problem was sought and new measures were introduced. The analysis covered the survey of the losses and the service times experienced in 19 heavily mechanized longwall mines representing over half of this type in Hungary. Propositions to reduce time and financial losses and to improve the efficiency of mining machines are presented.

  6. Food irradiation in Hungary: commercial processing and development work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, B.; Szikra, L.; Ferencz, P

    2000-03-01

    The result of an experiment with irradiated frozen poultry meat is presented. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the benefit of irradiation treatment for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. We found that an average dose of 4.5 kGy kills the bacteria in the meat. Agroster was involved in an EU project on the identification of irradiation treatment of spices and data from this project are presented. Commercial irradiation of spices has been used for more than 15 years in Hungary, proving the benefit of this technology. (author)

  7. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  8. Knowledge Economy and its Effects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph. D. Laura Cismas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy implies that the rationality of individuals is limited because they make and adapt their choices in an environment affected by risk and uncertainty. The first part of this paper proposes an analysis of the knowledge economy, based on its interdisciplinary nature. Thus, classical theories adapt to visions that pertain to the dynamics of human interactions, the restructuring of the social network theory, the general equilibrium theory and the game theory.The research part of this paper identifies and explains the link between innovation and knowledge, as well as its effects on the Romanian economy’s competitiveness and innovation. The conclusions illustrate that the consolidation of knowledge-based economy in Romania implies setting certain priorities, such as: investing in education, developing entrepreneurship, creating an innovative and efficient system made up of companies, research centers and universities, which enables new technologies to be absorbed, adapted and created for the society.

  9. Regional Specialisation and Economic Concentration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Olimpia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to give an overview of the changes in the structure of industries in Romania, specifically on the questions (1 whether the industrial structures become more similar or more different in the Romanian regions and (2 whether the Romanian industries become more concentrated or more dispersed. EUROSTAT regional data on Gross Value Added and employed population for the period of 2000-2013 are used in order to calculate several statistical indices of specialization and concentration (Krugman, Entropy, Hirschman-Herfindahl, Lilien Index and Gini coefficient. By comparing the values of these different measurements, the main finding is that Romanian regions become less specialized, while industries become slightly more concentrated. The speed of structural changes in all Romanian regions registered a noticeable slowdown of the speed of sectoral changes after the economic crisis. Our conclusions provide useful information for the economic policy makers in investment funds allocation or employment measures designing.

  10. TRANSITION TO GREEN ECONOMY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE ILEANA GEORGIANA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article had as starting point the evolution of expenditures for environmental protection in Romania. Evolution of environmental expenditures recorded a general upward trend, with a decrease in 2009, which can be explained as a result of the economic crisis. The first step was to conduct an overall analysis. This was followed by an analysis by fields and by categories of producers. The processed data were taken from the National Institute of Statistics. An increase of these expenditures, both overall and by categories was observed from the analysis of trends. This increase suggests an improvement in the implementation of environmental objectives in order to ensure a harmonious and long-term transition to a green economy.

  11. RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA - EVOLUTIONS AND DISCONTINUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu COSTACHIE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of rural tourism since the early '70s, the time of onset, and indicates the discontinuity recorded especially after 1989 until the brink of the preparation for Romania's joining the European Union and the present state, one far behind the countries with extremely high degree of urbanization and industrialization, probably as a result of a lack of strategy for this form of tourism in which the beneficiary is the Ministry of Tourism, as the health tourism and ecotourism have recently had. The location of many villages in areas of outstanding natural landscapes, the richness and variety of cultural heritage that endows them, are issues related to an increased tourism potential that can be capitalized and those unique tourism products that can not be seen, admired and offered by other countries.

  12. Taxation in Romania - News and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The constant motion in which the economic environment is found, the financial implications of the economic crisis on it, the need to correlate the existing legislative provisions in functional structures, the increasing need of the state for financial resources are just a few factors that require a permanent adaptation of the tax system in our country. The reform started in the transition to a market economy and continued in the various steps taken in the long and difficult road to economic development. In this paper are presented the fundamental aspects of the tax system in Romania as well as the measures necessary to ensure a correlation between the fiscal and economic objectives.

  13. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  14. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUCO PAULA – ROXANA,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the process of regional convergence (regarding income wage per capita or on the contrary, the process of regional divergence, between the 42 counties as reference territorial units in Romania, within the period 2005-2014. In the econometric analyze, the models that were developed had the aim to assess the role of macroeconomic determinants on the average net income per capita, exactly the possibility of a more dynamic growth of wages in poorer counties. The results showed a clear trend towards wage convergence, under the impact of multidimensional factors of influence. Our findings confirm the literature on regional convergence, pointing out the importance of economic development level, quality of human capital, technical progress and intensity of innovation activity, improving labor market integration and even a dynamic entrepreneurial activity.

  15. Determinants of Households’ Overdue Loans in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CODIRLASU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s target is to identify macroeconomic and financial variables that are relevant for the evolution and forecassting of the household’s overdue loans in Romania. By employing vector autoregression and systems of ecuations using the SUR methodology, the authors are trying to respond to the following questions: (1 Which are the lags and the individual intensities of the macroeconomic relevant indicators when affecting the household overdue loans rate?; (2 What are the characteristics of the loans reimbursement behavior in case of shocks on the labor, monetary, goods and services markets? The empirical analysis is based on monthly data which allows for assessing the quality of household loan repayment, both in terms of number of overdue loans and in terms of overdue loan volumes. The relevant explanatory variables were used in various configurations and lags for constructing several macroeconomic credit risk models.

  16. RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA - A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ŞTEFAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of national tourist brand is one of the priorities of the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism. The project on branding Romania is EU-funded, within the Regional Operational Program (ROP 2007-2013. Out of the different evaluation point of views - qualitative research in source markets and domestic market, project's team opinions, branding project research on the attractiveness / competitiveness, 6 tourism key product of Romanian tourism have been identified, one of them beeing Countryside &Rural Tourism. The paper aimed to present an analysis of the Countryside and rural tourism from a marketing perspective bearing in mind that, in order to reach the target set by the Romanian National Tourism Development Masterplan 2007-2026, of increasing the number of visitors at 9,7 milion in 2016, a marketing plan will be implemented. The average yearly growth of the arrivals number for the countryside and rural sector for 2011-2015 will be 25%.

  17. Deficits and Growth from Romania's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Andrei MOLDOVAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last eight years Romania has encountereda significant growth of the GDP. However,the economy does not seem capable to value thisgrowth by balancing the budget and reducing thecurrent account deficit, problems that are persistentduring the last period.In 2008 the Romanian economy had thehighest level of budget deficit since the 90’s. Thereis an important debate between the economistson this issue and we have to see if there is anyreason to worry, having in mind the current globalfinancial crisis.This paper tries to analyze the problemsof budgetary deficit, current account deficit andeconomic growth. We will take a look on last periodstatistics and on specific literature, see how thosevariables evolved over time and in different casesand we will try to identify possible connectionsbetween them.

  18. Romania becomes a candidate for accession to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Romanian Minister Daniel Petru Funeriu, and CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. On Thursday 11 February Romanian Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sport, Daniel Petru Funeriu, and CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, signed an agreement that formally recognises Romania as a Candidate for Accession to membership of CERN. Romania’s pre-membership will cover a five-year period during which the country’s contributions will ramp up to normal Member State levels, in parallel with Romania's participation in CERN projects. At the end of this five-year period the Council will decide on Romania's application for full membership, as the Organization's 21st Member State. Romania entered into direct collaboration with CERN in the early 1990s. In recent years Romania has been constantly increasing its expenditure on R&D and this has been intensified since the country's accession to the EU in January 2007. Romania is involved in three LHC experiments, namely ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb . It al...

  19. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  20. Culture And Leadership: The Case Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Elena Hurduzeu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and internationalization lead to the development of a general image of good and effective leadership which influence the local leadership styles and the behavior of leaders. The latter must overcome the conflict between the desire to implement corporate standards which are internationally valid and the need to act locally in terms of organizational culture, business environment and leadership style. The knowledge of the national peculiarities and traditions, the understanding of their heritage and background, coming to grips with them are key-success factors for international co-operations and/or joint-ventures in today’s competitive world. The aim of this paper is to explore the connection between the organizational culture and the leadership style and aims to develop a better understanding of the Romanian leadership. It also provides important information and ideas on the leadership styles practiced in the companies within Romania. The study presents the research findings on the Romanian leadership style and connects it to the political, economic and cultural influences. As far as Romania is concerned, although the variations in the cultural configurations are of a great diversity and complexity, we may, however, identify two distinct types of organizational culture, supporting the hypothesis that these two categories are the extremes of a continuum with a wide variety of expression: a culture of ‘bureaucratic’ type, typical for: state-owned companies, former state firms in the post-privatisation period and the culture of ‘entrepreneurial’ type, in the process of formation, typical for the private companies formed after 1989. The most important problems that appear in the case of the multinational companies refer to the compensation values, sacred and taboo, the management of the gradual conflicts, etnocentrism, affiliation, faulty conciliation and naive realism. The leaders must learn to analyze the cultural

  1. HOW IMPORTANT ARE REMITTANCES FLOWS FOR ROMANIA?

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    Dan\tFlorin\tHREBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By all analyses, the remittances flows describe a trend of significant growth worldwide, over the past two decades, currently representing an extremely important component of capital for the poor and developing countries. Compared to other capital flows (foreign direct investment, development aid or other types of private capital, the remittances size is positioned, generally, only behind FDI, causing direct and indirect socio-economic effects, far more profound than other types of capital. Moreover, studies show that remittances flows tend to a much greater stability over time as compared to other balance of payments flows, especially the exports and the private capital. Romania is an important recipient economy. If in 2000, the value of the entries was 96 million USD, in 2008, the amounts remitted from abroad reached a peak of over 9.2 billion USD, after which, during the global economic crisis, they declined, reaching a value of 3.5 billion USD, in 2013. Over the years, along with FDI, the capital flows from remittances have significantly contributed to the economic growth and to the increase of the welfare of an important part of the population by improving economic and social status. However, how important have the remittances flows proved to be for the economy as a whole? Is there any influence of these amounts on the inflation, labour market, education, or entrepreneurship? How much is Romania losing by dispatching such an important part of its population to work abroad, and how much does it earn from the money remitted home?

  2. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-06-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aquifers. In nearby Arad and Bihor counties, more than 45,000 people are exposed to iAs over 10μg/l via public drinking water sources. However, comparable data are unavailable for Timis County. To begin to address this data gap, we determined iAs in 124 public and private Timis County drinking water sources, including wells and taps, used by pregnant women participating in a case-control study of spontaneous loss. Levels in water sources were low overall (median=3.0; range=water sources compared to 10 women using uncontaminated sources for urine total iAs (6.6 vs. 5.0μg/l, P=0.24) and DMA (5.5 vs. 4.2μg/l, P=0.31). The results suggested that the origin of urine total iAs (r=0.35, P=0.13) and DMA (r=0.31, P=0.18) must have been not only iAs in drinking-water but also some other source. Exposure of pregnant women to arsenic via drinking water in Timis County appears to be lower than for surrounding counties; however, it deserves a more definitive investigation as to its origin and the regional distribution of its risk potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The genus Craterium (Myxomycetes in Poland

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    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an extended list of species of the genus Craterium, hitherto found in Poland.In the monograph on Polish slime moulds Krzemieniewska (1960 3 species and 1 variety of that genus were mentioned. Lately, the following two new species have been recorded: Craterium concinnum Rex. and C. brunneum Nann.-Bremek. Craterium muscorum Ing, reported earlier under the name of Badhamia rubiginosa (Chevall Rostaf. is also included in the present paper. All together, with Cratoium aureum (Schumach. Rostaf. rarely occurring in Poland, and widespread C. minutum (Leers Fr., C. leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar with its variety scyphoides (Cooke et Balf. G. Lister, the number of taxa of the genus Craterium in Poland increased up to 7.

  4. Synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorms in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is an analysis of the impact of synoptic patterns over the landmass of Europe with specific reference to the frequency of the occurrence of thunderstorms in Poland during the period 1971-2008. The subjective analysis of synoptic maps has led to the identification of seven types of synoptic situations for thunderstormy days over the area of Poland. There are four types with characteristic frontal storms: Type 1, a front moving from the western sector connected with a low pressure area situated to the north of Poland; Type 2, similar to Type 1 but with a warm and humid mass of tropical air moving ahead of the front itself; Type 3, a front moving from the North initiated by a high pressure area occurring over Scandinavia; Type 4, with a low pressure centre and accompanying combination of atmospheric fronts over Poland. Two of the identified types of synoptic situations are characterised by days with internal air mass thunderstorms: Type 5, without an atmospheric front and without a high pressure system over Poland; Type 6, with an atmospheric high over the area of Poland. There is also an intermediate type, Type 7, with storms occurring behind the warm atmospheric front moving towards Poland from the South. For the above identified types of synoptic situations an averaged image of the atmospheric pressure field over the area of Europe for both sea level and the height of the 500 hPa geopotential, and any anomalies, was presented by using data concerning the pressure field originating from reanalyses. Applying the correlation research, probability and regression the influence of the above identified seven types on the occurrence of stormy days was defined. Types 2, 4, and 7 bring the most serious likelihood of the occurrence of stormy days. More than 60 of analysed days are related to the activity of cyclonal systems these being Types 1, 2, 3 and 4. Type 2 synoptic situation is identified as the most conducive to the occurrence of days with

  5. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  6. The missing credit informat ion system in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA KIRÁLY

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is one of a few countries that do not operate either a national, non-profit, or a profit oriented business-based complete mandatory credit information system (i.e., credit register or credit bureau. In its absence, the Hungarian banks have not enough information on their borrowers to evaluate their creditworthiness, to apply behavioural scorings or proper risk management and credit pricing tools. The debate on the necessity of a complete credit information system has almost a decade long history in Hungary. Until now, despite all the professi onal arguments, the counter arguments from the point of view of personal data protect ion proved to be stronger. The lack of the complete credit information system became even more painful during the recent financial crisis, when the quality of the retail credit portfolio significantly deteriorated. This paper presents the most important milestones of the institutional history of the struggle for the complete credit information system and analyses the tendencies on the Hungarian retail lending market, with special regard to the lack of it.

  7. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Négyesi, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Kovács, Tamás; László, Elemér; Bihari, Zita

    2016-11-01

    Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover). Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5' resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH) method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0-5 cm) layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc.), to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  8. Lack of evidence of teratogenicity of benzodiazepine drugs in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A

    In order to investigate possible teratogenic effects of commonly used benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam) in Hungary, four approaches were used: 1. A retrospective case-control study of 630 cases with isolated cleft lip +/- cleft palate, 179 cases with isolated cleft palate, 392 cases of multiple congenital anomalies including cleft lip and/or cleft palate, and their matched control cases; 2. The Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Anomalies in Hungary, 1980 to 1984, involving 355 cases with isolated cleft palate, 417 cases with multiple congenital anomalies, and 186 cases with Down's syndrome (as positive controls). Benzodiazepines were taken by 14.9% of 11,073 control pregnant women studied; 3. A prospective study of 33 pregnant women attending the Counselling Clinic following ingestion of benzodiazepines during the first trimester of pregnancy; 4. An observational study involving 12 pregnant women who attempted suicide and one with accidental overdosage with benzodiazepines during pregnancy. None of these four approaches gave any indication of an association between facial clefting and in utero exposure to these substances.

  9. Allelopathic Effects of Invasive Woody Plant Species in Hungary

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    CSISZÁR, Ágnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy may play an important role in the invasion success of adventive plant species.The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive woody plant species occurringin Hungary. Juglone index of fourteen invasive woody plant species in Hungary was determined by themethod of Szabó (1997, comparing the effects of juglone and substance extracted of plant species withunknown allelopathic potential on the germination rate, shoot length and rooth length of white mustard(Sinapis alba L. used as receiver species. Results have proven a more or less expressed allelopathicpotential in case of all species. The juglone index at higher concentration extracts (5 g dry plant materialextracted with 100 ml distilled water of almost every studied species approaches to 1 or is above 1, thismeans the effect of the extracts is similar to juglone or surpasses it. In terms of juglone index, theallelopathic potential of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.Swingle and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. were the highest. Besides these species the treatment withthe extracts of black walnut (Juglans nigra L., black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. and green ash(Fraxinus pennsylvanica MARSH. var. subintegerrima (Vahl Fern. reduced extremely significantly thegermination rate, shoot and root length, compared to the control.

  10. Hungary in transition: Environmental, economic, and political realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csanady, A. (ELTE Nature Conservation Club, Budapest (Hungary)); Csutora, M. (Budapest Univ. of Economic Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Feher, S.; Melanson, M. (Global Environment, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Karas, L. (Peace Corps, Budapest (Hungary). Environmental Programs); Radnai, A. (Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-01-01

    In the several years since the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet government, the unfortunate state of the environment in Hungary has become evident. After the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet approach to resource management and the first free democratic elections in Hungary, the state of the environment improved immediately in some areas due to the bankruptcy of heavy industries suddenly bereft of Soviet subsidies. Currently, the government is struggling with the development of NEPA-like legislation (the Environmental Act), which is intended to be modeled after the environmental acts of western countries and in harmony with the European Communities guidelines. The Environmental Act will include a section dealing with requirements for environmental impacts assessment. The most immediate and obvious environmental problems are air pollution and the contamination of potable groundwater and surface water supplies. Nearly 20% of the population now depends on contaminated drinking water sources, and 40% of the population is exposed to significant air pollution. Sources of ground and surface water contamination are the intensive, centralized agricultural practices which were initiated in the early 1960's, and the disposal of hazardous and toxic wastes by both the private sector and by the Soviet military at abandoned installations throughout the country.

  11. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  12. National Bank of Romania and the Ministry of Finance during the Holocaust in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion Antonescu inspired, coordinated and organized the tragedy of Jews in Romania, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania in the 1940s. However, he was not alone. He had an entire team and an institutional system that worked for making anti-Semitism a state policy and practice. The beginning of WW II from the East meant for the Jews the acceleration of the destructive phase of their destiny. During the meeting of the Council of Ministers of September 6, 1941, Ion Antonescu stated the purpose of the war against the USSR and the drastic measures against the Jewish population.

  13. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  14. The status of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in Hungary: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Halmos Gergő; Nagy Károly; Karcza Zsolt; Szép Tibor

    2015-01-01

    The Hoopoe is a widespread species in Hungary with the strongest populations on the Great plains. The fact that in 2015 it became ‛The Bird of the Year’ in Hungary offers the possibility to summarise the information about the distribution, population size, dispersion, migration as well as the nature conservation status of the Hoopoe population breeding in Hungary. In the period of 1999–2014 the number of breeding pairs and trend of population level was estimated based on the Common Bird Censu...

  15. MONEY LAUNDERING TYPOLOGIES SPECIFIC TO ROMANIA

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    Din Alina Valentina

    2012-07-01

    Directives as well as at the national level; essential characteristics of the activity to prevent and fight against money laundering in Romania, which is mainly the responsibility of the National Department for Money Laundering Prevention and Control - ONPCSB, as well as the financial analysis of the activity to prevent and combat money laundering in Romania within 1999-2011, identifying the specific typologies of money laundering; the connection between money laundering and terrorism financing.

  16. Regional competitiveness in Poland: Creating an index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Miszczuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper looks at the competitiveness from a regional perspective and examines the basic factor which have influence on this phenomenon. This article aims at evaluating Poland¿s regional competitive performance by constructing an overall index, which is composed in accordance with the Huggi

  17. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  18. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  19. Traditional and regional food in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbicka, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Regional and traditional products in the European Union - basic legal regulations. Traditional and regional products in the Polish legislation. National and regional food quality schemes. Quality and safety or traditional and regional food. Polish traditional and regional products registered with the European Union and their characteristics. Opportunities for and barriers to the development of the market of traditional and regional products in Poland.

  20. Lyme disease in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia genus transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes genus. Infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi occur throughout Poland and therefore, according also to ECDC description, the whole country should be considered as an endemic area. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et al., Warsaw 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). The number of cases of Lyme disease in recent years is steadily increasing. In total, 13.870 cases of Lyme disease registered in Poland in 2014, i.e. 8% more cases than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 36.0 per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie voivodeship – 106.8 per 100,000. In 2014, 2.236 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2014, the growth rate of incidence decreased significantly. 8% more cases were registered compared with the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations.

  1. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  2. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  3. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  4. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  5. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign languages other…

  6. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  7. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  8. Museums in Cultural Tourism in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the museums, their potential and their significance for cultural tourism in Poland. Its aims are achieved through a presentation of registered national museums, ‘monuments of history’, museum buildings and the cultural activities undertaken by these institutions

  9. ANALYSIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA - THE PAST FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PĂTRAȘCU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of insurance systems in Romania in the past five years. Unlike other European countries, it can be seen that Romania does not have a well-established insurance tradition. Insurance companies are constantly adapting to the realities of the financial situation and the market structure in Romania.

  10. 78 FR 2709 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Romania AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--Romania... Commissioner of the Office of International Programs has approved a finding that Romania, beginning January...

  11. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or... pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR...

  12. [Gymnastics and therapeutic gymnastics in 19th century Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölnei, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Gymnastics as a way of healing and of preserving health spread in Hungary--almost exclusively among higher classes--only in the first half of the 19th century. The movement was inspired by naturopathic theories of the time, first of all by Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland's macrobiotics, by Vinzenz Priessnitz's hydrotherapy and by his healing gymnastics. Gymnastics has been utilized from the 30ies by a new bough of medicine, orthopaedy. The so called Swedish Gymnastics invented by Per Henrik Ling and by his son Hjalmar Ling or the method of the German gymnast Adolf Spiess were well known in Hungary as well. The pediatrist Agost Schöp-Merei founded the first Institute for Gymnastics in Pest in 1835. As orthopaedy developed, gymnastics was more and more utilized in curing locomotor disorders. Gymnastics however stood in close connection with hydropathy as well. Several institutes for hydropathy and gymnastics were founded in the 50ies and 60ies throughout the country. The most popular of them were those of Károly Siklósy and Sámuel Batizfalvy. Preventive gymnastics gained popularity only in the second half of the 19th century, as 1830 the French gymnast Ignatius Clair moved to Pest and founded the "Pester gymnastische Schule" (Gymnastics School of Pest). This private school flourished till 1863. The Gymnastic Federation of Pest (later National Gymnastics Federation), the first Hungarian sport club was founded in 1866. Tivadar Bakody played an important role in its creation. Gymnastics and sport at the beginning were closely connected with fire-service, so gymnastics clubs often functioned also as fire-guard-bodies. In the 70ies and 80ies the social basis of sport movement was slowly broadened out. The end of the century saw already 44 gymnastics-clubs in Hungary united in a single union, the National Federation of Gymnasts, which organized the education of the profession as well. The trend of development didn't cease up to the Great War. This time the movement was

  13. Landslide susceptibility estimations in the Gerecse hills (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, Gerzsenyi; Gáspár, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Surface movement processes are constantly posing threat to property in populated and agricultural areas in the Gerecse hills (Hungary). The affected geological formations are mainly unconsolidated sediments. Pleistocene loess and alluvial terrace sediments are overwhelmingly present, but fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the latest Miocene, and consolidated Eocene and Mesozoic limestones and marls can also be found in the area. Landslides and other surface movement processes are being studied for a long time in the area, but a comprehensive GIS-based geostatistical analysis have not yet been made for the whole area. This was the reason for choosing the Gerecse as the focus area of the study. However, the base data of our study are freely accessible from online servers, so the used method can be applied to other regions in Hungary. Qualitative data was acquired from the landslide-inventory map of the Hungarian Surface Movement Survey and from the Geological Map of Hungary (1 : 100 000). Morphometric parameters derived from the SRMT-1 DEM were used as quantitative variables. Using these parameters the distribution of elevation, slope gradient, aspect and categorized geological features were computed, both for areas affected and not affected by slope movements. Then likelihood values were computed for each parameters by comparing their distribution in the two areas. With combining the likelihood values of the four parameters relative hazard values were computed for each cell. This method is known as the "empirical probability estimation" originally published by Chung (2005). The map created this way shows each cell's place in their ranking based on the relative hazard values as a percentage for the whole study area (787 km2). These values provide information about how similar is a certain area to the areas already affected by landslides based on the four predictor variables. This map can also serve as a base for more complex landslide vulnerability studies involving

  14. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF DISABLED EMPLOYERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES IN HUNGARY

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    Nóra Nagymáté

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays employment is an evergreen topic in Hungary. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the state (on the basis of the 8/1983. EüM-PM Hungarian Law, for example for the group n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. My main goal is to analyze the n#8216;rehabilitationn#8217; of disabled people and to study the related firms and the connection between the employers and employees. My intentions were also to create a strategy for these people to be employed again and for the firms to be motivated to employ them. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217; can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities. Unfortunately, most of the enterprises donn#8217;t intend to employ disabled persons. Questionnaires were created in order to study the relationship between people living with disabilities and their possibilities to get employed on the labour market again. My study had two phases. In the first phase we focused on individual persons providing anonymity of the questionnaires. The research focused on special rehabilitation firms and their employees too (they are specialised to employ disabled employers. Two questionnaires for the above mentioned firms and their employees were created in order to gather information on their activities as well as relationship between the firms and its employees. It can be stated that this paper shows the relationship between the employers and employees. I will analyze the importance of factors in working among employers and

  15. Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Romania

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    Corina-Liana MANIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A comparative research regarding the occurrence and evolution patterns of the HIV-AIDS epidemic between Romania and the major areas (Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and the USA, respectively in order to establish the current trends of the diseases and the specific prognosis. Material and Methods: The research represents a systematic study over the entire period, of the HIV-AIDS pandemic from 1981-2008, based on specialty literature published in English or Romanian. In addition to theses, published articles, materials presented at conferences and congresses, reports and information from the main governmental and international organizations such as WHO, CDC, UNAIDS have been consulted. Results: Romania was the first country in Central and Eastern Europe to announce the diagnosis of an AIDS case in 1985. Since then, the prevalence per 100000 population of HIV infection cases, has demonstrated an ascending trend from 0.27 in 1992 to 19.67 in 2007. HIV-AIDS infection in children from Romania is unique worldwide. Therefore, from the cumulative total of 7606 AIDS pediatric cases between 1989-2007, 4885 have had a nosocomial transmission. The mother-to-child transmission is well controlled in Romania, similar to the USA. High-risk groups (injecting drug users or men having sex with men, represent a small percentage among the Romanian HIV-AIDS and SSA cases, compared to the USA. Romania, similar to the rest of Europe and USA, has not experienced in general population.

  16. The Potential Sources of Change in Romania Regional Policy

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    Gabriela Marchis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous debates on a new territorial organization of Romania during 2013 and 2014. The miracle of Romania regionalization was deemed to have contradictory effects from territorial construction to dissolution. Due to the presidential elections from the end of 2014, the process of regionalization was postponed, but some questions are still very alive: It is necessary to regroup counties into regions? The low development of Romania regions is caused by the lack of administrative decentralization? In Romania, territorial reform is synonym with institutional reform? Therefore, I consider that it is important to identify the potential sources of change in Romanian regional policy. The political debates on Romanian regionalization were mainly focus on political interests, without taking into account an important serious of factors that can spur growth and socio-economic development across our regions. Through this paper I try to investigate the specialised literature in order to identify some useful policy suggestions from regional scientists, which would be proper for Romania regional development, in the current context of Europe 2020 strategy.

  17. ANALYSIS ON THE PHENOMENON OF POPULATION'S MIGRATION IN ROMANIA

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    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the migratory movement of population from Romania. Demographic dynamics of the last decade confirms that Romania's population declined. The demographic developments in Romania have mainly economic reasons (examples : migration, low birth rate, rural - urban migration. The comparative analysis of statistical data obtained in the population censuses of 2002 and 2011 shows that the most of the Romanian communities have lost population due to a negative natural and migratory growth. Fron the situation of the absent population ( migrants at the time of the population census, between 2002 and 2011 is that the number of those who have left home for longer periods has increased exponentially. Most of those absents from their home at the time of the last population census were living abroad. Romania needs a realistic vision of economic and social development in the coming decades. In defining and naming a strategy for sustainable development, population is the central element and from this perspective one of the strategy component should be to stop the demographic skidding. Simultaneously with the decrease of the total population, Romania records a demographic aging trend. The causes are both negative natural growth ( low birth rate combined with high mortality and also the migration phenomena. Projections show that these trends will persist on the medium and long term.

  18. ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE ON FORESTS IN ROMANIA

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    Ildiko\tIOAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests are one of the richest ecosystems in terms of biomass stock and this potential is augmented by a broad range of ecosystem services that contribute to human wellbeing by protecting air from pollution, soil from runoff, landscapes from flooding and landslides. This high economic and ecologic potential is well acknowledged, but in specific circumstances short terms gains resulting from the valuation of wood or from conversion of land to other uses are prevailing and create powerful incentives for overexploitation or deforestation. The anthropogenic pressure on forests was and continues to remain high at global level, although there are states where it was successfully controlled. Nevertheless, the forest cover is shrinking increasing the associated threats that result from the cancellation of the forests’ ecosystem services. Of particular importance in the current context is the reduction of forests’ carbon sequestration potential, which is of crucial importance in climate change mitigation. The patterns of unfavourable circumstances are analysed in order to outline the most important challenges of forest management in Romania, but also the impact of novel ecosystem service based economic tools that are aimed to strengthen the incentives for sustainable forest management and to avoid conversion of forests to other land use types.

  19. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on documentation and observation has been carried out using the observation sheet and contained the following analysis criteria: The name of the product, Country origin of the product (location of the producer. Synthesizing the results and the conclusions emerged as a result of the marketing research carried out with the purpose of contouring a labelling model of alimentary products, it can be stated that the dynamics of the alimentary products market in Romania is moderate and restrained by the economical and social factors and even by the still reduces promotion of a healthy alimentary education, with the complementary protection of human health and environment.

  20. Industry in growth poles of Romania

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    Cristina Iacoboaea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive industry can reduce costs and prices, can create new products, thus contributing significantly to productivity growth throughout the economy. The industry is also the main source of innovation necessary for society to meet the challenges faced. Growth poles have the ability to spread economic development in adjacent areas and contributes significantly to the territorial development of the country. This article aims to analyze the current state of industry growth poles of Romania, in terms of number of employees, distribution of sub-industries and density of firms in industry. It also highlights business structures and industry clusters located in the growth poles, as solutions for boosting economic growth and creation of added value. Analysis performed leads to the conclusion that all growth poles are engines of economical development in the industry for the regios of origin. We distinguish growth poles Timişoara and Cluj-Napoca whose economic advantage is given by the favorable position close to the markets of the European Union.

  1. EVOLUTIONS IN CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ROMANIA

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    RABONTU CECILIA IRINA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction, in the conception of several specialists, are a part of the tertiary sector and therefore are considered service activities. Lately we are witnessing a significant increase in services activities, be it civil or industrial construction, be it interior design or road construction. One of the most dynamic sectors of the Romanian economy is the construction industry, and we say this because we are witnessing in recent years to an increase of specialized companies number, entering the Romanian market of a large number of companies representing multinationals and major investments in projects scale. Another determining factor in the evolution of the construction market in Romania refers to increasing the comfort level required by the population, something that sets new construction, modification of existing investments in interior design of living spaces or industrial ones. We will try in this paper to support the idea that construction are service activities and present trends of development of this highly specific branches of the national economy. We will make a trip in time to determine the trend of development but also in space to have an overview of the level of construction development in various regions of the country. We will use in this sense the specialty literature and statistical data available at the moment.

  2. Research about Quality Life in Romania

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    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available he life quality research is in fact a major field of the analysis on the social and economic evolution of a country. The living standard (life quality keeps on being a quite sensitive issue as it implies a number of both methodological and or organizational aspects. The most frequently the life quality is studied on the basis of the surveys being organized at the households level.These surveys (investigations at random must be achieved in such a way that, by extending the data, they allow us to stick with the fore casted margin of error. This is specifically the reason for this material to briefly bring up the methodology which is applying when organizing a survey. Out of the immensity of data we have selected, after processing them, those conclusions which we considered as being the most significant for suggesting the life quality in Romania. The work includes tables and graphs, being abundantly thrown into relief by absolute and relative data.

  3. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

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    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOȘ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC, and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern times. The purpose of this article is to present the models of internal control in Romania, starting from the principles of the classical model of internal control (COSO model. For a better understanding of the implication of internal control in terms of public and private sector, I have structured the article in the following parts: (a the definition of internal control in the literature; (b the presentation of the COSO model; (c internal control and internal audit in public institutions; (d internal control issues in accounting regulations on the individual and consolidated annual financial statements; (e internal / managerial control; (f conclusions.

  4. Recent changes in precipitation extremes in Romania

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    Adina-Eliza CROITORU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in daily extreme precipitations have been identified in many studies conducted at local, regional or global scales. In Romania, only little research on this issue has been done so far. The present study is focused on the analysis of the trends in daily extreme precipitations indices over a period of 53 years (1961-2013. Data sets of daily precipitation recorded in 34 weather stations were analyzed. Among them, three are located in the Carpathian Mountains area and four are located on the Black Sea Coast. The main goal was to find changes in extreme daily precipitation using a set of 13 indices adopted from the core indices developed by ETCCDMI with appropriate modifications to suit to the studied area. The series of the indices as well as their trends were generated using RClimDex software. The trends have been calculated using the linear mean square method. The findings are similar to those obtained at the global and European continental scales and the most noteworthy are: increasing trends dominate for the most of the indices, but only about 25% of them are statistically significant at α=0.05; decreasing trends are more specific to southern area of the country; decreasing trends of  R0.1, CDD and CWD dominate for the great majority of locations; the spatial distribution of the significant slopes in the area is extremely irregular.

  5. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment in Romania

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    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and ability to create it, access and use effectively, has long been both an instrument of innovation and competition and a key economic and social development. However, a series of dramatic changes in recent years have increased the importance of knowledge for generating competitive advantage. Ability to process and use information globally and instantly increased exponentially in recent years due to a combination of scientific progress in computing and distributed computing, exacerbation of competition, innovation in all its forms and cuts of operating costs in global communication networks. As barriers to access knowledge regarding a process, product or market are gradually decreasing (distance, geographical features, and costs, knowledge and skills are becoming increasingly a key to competitiveness, both locally and globally. This paper, based on a survey of 551 Romanian companies, address a sensitive issue of both business and academic fields – perception of knowledge based economy in Romanian companies. Its conclusion can guide decision makers in Romania to develop an integrated approach to foster knowledge based economy in our country.

  6. Good prospects for green energy in Romania

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    Mariana Papatulica

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has to attain the strategic objectives for 2020: 20% of energy from renewable sources, cutting the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20% and diminishing the dependence on imported fuels, that is why in the last years European Commission has decided that MS should increase the flexibility of programs to promote green energy and cut subsidies. Although wind and solar energy have become more competitive in terms of cost in the last two decades, many production technologies need to be improved, also storage and transport capacities. Romania has an important potential of renewable energy resources and has introduced a functional mechanism for supporting their development based on a system of mandatory quotas for electricity, combined with trading a number of green certificates, but all the costs are transferred to the consumers.This system may carry an overcompensation for the investors and also an excessive burden on the consumers. Most investments were made in wind and hydro, the fewest in solar and biomass. Market liberalization may create more competition and stimulate the investments in different renewable resources.

  7. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

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    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  8. Romania: Childbearing metamorphosis within a changing context

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    Christin Schröder

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the socialist regime in Romania collapsed and the state's coercive pro-natalist policy ended. Since then, fertility has gone through major changes, namely, a massive reduction in fertility and important structural changes: birth postponement, an end to universal childbearing, and the emergence of non-marital births. Family formation has been postponed, but a pattern of early marriage still persists compared to other European countries. Although unmarried cohabitation is rising, it is rarely seen as an alternative to marriage. Modern contraceptive methods are being used increasingly, but traditional contraceptive methods continue to be widespread. Abortion, which was re-legalized in 1989 and made available after two decades of prohibition, has been practiced extensively ever since, especially after first birth. Romanians in 2004 continue to have a universal preference for parenting. However, the preference for the two-child family has declined and the desire for a larger family has become the exception. The transformation of the socialist regime into a democratic society with a market economy generated a socio-economic crisis, and the majority of social benefits have therefore been oriented towards alleviating poverty. Other social policies, including those affecting the family, were redefined. However, fewer funds were made available than for those geared to promote economic development or reduce poverty and, as a consequence, their impact on childbearing has been small.

  9. The reconstruction of science and technology in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pungor, E.; Nyiri, L.

    1993-01-01

    The revolutionary changes that have taken place in Eastern and Central Europe were triggered by a deep socio-economic and political crisis - primarily caused by the fact that these countries could not respond to the increasingly decisive challenges encountered since the mid 1970s. The intensive growth of the role of scientific and technological factors in competitiveness was not evident in the COMECON markets. One of the most interesting, and at the same time most exciting tasks of the ongoing transformation process is exactly how to change this situation. Hungary has set out to transform its complete science and technology system, based on the knowledge acquired in basic research, the existing system of international relations, and cultural traditions going back many centuries. 4 tabs.

  10. Management of black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species to be imported from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is the most important fast-growing stand-forming tree species in Hungary . Black locust plantations can be successfully established in response to arange of economic and ecological opportunities. Plantation survival and productivity are maximized by matching the species' growth characteristics with silvicultura l options and land management needs. In the paper the sequence of forest tending operations in black locust stands is proposed, based on results of long-term st and structure and forest yield trials. Implementing good silvicultural plans and models will lead to profitable black locust stands and greater acceptance of the species by land managers. Black locust would also beavery useful species for energy productions as the related research results have been shown in the paper .

  11. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

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    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  12. Talent identification in Hungary: From identification to investigation

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    Szilvia Péter-Szarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of talent identification practices and challenges in Hungary. First, it gives a summary of gifted education in the country; then the general challenges of talent identification are introduced: difficulties of defining talent, talent as potential, environmental factors, the role of perseverance and motivation, and individual variety. Later, recent Hungarian identification practices are shown, followed by a summary and a conclusion about how our identification practice should be developed into an investigation of individual characetristics. We propose stronger focus on the use of cognitive profile tests, investigation of interest-based characteristics, the use of observation and dynamic assessment methods, teacher nomination and emphasizing the need for effort. The focus from identification toward investigation exploring individual needs and characteristics to provide the most appropriate pathway for development in the 21st century seems to be a more effective way of talent support than mere selection.

  13. Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, T; Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Varga, I

    2003-08-14

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence and worm burden of extraintestinal nematodes in 100 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Hungary. The overall prevalence of nematode infections of the respiratory tract was 76%. Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila) was the predominant species (66%), followed by Crenosoma vulpis (24%), Eucoleus (Capillaria) böhmi (8%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (5%). Pearsonema (Capillaria) plica was found in 52% of the urinary bladders. In 3% of the foxes, Trichinella britovi was present in muscle samples. The high prevalence of lungworms and P. plica and the fox colonisation in urban areas may enhance the prevalence of these nematode infections in domestic dogs and cats, and the flow of T. britovi from the sylvatic cycle to the domestic cycle, enhancing the risk of infections in humans.

  14. Neolithic pottery at Polgar-10 (Hungary: measuring the habitus

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    John Chapman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is self-evidently true that ceramics form the largest component of the artefact assemblages of the Neolithic and Copper Age of Central and Eastern Europe, yet we are still poorly informed about the final stage of the life of most vessels – their ultimate disposal. In this paper, I wish to consider the ways in which pottery can be studied with respect to disposal and deposition. An assessment of ten different kinds of pottery analysis is made, using site single contexts as the main unit of analysis. I propose that these analyses constitute ways of measuring Bourdieu’s term “habitus”. This contextual analysis is based on examples taken from the Neolithic settlement of Polgar-10, in North East Hungary, excavated by the Upper Tisza Project in 1994.

  15. STATISTICAL INFLUENCE OF LOCAL WEATHER ON CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN HUNGARY

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    J. MIKA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible effects of weather anomalies on mortality in cardiovascular illnesses are investigated in Hungary. Long-term (1971-2005 archives of ca. 2.0 million fatalities are analyzed. The mortality data are individually opposed to seven diurnal meteorological parameters, i.e. the mean, maxima and minima of temperature, cloudiness, wind speed, relative humidity and sea-level pressure. All investigations are performed for Budapest, with ca. 2 million urban dwellers, and for the rest of the county (the ‘rural’, representing over 8 million inhabitants in average of the 35 investigated years. The results support the decreasing (in winter and increasing (in summer effect of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in the rural environment, but this effect is not evident in summer for Budapest. Statistical effects of the other weather variables are less unequivocal.

  16. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improvement in Hungary: a Review

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    RÉDEI, Károly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the first forest tree species introduced andacclimated from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is a fast growing,nitrogen fixing, site tolerant, excellent coppicing species with frequent and abundant seed productionand relatively high yielding potential. It has a durable and high quality wood, which is used for manypurposes. Although native of North America, black locust is now naturalized and widely plantedthroughout the world from temperate to subtropical areas. In Hungary, this species has played a role ofgreat importance in the forest management, covering approximately 23% of the forested area andproviding about 19% of the annual timber output of the country. Due to the increasing interest in blacklocust growing in many countries, this study has been compiled with the aim of giving a summary onthe basis of research and improvement connected with the species over the past decades.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

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    Anna Paldy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality. Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mortality by 10%; and the risk of death due to cardio-vascular diseases by 12%. The frequency of heat waves has been increasing since the nineties. The most extreme heat wave hit the country in 2007 with an excess mortality around 1100 cases. A three level heat health warning system was launched in 2005 as an action to support adaptation. A significant association was found between global radiation and the increase of melanoma cases. The incidence of melanoma morbidity increased between 2003– 2008, the number of new cases changed from 1854 to 2610. The data of the previous years support that there is an increasing risk of vector borne diseases, as the continuous increase of the incidence of Lyme diseases (15% per year showed it. Although tick-borne encephalitis is present in the country, the incidence of the disease does not show a strong correlation with climate variability. Diseases like West Nile virus and Hanta virus infection appeared and showed an increasing tendency. The vector of Leishmaniasis also appeared in Hungary. Another consequence of climate change is the temporal and spatial change of allergenic plant species. New, invasive plants will appear, the length of pollination has been increasing.

  19. Dynamics of linguistic and social change: Minority languages in Hungary and the sociolinguistic situation of Serbian

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    Ilić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, minority languages and processes of language shift/maintenance have become an important scholarly concern. This paper aims to describe in brief the sociolinguistic situation of the Serbian minority language in Hungary with special attention paid to the relation between language ideology and processes of language shift/maintenance. The first section of this paper presents the current socio-political framework for protection of minority languages in Hungary. The second paper's section provides an overview of the main sociolinguistic surveys of the minority languages in Hungary that have had many centuries of contact with Serbian i.e. German, Romanian, Bulgarian, and Croatian. Finally, the paper provides a quick recapitulation of the Serbian language research in Hungary, and depicts the current sociolinguistic situation of Serbian.

  20. STUDY ON EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA FOR MEASURE 313

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    Florentina D. MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013 to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.