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Sample records for hungary latvia lithuania

  1. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  2. Ritual, Power and Historical Perspective: Baptism and Name-giving in Lithuania and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Paukštytė-Šaknienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Power in our life can certainly be expressed in a variety of ways. One of them is power transmission through life cycle rituals. Soviet rule denied “religious traditions” and tried to form a new atheistic communist culture (and traditions. The new rituals were expected to replace older religious rites because communist morality and socialist internationalism was expected to overpower bourgeois nationalism. As indicated by scholars investigating into Soviet rituals and by my fieldwork data collected in 1999 in Northeast Lithuania and in 1998 in Southeast Latvia, the mission of creating communist traditions has not always been successful. I shall try to examine this process in my article by analysing the cases of “traditional” baptism as well as the phenomenon of the so-called “modern” name-giving ritual in Latvia and Lithuania.

  3. Ritual, Power and Historical Perspective: Baptism and Name-giving in Lithuania and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Paukštytė-Šaknienė

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Power in our life can certainly be expressed in a variety of ways. One of them is power transmission through life cycle rituals. Soviet rule denied “religious traditions” and tried to form a new atheistic communist culture (and traditions. The new rituals were expected to replace older religious rites because communist morality and socialist internationalism was expected to overpower bourgeois nationalism. As indicated by scholars investigating into Soviet rituals and by my fieldwork data collected in 1999 in Northeast Lithuania and in 1998 in Southeast Latvia, the mission of creating communist traditions has not always been successful. I shall try to examine this process in my article by analysing the cases of “traditional” baptism as well as the phenomenon of the so-called “modern” name-giving ritual in Latvia and Lithuania.

  4. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  5. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.; Cowley, M.; Moreton, T.; Wells, D.

    2003-01-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five of the Central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries that are being considered for admission to the EU, namely, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. Two previous studies have considered the situation in the current EU member states(1) and in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia(2). The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in the five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is a description of the current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in the five countries with EU standards (Section 2). Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered (sometimes known as lost or orphan sources) SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. In addition, there is a description in each of Sections 3 to 7 of the management of 226 Ra sources, which is receiving special attention in many countries (Table I provides a summary and comparison of the management of 226 Ra in the five countries).both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and many other countries, including the EU member states, is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap metal. The detection of

  6. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  7. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  8. Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Renata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

  9. Factors associated with Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cold-smoked pork products produced in Latvia and Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins,-A; Horman,-A; Lunden,-J; Korkeala,-H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 312 samples of sliced, vacuum packaged, cold-smoked pork from 15 meat processing plants in Latvia and Lithuania, obtained over a 15-month period from 2003 until 2004, were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at the end of their shelf-life. Overall, 120 samples (38%) tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Despite the long storing period, the levels of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked pork products were low. Manufacturing processes were studied at seven meat processing ...

  10. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  11. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  12. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  13. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  14. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  15. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sarsh, Bart; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The rates of alcohol-attributable mortality in Lithuania and Hungary have been shown to be higher than those in most other European countries. Quality of alcohol products is investigated as a possible explanation. In a descriptive pilot study, a convenience sample of alcohol products was collected from local city markets in both countries (Lithuania n = 10, Hungary n = 15) and chemical analyses, including some that have not been done in prior studies, were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, anions (including nitrate) and inorganic elements (including lead). Additionally, a multi-target screening analysis for toxicologically relevant substances was conducted. The majority of samples (64%) had an alcohol content between 35% vol. and 40% vol., being in accordance with the typical strength of legal spirits in Europe. Three samples containing significantly higher concentrations of alcohol above 60% vol. were found to be unrecorded alcohol products, defined as any alcohol that is outside of legal and taxed production. Screening analysis showed that those samples contained various flavourings, including the hepatotoxic substance coumarin, at concentrations above the legal limit for foods. All other substance classes under study were found to be at levels of no toxicological concern. Although some problems with the quality of the alcohol samples were found, there is insufficient evidence from this pilot study to conclude that alcohol quality has an influence on health as reflected in alcohol-attributable mortality rates. Given the extent of alcohol-attributable disease burden in central and eastern European countries, future research should focus on collection of large, representative samples, particularly of unrecorded sources, which was the most problematic product group in our study.

  16. The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Reile, Rainer; Rezeberga, Dace; Karnite, Anda; Logminiene, Zeneta; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Nygård, Mari

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported genital warts (GWs) among women and men aged 18-45 years in the Baltic countries. In 2011-2013 we performed a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on the history of clinically diagnosed GWs, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Probability sampling methods were used to invite 16,959 individuals representing the general population, of whom 7760 (45.8%) participated (Estonia: 1967 women, 1221 men; Latvia: 1525 women, 1525 men; Lithuania: 1522 women). The estimated lifetime prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs in women was 4.6% (95% CI 3.8 to 5.5) in Estonia, 2.9% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.6) in Latvia and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) in Lithuania. Among men, the corresponding values were 2.8% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) in Estonia and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in Latvia. The mean age at first episode of clinically diagnosed GW was 24.6 years (95% CI 23.6 to 25.5) for women and 24.5 years (95% CI 22.9 to 26.0) for men. A lifetime history of clinically diagnosed GW was associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections other than GW (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.3 for women; AOR 5.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.2 for men), and a higher number (5+) of lifetime sexual partners (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.2 for women; AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9 for men). Men living comfortably within their household income had higher odds for GW (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). Our estimated prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs was lower than estimates from the general population of other European countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    In this discussion of Hungary, attention is directed to the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations between the US and Hungary. In 1985 the population totaled 10.7 million with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate is 20.2/1000 live births; life expectancy is 66 years for men and 73.2 years for women. Hungary was a monarchy for almost 1000 years. Its constitutional parliamentary system preceded, by several centuries, the establishment of such Western-style governments in other East European countries. A communist dictatorship seized power in May/June 1947. The Hungarian uprising of 1956, although forcibly suppressed by Soviet armed intervention, gave impetus to long overdue changes and clearly demonstrated the popular will for national identity and internal reform. With the exception of various small businesses with few employees, all economic activity is run by state-owned enterprises or cooperatives. Agriculture has been collectivized. Hungary has rich bauxite mines and provides for most of its coal and natural gas requirements. Introduction of the "new economic mechanism" in 1968 ushered in a period of rapid growth, accompanied by equilibrium in the balance of trade. Yet, in the early 1970s a number of factors combined to blunt the reform effort, and in 1977 government leaders recognized the need for a new reform effort. Hungary is highly dependent on foreign trade, about 50% of which is with other communist countries. Except for the brief and unsuccessful attempt in November 1956 to establish a position and course of neutrality for Hungary, the foreign policy of the Hungarian government has followed closely the Soviet Union since 1947. In recent years, US/Hungarian relations have featured a steady exchange of official visits.

  18. Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszay, T.

    1990-01-01

    The economy of Hungary remains intensive in both materials and energy. However, Hungary has the prospect of reducing energy intensity, as well as carbon emissions, by integrating itself with the world economy and introducing modern products and production technologies. This high energy intensity is relatively good news because it means that by changing the production structure, personal income may be increased considerably without necessarily increasing energy use and carbon emissions. The government significantly altered the Hungarian energy economy in 1978 by restricting oil and oil products use and requiring substitution with domestic coal, imported electricity, and natural gas. This decision required investment in energy supply to grow to 40% of all industrial investment by 1986

  19. Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given of the activities of Hungary in the field of food irradiation. Two new radiation sources were installed at the Central Food Research Institute, Budapest in 1971. A lot of work was done in the field of radiation chemistry, radiation microbiology (radurization of spices and wine, combination treatment of meat products and fruits) and radiation treatment of various commodities such as spices, vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices. Wholesomeness studies of irradiated standard diet and spices were performed in rats. A short review is given of the present status of legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  20. Presence of Human Bocavirus 1 in Hospitalised Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Latvia and Lithuania / Cilvēka Bokavīrusa 1 Klātbūtne Latvijā Un Lietuvā Hospitalizētiem Bērniem Ar Akūtām Elpceīu Slimībām

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Krūkle Zaiga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1 is a parvovirus recently found to be a possible aetiologic agent of acute respiratory disease in children. We conducted the first clinical and molecular study on this virus in Latvia (LV and Lithuania (LT. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of HBoV1 in respiratory tract samples taken from hospitalised children with acute respiratory tract infections in LV and LT. In total 186 children with age one to 50 months, and who fulfilled criteria of acute respiratory tract infection, including lower respiratory tract infections, with or without fever, were included in this study. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained from each patient on admission. DNA was isolated and polimerase chain reaction (PCR performed targeting the HBoV1 NS1sequence. HBoV1 positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. HBoV1 sequence was detected in 42 (32% of 130 LV and in 8 (14% of 56 LT samples. In LV the majority of patients with HBoV1 infection were observed in February while in LT in October. The phylogenetic tree for HBoV1 indicated that isolates of HBoV1 cluster closely and include almost all of the isolates in this study. HBoV1 is common in Latvia and Lithuania and might be a significant pathogen that contributes to acute respiratory tract infections in children.

  1. National legislative and regulatory activities: Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Armenia: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New procedure for investigation of nuclear power plant operational events, New requirements for the accounting of radiation sources). Australia: Radioactive waste management (New law regarding the development of a radioactive waste management facility). Austria: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Substantive changes to nuclear safety and radiation protection requirements). Belgium: Nuclear security (New requirements for the protection of critical infrastructures); Nuclear safety (Changes to safety measures for nuclear facilities); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New requirements regarding the detection of orphan sources, New requirements regarding medical uses of radiation, A new framework for monitoring radon exposure). Brazil: Nuclear security (Establishment of new nuclear security organisation). France: Liability and compensation (Increase in the amount of operator liability in case of nuclear incident); General legislation (New comprehensive requirements for basic nuclear installations, New report by the Court of Auditors (Cour des Comptes) on the costs of nuclear energy). Germany: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Amendments to the Radiation Protection Ordinance and to the X-Rays Ordinance); Transport of radioactive material (New consolidated versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods); International trade (Changes to the list of foreign trade laws and regulations, Changes to the basic legal instruments governing foreign trade). Hungary: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Changes to nuclear safety requirements); General legislation (Modification of Act CXVI of 1996 on Atomic Energy). India: Liability and compensation (Final versions of recent liability and compensation legislation available online). Ireland: Transport of radioactive material (New regulations relating to the transport of dangerous goods by road). Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  2. International Companies Withdrawal from Lithuania: Problematics and Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Tauraitė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main attention in this article is focused on the problematic of international companies’ withdrawal from Lithuania and presentation of alternative solutions of this problem. The macro(Sweden, Austria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland level analysis and micro (“Coca-Cola”, “Nordea” and DNB, “Orkla” level analysis showed that competitiveness, business conditions, employment relations, institutional environment and innovation should be improved and the corruption should be reduced in Lithuania. It is advisable that current Lithuanian Labour Code should be revised in order to increase the efficiency of labour relations. It is found out that the significance of “Coca-Cola”company is the highest in the context of the withdrawing companies from Lithuania. It is assumed that the most rational solution for each company is to move from Lithuania to another country.

  3. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  4. Energy and economic development in Lithuania and neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskas, V.; Shtremeikiene, D.

    1995-01-01

    In Lithuania as also in neighbouring countries (Poland, Latvia, Belarus, Russia) economic reforms are going on. All these countries, better or worse, slower or quicker, are restructuring their economies from centrally planned into market based ones. The neighbouring countries also are the main Lithuania's trading partners, and Russia is a sole supplier of crude oil and natural gas. This article deals with the analysis of the latest economic development in Lithuania and in neighbouring countries, as well as with it impact on the development of the Lithuanian energy sector. The analysis is based on the statistical data of the last few years and on some projections of future development. (author). 12 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs

  5. Methodological and Technical Aspects of Power Sector Liberalisation of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Viksna, I.; Zeltinsh, N.

    2001-01-01

    A successful liberalisation of energy markets is taking place in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), that is why it is important to investigate the methodological and technical aspects as well as the effect of this process upon the development of energy supply in the North European region. Energy supply to the Baltic countries is characterised by the fact that energy resources there are mainly supplied from the CIS, where there is a rather difficult prognostic energy market with sharp price fluctuations (sometimes supplies are completely cut). At the same time, by using the CIS energy resources, the development of the energy sector may significantly influence the total North European energy supplies. Energy saving measures and energy-efficient technologies in the following years will greatly influence energy market and energy consumption. This is an actual problem for such countries as Latvia, where the main part of its energy carriers is imported from neighbouring countries.(author)

  6. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  7. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P; Kashkarova, G [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1998-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  8. Lithuania's utility chief lashes out at Poland, Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Lietuvos Energija tegevjuht Rymantas Juozaitis kritiseeris Poolat ja Lätit viivitamise pärast energiasilla rajamisel Leedu ja Poola ning Läti ja Rootsi vahel. Aleksandras Abisala Leedu energiavarudest

  9. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao China...

  10. Environmental performance reviews. Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ECE Committee on Environmental Policy included the Environmental Performance Review of Latvia in its work programme in May 1997. The review team prepared a report on the environmental performance of Latvia before, during and after the review mission in Riga in April 1998. The report by the review team, including draft recommendations for the solution of existing problems in national environmental policy and management, was submitted for evaluation to the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy at its annual session in Geneva, on 1 October 1998. A high-level delegation from Latvia attended this session. It was headed by the State Minister for Environmental Protection and also included representatives of the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Welfare. The evaluation by the Committee was based on the in-depth preparation by two reviewing countries, Portugal and Ukraine. At the end of its evaluation, the Committee agreed on a final set of recommendations for inclusion in this publication. The consideration of the EPR report confirmed the strategy that has been applied to Latvian environmental policy and management during the transition period. The inherited acute environmental problems have been tackled essentially on a case by case basis. The long-term solution of the problems will have to be accompanied also by strategic orientations for environmental policy. The development of such orientations in co-operation with both governmental and non-governmental partners is a need also related to the efforts by Latvia to approach European practices of environmental management. The Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development is fully aware of the considerable resources that are required at all levels for the full transformation to such practices

  11. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  12. U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Latvia During the Inter-War Period, 1917- 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Latvia. and Lithuania in Lhe Twentieth Century. New York: Longman, 1991. Hixson, Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia...Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of...Cold War Iconoclast (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), 7. 64 The Russian Section furnished the State Department with considerable evidence that

  13. Acquisition of the ownership of agricultural lands in Hungary, taking the EU's and other countries' law into consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilágyi János E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article concentrates on the acquisition of ownership (and in some respects: use of agricultural and forestry lands, especially as to the cross-border aspects. One of the hypotheses of the article is that the above mentioned issue is a topical question almost all around the world. Nevertheless, the article focuses on a European aspect of the cross-border acquisition, namely the new land law rules of the EU's Member States having joined the European Union in 2004 and 2007. In 2014 and 2015, the European Commission had assessed the land law of these Member States (i.e. Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and initiated infringement procedures against these countries at the Court of Justice of the European Union. Besides the regulation of these new Member States of the EU, the present article deals with the legislation of other Member States as well as the provisions of non-EU states. The article gives substantial consideration to phenomena such as sovereignty, land-hunger or soil degradation which may exercise significant influence on the land law of a state.

  14. Social orphanhood in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapenciere I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform processes and the developments of social policy to solve the major social problems of the socially vulnerable population, among them, children in particular, take place in Latvia during the last 20 years. Protection of children rights is declared one of the strategic priorities of the state social policy. At the same time the problem of child neglect and child abandonment in Latvia has not yet been sufficiently conceptualized. Already since 1990-ies Latvian society has clearly faced with an objective necessity of solving problems of child abandonment in connection with an increasing number of social orphans. The situation was complicated by the fact that the formation of a fundamentally new system of social policy, social support and assistance to risk children had to be developed and implemented in conditions of economic transition to market economy relations, increasing social tensions, and sharp increase in social inequality and social discrimination. Among the enourmous number of economical and social problems in the developing democratic state, the issue of child abandonment as an important social problem has been addressed rather fragmentary. The term “social orphanhood” does not appear in the social policy vocabulary of the Latvian social policy doscourse.

  15. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  17. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  18. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  19. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  20. Census-linked Study on Ethnic Fertility Differentials in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertility transformations observed since the early 1990s and their determinants have been rather thoroughly investigated in Lithuania. There are fairly numerous national and international studies devoted to this topic, mainly based on survey data. However, none of these studies looks into the effect of ethnicity on fertility. It is, to a large extent, caused by limitations of sample survey data. This study demonstrates potentials of census-linked fertility data to estimate robust and nationally representative parity-specific period fertility measures by ethnicity. The findings of this first systematic study of ethnicity-specific fertility differentials in Lithuania indicate that ethnicity does matter for fertility even in such ethnically homogenous country as Lithuania. Fertility among Lithuanians is higher than in the other ethnic groups, especially among Russians. Lower fertility in the Russian ethnic group is mainly explained by differences in the risk of having the second child. Importantly, this disadvantage remains significant even after controlling for selected compositional characteristics including urban-rural place of residence and education. The approach used in this study may be applied for Latvia and Estonia, where national minorities constitute substantial shares of the entire populations and significantly contribute to overall fertility levels.

  1. Homicide Rates in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Laima, Sigitas; Andriuskeviciute, Gerda; Jurolaic, Eleonora; Jasulaitis, Algimantas

    2018-05-01

    Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0.97, p homicide distribution (p homicides were carried out indoors, 57% in urban area. The presented findings help decide which prevention programs may be the most effective in homicide rate reduction. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Lithuania to become Associate Member of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Dačkus, Robertas

    2017-01-01

    On 27 June 2017, in Vilnius, Lithuania, CERN Director General, Fabiola Gianotti, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania, Linas Linkevičius, in the presence of the President of the Republic of Lithuania, Dalia Grybauskaitė, signed the Agreement admitting Lithuania as an Associate Member of CERN. The last step for the Agreement to enter into force requires final approval by the Government of Lithuania.

  3. Parent and School Relations in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Dainuvite; Ivanova, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Families in Latvia know what is best for their children, and they make a major contribution to their education. Consequently, it is important to build close partnerships between school and family. This article reviews extant research that provides insight into the nature of school-parent relations in Latvia as the nation stands at the crossroads…

  4. Republic of Lithuania; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews public expenditure in Lithuania with a view to identify areas for which deeper reforms may be warranted to improve spending efficiency and contain future spending pressures. The paper benchmarks spending levels and spending composition in Lithuania against those in other European countries. The 31 European countries covered in the benchmarking exercise include the EU-28 plus Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Reflecting the tendency for public spending to inc...

  5. Radioactive waste programme in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmins, A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported

  6. Introduction and Breeding of Rhododendrons in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratovičs Rihards

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons are relatively new beautiful ornamental plants in Latvia forming an essential part of public and private gardens, although they were introduced in Latvian territory already during the first half of 19th century. Rhododendrons deserve their immense popularity due to the diversity of their habitat, size and type of blossoms and leaves and their flowering season. There are about 1000 rhododendron species in the wild up to now whereas breeders in various countries have created more than 30 000 cultivars. Intensive rhododendrons introduction and acclimatization in Latvia started in 1957 when Rihards Kondratovičs, at the time director of the Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, started his research on the introduction and acclimatization of rhododendrons. Winterhardiness of about 400 wild species in Latvia was tested and 76 species were found to be suitable. Following the development of an extensive collection of wild rhododendron species and cultivars, the Rhododendron Breeding and Experimental Nursery “Babīte”, University of Latvia, was established at 1980 and the active breeding of new winterhardy cultivars was started. In 2017, the collection of outdoor rhododendrons of the University of Latvia consists of 76 species and 265 cultivars, including 109 cultivars bred in Latvia by Professor Rihards Kondratovičs.

  7. Development of nuclear energetics in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelsons, Karlis; Ekmanis, Juris; Gavars, Valdis; Tomsons, Elmars; Zeltins, Namejs

    2010-09-15

    A scientific nuclear reactor was launched in 1961, and a critical test assembly - in 1965. A unique gamma-ray source was created, and it was proposed to form an industrial production plant of radiation chemistry at Ignalina NPP. In order to supply Latvia with electricity, a site was chosen in the 1980-ties for a base-power nuclear power plant. After the restoration of independence the scientists of Latvia continue taking part in international projects of nuclear fusion and the 4th generation nuclear reactors. The supply of Latvia with electricity in a more distant period will be possible by using nuclear energy.

  8. Lithuania training needs analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The present assessment of training needs in the Lithuanian natural gas sector is one of a total of four programmes on which Danish Oil and Natural Gas (DONG) and Lithuanian Gas (LG) cooperate. DONG's contribution is financed by the Danish Foreign Ministry. Long-term Objective is enhancement of the natural gas sector in Lithuania for efficient, cost-effective and environmentally responsible energy supply and utilization, in accordance with international standards. Immediate Objective is to establish a basis of competence in the Lithuanian Gas Sector, manage the modernization process effectively, and develop the involved human resources to the required performance level. The strategy for training in the Lithuanian natural gas sector proposed by this report integrates recommendations under three main headings: Six programmes of training and development. Strengthening of the institutional framework and the system for training. Upgrading of training capacity. The six programmes comprise: Legislation and Educational Planning. Management Development. Economy. Marketing and Sales. Supervisory Skills Development. Training Skills Development. Management and Specialists' Workshops on Technology. Following organisation for implementation of recommendations is proposed: Steering Board. Advisory Board. Coordination Group. Project Management Group. Group of Lithuanian Specialists. Group of Advisers. Short-term Consultants/Teachers. Lithuanian Consultants/Teachers. The project is envisaged to be implemented in carefully timed phases allowing for coordination between management workshops, training programmes and revision work regarding the institutional framework for training and the training system. (EG)

  9. Memory of Lithuania in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskienė, Aušra

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania remains a constant in the memory of Jews of the world. Lithuania is remembered in English literature of South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, especially in works by Rose Zwi and Dan Jacobson. Lithuania is still remembered in the South Africa not only because of nostalgic feelings Lithuanian Jews of this country have. After the truth about the Jewish community destroyed in Lithuania, descendants of immigrants felt guilt because of their privileged position in the commu...

  10. Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 32-40, nr. 2 lk. 49-56, nr. 3 lk. 39-50, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 24-33, nr. 2 lk. 49-59, nr. 3 lk. 35-45, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 33-43, nr. 2 lk. 43-55, nr. 3 lk. 41-53, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 41-53, 2005 nr. 1 lk. 45-57, nr. 2 lk. 53-65, nr. 3 lk. 29-35. Ülevaade Läti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  11. Economical and Political Transformations - Latvia's Case / Lembit Ebre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ebre, Lembit

    1999-01-01

    Juris Dreifeldsi raamatust "Latvia in transition" ja Marja Nissineni raamatust "Latvia's transition to a market economy". Läti poliitiline ja majanduslik areng. Tabel: Ettevõtete omanike jaotus rahvuste järgi

  12. 222Rn gas metrology in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogucarska, T.; Lapenas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurements of radon gas provides in Latvia according with the State radiation monitoring program. The national standard/reference level for the protection of employees and population from exposure to radon Latvia has been accepted. The facilities for calibration of the radon gas measurement instruments and detectors have been established on basic of the Radiation Metrology and Testing Center which is the local SSDL for Baltic Region. The radon measurement instruments and detectors calibration can be performed at the 170-4000 Bq/m 3 range. (author)

  13. Energy consumption trends in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Miskinis, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some problems related to integration into EU, current state of the Lithuania economy and energy sector and changes in energy consumption during transition period. It provides and analysis of the main indicators of energy consumption, such as the ratio of primary energy consumption to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), primary and final energy intensity and others based on estimates of Purchasing Power Parity. The paper also discusses problems arising at evaluation of economical and energy indices for the countries in transition and compares them with those existing in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in Western countries. It shows uneven tendencies of energy intensity occurring under transitions in Lithuania and other Baltic States. (author)

  14. Geothermal Energy and its Prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeckas, B.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the geothermal resources in lithuania and on their prospective usage are presented. The analysis covers water horizons of the geothermal anomaly in West Lithuania and their hydrogeology. The energy of the 3 km thick geothermal source was evaluated. Technical and economical possibilities of using geothermal energy in West Lithuania are described. Some aspects of the investment and of the project of a geothermal power plant in Klaipeda are considered. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Nuclear knowledge management and preservation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaliute, R.

    2005-01-01

    Problems of nuclear knowledge management and preservation in Lithuania are presented in the paper. The support provided through bilateral cooperation projects was very important for Lithuania. The main projects implemented in the last 14 years are described in this paper. Lithuania joined INIS (International Nuclear Information System) in 1994 and established its own INIS national centre in the premises of the Ministry of Economy. To educate the public about the processes going on in Ignalina NPP, the information centre of Ignalina NPP was founded. Nuclear and nuclear related education in Lithuania is provided in the Kaunas Technological University. (author)

  16. Nuclear regulatory regime in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Law on Nuclear Energy establishes the legal basis for nuclear safety in the Republic of Lithuania. It assigns the responsibility for safety to the operating organization of a nuclear facility and outlines the tasks of the operator and the regulatory authority. According to this Law, the Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) shall implement state regulation of nuclear safety. Standards and rules, guides and regulations of nuclear safety and radiation protection approved by the Government or by the institutions authorised. It is mandatory for all public and local authorities, enterprises, institutions, organisations, their associations, the officials and other persons whose activities are related to the operation of nuclear facilities, to the use and management of nuclear and radioactive materials therein. Safety guarantee in nuclear energy based on the requirements of the laws and regulations of the Republic of Lithuania, on the requirements of the international treaties to which the Republic of Lithuania is a party, also on the recommendations of the IAEA and other international organisations and authorities

  17. Impact on Organizational Climate trough Organizational Culture factors. Case Study of Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Iljins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate in process of change. For solving this problem, it is necessary to identify the main factors of organizational culture in the change process. After exploring the impact of organizational culture on organizational climate through distinguished culture’s factors, article examines how changes can be processed in different cultural environments. Methodology: The research design is based on Yin (1994 methodology and consists of two main stages: data analysis and validation for case study and case study’s methodology according to Yin (1994 (four steps: design the case, conduct the case, analyse the case evidence and develop conclusions. In the first stage an expert evaluation method was used to investigate the significance of organizational culture factors’ impact on organizational climate. Different factors of organizational climate were explored in the paper. To affirm the results triangulation method was applied. To verify the results of the research mathematical calculations and case study were used. Within the research the most significant factors were stressed. During the second stage, the case study was carried out to validate the research results in specific companies. Comparison between medium-size companies was made. It is important, that in case Latvian company (A capital holders are Latvian entrepreneurs and capital holders of Lithuanian company (B are international. Scientific aim: To distinguish organizational culture’s factors that have an impact on organizational climate’s change. Findings: The results of the research confirmed that during the period of changes organizational culture has an impact on organizational climate through specific factors. Theoretical model how change organizational culture impacts organizational climate is developed. Research showed that stability, job satisfaction, team orientation, empowerment, core values, agreement, open communication, job autonomy and reward system are the most significant factors organizational culture influences organizational climate through. Moreover, the list of practical recommendations for companies, which are planning to implement changes, were developed. Conclusions: This research gives managers an idea on how to deal with top-down approach to influence organizational climate. This research limits not to looking at factors in scope of organizational culture and climate classification and how they can influence shifts in between. Further research should be conducted to introduce in model characteristics of organization, culture and outcome in organizational climate change.

  18. Workplace health promotion in health care settings in Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Bulotaitė

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: HCWs recognized various WHP activities, facilities and programs organized at their workplaces; however, their needs were notably higher than the situation reported. WHP situation differed among the three European countries.

  19. Comparative study of microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of kefirs produced in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Dea; Raudsepp, Piret; Roasto, Mati; Meremäe, Kadrin; Kuusik, Sirje; Toomik, Peeter; Elias, Priit; Laikoja, Katrin; Kaart, Tanel; Lepiku, Martin; Püssa, Tõnu

    2016-02-01

    In the current study the microbiological, sensory and chemical properties of 24 kefirs (12 producers) from Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian retail market were determined using gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF and LC-ion trap MS/MS), spectrophotometry and other methods. Antihypertensive, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting, antioxidant and antibacterial peptides were found in the kefir samples. According to the results of principal component analysis of 200 most abundant compounds obtained with HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF analysis, Estonian kefirs differed from the rest. Kefirs of Latvian and Lithuanian origin showed similarities in several characteristics, probably related to the starter cultures and technological processes. The fatty acids composition of all Baltic kefirs was uniform. The antioxidant capacity of the kefirs varied slightly, whereas intermediate positive correlation (r = 0.32, P kefirs. Only one third of analysed kefirs met the requirements of the minimum sum of viable microorganisms, indicated in the Codex Standard for Fermented Milks.

  20. Returned Diaspora and Political Leadership. The Cases of Postcommunist Latvia and Lithuania / Jennifer Skulte-Ouaiss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulte-Ouaiss, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusliku identiteedi, diasporaa kogemuste ja postkommunistliku poliitika koosmõju on keeruline protsess. Artikkel analüüsib võõrsil elanud leedulaste ja lätlaste naasmist ning asumist juhtivatele poliitilistele positsioonidele kodumaal

  1. Human rights issues in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania / V. Stanley Vardys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vardys, Vytas Stanley, 1924-1993

    1981-01-01

    Lisatud: The Baltic appeal of 1979 (Balti apell - Eest, Läti ja Leedu kodanike märgukiri, mis sisaldas nõuet avalikustada Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakt koos oma salaprotokollidega, kuulutada pakt kehtetuks selle allakirjutamise momendist peale ja taastada Balti riikide iseseisvus, avalikustati 23. aug. 1979) ; Open letter from the Estonian SSR (Avalik kiri Eest NSV-st, nn. 40 kiri, 28. okt. 1980)

  2. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    acquired wide popularity (and probably snob appeal ). Kafka, Ionesco and Dostoyevsky were available to Soviet Estonians earlier than to the Russian reading...Estonia . chided as snob appeal ). Of Estonia’s 757 general schools, 556 (i.e. 71) use Estonian, 90 use Russian and 60 are mixed. 2 The same applies to...novels whicr combine literary quality with national appeal ro 2 ’), collective farm realism at its best (M. Traatl), realisti> lezcription of city life

  3. Soft ware upgrade for Mobile Laboratories in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    In July-August 1998 the soft ware for controlling the measurements in the mobile laboratories have been upgraded. The mobile laboratories are sponsored by Danish east aid projects in cooperation with Rotaray Denmark.The equipment used is 4 L NaI(Tl) detectors mounted on the roof of the cars toget...

  4. Visit to the PMS-stations in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Danish build automatic gamma-ray monitoring stations have been installed in the Baltic countries, Poland and Russia (Sct. Petersbourg region). The stations are designed for continously measure the gamma-radiation from the surroundings. The stations use the Windows NT 3.51 as operating system. Eac...

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY 2007-2013 IN ESTONIA, LATVIA AND LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Mihai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article will be carried out an analysis of the manner in which the three Baltic countries were able to implement rural development Policy at EU level. The article begins with a comparative study on some characteristics of the national economy and the agricultural sector, such as population, GDP, GDP per capita, the total area, the area used for agriculture, the number of farms, number of persons engaged in agriculture, the importance of agriculture to the economies of those countries, will continue with the presentation of the amount of funds allocated for each axis and measure in the rural development programmes for the period 2007-2013 and another chapter will refer to the degree of access of funds from the EAFRD and shall end with a number of conclusions concerning the capacity of States to access EU funds. The three countries have experience in implementing EU funds considering that benefited from rural Development Plans in 2004-2006 and SAPARD.

  6. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  7. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  8. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2014-05-01

    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  9. Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors, banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.

  10. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form...

  11. Refugee Crisis in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklosa, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Hungary faced a barrage of criticism from various quarters for its lack of support during the 2015/16 refugee crisis. People wondered what had happened to the liberal country that was the first among the Eastern Bloc countries to open its borders to the West, and which had actively assisted GDR...

  12. Hungary : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Hungary using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS),International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire) as benchmarks. It also draws on ...

  13. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  14. Fear and loathing in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Duvold

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As an EU-member, Lithuania has to a large extent set up institutional mechanisms to combat homophobia. It has implemented anti-discrimination laws that are roughly in line with EU norms. At the same time, the country does not allow same-sex marriage, fails to recognize same-sex partnership (or indeed any form of civil partnership, and does not allow homosexual couples to adopt children. A still greater problem, note the authors, is that the political and cultural climate remains deeply hostile towards homosexuality and towards recognizing the rights of individuals of a minority sexual orientation.

  15. Power supply strategy in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plant produces about 80% of electricity in Lithuania. However, national energy strategy as a result of comprehensive assessment of technical, economic and political factors foresees closure of its first unit by 2005. Future fate of the second unit will be defined later in 2004 . Electricity demand requirements will be covered by other modernised power plants burning fossil fuel. This may create some environmental problems, especially if unit 2 would be closed. Earlier closure of the nuclear power plant is a great economical burden not only for the power sector but also to the whole national economy. This requires substantial technical and financial support from EU and other developed countries. (author)

  16. The energy situation and demand side management in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebergs, V.; Zeltins, N.; Stuits, I.; Stripnieks, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Only 12 per cent of the electric energy consumed in Latvia is produced by local energy resources(hydro-, peat, firewood). The rest (50 per cent) is imported or produced from the imported fuel (gas, heavy fuel). After 1991, when Latvia entered the market economy, the fuel prices began to approach the world prices and the production of electric energy decreased. Therefore it is important to work out a correct concept of Energy Development in Latvia corresponding to the market economy. (author)

  17. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  18. Acidification policy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hungary's policy for air pollution abatement aims to reduce air pollution in cities and industrialised areas, to maintain air quality in relatively 'clean' regions, and to fulfill its obligations to the UN-ECE Convention and Protocols on long-range transboundary air pollution. Emissions of NO x and SO x in Hungary have decreased considerably in the last decade although nitrogen oxide emission from cars has remained unchanged. A catalyst programme is planned to reduce NO x , hydrocarbons and CO emissions. Results of some air pollution monitoring programmes are quoted. Acidification of soils has increased over the last decade. Legislation on air pollution due to be issued in 1992 covers sulphur content of fuels, emission limits, establishing critical loads, and setting up a comprehensive monitoring system. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Costs of biodiesel supply chain in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzietis, G.; Kunkule, D.

    2003-01-01

    Biodiesels has already become reality in Latvia, but still not are extensively used due to number of reasons. Cost reduction would be one of the most efficient tools that could encourage wider use of biodiesel. Identifying costs in biodiesel supply chain and evaluating their weight in total cost of final product is the first step to finding most costly elements and potential for cost reduction. General cost breakdown in final price is calculated and analysed in this study (authors)

  20. Hungary and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As regards the Balkans, Hungary is one of the intermediary regions in Europe. At the same time, the Balkans is the tie-up territory between Turkey, one of the emerging regions today, and Hungary, which aims to cooperate with it. Being a NATO and EU member state it takes part in the geopolitical games that are played between the EU, Russia, the USA and some of the countries of the Islamic world. These dealings fundamentally determine tasks in Hungarian foreign policy, cultural policy, economic policy, security- and defence policy for the forthcoming decades. Hungary acts as a gate between Western Europe and the Balkans. This role used to be more dominant in previous centuries of Hungarian history than it is today, not least because the country's size and strength significantly decreased after the Trianon Treaty. Many of the historical, imperial reflexes have remained, but without any imperial gravity. Today we are just one of the intermediary regions that have relations with the Balkans and form a bridge to Europe. The accelerated alteration in the world order, the BRICS countries and the emergence of some important middle-sized states, such as Turkey, make adaptation inevitable for our country. This is what the policy of 'Eastern opening' is about.

  1. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harne, N.J.

    1996-05-01

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  2. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  3. Lithuania

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 41-48, nr. 2 lk. 57-63, nr. 3 lk. 51-63, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 34-46, nr. 2 lk. 61-73, nr. 3 lk. 47-61, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 45-57, nr. 2 lk. 57-65, nr. 3 lk. 55-63, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 55-63, 2005 nr. 1 lk. 59-72, nr. 2 lk. 67-80, nr. 3 lk. 37-43. Ülevaade Leedu peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  4. Curonian Spit, Lithuania and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania and the Russian Federation was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat erosion through stabilization and reforestation projects. The image covers an area of 55.8 x 109.5 km, was acquired on July 25, 2006, and is located near 55.3 degrees north latitude, 20.9 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Perspectives of nuclear energy in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliauskas, V.; Marchenas, V.

    1998-01-01

    Description of present status of nuclear power in Lithuania and prospects for future are presented. Lithuania operate two reactors of RBMK-1500 type. Since regaining of independence in 1990 Lithuania made a great efforts in developing legal framework for nuclear power regulation and improving safety of both reactors at Ignalina NPP. The main ideas of the draft of a new energy strategy are summarized. As regards nuclear power development in Lithuania there are two scenarios in the draft strategy: operation of the plant till the end of its design lifetime and operation of the plant till the gap closure between fuel channel and graphite and non re channeling of the reactors. Comparison of the cost and implications to the country's economy of both scenarios is discussed

  6. Perspectives of joint implementation projects in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Štreimikienė, Dalia; Mikalauskienė, Asta

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the perspectives of joint implementation (JI) projects in Lithuania. The analysis of flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol including Jl benefits is presented in the paper. The main aim of the article is to analyze current macroeconomic environment which has impact on the JI perspectives in Lithuania and based on this analysis to define activities, measures and institutions necessary for the implementation of these projects. A very important issue in this context is...

  7. Problems Of Transport Energetics In Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrazevicius, A.; Baublys, J.

    2001-01-01

    Lithuania has more than one million of transport means, the thermal capacity of which is about 50 mill. kW, i.e. 10 times more than the capacity of all thermal power stations. In the 21st century electrical energy will be used for transport means instead of petrol, and new capacities of electric stations in Lithuania will be necessary. All perspective transport means are described and conclusions for Lithuanian energetics are presented. (author)

  8. The Situation of Psychology Publications in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    VILMANTE PAKALNISKIENE

    2009-01-01

    There are only few journals in psychology published in Lithuania that are available for publications. There are also few other journals from other disciplines published in Lithuania that are accepting psychology studies for publications. Even though there are only few journals available for publications, these journals are very popular among scholars; psychology scholars are actively publishing their own work in these journals. Having publications in these journals are becoming more and more ...

  9. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  10. Two Competing Normative Trajectories in the Context of the First Baltic Gay Pride Parade in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mažylis Liudas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time post-Soviet space has been perceived as homophobic and intolerant of LGBT persons. The three Baltic States - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia - as former Soviet republics and current members of the European Union, represent the space where a strong homophobic post-Soviet atmosphere competes with pro-LGBT Western influence. This article examines how the first LGBT Pride Parade (which occurred in Vilnius in 2010 is reflected in Lithuanian media portals. The article also presents the broader context of LGBT issues by reviewing legal changes and Lithuanian political parties’ programs. Our analysis of the media and other sources is based on three arguments: 1 that the LGBT pride parade in Vilnius became the most important event for reflecting LGBT issues in the media and society; 2 it might have not been possible without support and influence from external institutions; and 3 the LGBT parade revealed the division of two competing normative trajectories in Lithuania. The reconstructed trajectories in the article are based on the theoretical framework of new institutionalism, media analysis, interviews and focus groups. Construction of the LGBT campaign and counter-campaign seem delimited rather than approaching them as value normative consensus. However, the way in which LGBT persons are reflected within the Lithuanian media is remarkably different in comparison with the early post-Soviet period. The Baltic gay pride parade “for equality” and external (Western support for it were highly visible in the media, influenced a significant debate on the topic not otherwise experienced in Lithuania, and (reintroduced a question about the perception of ‘normality’ within society. These debates also raise the question of how norms and institutions change and adapt within society.

  11. Hungary : Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the corporate governance policy framework and enforcement and compliance practices in Hungary. Hungary has already invested considerable resources in upgrading its legislation to meet European Union Directives, and the legislative and regulatory framework dealing with corporate governance issues is robust. The major issues identified by this review include: (1) the gen...

  12. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  13. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  14. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  15. Financial Participation of Employees in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauberg, Theis; Muravska, Tatyana; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines main trends in employees' financial participation in Latvia including historical, socioeconomic and legal background. A special emphasis is placed on privatization during the transition period which shaped an environment for employees' financial participation and influenced...... the current state of employee share ownership and profit-sharing. Attitudes of social partners and the government will be addressed. The report will show why the transition process lead to a low level of employees' financial participation and the indifference and ignorance of policy makers concerning...... the development of financial participation....

  16. Impairment of assets– the case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Zarina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic recession has led to the worsening of financial results of many Lat-vian companies. In this situation, cash flows from the use of assets in economic activities turn out to be insufficient to recover the balance sheet value of those as-sets. The laws and accounting standards of Latvia do not provide sufficient guid-ance on how the decrease in value should be calculated because cash flows gener-ated by individual items of fixed assets cannot be estimated reliably in most cases. In the present economic situation it seems reasonable to follow the rule that when the market value of assets is lower than their balance sheet value it is necessary to recognize an impairment loss or to carry out their revaluation, which will allow their true value to be calculated. Annual revaluation is necessary for those items whose true value is changeable. For items whose values change rarely revaluation can be done less frequently. In the economic situation of Latvia almost every com-pany, excepting only some production areas, is facing a high risk of decrease in the value of its assets. If there are indications that there may be a decrease in the value of long term assets, the company’s management has to consider at least the indicators provided by internal and external sources of information.

  17. Geothermy in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontra, J.

    1985-06-01

    In Hungary wells producing geothermal water have been in operation since 1890. The economic exploitation of geothermal energy is possible in over 40% of the country due to favorable conditions such as large reserves, high ground pressure and high geothermal gradient. Some 620 wells presently working produce a considerable quantity of energy and thermal water, in most cases using the single well system but more recent operations now incorporate reinjection wells. Hydrotherapy water supply and various industrial uses, such as drying in the agricultural sector, are its most important uses but further uses of thermal energy are being developed especially that of heating buildings where it could replace other energy sources. Sufficient investment could see an expanding tourist industry based on the recognized therapeutic properties of these mineral waters.

  18. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  19. Women Technical Graduates in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Zsuzsa Frank

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the evolution, since 1945, of the woman's role in science and technology in the Central European nation of Hungary. The report is presented by nine women who are scientists and engineers. (SA)

  20. Radiation Protection Training in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskiene, D.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Training is an important component of Radiation Protection and serves for human radiation safety. According to the Lithuanian Law on Radiation Protection the legal persons and enterprises without the status of legal persons to conduct practices with sources or which workers work under exposure must organize at their own expenses a compulsory training and assessment of knowledge of the workers engaging in activities with the sources and radiation protection officers. Such training has been started in 1999. In Lithuania there are few institutions executing Radiation Protection training. Under requirements of legal act On Frequency and Procedure of Compulsory Training and Assessment Knowledge of the Workers Engage in Activities with the Sources of Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection Officers these institutions have to prepare and coordinate training programs with the Radiation Protection Center. There are adopted different educating programs for Radiation Protection Training to the Workers and Radiation Protection Officers depending on character of work and danger of sources. The duration of Training is from 30 to 270 hours. The Training shall be renewed every five years passing 30 hors course. To ensure the adequate quality of training a great deal of attention is paid to qualifying the lectures. For this purpose, it was established an Evaluation commission to estimate the adequacy of lecturer's knowledge to requirements of Training programs. After passing exams the lectures get the qualification confirming certificates. The main task of our days is to establish and arrange the National Training Centre on Radiation Protection Training that would satisfy requirements and recommendations of legal documents of IAEA and EU for such kind of institutions of institutions. (Author)

  1. Dormice - Their present status in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdis Pilats

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution and habitats of four Dormouse species (Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula and Myoxus glis found in Latvia are described. This study was carried out as part of a Latvian and European mammal atlas project, starting in 1991. Questionnaires were the main source of information regarding the period since 1970. In Latvia dormice are rare animals and have small populations in separated localities. Here D. nitedula and M. glis are at their most northern edge of distributional range. Reduction of the known localities for M. glis and E. quercinus is described. M. avellanarius, often found in bird nest boxes, is the most common Dormouse in western Latvia. Legal and practical aspects of dormice conservation, and the protection of habitats are discussed. Riassunto Mioxidi in Lettonia: lo stato attuale - Vengono descritti distribuzione e habitat di quattro specie di Mioxidi (Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula e Myoxus glis presenti in Lettonia. Questa ricerca è stata condotta come parte del progetto per un atlante dei mammiferi lettoni ed europei avviato nel 1991. La maggior parte delle informazioni riguardanti il periodo successivo a1 1970 deriva da questionari. In Lettonia i Mioxidi sono animali rari con piccole popolazioni in località distinte. La Lettonia rappresenta il margine settentrionale di distribuzione di D. nitedula e di M. glis. Viene descritta la riduzione di località note per M. glis e E. quercinus. M. avellanarius, spesso trovato in cassette nido per uccelli, è il Mioxide più comune nella Lettonia occidentale. Vengono discussi aspetti pratici e legali riguardanti la conservazione e la protezione degli habitats dei Mioxidi.

  2. Pages of the history of roentgenology and radiology in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemiro, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The history of roentgenology in Latvia is discussed singling out 3 periods in its development: 1) from the discovery of X-rays up to the Great October Socialist Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power in Latvia; 2) the bourgeois period in Latvia (1920-1940); 3) from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War to the present period. The paper is devoted to an analysis of the main historical events and facts pertaining to the formation and further development of roentgenology and radiology in Latvia. The role and importance of the roentgenology and radiology chair and the Republican roentgenoradiological center in the development of roentgenoradiology as independent clinical branches, training of specialists, the development and clinical application of present-day methods of radiation therapy are considered. The chief advances of Latvian radiologists and their contacts with leading specilaists are marked

  3. How Democratic is Latvia? Audit of Democracy 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Audit of Democracy 2014 prepared within the scope of National Research Programme “National Identity”. Audit preparation and publication supported by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the United States Embassy in Latvia.

  4. The Colour Characteristics of Wool Dyed with Plants of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernava, Aina

    2014-01-01

    Dyeing with natural dyes from plant and other organic sources is known since the prehistoric times. In Latvia, natural dyes have been used for the colouring of natural fibres, such as flax, wool, cotton, silk and leather. Plants for the dyeing were collected in autumn in Latvia, used fresh or dried. Mordant ferrous sulphate, copper sulphate pentahydrate, potassium hydroxide, potassium dichromate and acetic acid were used before, during and after dyeing. The quality of dye...

  5. Financial Literacy in Latvia: Defining the Concept and Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lāce, N; Ciemleja, G; Titko, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the priorities of the National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014 – 2020 is citizens’ resilience, which is related to the human economic security. In turn, economic security implies that citizens have predictable and sufficient income. Thus, the issues of the improvement of financial literacy level in Latvia are emphasized at a government level. Despite the questions related financial literacy are frequently debated in the academic literature, there is no consistent approach to unders...

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  7. Puumala virus in bank voles, Lithuania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Jagdmann, S.; Balčiauskas, L.; Balčiauskienė, L.; Drewes, S.; Ulrich, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 158-160 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Puumala virus * animal experiment * Lithuania * Myodes glareolus * nonhuman Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  8. President of Lithuania Dalia Grybauskaitė

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    20 January 2016 - President of the Republic of Lithuania D. Grybauskaitė visiting CMS detector assembly hall with Director-General F. Gianotti and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson K. Borras. Hands-on in CERN S'Cool LAB with S. Schmeling and J. Woithe; CERN Computer Centre with J. Shiers.

  9. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Country policy profile - Latvia. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Latvia, renewable electricity generation is stimulated through a complex support system based on a feed-in tariff, which also includes elements of a quota system and tenders. The existing feed-tariff is on hold until January 2016 due to concerns about corruption and a lack of transparency in the way it was carried out since 2007. The existing state support mechanisms for energy production from renewable energy resources are being assessed and revised. Stringent supervision of subsidized electricity producers, stricter controls and a limited timeframe for the implementation of RES projects has been introduced. At the same time, a new tax for subsidized electricity producers was introduced in January 2014. The tax should be paid by companies receiving financial support for power generation from renewable energy sources or from combined heat and power plants. Since 1 January 2014 RES-E is promoted also through net-metering. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is promoted through different tax benefits. Also the only incentive currently available for renewable energy sources in the transport sector is a tax regulation mechanism (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  11. Country policy profile - Latvia. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    In Latvia, renewable electricity generation is stimulated through a complex support system based on a feed-in tariff, which also includes elements of a quota system and tenders. The existing feed-tariff is on hold until January 2016 due to concerns about corruption and a lack of transparency in the way it was carried out since 2007. The existing state support mechanisms for energy production from renewable energy resources are being assessed and revised. Stringent supervision of subsidized electricity producers, stricter controls and a limited timeframe for the implementation of RES projects has been introduced. At the same time, a new tax for subsidized electricity producers was introduced in January 2014. The tax should be paid by companies receiving financial support for power generation from renewable energy sources or from combined heat and power plants. Since 1 January 2014 RES-E is promoted also through net-metering. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is promoted through different tax benefits. Also the only incentive currently available for renewable energy sources in the transport sector is a tax regulation mechanism (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  12. Country policy profile - Latvia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Latvia, renewable electricity generation is stimulated through a complex support system based on a feed-in tariff, which also includes elements of a quota system and tenders. The existing feed-tariff is on hold until January 2016 due to concerns about corruption and a lack of transparency in the way it was carried out since 2007. The existing state support mechanisms for energy production from renewable energy resources are being assessed and revised. Stringent supervision of subsidized electricity producers, stricter controls and a limited timeframe for the implementation of RES projects has been introduced. At the same time, a new tax for subsidized electricity producers was introduced in January 2014. The tax should be paid by companies receiving financial support for power generation from renewable energy sources or from combined heat and power plants. Since 1 January 2014 RES-E is promoted also through net-metering. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is promoted through different tax benefits. Also the only incentive currently available for renewable energy sources in the transport sector is a tax regulation mechanism (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  13. Populism in Lithuania: Defining the Research Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleknonis Gintaras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on populism and populist political communication in Lithuania is rather limited, regardless of the fact that populist movements and politicians are influential on national and local political levels; they also receive sufficient support from a significant share of the population. Because the Western European research tradition is concentrated on the challenges of right-wing populism, Lithuanian political scientists distinguish right-wing populism as more significant in comparison to left-wing populism. Although Lithuanian researchers note, that in the balance of the left-right wing populists, Lithuania stands out with the majority of left-wing populists, in comparison to the popularity and number of right-wing populists in neighbouring countries.

  14. An environmental perspective on Lithuania's energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, A.; Todd, J.

    1995-01-01

    The views of experts on Lithuania's energy options are reviewed. On the one hand, nuclear energy is seen as an island of stability in the power industry in the conditions of economic crisis, and some decision-makers believe that Lithuania cannot survive without nuclear. On the other hand, the Ignalina NPP is the largest Chernobyl-type RBMK plant within the former Soviet Union, posing a dangerous environmental hazard to the Baltic Sea region, and no upgrading seems to be capable of bringing the reactors up to the safety standards of today's Western reactors. Many experts believe that the only solution is to shut the reactors down as soon as possible. (P.A.) 33 refs

  15. Supply and consumption of cardiovascular food supplements in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Liubartaitė, Elvyra

    2017-01-01

    Supply and Consumption of Cardiovascular Food Supplements in Lithuania. The aim - to evaluate supply and consumption of cardiovascular food supplements in Lithuania. Work tasks: • To collect information on food supplements for heart health. • To rate the range of food supplements for heart health sold in Lithuania. • To analyze the consumption of food supplements for heart health. Research data were collected through questionnaire data collection method based on January-February, 2017 data. 4...

  16. Franchise business models and foreign franchise opportunities in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolajev, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Franchise Business Models and Foreign Franchise Opportunities in Lithuania 51 pages, 4 pictures, 12 tables, references. Nowadays franchises are becoming more and more popular way to start your own business. So, the main purpose of this bachelor paper is to analize franchise business models and foreign franchise opportunities in Lithuania. The work consist of two main parts: franchise theoretical aspects and foreign franchises opportunities research in Lithuania. Franchise theoretical aspects ...

  17. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova... orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia...

  18. Model of accounting regulation in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rudžionienė, Kristina; Gipienė, Gailutė

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the regulation of accounting system in Lithuania. There are different approaches to accounting regulation. For example, the "free market" approach is against any regulation; it says that each process in the market will be in equilibrium itself. Mostly it is clear that regulation is important and useful, especially in financial accounting. It makes information in financial reports understandable and comparable in one country or different countries. There are three theories ...

  19. Infant‘ s nutrition status trend in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Samulytė, Edita

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to analyze and evaluate the state of infants nutrition in Lithuania in 2005 and determine the state changing tendencies (comparing with the data of 1993 and 1999) The tasks of the investigation: To evaluate the duration of infants breastfeeding. 2. To determine the main reasons, which have influence on the duration of breastfeeding. 3. To determine the introduction of time of complementary feeding. 4. To evaluate the habits and ways of feeding. 5. To clarify th...

  20. Country policy profile - Lithuania. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Lithuania, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff and grants. Renewable energy sources for heating and cooling purposes are exempt from environmental pollution tax and are eligible for grants. Moreover, heat suppliers are obliged to purchase all heat produced from renewable energy sources. Renewable transport is promoted through reimbursement of raw materials for bio-fuel production and an exemption from excise tax and environmental pollution tax (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  1. Mapping ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood as the benefits that humans get from ecosystems functions. They are divided in providing, regulating, supporting and cultural. The correct management of ES is fundamental to achieve sustainable development goals. A good assessment of ES potential can be obtained using GIS techniques, in order to have a spatial dimension of ES distribution. This will help to have a better territorial planning, improve ES capacity, and have more benefits. ES potential analysis can be carried out based on the ES matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009). This method is based on the attribution a rank from 0 to 5 (0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity) to the land use classes of the corine land cover (CLC). This represents an important advantage since a determined land use can be related with a certain number of services. The objective of this work is to Map the ES potential in Lithuania. The results showed that Lithuania has a high potential for regulating services, followed by cultural and provisioning services. Urban areas provide a very small amount of services, contrary to forest, where the highest potential is observed. The most comon land covers in Lithuania are non-irrigated arable land, complex cultivation patterns, mixed and coniferous forest. Total and regulating and cultural ES had dispersed pattern showing that they are scattered in the territory. They are located mainly in forested and coastal areas. In relation to provisioning services they had a clustered distribution, and they were mainly observed in the central part of Lithuania. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services - a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landsc. Online. 15:1-22

  2. Populism in Lithuania: defining the research tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aleknonis, Gintaras; Matkevičienė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The research on populism and populist political communication in Lithuania is rather limited, regardless of the fact that populist movements and politicians are influential on national and local political levels; they also receive sufficient support from a significant share of the population. Because the Western European research tradition is concentrated on the challenges of right-wing populism, Lithuanian political scientists distinguish right-wing populism as more significant in comparison...

  3. Country policy profile - Lithuania. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Lithuania, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff and grants. Renewable energy sources for heating and cooling purposes are exempt from environmental pollution tax and are eligible for grants. Moreover, heat suppliers are obliged to purchase all heat produced from renewable energy sources. Transport sector is promoted through reimbursement of raw materials for bio-fuel production and an exemption from excise tax and environmental pollution tax (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  4. Estimation of social discount rate for Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Kazlauskiene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper seeks to analyse the problematics of estimation of the social discount rate (SDR. The SDR is the critical parameter of cost-benefit analysis, which allows calculating the present value of cost and the benefit of public sector investment projects. Incorrect choice of the SDR can lead to the realisation of ineffective public project or conversely, cost-effective project will be rejected. The relevance of this problem analysis is determined by discussions and different viewpoints of scientists on the choice of the most appropriate approach to determine the SDR and absence of methodically based the SDR on the national level of Lithuania. Methodology/methods: The research is performed by the scientific and methodical literature analysis, systematization, time series and regression analysis. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to calculate the SDR based on the statistical data of Lithuania. Findings: The analysis of methods of SDR determination, as well as the researches performed by foreign researchers, allows stating that the social rate of time preference (SRTP approach is the most appropriate. The SDR, calculated by the SRTP approach, reflects the main purpose of public investment projects, i.e. to enhance social benefit for society, the best. The analyses of SDR determination practice of the foreign countries shows that the SDR level should not be universal for all states. Each country should calculate the SDR based on its own data and apply it for the assessment of public projects. Conclusions: The calculated SDR for Lithuania using the SRTP approach varies between 3.5% and 4.3%. Although it is lower than 5% that is offered by European Commission, this rate is based on the statistical data of Lithuania and should be used for the assessment of the national public projects. Applicatio

  5. Overview of current peculiarities of promotion of energy from renewable sources in Lithuania. Country reports: Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Griguolaitė, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the legal background and strategic planning of development and promotion of energy from renewable sources in Lithuania. It discusses the main provisions of the Law on Energy from Renewable Sources in the sectors of electricity, transport and heat. Also, established national financial incentives for the promotion of energy from renewable sources are described.

  6. Education in Lithuania: Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has achieved steady expansion of participation in education, substantially widening access to early childhood education and care and tertiary education, coupling this with nearly universal participation in secondary education. However, if Lithuania's education system is to help the nation respond effectively to economic opportunities and…

  7. Release from 'prison' in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In my study I introduce the Hungarian conditional release and presidential pardon and new compulsory presidential pardon system. This study is based on research carried out in the Ministry of Justice at the Pardon Department in which I analyzed several dozen petition pardons. In connection with the new compulsory presidential pardon I examined the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, which has condemned Hungary because of its adoption of real (whole life imprisonment.

  8. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  9. Another Word for Uncertainty: Anti-Semitism in Modern Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Donskis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania can take pride in its historical legacy of ethnical, religious and cultural diversity during the time of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Union. Modern Lithuania departed from this tradition, turning into an increasingly homogenous political actor in the age of nationalism. However, the new Lithuanian state offered Jews extensive cultural autonomy from 1918 to 1926. The Second World War and the Holocaust caused the complete destruction of the Litvak community and culture. Anti-Semitism in Soviet Lithuania never differed significantly from official policies, adopted by the Kremlin. Some characteristically Lithuanian traits of anti-Semitism emerged within conservative and chauvinistic émigré circles. Yet the country was to revive the full scale of prejudice and hatred after 1990. This article explores the trajectories of anti-Semitic imagination and the dynamics of anti-Semitic politics in modern Lithuania.

  10. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF SMALL AND MEDIUMSIZED ENTERPRISES IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Lace

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the achievements attained in recent years in the economic development of Latvia, until now Latvia’s regions demonstrate uneven development, which negatively impacts the development of small business. The development of the regional innovation environment will contribute to the enhancement of competitiveness of regional economies.

  11. Technical Assistance to Land Privatisation and Registration in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    The current situation on Photogrammetry, Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems is described concerning State Land Service in Latvia. The report lists achievements during the project period October 1996 – September 1998, in particular on staff training, production improvements and logistics....

  12. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  13. Assessment of the Environmental Tax System in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurušs Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should play an important part in environmental policy as they help to internalize externalities, reduce damage, and increase the quality of life; besides they allow raising revenue for national and local governments. The aim of this paper is to evaluate environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, equity impact, administrative feasibility and cost, and political acceptability of environmental (energy, transport, and natural-resource taxes in Latvia. The study is based on desk research. The results demonstrate little evidence that existing environmental taxes lead to a significant reduction in environmental pollution and waste flows, but they have a significant fiscal effect. Most of the environmental taxes in Latvia apply direct and indirect subsidies, but most of the revenue comes from taxes on energy and transport. Environmental tax rates in Latvia are the result of political compromise and are not backed by the research on environmental costs of the particular activity. This paper fills the gap in environmental policy evaluation by looking at the performance and effectiveness of environmental taxes in Latvia.

  14. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  15. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  16. Quality product of Latvia on threshold of the European Union

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti turundusnõukogu poolt loodud nn "rohelise lusika" logo, algselt "Quality product of Latvia" nime kandnud kaubamärgist, mis võimaldab märgistada kõrgekvaliteedilisi tooteid nende päritolu rõhutamata

  17. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  18. The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  19. The Review of Internet Marketing Use in Latvia's Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloka, Biruta; Kantane, Inara; Walczak, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of new technologies and increasing competition require new solutions in business applications in internet marketing and advertising. The paper deals with issues related to advertising activities in internet marketing. There were presented both theoretical findings and empirical analysis of the survey conducted among Latvia's companies.…

  20. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  1. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavtchoutko, V; Vene, S; Haglund, M; Forsgren, M; Duks, A; Kalnina, V; Hörling, J; Lundkvist, A

    2000-02-01

    Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  3. Financial Participation of Employees in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darskuviené, Valdoné; Hanisch, Stefan; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Participation of employees in decision-making in Lithuanian companies has its roots in trade union movement as well as in the practice of managing companies under Soviet rule. After Lithuania regained independence, employee ownership was used to facilitate privatization. A notable success...... as participation in decision-making - is not well developed and does not provide for stronger incentives. The solution of current employment and social problems by the Government, ruling parties as well as social partners is not associated with a higher level of participation of employees. Financial participation...... is viewed mainly as a way of employee motivation as initiated by managers and current owners of companies....

  4. Securitization of cyber space in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Juknevičiūtė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The key question of this thesis was to find out how did the cyber space securitization process in Lithuania was carried out. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether the cyber space in the Lithuanian public and official discourses was securitized during the period of 2013 - 2015. In order to achieve the goals of this thesis, the following tasks were raised 1) using the theory of securitization determine the process of threat construction and the way securitization occurs; 2) determine w...

  5. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Nedvecktaite, T.; Filistovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  6. Use Of R in Statistics Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Rudys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently R becoming more and more popular among official statistics offices. It can be used not even for research purposes, but also for a production of official statistics. Statistics Lithuania recently started an analysis of possibilities where R can be used and could it replace some other statistical programming languages or systems. For this reason a work group was arranged. In the paper we will present overview of the current situation on implementation of R in Statistics Lithuania, some problems we are chasing with and some future plans. At the current situation R is used mainly for research purposes. Looking for- ward a short courses on basic R was prepared and at the moment we are starting to use R for data analysis, data manipulation from Oracle data bases, some reports preparation, data editing, survey estimation. On the other hand we found some problems working with big data sets, also survey sampling as there are surveys with complex sampling designs. We are also analysing the running of R on our servers in order to have possibilities to use more random access memory (RAM. Despite the problems, we are trying to use R in more fields in production of official statistics.

  7. Strategy on radioactive waste management in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Adomaitis, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    In Lithuania about 70-80% of all electricity is generated at a single power station, Ignalian NPP which has two non-upgradable RBMK-1500 type reactors. The unit 1 will be closed by 2005. The decision on unit 2 should be made in Lithuanian Parliament very soon taking into consideration substantial long-term financial assistance from the EU, G7 and other states as well as international institutions. The Government approved the Strategy on Radioactive Waste Management in 2002. Objectives of this strategy are to develop the radioactive waste management infrastructure based on modern technologies and provide for the set of practical actions that shall bring management of radioactive waste in Lithuania in compliance with radioactive waste management principles of IAEA and with good practices in force in EU Member States. Ignalina NPP is undertaking a program of decommissioning support projects, financed by grants from the International Ignalina Decommissioning Support Fund, administered by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This program comprises also the implementation of investment projects in a number of pre-decommissioning facilities including the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  8. Geothermal country report of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottlik, P.

    1990-01-01

    There is a slow but steady increase in the number of geothermal wells in Hungary. The rate of increase is 3-5 new wells/year. In the last years technical development and the raising of efficiency came to the front in utilization of geothermal energy. Technical development is supported by the state. This paper reports that the main directions were: developing a pump suitable for Hungarian conditions, working out the model of sandy and karstic aquifers for simulation and prediction, and developing new chemicals and methods for treating thermal water

  9. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1998-01-01

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  10. New challenges in energy future of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylys, J.; Ziedelis, S.; Adomavicius, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lithuania is a relatively small country with the population of 3,5 mln, disproportionately powerful energy industry and low energy consumption. Installed electricity generating capacities are more than 6 GW, but total power demand is less than 2 GW. Lithuania with average electricity consumption about 2900 kWh per person occupies one of the last places in Europe. Nuclear is the main source of electric energy in Lithuania: it covers 60 - 86% of total electricity production. Comparing consumption of all primary energy sources in all branches of economy nuclear covers about one third (32 - 37%) of the whole alongside with oil (31 - 33%) and natural gas (30 - 31%). At Ignalina NPP Lithuania are operating two the RBMK-1500 type reactors - the most advanced version of the former Soviet Union channel type reactor design series. The designed electrical power of RBMK-1500 reactor (1500 MW) is the biggest in the world for the single unit. The first unit of INPP was put into operation by the end of 1983 and the second unit in 1987. After Chernobyl accident the maximal allowed electrical power of each reactor at INPP was reduced to 1350 MW. The initial RBMK-1500 design at Ignalina NPP at the present time is substantially improved. More than 200 million US dollars of western countries support were spent, and numerous safety features were implemented. Nowadays both Lithuanian and foreign experts agree, that the safety level of Ignalina NPP is very similar to the western type NPP's of the same age. During accession process, one of the main EU requirements to energy sector of Lithuania was to close both reactors of Ignalina NPP, which were decided to be unsafe in principle. Despite all efforts of Lithuanian specialists and negotiators shutdown of the 1st reactor of INPP is foreseen at the end of 2004 and shutdown of the 2nd reactor is foreseen at the end of 2009. Closure of Ignalina NPP will decrease maximal power generating capacity to 2641 MW in 2010 and will cause a complex of

  11. Michigan field artillery's 'Blackjacks' training in Latvia > National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field Artillery, Michigan Army National Guard, set up the M67 GLPS for 24 years. 1st. Lt. Brice Masterson, and Sgt. 1st Class Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field , Lithuania and the United States will participate in the exercise. The exercise takes place at Adazi Training

  12. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  13. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakipova S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  15. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  16. Regulatory aspects of NPP safety in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    1999-01-01

    The functions of safety and control of nuclear facilities as well as supervision of accounting nuclear materials shall be performed by the State Nuclear Power safety Inspectorate of the Republic of Lithuania (VATESI). The supervision and control of nuclear facilities shall also be carries out within the framework of their respective competence, by other state institutions as well as by local authorities in the territories of their jurisdiction. Licenses for the activities referred to design, construction and reconstruction of nuclear facilities shall be issued by VATESI with the approval of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment a local authority whose territory is within the sanitary protection zone of nuclear facility. An urgent need is recognised for support on integrated international assistance program for improvement of Ignalina safety program. A detailed list of nuclear regulation acts is included in the presentation

  17. Status of power sector restructuring in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    Lithuanian electricity sector comprises joint stock company Lietuvos Energija, which is responsible for supplying the country with electric energy, the Ignalina NPP state enterprise, which generates more then three fourth of the entire electricity of Lithuania, CHPs run By municipalities of Kaunas and Vilnius, and a few power plants, owned by industrial enterprises, as well as private small hydro power plants. Joint stock company Lietuvos Energija is a vertically integrated monopoly, which has inherited drawbacks inherent in planned - administrational economy and is therefore now being restructured into a modern and effective structure capable of operating within market economy conditions. The main goals of restructuring would meet electricity economy requirements: clearly un bundle electricity generation costs from electricity transmission and distribution costs; create internal and external electricity market conditions by gradual transition to wholesale and retail electricity trade; create conditions for third party access; create favourable conditions for competition; provide a possibility to integrate with Baltic electricity market in progress

  18. Social Media Metrics Importance and Usage Frequency in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds Skulme

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper was to explore which social media marketing metrics are most often used and are most important for marketing experts in Latvia and can be used to evaluate marketing campaign effectiveness. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the aim of this paper several theoretical and practical research methods were used, such as theoretical literature analysis, surveying and grouping. First of all, theoretical research about social media metrics was...

  19. Legal Regulation of Franchise in Latvia and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Jarkina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This doctoral thesis is a scientific study “Legal Regulation of Franchise in Latvia and Abroad” which analyses in detailed and systematic manner peculiarities and trends of development of legal franchise regulation in the countries of the world, as well as issues of legal qualification and content of the franchise agreement in the context of Romanic-Germanic system of law. The theoretical basis of the study is scientific works of renowned experts of law, articles...

  20. Internal audit in small local governments in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Faitusa, Ivita

    2017-01-01

    Research background The role of internal audit is to provide independent assurance that an organisation’s risk management, governance, and internal control processes are operating effectively. Purpose of the article The purpose of the article was to substantiate the significance of the internal audit function and the relationship between indicators in financial statement (revenue and balance sheet value) and the existence of the internal audit function in local governments in Latvia and to...

  1. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Henrijs Kaļķis

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  2. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2012-03-01

    I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole.

  3. Contemporary journalistic texts of Latvia in the discoursively cognitive aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Milevich, I.

    2010-01-01

    In article the questions devoted to methods of studying of modern publicism of Latvia are considered. The most effective method now admits discoursive various versions – discoursive functional, discoursive cognitive, and comparative discoursive cognitive a method of studying which answers problems of cognitive and pragmatical linguistics. The research of contrastive cognitive journalistic discourse corresponds with the assignments of the cognitive and pragmatic linguistic direction in describ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES IN LATVIA IMPLEMENTING TELEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, Alise; Baltiņa, Iveta; Ādamsone, Liena; Judrupa, Ilze; Šenfelde, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Population decline is taking place in rural areas in Latvia as well as in rural areas in Europe. There is a question of utmost importance - will people choose to live in the rural area doing remote work or will they choose the job in the towns. Increased pace of population declining is forecasted in the event of steady decreasing working places and services. Growing service costs per inhabitant may infl uence lowering of accessibility of some services in the territory. Till nowadays measureme...

  5. Temporal variation of extreme precipitation events in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rimkus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation events in Lithuania for the period 1961-2008 were analysed. The spatial distribution and dynamics of precipitation extremes were investigated. Positive tendencies and in some cases statistically significant trends were determined for the whole of Lithuania. Atmospheric circulation processes were derived using Hess & Brezowski's classification of macrocirculation forms. More than one third of heavy precipitation events (37% were observed when the atmospheric circulation was zonal. The location of the central part of a cyclone (WZ weather condition subtype over Lithuania is the most common synoptic situation (27% during heavy precipitation events. Climatic projections according to outputs of the CCLM model are also presented in this research. The analysis shows that the recurrence of heavy precipitation events in the 21st century will increase significantly (by up to 22% in Lithuania.

  6. Social Media Metrics Importance and Usage Frequency in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds Skulme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper was to explore which social media marketing metrics are most often used and are most important for marketing experts in Latvia and can be used to evaluate marketing campaign effectiveness. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the aim of this paper several theoretical and practical research methods were used, such as theoretical literature analysis, surveying and grouping. First of all, theoretical research about social media metrics was conducted. Authors collected information about social media metric grouping methods and the most frequently mentioned social media metrics in the literature. The collected information was used as the foundation for the expert surveys. The expert surveys were used to collect information from Latvian marketing professionals to determine which social media metrics are used most often and which social media metrics are most important in Latvia. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of this paper was to identify if social media metrics importance varies depending on the consumer purchase decision stage. Findings: Information about the most important and most often used social media marketing metrics in Latvia was collected. A new social media grouping framework is proposed. Conclusions: The main conclusion is that the importance and the usage frequency of the social media metrics is changing depending of consumer purchase decisions stage the metric is used to evaluate.

  7. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  8. Natural Gas as an Instrument of Russian State Power (Letort Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    large-scale maritime transport is impossible without capital-intensive liquefaction plants . Mahnovski, “Natural Resources and Potential Conflict in...Latvia, and Lithuania); Central Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary); the Balkans (Serbia and Montenegro , Slovenia, Croatia

  9. Residential Folk High Schools in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulich, Jindra

    2002-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, Poland has the longest history of folk high schools. Although closed in Hungary during the 1950s, folk high schools have recently reemerged. There were attempts to establish them in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia following independence. Although the residential aspect of folk schools is desirable, economic and social conditions…

  10. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Turkey...Netherland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom. 3 North Atlantic Treaty Organizations, “NATO-EU: A...supranational organization through a constitutional process, the organization did achieve its highest level of state integration within the

  11. Induced Insecurity: Understanding the Potential Pitfalls in Developing Theater Campaign Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    important to note, however, what constitutes stability in one region does not translate consistently to other regions of the world. Since there will always...Republic, Hungary, and Poland 29. Bulgaria, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia 20 and Croatia, which was followed by increased

  12. 48 CFR 25.003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Articles Exported and Returned, Advanced or Improved Abroad, U.S. Note 7(b). (4) Section XXII, Chapter 98..., Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (Republic of), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania..., Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan...

  13. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Namibia (excluding the region north of the Veterinary Cordon Fence), The Netherlands, New... signed by an authorized official of the national animal health service of the exporting region that...

  14. Examining Trends in Parent-Child Communication in Europe over 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…

  15. Road Map for Education and Training in Land Use and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, M.M.B.; Oonk, C.; Palang, H.; Pedroli, G.B.M.; Stastná, M.

    2007-01-01

    The new EU countries, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia are still struggling with the different assessment tools and basic issues related to sustainable development. This brochure summarises the results of the ATLAS project. Land use change: a

  16. Purchasing Power Parity in Transition Countries: Panel Stationary Test with Smooth and Sharp Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the long-run purchasing power parity (PPP holds in transition economies (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Russia using monthly data over the 1995–2011 period. We apply a recently introduced panel stationary test, which accounts for sharp breaks and smooth shifts. The results indicate that the PPP holds only in two countries (i.e., Lithuania and Poland.

  17. Hungary as an aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, B; Hazafi, K

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe the situation of the aged in Hungary, with a particular focus on the medical and ethical problems that health professionals have to face. The so-called post-communist transitional period is characterised by both economic and moral crisis. The country has a serious foreign debt problem as well as high rate of unemployment and crime, a considerable price inflation, and the pauperisation of the people, particularly among the old. The old are defined as those who have reached retirement age, which is 55 for women and 60 for men. Hungary lacks the kind of incentives that would provide good reasons to live much beyond the age of 60. There is neither a suitable culture for old age nor economic security, and this seriously undermines the independence and autonomy of the old. Neither family nor institutional care for the elderly is adequate. Although over 20 per cent of the population are retired, they are not organized as a political power that would effectively represent them. The health care system is in crises and the elderly suffer the most because of it. Therapeutic nihilism and both over-treatment and under-treatment of the aged is common. Among the old, the suicide rate is high. Because of a lack of funds, an inadequate number of experts, indifference to rehabilitation, and the infrequent use of technological interventions, home and institutional care are inadequate. There are no public debates on setting priorities or allocating limited resources. There are, however, high hopes for the success of a market economy, privatization, and well-functioning democracy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic of China...-0371, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete...

  19. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  20. Economic and technical factors affecting the development of decentralized CHP in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klavs, G.; Turlajs, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development and usage of the Energy Flow Optimisation Model (EFOM-ENV) in Latvia. The model is used to analyze and evaluate different scenarios for the power sector development in Latvia. Important study objectives have been the penetration of the new technologies, and the impact of imported electricity price changes. (author)

  1. Regionalism on the example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Terez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of association with the EU in which Hungary took place, and about the demands that should have been fulfilled. It is shown, on the example of Hungary, what progress has taken place in the last 15 years in the area of establishing of regional science and what sort of conclusion can be made for Yugoslavia. The author also deals with the possible functions of sociology in regional research.

  2. Trends of distributed generation development in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, Vaclovas; Norvaisa, Egidijus; Galinis, Arvydas; Konstantinaviciute, Inga

    2011-01-01

    The closure of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, impact of recent global recession of the economy, as well as changes and problems posed by the global climate change require significant alterations in the Lithuanian energy sector development. This paper describes the current status and specific features of the Lithuanian power system, and in particular discusses the role of the distributed generators. Country's energy policy during last two decades was focused on substantial modernisation of the energy systems, their reorganisation and creation of appropriate institutional structure and necessary legal basis. The most important factors stimulating development of distributed generation in Lithuania are the following: international obligations to increase contribution of power plants using renewable energy sources into electricity production balance; development of small (with capacity less than 50 MW) cogeneration power plants; implementation of energy policy directed to promotion of renewable energy sources and cogeneration. Analysis of the legal and economic environment, as well as principles of regulation of distributed generation and barriers to its development is presented. - Highlights: → Paper describes current status and specific features of the Lithuanian power system. → Analysis of the legal and economic environment regarding distributed generation. → Current situation is not favourable for distributed generation development. → Problems, barriers, principles of regulation of distributed generation is presented. → New energy policy regarding distributed generation and renewables.

  3. Unrealized Architectural Projects in Lithuania: Historical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Gudelytė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The “unrealized architectural projects” are the building projects, carried out under the specific design task and intended to be built in a particular place (site, though, for certain reasons and circumstances, have never been constructed. However, up to the present day, the topic of the “unbuilt” has been analyzed just episodically in literature and sources. The article touches upon the historical development of unrealized architectural works, as well as their artistic value and role within various historical periods of Lithuanian architecture. One of the chapters briefly reviews the relevance and development of unrealized projects during the period since Czarist Russian occupation (1795 to the restoration of Lithuanian independence (1990. Furthermore, the deeper analysis of the Soviet period (1940–1990 “dead” architecture is presented. While exploring “the unrealized”, attention has been also paid to what was actu ally built, therefore the prevailing architectural styles, tendencies and examples of the corresponding decade (in Lithuania and worldwide have been studied.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujaniene, G. [Institute of Physics, Nuclear and Environmental Radioactivity Research Laboratory, Savanoriu 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: lujaniene@ar.fi.lt; Aninkevicius, V. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Lujanas, V. [Institute of Physics, Nuclear and Environmental Radioactivity Research Laboratory, Savanoriu 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of airborne radioactive aerosol concentration were carried out on the basis of 1-3 days samples after the Chernobyl disaster and during the period of 1992-2003. Transport of 'hot' particles of different composition resulted in the high activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in the atmosphere in Vilnius at the end of April 1986. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio showed clear evidence of non-global plutonium originating from the Chernobyl accident in the atmosphere over Lithuania. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio ranged from 0.14 to 0.40 in monthly samples in Vilnius in 1995-2003. An increase in activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 100 (up to 300 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) was found following forest fires in the Ukraine and Belarus. However, no transport of the Chernobyl plutonium was observed and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in samples collected during the forest fires was found to be 0.229 and 0.185, respectively. The exponential decrease in the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio from 0.30 to 0.19 (mean values) was observed in 1995-2003.

  5. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  6. COMPARISON OF REHABILITATION POLICIES IN LITHUANIA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Jankauskienė

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the formation, implementation and evaluation of rehabilitation policy in Lithuania and the United Kingdom through a comparative analysis and two empirical sociological qualitative studies. The following scientific problematic issues were raised: what is the situation in the field of rehabilitation policy formation, development and assessment in the historical perspective in Lithuania and the United Kingdom, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of rehabilitation policy in Lithuania and the UK, and what are the possibilities to change and improve the formation and implementation of rehabilitation policy. A comparative analysis of the principles of development, financing, legal regulation, advantages and disadvantages has been carried out, using scientific publications, reports, publications of foreign research papers, legal acts as well as qualitative researches of experts in Lithuania and the United Kingdom. Rehabilitation policies have been found to have similarities in the United Kingdom and Lithuania, but they are quite different as well. Lithuania developed its rehabilitation policy in a relatively short time in all areas of development amid a rapidly changing environment, with effective legal regulation, ambitious measures and limited resources. The United Kingdom’s rehabilitation policy has a much longer history; it changed in many ways to adapt to the needs of patients and society. It is based on the approach to the patient as an individual having a particular disorder, and the rehabilitation system promotes an individual rehab program in which the patient is an active participant and can even contribute to the plan, select services they need, and control the rehabilitation budget assigned to them. The system of rehabilitation policy between Lithuania and the UK varies considerably. In the UK, the focus is on the improvement of rehabilitation policy, working with communities, introducing

  7. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  8. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  9. Climatic fluctuations and origin of sediments during Alleroed in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelle, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Alleroed sediments are known from more than 30 sites in Latvia, but usually each of them reflects incomplete part of this important interval within the Late-Glacial. The lithological and palinological record of stratigraphically complete sections (Lielauce a.o.) proves that Alleroed is not climatically homogeneous. Relative cooling had been observed in middle part (about 11500-11300 years ago) of this interval. The pollen and spore composition, the radiocarbon dates and the changes in lithology of sediments during Alleroed time are discussed. The entire Alleroed interval may be subdivided into three stratigraphic units: lower (AL-1), middle (AL-2) and upper (AL-3). (author)

  10. [Migration of dentists within Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  11. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  12. Schools and communities in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyady, Susan

    1980-09-01

    The democratic reform of public education in Hungary after the Second World War brought about a system which now includes Day-Care from the ages of 4-6 and compulsory Elementary School education up to the age of 16. A high proportion of students go on to Secondary education in vocational schools, special schools or grammar shools. The system is supplemented by career-counselling and provision for children with difficult home-backgrounds and for the mentally-retarded. District Councils are responsible for the schools in their areas and for the zoning that determines which schools children should attend. The environment of a school has a strong influence not only upon the standard of its facilities and the quality of its staff but also upon the function it is expected to fulfil in the community. Achievement is directly related to the degree of urbanization, but the increasing participation of farming-co-operatives in education in rural areas promises well for the development of better facilities and mutual understanding there. Housing estates in high-density residential areas make special demands which are being met in different ways. The role of the school in general is being expanded to include children's leisure time activities; at the same time factories are making a significant contribution locally through vocational guidance, financial help, and training-for-work programmes. Councils are implementing the requirements of public education resolutions to integrate school education into the whole scheme of public education, co-ordinating the activities of all social and cultural institutions, and developing new multi-functional complexes, to give a more effective and efficient service to the whole community.

  13. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  14. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  15. Onshore Wind Farms: Value Creation for Stakeholders in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskienė, Marija; Rudzkis, Paulius; Kanopka, Adomas

    With the costs of fossil fuel consistently rising worldwide over the last decade, the development of green technologies has become a major goal in many countries. Therefore the evaluation of wind power projects becomes a very important task. To estimate the value of the technologies based on renewable resources also means taking into consideration social, economic, environmental, and scientific value of such projects. This article deals with economic evaluation of electricity generation costs of onshore wind farms in Lithuania and the key factors that have influence on wind power projects and offer a better understanding of social-economic context behind wind power projects. To achieve these goals, this article makes use of empirical data of Lithuania's wind power farms as well as data about the investment environment of the country.Based on empirical data of wind power parks, the research investigates the average wind farm generation efficiency in Lithuania. Employing statistical methods the return on investments of wind farms in Lithuania is calculated. The value created for every party involved and the total value of the wind farm is estimated according to Stakeholder theory.

  16. Why entrepreneurs do not expect their businesses: lessons from Lithuania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidis, R.K.; Mickiewicz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This article applies a multinomial logit estimator to investigate which factors affect SME owners' expectations to grow their businesses in Lithuania. Our findings provide evidence that SME owners' human capital (education) matters and that growth expectations are positively related to exporting. In

  17. Notes on Pyrenomycetes and Coelomycetes from North Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ihe localities of pyrenomycelous and coelomycetous fungi. Forty three are reported as new to the mycoflora of Lithuania, among them are Discosia faginea, D. strobilina, Eutypa astroidea, Gibbera cassandrae, Gloeosporium saponariae, Hypoxylon atropurpureum, H. mammafum, Myxoeyclus polycistis, Mycosphaerella pontederiae, Phyllosticta coryli, P. lantanae, P. pirina. Microfungi have been collected on 62 species of host plants.

  18. Lessons from Lithuania: A Pedagogical Approach in Teaching Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the approach that a professor in Lithuania utilized in successfully teaching undergraduate music education majors how to improvise during a one-semester course. The research questions focused on the participant's philosophy of teaching and learning, his methods for motivating students, the learning…

  19. Music Performance Anxiety among Students of the Academy in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliaukiene, Vilma; Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Eimontas, Jonas; Skeryte-Kazlauskiene, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) affects amateurs, students and professional musicians. We aimed to analyse MPA among students of music performance in a higher education academy in Lithuania. A sample of 258 music performance arts students of the Lithuanian Music and Theatre Academy participated in this study. The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety…

  20. Radiation protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    2001-01-01

    The situation in control of exposure due to general diagnostic radiological examinations in Lithuania is described. Experience in creation of legal basis for radiation protection, results of measurements of patients' doses and quality control tests of x-ray units are given. The main problems encountered in implementation of international recommendations and requirements of European Medical Exposure Directive are discussed. (author)

  1. Use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengvenyte Aiste

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania, determine the reasons for usage and evaluate the contributing factors such as socio-demographic characteristics, stress levels, sleep quality and knowing somebody who has used a neuro-enhancing drug.

  2. Biogas Production Resources in Lithuania and Prospects of their Utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrubliauskas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The biogas production resources in Lithuania and their structure have been ascertained. The total technical potential of biogas production has been calculated to make 639 million m 3 per year (4080 GWh). The biogas production feasibilities in the country have been estimated. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Information Needs Research in Russia and Lithuania, 1965-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceviciute, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The invisibility of research on information needs from the East and Central Europe in the West suggested an exploration of the published research output from Lithuania and Russia from 1965 to 2003. Method: The data were collected from the abstracting journal Informatika-59. The publications were retrieved from Lithuanian and Russian…

  4. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Sapolaite, J.; Remeikis, V.; Lujanas, V.; Aninkevicius, V.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic observations of radionuclide composition and concentration in the atmosphere have been carried out at the Institute of Physics in Vilnius since 1963. An increase in activity concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere was observed after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident. At present the radiation situation in Lithuania is determined by two main sources of radionuclides, forest fire and resuspension products transferred from highly polluted region of the Ukraine and Belarus. During forest fires the increase in activity concentration of 1 37Cs in the atmosphere was registered in many countries and in Lithuania as well. This work summarizes the experimental data on transport of cesium, plutonium, americium from the highly contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 1 37Cs were measured in two - three days samples while plutonium and americium in monthly samples. In addition, the analyses of the events of the increase activity concentration, meteorological situation, speciation of radionuclides and mechanisms of formation and transformation of aerosol carriers of radionuclides are presented. Aerosols were sampled on perchlorvinyl filters and the large volume air samplers with a flow rate from 2400 m 3 /h to about 6000 m 3 /h were used. The radiochemical analyses of monthly samples of aerosol ashes (about 30 g) were performed. For separation of Pu isotopes the TOPO/cyclohexane extraction and radiochemical purification using UTEVA resin were performed, Am was separated after TOPO/cyclohexane extraction using TRU and TEVA resins (100-150 μm). 2 42Pu and 2 43Am were used as tracers in the separation procedure. The alpha spectrometry measurements of Pu and Am isotopes deposited on a stainless steel disc were carried out with the Alphaquattro (Silena) spectrometer. 1 37Cs was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using the high purity HPGe detector (resolution - 1.9 keV/1.33 Mev, efficiency - 42

  5. Level of occupational irradiation to medical personnel in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubatova, D.Ya.; Kostenko, I.V.; Nemiro, Ye.A.; Pustovit, I.A.; Semyonov, R.A.; Trautman, N.F. (Latvian Medical Academy, Riga (Latvia))

    1992-06-01

    An automated system for the recording and analysis of mass personal dosimetry data was developed. The results obtained with this system show that the average annual dose for X-ray laboratory assistants in Latvia gradually decreased before 1979 and that since then it has fluctuated without exceeding 5 mSv. The average annual dose for the republic's physicians has amounted to 4 mSv. The contribution of doses in excess of 15 mSv to the collective dose received by the republic's physicians has accounted for about 30 to 40%, which testifies to the fact that working conditons cannot be considered as being quite favourable; these conditions have to be further improved, and personal dosimetry of this category of personnel has to be conducted on a systematic basis. (orig.).

  6. Level of occupational irradiation to medical personnel in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubatova, D.Ya.; Kostenko, I.V.; Nemiro, Ye.A.; Pustovit, I.A.; Semyonov, R.A.; Trautman, N.F.

    1992-01-01

    An automated system for the recording and analysis of mass personal dosimetry data was developed. The results obtained with this system show that the average annual dose for X-ray laboratory assistants in Latvia gradually decreased before 1979 and that since then it has fluctuated without exceeding 5 mSv. The average annual dose for the republic's physicians has amounted to 4 mSv. The contribution of doses in excess of 15 mSv to the collective dose received by the republic's physicians has accounted for about 30 to 40%, which testifies to the fact that working conditons cannot be considered as being quite favourable; these conditions have to be further improved, and personal dosimetry of this category of personnel has to be conducted on a systematic basis. (orig.) [de

  7. Landscape seasons and air mass dynamics in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauklis, A.; Draveniece, A.

    2004-01-01

    Latvia is located in the middle of an area where the boreal and nemoral zones and the regions of oceanic and continental climate meet, and it was studied as a model territory of the most typical variation of boreo-nemoral ecotone. The subject of this study was seasonal dynamics of the state of landscapes and diachronous links between seasons. It was found that landscapes undergo 12 seasonal states or seasons during the annual cycle of insulation and air mass occurrence. Each season may be distinguished by a definite amount of solar radiation, distinctive state of heat and water balance, phenological state of vegetation, and a distinctive occurrence of different air mass types and their particular 'association'. During each season these variables show a particular combination of numerical values and a distinctive landscape pattern

  8. Demonstration of energy audit at Zunda Riga, Latvia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    An energy audit at the furniture factory Zunda in Riga, Latvia has been made. The overall purpose of the project was to demonstrate the entire process of an energy audit in Latvia. The greatest potential for energy savings lies in the wood drying process. Whilst the existing drying chambers are old, worn out and without any controlling devices, rather large savings can be obtained by installing new drying chambers. Further, new chambers would be easier to control and therefore the output, the dried wood, would have a better and more stabile quality than it is the case for the time being. The analyses indicate that the energy consumption for wood drying could be reduced to just 1/3 of the present level. The evaluation of this has been supported by a financial analysis which indicates the financial benefits from investing in new drying chambers. Further, the project has covered the newly installed boilers based on wood waste from the production. The issue was whether these boilers can supply enough energy to eliminate the purchase of surplus energy from an adjacent factory. The result of this assessment shows that it will only be necessary to buy heat for a very short period of time each year. The project also dealt with the compressed air system. The conclusion is that savings can be obtained rather easily through a systematic maintenance where holes are located and fixed, in order to reduce the considerable loss from the system. In this way, the power consumption for the compressors are expected to drop. As concerns the ventilating systems at Zunda, it is concluded that the efficiency of the exhaust ventilators could be improved by a systematic maintenance process, where holes in the ducts are located and fixed. (LN)

  9. The unfortunate generation: stroke survivors in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Christopher; Luse, Agita; Wolfe, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The poor health status of citizens in post-Soviet states has been reported but few studies have investigated the illness experiences of people in those countries. This paper reports findings from an interview study conducted with stroke patients in Riga, Latvia, who were part of a cohort recruited over 1 year for a European study comparing the provision of care, outcomes and resource use. The interview study aimed to elicit stroke patients' own perceptions of the impact of stroke 1 year after the event. Adopting a phenomenological perspective we illustrate how the particular social setting shapes stroke as an illness, its influences on access to health care and on consideration of the impact of stroke. We argue that for stroke survivors and their relatives in post-Soviet Latvia this disorder acquires a meaning that transcends the individual biography and signifies an upheaval of social life in general. The meanings attributed to stroke by interviewees are developed in the context of the momentous recent historical events which participants lived through. In this sense, stroke has become an idiom of a disruption in social biography rather than individual biography alone. Most participants were pensioners and their main concern was their own poverty. Some complained of their inability to meet their basic needs, much less pay for on-going medication and therapy. Only one person was 'severely disabled', using a standard neurological definition, but about half of those interviewed regarded the stroke as a sign foretelling their own death. Although this generation had expected to be cared for in their older age under the Soviet regime, the much longed for Latvian independence was seen to have brought unexpected hardships for those who were old and sick.

  10. The development of the nuclear physics in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmanis, U.

    2003-01-01

    The history of the nuclear physics (NP) in Latvia begun in the 50-ies of the past century and is associated with the Institute of Physics (IP) Latvian Academy of Science. The plan of 1952 has contained theoretical works about interaction of elementary particles (P.Kunin and I.Taksar), the use of radioactive isotopes as 'labelled atoms' in industry (the marketing of steel tapes) and other topics. During 1952-1955 in the IP as the leader of NP works has been Arshavir Karamyan, scientific worker of D.Mendeleev All-Union Research Institute of Metrology in St.Petersburg (then Leningrad). He has been also scientific supervisors of the IP scientist Peteris Prokofjevs post-graduate studies in St.Petersburg on 1952-1956. The theme of this thesis was related with the construction of magnetic gamma-spectrometer. During the period 195-1957 the practical use of radioisotopes as labelled atoms and sources of ionising radiation has been developed in laboratory of radioactive methods in automation (leader V.Janushkovskii). At that time different apparatus with radioisotopes for counting of things, regulation of temperature, current, voltage, measure of different liquid levels etc. have been well known in the world (exhibitions, international conferences). The other, isotope laboratory (leader J.Chudars) was connected with research in nuclear spectroscopy and interaction of radiation with matter problems: construction of gamma- and beta spectrometers, gamma-gamma and gamma-beta coincidence schemes, measure of decay schemes of different radioisotopes (L. Pelekis, J.Chudars, I.Taure, L.Bambe) measure of periods of half-decay (V.Breslav) and the gamma-ray scattering in materials (U.Ulmanis and N.Dubinska). The next stage of the development of nuclear physics in Latvia is connected with the research nuclear reactor in Salaspils. (author)

  11. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  12. Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspars Zellis

    2011-01-01

    Annotation Doctoral thesis „Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)” presents analysis of Nazi propaganda towards people of Latvia during the World War II. The analysis covers the institutions of propaganda and the main channels of propaganda – media, radio, cinema etc. The content of propaganda has been analyzed in the research as well. The thesis deals with the issue of propaganda of integration, the main goal of which was creating a n...

  13. Consistency Analysis and Data Consultation of Gas System of Gas-Electricity Network of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemite, L.; Kutjuns, A.; Bode, I.; Kunickis, M.; Zeltins, N.

    2018-02-01

    In the present research, the main critical points of gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been determined to ensure secure and reliable gas supply among the Baltic States to fulfil the core objectives of the EU energy policies. Technical data of critical points of the gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been collected and analysed with the SWOT method and solutions have been provided to increase the reliability of the regional natural gas system.

  14. Nettle Fibers as a Potential Natural Raw Material for Textile in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Baltiņa, I; Lapsa, L; Jankauskiene, Z; Gruzdeviene, E

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, attention is devoted to the methods of obtaining nettle fibers for technical textiles. Several new nettle plant clones have been created. From wild nettles they differ in the higher number of fibers. The nettle can be grown for 10 – 15 years in one place without much care. The wild nettle grows in Latvia very well. Therefore, the task has been to determine the possibility of cultivating nettle in Latvia for fiber needs. It has been determined that the obtained ...

  15. Promoting interculturalism through art education : a case study Portugal and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Esho, Deborah Mofoluwani, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    This study examines art student’s awareness, understanding and practices of intercultural art education in higher institution of art. Specifically, the research focused on Art Academy of Latvia, Riga. The purpose was to promote “interculturalism’’ among students and to acquaint them with the knowledge and skills of developing and reflecting on their cultural values and that of others’. For 10 weeks, 7 students in the Art Academy of Latvia explored the Traditional African Ceramics. My research...

  16. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  17. Hungary Higher Education Quality Assurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ru-shan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education quality assurance system has drawn much attention since 1980s. Most countries are committed to build the higher education quality assurance system to meet international standards. Under such an international trend, Hungary also actively promotes higher education reform, and established Hungarian Accreditation Committee and in order to ensure the quality of higher education.

  18. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It…

  19. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  20. Irradiation preservation of food in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the food irradiation activities in Hungary for preservation purposes. A historical background of this technology is given, and the present practice is outlined. Several food species are presently treated with Co-60 gamma-irradiation for their radurization. (R.P.)

  1. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  2. The regulatory control of ionizing radiation sources in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Ziliukas, J.; Morkunas, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources, which includes keeping the registry, investigating persons arrested while illegally carrying or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and control of users of radioactive sources. The computer based registry contains a directory of more than 24,000 sources and some 800 users in research, medicine and industry. Most of these sources are found in smoke detectors and X ray equipment. The potentially most dangerous sources for therapy and industry (sealed and unsealed) are also listed in this registry. Problems connected with the regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania are presented and their solution is discussed. (author)

  3. Dealing with local and international media - experience of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliauskas, V.

    2000-01-01

    Public acceptance is one of most serious conditions for nuclear power introduction or successful operation of nuclear power plants. After restoring it's independence, Lithuania inherited large nuclear power plant RBMK type reactors widely known as Chernobyl type reactors. Several small case studies of dealing with the media on nuclear matters are presented and efforts to adopt an active attitude on different levels are described. (author)

  4. Green consumption and pro-environmental behaviors in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Viciunaite, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to finding out how to encourage an increase in green consumption and pro-environmental behaviors. The analysis was based on both qualitative and quantitative data, collected in Kaunas, Lithuania. The quantitative analysis was based on data collected from 112 surveys; the information gathered from the surveys was used for a logistic regression in order to find predictors of green consumption and for Pearson’s chi-square tests to see if the differences between green and ...

  5. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis [Radiation Protection Centre, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1997-12-31

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented 2 refs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: rsc at post.omnitel.net

  6. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis

    1997-01-01

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented

  7. Identification of Babesia canis genotypes in dogs from Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Tamoliūnaitė, Dovilė; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Sabūnas, Vytautas; Karvelienė, Birutė; Zamokas, Gintaras

    2018-01-01

    Canine babesiosis is a widespread tick-borne disease caused by haematozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. Babesiosis caused by B. canis may range from mild to severe disease in dogs. Such difference in the virulence of B. canis strains is associated with genetic heterogeneity among B. canis strains. We aimed to investiga...

  8. Study on Customer Satisfaction with Facilities Management Services in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Žūkaitė-Jefimovienė, Giedrė

    2012-12-01

    The article introduces the concept and content of facilities management (FM) services. The paper presents the concept of customer satisfaction and discusses the key factors which influence the opinions of customers and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the services provided. The article presents two studies: a brief survey of several FM service providers and a survey of customer satisfaction with FM services in Lithuania. The conclusions are given at the end of the article.

  9. Students' perspectives to health care services in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Brancevič, Jolita

    2016-01-01

    Students' Perspectives to Health Care Services in Lithuania Introduction. The Rights of Patients and Compensation for the Damage to Their Health Act defines health care services as safe and effective means to take care of health, identify, diagnose and treat diseases and provide nursing services. The aims set out in a policy of health care services are fairly broad and, among others, include the improvement of both the quality and the availability of health care services. The issues of increa...

  10. Development of the nuclear safety infrastructure in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilemas, J.

    1999-01-01

    After Lithuania took over the electric power plant, it had to form ties with Western specialists while not breaking off ties with Russian institutions; form a nucleus from known Lithuanian energy professionals, who, while being occupied only with problem of nuclear security, would become specialists in this area; attract Lithuanian specialists in related fields, acquaint them with the problems of nuclear energy and, where possible, use their skills; begin the preparation of new specialists in this field

  11. The role of Lithuanian TSO in view of changing nuclear situation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspuras, E.

    2010-01-01

    At present, the Technical and scientific Support Organisations (TSOs) are gaining increased importance by providing the technical and scientific basis for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. In lithuania, after Lithuania declared its independence, the technical support organisations in Lithuania grows and develops into institution, capable to perform all necessary safety analyses for Ignalina NPP. However, the preparation for the construction of new nuclear power plant showed that Lithuania lacks the nuclear energy specialists. This paper presents information about the creation and growing up of Lithuanian TSOs, the works performed at present days and the needs for nearest future. (author)

  12. Visit of the President of the Republic of Lithuania

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    On Wednesday, 20 January 2016, Her Excellency Dr Dalia Grybauskaitė, President of the Republic of Lithuania, visited CERN. The Lithuanian delegation had a busy morning, visiting several of CERN’s facilities.   The President of the Republic of Lithuania, Dalia Grybauskaitė (4th from right), with CERN Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti (3rd from right), CMS deputy spokesperson Kerstin Borras (1st from left), and representatives of the Lithuanian community working at CERN. The tour of the Laboratory started at Point 5, where the President and her delegation were welcomed by Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, who gave a general introduction to CERN’s activities.  This was followed by a presentation of the work at Point 5 by CMS deputy spokesperson, Kerstin Borras, and a meeting with users from Lithuania working at CMS. The President also enjoyed an introduction to life at CERN during Her lunch in the cafeteria. In the afternoon, &am...

  13. The Impact of Terrorism on the Tourism Sector of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Survila

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Practically every day there are terrorist attacks executed somewhere. For this reason, the need to reveal the impact of terrorism on tourism sector of Lithuania and how well it is ready for this challenge occurs. The analysis of scientific literature and secondary data was used as well as two surveys (qualitative and quantitative were carried out. Since the possibility of a terrorist attack in Lithuania is trivial, the research focuses on the Lithuanian outbound tourism sector. The survey of interaction between terrorism and tourism and impact of terrorism to tourism in different countries is provided. It is worth emphasising that tourists become the victims of not only preplanned but also of individual terrorist attacks. Events of recent several years have caused the emergence of the terrorist tourism, when people with radical attitudes travel to, e.g., Syria. Despite the various attacks and subsequent dips in tourism the world of travel and hospitality has entered a new era of growth and transformation. The purpose of the research was to identify how Lithuanian tourists and experts perceive dangers and whether this affect their choice of trips and what measures can reduce the impact of terrorist attacks on tourism. Both the Lithuanian tourists and experts understand that the threat from terrorism has been growing, nevertheless the comparison with other surveys can lead to the statement that there is a specific tourist market in Lithuania which is characteristic of courage, inflexibility in terms of price and poor perception of possible threats.

  14. Implementing participatory action research in Lithuania: potential and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabija Jarašiūnaitė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory action research is a quite new approach to research in Lithuania. The aim of an article was to disscuss the potential and challenges of participatory action research while implementing it in Lithuanian organizations. The qualitative approach was chosen for the study using the method of Focus groups. 20 researchers from social and biomedicine sciences from six institutions of High education in Lithuania participated in the study. The results of the study showed that participatory action reasearch is seen as an approach with many possibilities because of a wide range of used methods, constant interactions with research participants and the lenght of the research process. Researchers value the possibility to access organization at the begining, during research process and evaluate the effectiveness of the changes after the process. The research challenges are associated with the competence of a researcher including his/her sensitivity during process, ability to involve active participation of organization members in the ongoing process by creating safe and trusting environment. Some specific challenges associated with Lithuanian organizations are organizations‘ tiredness of researches and lack of faith of the benefits of researches because of some previous experiences. Keywords: Participatory Action Research, Organization, Lithuania.

  15. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  16. A methodology for flood risk appraisal in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriščiukaitienė Irena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for flood risk mapping as envisaged by the Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks [Directive 2007/60/EC]. Specifically, we aimed at identifying the types of flood damage that can be estimated given data availability in Lithuania. Furthermore, we present the main sources of data and the associated cost functions. The methodology covers the following main types of flood threats: risk to inhabitants, risk to economic activity, and social risk. A multi-criteria framework for aggregation of different risks is proposed to provide a comprehensive appraisal of flood risk. On the basis of the proposed research, flood risk maps have been prepared for Lithuania. These maps are available for each type of flood risk (i.e. inhabitants, economic losses, social risk as well as for aggregate risk. The results indicate that flood risk management is crucial for western and central Lithuania, whereas other parts of the country are not likely to suffer from significant losses due to flooding.

  17. Overturn of the proposed alcohol advertising ban in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukštė, Ernesta; Liutkutė, Vaida; Stelemėkas, Mindaugas; Goštautaitė Midttun, Nijolė; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2014-05-01

    In response to the dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems in Lithuania, policy measures, including alcohol advertising and availability restrictions combined with taxation increase, were implemented in 2007-08. Simultaneously, a full alcohol advertising ban was adopted to take effect from 1 January 2012. Therefore, the alcohol industry responded with extensive lobbying aiming to revoke this ban, and ultimately they succeeded at the end of December 2011. To document and analyse actions of stakeholders and events during the alcohol advertising ban cancellation process in Lithuania. Policy analysis includes a development of event time-line, description of key stakeholders' actions and a review of policy context. The alcohol industry in Lithuania used similar tactics as the tobacco industry globally, such as creating strong and diverse opposing groups. The industry successfully exerted pressure to change alcohol control legislation, while non-governmental organizations had the important role of a watchdog, blunting industry's efforts. Unequal power distribution made it difficult to withstand combined local and international lobbying to cancel the ban. Given the global nature of the alcohol industry, there is a need for international regulation to limit the influence of vested interests on national lawmaking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  19. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  20. Power reactor noise measurements in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallagi, D.; Horanyi, S.; Hargitai, T.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the history of reactor noise research in Hungary. A brief description is given of studies in the WWR-SM reactor, a modified version of the original WWR-S thermal reactor, for the detection of in-core simulated boiling by analysis of the noise of out-of-core ionization chambers. Coolant velocity measurements by transit time analysis of temperature fluctuations are described. (U.K.)

  1. [Divorces in Hungary in the 1980s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, L

    1989-01-01

    Trends in divorce in Hungary in 1980 are examined using data from official sources. Having presented the data, the author attempts to identify the factors affecting the frequency of divorce, including educational status, geographic factors, income, and social class. In a concluding section devoted to the future of marriage, the author suggests that stable marriages based primarily on emotional rather than economic foundations will become less common, as the economic aspects of marriage are likely to increase rather than decrease in importance.

  2. [Dental care for foreigners in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter; Oesterle, August

    2008-10-01

    High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has been conducted so far, however its professional and economic significance has been indicated by day-to-day experience. Additionally, the term "dental tourism" also used in international scientific papers became a commonplace in Hungary with unfavourable connotations. The present survey was the first to study this phenomenon by scientific standards in the most involved areas, namely in the capital city Budapest and in three counties in the Western Hungarian Region. Data collecting was performed by a self-reported questionnaire sent via conventional mail to all members of the Dental Section of the Hungarian Medical Chamber practicing in those indicated regions. Respond rates were 20.65% in Budapest and 25.34% in Western Hungary. The sample obtained this way, clearly indicated dimensions of cross-border patient migration and its economic significance as well. In Western Hungary 80.81% of foreign patients came from the neighbouring Austria and two out of ten practices realized 40 to 100% of their income out of this business. In Budapest foreign patients' nationality was more diversified. The largest group arrived from the United Kingdom (9.93%). Nevertheless the economic impact of dental tourism in Budapest is not relevant and outbalanced by a considerable domestic demand on the local private market.

  3. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  4. 2015 Easter bolide over North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, T.; Csizmadia, S.; Zelkó, Z.; Kereszty, Z.; Bíró, Z.

    2015-01-01

    On Easter Monday, April 6, 2015, at UTC 17h31m (near sunset) there was a bright (peak magnitude -12 ~ -14) bolide which also produced a sonic boom, over North Hungary, close to Miskolc, above the Bükk mountains. The event was witnessed by many people, and recorded by several car dashboard-, meteorological and all sky cameras from as far away as Farád (North-West Hungary) and Görbeháza (North-East Hungary). Unfortunately, with the event having occurred only a few minutes after sunset, the sky was still bright and therefore the Hungarian Video meteor network cameras were not yet operating. Our team has collected and re-calibrated as much video and photo material as possible. Since there were very few direct images of the bolide itself, but more photos and videos of the persistent train left behind, these latter images were also used, in certain circumstances, in our calculations. The deduced final atmospheric path and heliocentric orbit are presented, along with the estimation of the errors.

  5. Factors Influencing Customer Trust in Mobile Banking: Case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvarciany Viktorija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has developed and extended the use of its services in the past decade. In fact, nowadays mobile banking (M-banking is the most developing service offered by a bank. In order to encourage customers to use m-banking services, it is extremely important to get clients to trust the M-banking services provided by the bank. This article discusses private clients’ trust in mobile banking in Latvia. Hence, the goal of the research is to identify the key factors driving individual customer’s confidence in mobile banking. In order to determine the weight of each factor, expert evaluation method based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used. The results showed that the most vital factor affecting private clients’ trust in mobile banking is customer characteristics, especially customers’ computer literacy. However, after summarizing all the subfactors, it became clear that the most powerful in the trust-building process is convenience/practicality of using a mobile application. However, there is a limitation – the survey was conducted by interviewing experts, which means that the results may differ from the responses of the clients themselves.

  6. Meat and Meat Product Consumption among Infants in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Širina Inga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption during the first year of life is especially important to provide necessary iron requirements. The aim of the study was to assess meat and meat product consumption of Latvian infants during their first year of life, in relation to different factors. Data were collected by interview method using two types of questionnaires: food frequency questionnaires and food diary. The study included a representative sample of infants and toddlers from all regions of Latvia with a target sample of 560 participants. The study included 266 infants: 127 girls, 139 boys, aged from 0 to 12 month. Data were summarised using the Excel software and analysed using the SPSS software. For data analysis two age groups were created: 0–5.9 months and 6–12 months. Consumption was analysed by two parameters: frequency and amount per feeding. Meat products were defined as offal products, sausages, and meat in baby food. Meat was mainly consumed after 6 months of age and by 73% of infants (n = 107. Meat from baby food was consumed only after 6 months and by 23% (n = 34. Sausages and offal products were consumed after 6 months of age. Sausages were consumed by 18% (n = 28 and offal products by 11% (n = 16 of infants. Meat consumption for the majority of infants was introduced after 6 months and was in accordance with recommendations.

  7. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  9. Thyroid disorders in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Orlikovs, G.; Ritenberga, R.; Skudra, M.; Lemane, R.; Lemanis, A.; Curbakova, E.; Groma, V.; Socnevs, A.

    1999-01-01

    The condition of thyroid was examined in 2188 Chernobyl clean-up workers residing in Latvia and a control group consisting of 1041 employees of the Ministry of International Affairs. Thyroid examinations included palpation, ultrasonography, selective scintigraphy and detection of the level of thyroid hormones in blood serum:L STH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), total T3 (triiodothyronine), and T4 (thyroxine). Thyroid was registered in 394 Chernobyl clean-up workers. Of these cases, 28 patients with suspected thyroid cancer were operated, and morphological examinations revealed papillary adenocarcinoma (in 5 patients), follicular adenocarcinoma (2), nodular colloid goiter (16); toxic diffuse goiter (1), papillary-follicular adenoma (3), and chronic thyroiditis (1). It was determined that the thyroid pathology in the Chernobyl clean-up workers had a tendency to progress (27 cases in 1987 versus 394 cases in 1998 in total; and absence of thyroid cancer in 1987, compared with 7 cases in 1998); thyroid nodules increased twice (64 cases in 1997, compare with 126 cases in 1998). (author)

  10. Upgrading of radon's type near surface repository in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1959, the Soviet government decided to construct the near surface radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' near the Baldone city. It was put in operation in 1962. The changes in the development of the repository were induced by the necessarily to upgrade it for disposal of radioactive wastes from the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The safety assessment of repository was performed during 2000-2001 under the PHARE project for necessary upgrades of repository. The outline design for new vaults and interim storage for long lived radioactive wastes was elaborated during 2003-2004 years. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for upgrade of Baldone repository was performed during 2004-2005 years. It was found, that additional efforts must be devoted for solution of social aspects o for successful operation and upgrade of repository. It was shown by EIA, that the local population has a negative opinion against the upgrade of repository in Latvia. The main recommendations for upgrades were connected with increasing the safety of repository, increasing of PR activities for education of society and developing of compensation mechanism for local municipality. (author)

  11. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  12. Communication of 16 September 1997 from the government of the Republic of Latvia to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 16 September 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia providing information about the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of Latvia

  13. When will the next economic crisis hit the Baltic states? : sustainability of recent macroeconomic developments in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania / Rudolfs Bems

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bems, Rudolfs

    2002-01-01

    Baltimaade jätkuva majanduskasvu võimalikud põhjused. Investeeringud ja väliskaubandusbilansi puudujääk Baltimaades. Võimalikud majandusprobleemid, mis võivad tulevikus Baltimaades esile kerkida. Diagrammid

  14. Not the events of 1940 in the Baltics, but the events of 1939-44 in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Tyva / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2002-01-01

    Baltimaade okupeerimine 1940. a. toimus sama skeemi alusel nagu mitme teise riigi puhul. Venemaa ei vallutanud soovitud alasid sõjalist jõudu kasutades, vaid nö. seaduslikul teel poliitiliste lepete sõlmimisega

  15. Returns to Education During and After the Economic Crisis: Evidence from Latvia 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilerts Karlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ EU-SILC micro data for Latvia to study how returns to education changed during the economic crisis of 2008–2009 and afterwards. We found that returns to education increased significantly during the crisis and decreased slightly during the subsequent economic recovery. The counter-cyclical effect was evident in nearly all population groups. After the crisis, education became more associated than before with a longer working week and a higher employment probability. Furthermore, we show that returns to education in Latvia are generally higher in the capital city and its suburbs than outside the capital city region, as well as for citizens of Latvia than for resident non-citizens and citizens of other countries, but lower for males and young people. Wage differential models reveal a relatively large wage premium for higher education and a rather small one for secondary education. Estimates obtained with instrumental variable (IV models significantly exceed the OLS estimates.

  16. Lithuania on the way to energy independence: an experience or a lesson?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the steps taken by Lithuania towards gaining energy independence in the interbellum and the Soviet periods. The author analyses the peculiarities of the republic's energy policy after achieving independence in the early 1990s and estimates the methods of diversifying energy supply in Lithuania.

  17. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  18. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The prospects for nuclear heating in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.; Lynch, G.F.

    1989-09-01

    In assessing alternative nuclear heat sources, a joint study was undertaken between Canada and Hungary to determine the feasibility of using the SLOWPOKE Energy System that has recently been developed. The SLOWPOKE Energy System is a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions. It uses a combination of inherent safety features, including natural convection circulation and negative reactivity coefficients, and engineered features to ensure an extremely safe system. A SLOWPOKE demonstration heating reactor has been constructed in Canada. The unit started operation in July 1987 and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Since the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 deg. C, the complex high-pressure, and high-temperature systems essential for electricity production are eliminated. As a result, the nuclear heat source can be located close to the load and will require a minimum of operator attention. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or natural gas fired furnace it is designed to replace. The extensive use of hot water district heating systems in Hungary offers the opportunity to exploit such simple nuclear systems as base load heat sources without an extensive retrofit of the existing systems. In addition, the studies have concluded that there are many economically attractive sites for 10 MW SLOWPOKE Energy Systems within the existing networks. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as additional factors that facilitate the transfer of the technology to Hungary. Simple nuclear heat sources, such as the SLOWPOKE Energy System, when applied to the Hungarian district heating systems, offer the prospects of a significant reduction in the dependence on imported fossil fuels in the

  20. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  1. The prospects for nuclear heating in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Papp, I.

    1989-09-01

    Hungary supplies only half of its energy requirements from domestic resources and is very dependent upon imports of oil, natural gas and electricity to meet the current demand. In planning to reduce the dependence on imports, nuclear technology is considered an important element in the long-term energy strategy. To this end, an aggressive nuclear electricity generation program is being implemented with four 440 MWe units now operating and two 1000 MWe units committed. However, nuclear technology must be used in other energy sectors if the goal of long-term energy independence is to be achieved. On the demand side, 30% of the primary energy is consumed in the public sector, the major component being residential heating. Of the 3.7 million apartments in Hungary, 500 000 benefit from being connected to municipal district heating systems that use natural gas or oil as the energy base. This is, therefore, another significant energy sector that is amenable to using nuclear technology to substitute for imported oil and natural gas. In assessing alternative nuclear heat sources, a joint study was undertaken between Canada and Hungary to determine the feasibility of using the SLOWPOKE Energy System that has recently been developed. The SLOWPOKE Energy System is a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions. It uses a combination of inherent safety features, including natural convection circulation and negative reactivity coefficients, and engineered features to ensure an extremely safe system. A SLOWPOKE demonstration heating reactor has been constructed in Canada. The unit started operation in 1987 July and is currently undergoing an extensive test program

  2. Privatizing and liberalizing electricity, the case of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakos, G. [Kyoto Womens' University (Japan). Institute of Economy

    2001-11-01

    Hungary, a forerunner in Eastern reforms, has boldly privatized its energy sector with foreign capital. While in the west liberalization resulted in electricity abundance and dramatic tariff cuts, in Hungary as a result of asymmetric market opening it brought excess capacities, transparent cost base prices, but lower tariffs are still ahead. Foreign investors made the branch profitable and are planning to expand capacities. (author)

  3. Survey of the labour market for information specialists in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maceviciute

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of surveys carried out in Lithuania and Estonia in 1995 and 1996, the main aim of which was to provide a basis for planning the development of information management courses in the Baltic States. In the course of the project it was necessary to resolve certain methodological difficulties in the identification of the concept 'information specialist' and in the process of data collection. The results show the recruitment rates needed over the next three years and the qualities and skills needed by information specialists.

  4. Sweden-Lithuania bilateral cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistad, J.H.; Vaisnys, P.

    1996-01-01

    This cooperation started in early 1992 shortly after Lithuania became a newly independent republic. The results from the bilateral co-operation in the field of nuclear safety are very fruitful and promising. The work is progressing in a very efficient and cost-effective way. The pace of progress is to a great extent governed by the resources the Lithuanian partners can allocate. The Swedish Government has up to now allocated more than 200 MSEK (>30 MUSD) for this bilateral cooperation in nuclear safety enhancement. This paper gives an overview of the main content and achievements of the Swedish-Lithuanian cooperation. 1 tab, 2 diagrams

  5. The process of strategic planning in ministries of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselis, Mindaugas; Gritėnaitė, Gintarė

    2011-01-01

    Straipsnyje analizuojama Lietuvos Respublikos ministerijų strateginio planavimo būklė. Identifikuojami ministerijų veiklos planų neatitikimai reikalavimams, nustatoma institucinės struktūros įtaka strateginiam planavimui, įvardinamos skirtinguose strateginio planavimo etapuose išryškėjančios problemos, įvertinamaekonominio sunkmečio įtaka ministerijų strateginiam planavimui. The idea of this article is to present strategic planning at the level of Ministries of Lithuania. The conditions of...

  6. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    with stemwood and living branches. However, metal export with aboveground biomass represented relatively small proportion of metals in mineral sandy soil. The annual inputs of Fe and Zn with atmospheric deposition were over 10 times higher than the mean annual removals with total aboveground biomass....... The content of metals in forest biomass fuel ash was relatively small to compare with their total removals. The findings of this study have an important implications for future practice, i.e. the recommended maximum forest biomass fuel ash dose for the compensating fertilising could be increased with respect...... to balanced output - input in Lithuania....

  7. INVESTIGATION OF STINGING NETTLE (URTICA DIOICA L.) IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskienė, Zofija; Gruzdevienė, Elvyra

    2010-01-01

    Fiber nettle is a cultivated form of the wild nettle and could become a renewable recourse of natural fibres in Lithuania. The aim of research was to investigate propagation ability (shoot rooting) of stinging nettle, investigate influence of different crop density on plant biometrical indices, productivity. The investigation was carried out at the Upytė Research Station of LIA in 2008-2009. The shoots of stinging nettle were cut into segments, the top part of the stem and the segments of the...

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Hungary, electricity from renewable energy sources is supported by a feed-in-tariff or a market ('green') premium, depending on the capacity and energy source. Household-sized power plants up to 50 kVA can benefit from net metering. In general, subsidy programmes also promote the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity and heating sector. The main support scheme for the use of renewable energy in the transportation sector is a quota system supplemented by a reimbursement of excise duty

  9. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  10. ICT INDUSTRY R&D IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIENN FEKO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Hungarian ICT Industry related research and development is analysed. The developments and characteristics of the sector are described on one hand on the available statistics and on the other hand on interviews taken with the representatives of leading ICT companies in Hungary. In this short paper in order to have a larger database, we use a more aggregated definition of ICT sector according to European Commission DG JRC, IPTS (NACE rev.1.1. The main objectives of the paper are: to present the main characteristics of the sector and to explore the main causes of relatively low R&D activity of the ICT sector.

  11. The development of radiation protection in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisztray-Balku, S.; Bozoky, L.; Koblinger, L.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains the short history, development and present status of radiation protection and health physics in Hungary. The first chapter discusses the radiation protection standards and practices used in scientific, technical and medical radiology in this country, with their development history. The next chapter is devoted to the radiation protection techniques applied for medical uses of radioisotopes and accelerators including the organizational and management problems. The last chapter presents a review on radiation protection and health physics aspects of the Hungarian industry and agriculture, on radiation protection research and management, on instruments and dosimeters. A national bibliography on the subject up to 1979 is included. (Sz.J.)

  12. Regulatory problems relating to energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyi, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of basic problems of the transition in the energy economy is, how far the process of liberalisation and privatisation could go, i.e. to what extent the control of state/government would be given up, and how the breakdown of the commanding positions of the government would be managed. The transition in the energy sector toward a market economy is characterised by restructuring the regulatory framework of the energy industry, changing the operational structure of the sector and profound reshaping of ownership structures of the enterprises. In Hungary the government, being convinced of the importance of the implementation of the market forces, in 1991 made the first step on the way of restructuring the energy sector in order to increase economic efficiency, to enable companies to react to market forces and to privatise them. Parallel and partly after the restructuring, a profound modification of legal and regulatory framework took place and finally a relatively large scale of privatisation has newly emerged, which will continue in future, too. The process of the energy sector liberalisation in Hungary has a stop and go character and the game is not over. The process can be characterised by institutional restructuring in the energy sector (coal, oil/gas, power ), which is the basic condition for market liberalisation and privatisation, and by the creation of an appropriate environment (regulatory framework, pricing policy, etc. ) for the smooth implementation of the liberation process(author)

  13. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  14. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  15. Spatial Characteristics of Art Trade in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolya Várnai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Century-long traditons of art trade in Hungary are strongly connected to the capital, famous, elite auction houses and galleries are concentrated in the downtown area of Budapest. Although art market in Hungary is capital-centered, remarkable amount of art trade takes place in the countryside too. This study aims to give insight into the presence of the different types of art trade (antique shops, second-hand book stores, art galleries and auction houses in rural settlements, compared to the characteristics of art trade in Budapest. The research – based on primary data collection – reveals the social, economic, and cultural factors which explain the regional differences in art trade. During the field work in Budapest, semi-structured interviews were conducted with art gallery owners, auctioners, and antiquarians. The penetration index (PEX which was applied in the case of researches in the countryside shows the rate in which the different types of art trade are present in settlements of different sizes. The results are demonstrated on the map with the help of the Mapinfo 12.5 software.

  16. Country policy profile - Hungary. April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Hungary is 13%, whereas in 2012 it reached 9,8%. Hungarian renewable electricity meets the support in shape of feed-in tariffs. In the aspect of transport the main means of support for the energy from renewable sources is a quota system. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid will be ranked as a priority. The costs for the connection of renewable energy plants to and the expansion of the grid are borne either by the plant operator or by the grid operator, depending on certain criteria. There are a number of policies intending to promote the development, installation and use of RES installations. However, some policies are currently not available due to exhausted funds of the related subsidy programs. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Hungary and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  17. Country policy profile - Hungary. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Hungary is 13%, whereas in 2012 it reached 9,8%. Hungarian renewable electricity meets the support in shape of feed-in tariffs. In the aspect of transport the main means of support for the energy from renewable sources is a quota system. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid will be ranked as a priority. The costs for the connection of renewable energy plants to and the expansion of the grid are borne either by the plant operator or by the grid operator, depending on certain criteria. There are a number of policies intending to promote the development, installation and use of RES installations. However, some policies are currently not available due to exhausted funds of the related subsidy programs. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Hungary and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  18. Wind energy development policy and prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markevicius, Antanas; Katinas, Vladislovas; Marciukaitis, Mantas

    2007-01-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/77/EC 7% of all electricity production is to be generated from renewable energy sources (RES) in Lithuania in 2010. Electricity production from RES is determined by hydro, biomass and wind energy resources in Lithuania. Further development of hydro power plants is limited by environmental restrictions, therefore priority is given to wind energy development. The aim of this paper is to show estimation of the maximum wind power penetration in the Lithuanian electricity system using such criteria as wind potential, possibilities of the existing electricity network, possible environmental impact, and social and economical aspects. Generalization of data from the meteorological stations and special measurements shows that the highest average wind speed in Lithuanian territory is in the coastal region and at 50 m above ground level reaches 6.4 m/s. In regard to wind resource distribution in this region, arrangement of electricity grid and environment protection requirements, six zones have been determined for wind power plant construction. Calculations have shown that the largest total installed capacity of wind farms, which could cause no significant increase in power transmission expenses, is 170 MW. The threshold, which cannot be passed without capital reconstruction of electricity network, is 500 MW of total capacity of wind farms

  19. Atomic energy in Lithuania: Nuclear safety in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnys, P.; Krenevichius, R.; Alejev, A.; Demchenko, M.

    1997-01-01

    The first annual report of VATESI - Lithuanian Nuclear Safety Authority's activity is presented and cover description of the main results in 1996. VATESI was established in 1991 recently after regaining of independence when Ignalina NPP come into jurisdiction of Republic of Lithuania. Since the establishment in six year period of operation VATESI developed its activities considerably and now is able to perform the functions of independent regulator of nuclear safety in Lithuania. The main fields of VATESI activities in 1996 were evaluation of the safety of Ignalina NPP, supervision of Ignalina NPP's operational safety, control of the implementation of safety improvement program SIP-1 in Ignalina NPP, development of new regulatory legislation according to IAEA standards and practices, accountancy and control of nuclear materials, regulation of radioactive waste management. Detailed description of all these activities is provided in the report. In 1996 there were no safety significant events in Ignalina NPP according to the INES scale, only five events received qualification as level 1 events

  20. Citizen empowerment in the domestic waste policy development in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiukynas, Andrius; Survila, Arvydas; Smalskys, Vainius

    2017-04-01

    Lithuania offers an interesting case of lagging in terms of domestic waste recycling in the European context. Despite the adoption of all relevant EU regulation, including a pricing system, which is designed to be more conducive for recycling. One important group of policy instruments which in the application of which Lithuania needs to improve, is public participation in environmental governance. The objective of this study is to relate the means of public participation and the decision-making on waste management and recycling outcomes. The study consisted of two stages. Stage one: key decision-making public agencies responsible for policy formulation and implementation of domestic waste management were identified. Later, an analysis of public available documentation covering decision-making in these institutions was conducted with the aim to measure the level of citizen engagement. Stage two: agency managers and staff responsible for citizen engagement were interviewed with the goal of evaluating their attitudes. Attitudes of officials are a crucial for a successful citizen engagement. The results showed that officials recognized very little the value of citizen engagement. They perceived contribution as an the creation of additional challenges to be tackled with, rather than help to lower service delivery costs and improve policy effectiveness. This renders the government with a depleted number of options of improving domestic waste management to "top-down" measures and imposition of financial incentives or costs.

  1. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    result of research by the Institute of Horticulture: 1 new local breeding fruit crop cultivars were obtained and recommended for commercial orchards; variety testing including growing technologies was initiated in different regions of Latvia; 2 monitoring of harmful and favourable organisms was conducted in plantations, with development of a system for prognosis and control; and 3 research results were transferred to growers through practical recommendations, publications, seminars and demonstrations.

  2. Family Background, School Quality and Rural-Urban Disparities in Student Learning Achievement in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Andrejs; Grinfelds, Andris; Dedze, Indra; Zhang, Yanhong

    2006-01-01

    Over the course of the fifteen years since 1991, Latvia has been undergoing rapid political changes from a party controlled state to a market economy. These changes have affected the system of education. The issue of quality and equity of educational outcomes is gaining increasing importance as schools are expected to adjust to the new economic…

  3. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4409 (July 2013), entitled Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from...

  4. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia...

  5. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  6. Medical and social consequences of low doses of radiation for the population of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoi, V.

    1997-01-01

    About 6000 people involved in the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and family members evacuated from Pripyat settled in Latvia. Although exposed to doses not exceeding 25cGy, an increasing number of diseases leading to invalidity and mortality of liquidators is noted. The symptoms of the various medical disorders being observed are described. (author)

  7. Insufficient control of heart rate in stable coronary artery disease patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Balode

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite the wide use of beta-blockers, HR is insufficiently controlled in the analyzed sample of stable CAD patients in Latvia. Target HR ≤60 bpm is achieved only in 25% of the patients while more than one third have increased HR ≥70 bpm.

  8. Rol' tranzita v jekonomike Latvii [The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  9. Female all cancer incidence in medical radiation workers in Latvia 1982-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisane, L.; Carpenter, L.; Venables, K.

    2005-01-01

    Medical radiation workers belong to one of the oldest occupational groups exposed to external radiation. Since the various radiological protection recommendations have been introduced, now ths process has resulted in low-dose exposure, regular monitoring of exposure and establishment of national dose registration bodies. In order to provide additional information to studies on cancer incidence among medical radiation workers (specially female workers) and in order to assess all cancer incidence in female medical radiation workers in Latvia, a retrospective cohort study based on the National Dose Register was set up in Latvia. The study cohort consisted of all workers employed in health care, occupationally exposed to ionising radiation for more than one year in any of the public health care establishments in Latvia, except military ones, between 1 January 1972 and 1 January 2002 and who were registered in the National Dose Register of Latvia. The cohort consisted of 1416 female medical radiation workers either in hospitals or outpatient departments, or both. The cohort included diagnostic and therapeutic radiologists with predominantly medical qualification, it also included radiotechnologits, nurses, junior nurses, but it did not include academic, physicists and dentists. In all cases the calculated SIR was over than expected or close to expected. Several major differences in study design makes ir difficult to compare the results of this study with the results of the studies carried out in other countries

  10. Holistic Approach as Viewed by the Basic School Teachers in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjanova, Jelena; Iliško, Dzintra

    2015-01-01

    The article points to new competencies required from basic school teachers, reinforced by the reform processes in the educational system in Latvia, the quality assurance of educational process, and modernisation and critical re-evaluation of educational materials and standards. The authors view sustainability as an integral part of reform…

  11. Short-term economic indicators. Transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This quarterly publication complements the OECD Main Economic Indicators. It presents a wide range of monthly, quarterly, and annual economic indicators covering such topics as industrial production, business surveys, construction, employment, earnings, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates and domestic and foreign trade for the following 21 transition countries: Bulgaria, Poland, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Republic of Slovenia, Belarus, Estonia, Romania, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Latvia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Armenia, Uzbekistan. (author)

  12. Electricity in european economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the electricity supply industries in the European members of the former Unified Power System/interconnected Power Systems (UPS/IPS): Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. It explores the transformation process in the electricity sector over the past five years, its relationship to other changes in the region and possible future trends. Subjects covered include structure and regulation, demand, primary fuel availability, generating capacity, financing, tariffs, interconnections and trade

  13. Evidence Based Assessment of Public Health Planning: A Case Study of the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Army), LTC Veljko Nalisic (Montenegro), and MAJ Iulian Sarateanu ( Romania ) for their insights to the European operational environment. I look forward...circa 1918 as a response to the epidemics the Soviet Union faced after war.39 Ukraine is one of the former Soviet states under the Semashko model...Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Latvia, Hungary, Romania , Estonia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, and Albania. Data from

  14. Review: 1991 industry developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO's annual summary of the previous year's (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay

  15. Sytuacja na rynkach pracy krajów Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej (schyłek lat dziewięćdziesiątych)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaźmierczak, Zbigniew

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyse the impact of the transition processes on labour markets in Central Europe Countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, FYR of Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia). The analysis covers period from 1995 to 1999 year and is based on EUROSTAT data. Main features of labour markets characteristics were: declining employment, growing unemployment specially structural and long term and strong shifts in sectoral ...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEADING PORTS OF LATVIA: COMPETITIVENESS OF LIEPAJA PORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diāna Līduma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 10 operating ports in Latvia and 3 of them – Liepaja, Ventspils and Riga ports are regarded as the leading commercial ports. Role of port operation in the economics of region and country is essential from the point of view of employment and entrepreneurship. This is based with data on investment of operation of Latvian ports in GDP, on average it is assessed to be 5-7% annually. In the context of employment, Liepaja Port gives work to 6.9% of human resources of the city. However, concern about the competitiveness of Liepaja Port influenced by the proximity of more developed competitive ports, technical possibilities of the port and dynamics of freight turnover has occurred in recent years. Therewith in framework of this article in the context of such criteria as location of ports and their technical parameters, volumes of freight, specialization and costs of ports, the operation of leading ports of Latvia is intercompared and analyzed by clarifying whether Liepaja Port is competitive among other ports of Latvia. Opinions of port experts on perspectives of port development and statistical data of ports from 2011-2013 are analyzed within the framework of the article. The aim of the research is to clarify the comparative advantages of ports of Latvia. The research revealed that the provision of competitiveness of Liepaja Port is to be related with application of the available free territories, advantages of location in relation to the Scandinavian market, and the necessity to develop the cooperation among ports of Latvia to offer joint freight acquisition, distributions and unified logistics solution and strengthen the position of ports in the circumstances of international competition.

  17. Usutu virus, Austria and Hungary, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Erdélyi, Károly; Brunthaler, René; Dán, Ádám; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-11

    Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016. In Hungary, USUV caused sporadic cases of wild bird mortality between 2010 and 2015 (altogether 18 diagnosed cases), whereas in summer and autumn 2016 the number of cases considerably increased to 12 (ten blackbirds, one Eurasian jay and one starling). In Austria, USUV was identified in two blackbirds in 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of coding-complete genomes and partial regions of the NS5 protein gene revealed that USUVs from Hungary between 2010 and 2015 are closely related to the virus that emerged in Austria in 2001 and in Hungary in 2005, while one Hungarian sequence from 2015 and all sequences from Hungary and Austria from 2016 clustered together with USUV sequences reported from Italy between 2009 and 2010. The results of the study indicate continuous USUV circulation in the region and exchange of USUV strains between Italy, Austria and Hungary.Emerging Microbes &Infections (2017) 6, e85; doi:10.1038/emi.2017.72; published online 11 October 2017.

  18. Experimental nuclear physics research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltay, Ede.

    1984-01-01

    The status and recent results of experimental nuclear physics in Hungary is reviewed. The basic nuclear sciences, instrumental background and international cooperation are discussed. Personal problems and the effects of the international scientific deconjuncture are described. The applied nuclear and interdisciplinary researches play an important role in Hungarian nuclear physics. Some problems of cooperation of Hungarian nuclear and other research institutes applying or producing nuclear analytical technology are reviewed. The new instrument, the Debrecen cyclotron under construction gives new possibilities to basic and applied researches. A new field of Hungarian nuclear physics is the fusion and plasma research using tokamak equipment, the main topics of which are plasma diagnostics and fusion control systems. Some practical applications of Hungarian nuclear physical results, e.g. establishment of new analytical techniques like PIXE, RBS, PIGE, ESCA, etc. are summarized. (D.Gy.)

  19. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  20. Are There Cultural Regions in Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER BENKŐ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing up cultural macro-regions in Hungary is hardly possible as not even two of the highly developed mezo-regions are contacting, not speaking about forming a bloc; they rather constitute a mosaic on the country map. Those on medium cultural level make up two groups, while, though the ones with a low standard are mostly found along the Danube as a single bloc, they are isolated by Pest county, statistically grouped in one region with them, with a genuine cultural level far exceeding the low cluster. Consequently, it is only justified to speak about cultural regions in the sense that, on the whole, Dunántúl is on a higher standard than the eastern half of the country.

  1. Organic food purchase habits in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary organic food market has both demand and supply oriented aspect: several times not necessary products are distributed while the selection and volume of certain products are not satisfactory. Thus our aim was to develop a coordinated benchmark strategy to increase the trade of organic products. To get more details about the Hungarian organic food market we applied the “mystery shopping” method to observe changes in organic food supply and carried out a quantitative survey using a 1,000 member countrywide panel. Our results indicate that organic origin is considered somewhat important for every 4th respondent, while only 3.7% of the interviewees paid attention to put organic food products into their cart. The most serious obstacle is the doubt of surveyed individuals about the authenticity and the alleged benefits of organic products, complete with a high perceived price. “Price” is the most influential factor on shopping decision, but the advantageous “constant quality” and “health benefit” factors are just following it. Most of the respondents stated that they buy organic products directly from the producer (27.4%, but small retail outlets are likewise popular (though to a somewhat lesser extent. In conclusion, there is potential demand for ecological food products in Hungary. Although the proportion of conscious consumers is small; it significantly exceeds the current market share of the products. Consumers should be approached with better prices, smart retailing solutions and through awareness raising.

  2. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  3. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  4. The Implementation of Social Responsiveness Initiatives: Case of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of social responsibility reflects public concerns and issues for a specific time, and these change with time. Various stakeholders as consumers, customers, employees, trade unions, communities, non-governmental organizations, foundations, donors, investors are more and more interested in the activities of companies (organizations, and influence on them in a variety of ways. Companies, for their part, also look for ways to meet the expectations of the public in the area of social responsibility. Corporate social responsiveness is an ability of business to respond to social pressure. The article analyzes the implementation of social responsiveness initiatives as organizational programs. Social responsiveness is understood as action dimension of corporate social responsibility. The paper deals with implementation of social responsiveness initiatives in Lithuania. Researched the socially responsiveness initiatives as organizational programs, the authors found that an active development of corporate social responsiveness positively influences on businesses and society relationship and contribute to sustainable development of region or country.

  5. Prevalence and epidemiological features of ovine enzootic abortion in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonas, J; Petkevicius, S; Russo, P; Pepin, M; Salomskas, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of performed study was to determine the level of enzootic abortion (EA) in sheep breeding farms in different districts of Lithuania, to determine differences in clinical signs and infection frequency between various age groups, and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of complement fixation test for antibodies detection and indirect immunofluorescence for antigen detection in sheep chlamydiosis. The clinical, serological and immunological tests in sheep farms were performed in 2004 and 2005. Comparing different age groups of sheep revealed that the lowest number of infected sheep was registered in animals younger than 18 months (23.1%, antibodies titre 3.191 log2, Pabortus infection. The highest prevalence of chlamydia (66.7%) was registered in placentas of sheep which aborted.

  6. Republic of Lithuania law on nuclear energy. No. I-1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Law on Nuclear Energy adopted by the Parliament 14 November, 1996 has the main goals of ensuring nuclear safety, peaceful use of nuclear energy and preventing from illegal use of nuclear materials. The basic assumptions of the law reinforce obligations of Lithuania under Convention on Nuclear Safety. The law determines fundamentals on nuclear energy management, principles for the state regulation for nuclear safety and radiation protection, guidelines for licensing in nuclear energy, special requirements for the design and construction of nuclear energy facilities, basic conditions for the operation of nuclear energy installations, basic requirements for the transportation and storage of nuclear and radioactive materials, basic requirements for preventing nuclear or radiation related incidents together with procedures for elimination of consequences, basic economic and financial conditions for nuclear energy and specificity of working relations in nuclear energy

  7. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Lithuania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  8. Determinants of Insurance Purchase Decision Making in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbinaite, Aurelija; Kucinskiene, Marija; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the examination of insurance consumer behaviour in Lithuania. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors that explain the insurance service purchase decision of the Lithuanian citizens. To this end, a structured 5-point Likert scale questionnaire-based survey...... is employed to collect data. A research model composed of two main stages (purchase inclination and decision) is proposed. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to determine how the factors are formed and what their relative weights are. Five factors are identified: the acceptability...... to decide to actually purchase them; the higher degree or education acquired by the individuals, the fewer factors impact their insurance purchase decision: masters and doctors of science evaluate only the insurance service provider’s competence, while bachelors, besides the insurer’s competence, are also...

  9. Kaunas gas, Lithuania. Operation and maintenance report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of this project was to transfer knowledge accumulated in Denmark about modern techniques of natural gas distribution to employees of the Lithuanian gas sector by informing them about modern measuring equipment and evaluating the results. The main objectives were: To improve the efficiency of maintenance and repair works of the distribution network in Kaunas; To decrease the number of leakages and to improve the operation of the cathodic protection system; To ensure protection of the pipelines and to avoid damages on other constructions and installations. The project consisted of four components which will all exert an influence on the future rehabilitation of steel pipe networks in the gas sector of Lithuania. The components were the following: Preparation of Operation and Maintenance Manual for Kaunas Gas Company; Cathodic measuring and pilot investigation; Analysis and improvement of the organisation of the Kaunas Gas Company; Training material for cathodic protection in Lithaunia. (au)

  10. Metals Are Important Contact Sensitizers: An Experience from Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotryna Linauskienė

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metals are very frequent sensitizers causing contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis worldwide; up-to-date data based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of a problem. Objectives. In this retrospective study prevalence of contact allergy to metals (nickel, chromium, palladium, gold, cobalt, and titanium in Lithuania is analysed. Patients/Methods. Clinical and patch test data of 546 patients patch tested in 2014–2016, in Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, was analysed and compared with previously published data. Results. Almost third of tested patients (29.56% were sensitized to nickel. Younger women were more often sensitized to nickel than older ones (36% versus 22.8%, p=0.0011. Women were significantly more often sensitized to nickel than men (33% versus 6.1%, p<0.0001. Younger patients were more often sensitized to cobalt (11.6% versus 5.7%, p=0.0183. Sensitization to cobalt was related to sensitization to nickel (p<0.0001. Face dermatitis and oral discomfort were related to gold allergy (28% versus 6.9% dermatitis of other parts, p<0.0001. Older patients were patch test positive to gold(I sodium thiosulfate statistically significantly more often than younger ones (44.44% versus 21.21%, p=0.0281. Conclusions. Nickel, gold, cobalt, and chromium are leading metal sensitizers in Lithuania. Cobalt sensitization is often accompanied by sensitization to nickel. Sensitivity rate to palladium and nickel indicates possible cross-reactivity. No sensitization to titanium was found.

  11. National system for radioactive waste management in Lithuania and its harmonization with the European Union legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomaitis, J. E.; Poshkas, P.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive waste management philosophies and technologies are still emerging, and there is therefore a need to reorganize and improve the national system for radioactive waste management in Lithuania. Lithuania's Law on Radioactive Waste Management and the new regulations will be harmonized with the European Union legislation in this field, with the IAEA general principles and with the obligations of the Republic of Lithuania under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Different organizational and financial schemes available in the EU countries for radioactive waste management are described and analyzed. The most important aspects needed to establish the Lithuania's Radioactive Waste Management Agency and Fund are defined and developed. (author)

  12. Post-Soviet transformation of bureaucracy in Lithuania: main features and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pivoras, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the reforms and development of public administration and public bureaucracy in Lithuania from the prism of the post-Soviet transformation concept. In other words, the effort is to establish a continuation of the features of the Soviet bureaucratic - administrative system, to the extent these can be discussed, and their influence on the public bureaucracy of the independent Republic of Lithuania. It is being ascertained that the purpose of the reforms ...

  13. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Špakaitė, Ina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania. The detailed research of freshwater and terrestrial Nostoc and Desmonostoc species provided new data on taxonomy, biology and ecology of these cyanobacteria and the overall diversity of algae in Lithuania. 20 Nostoc species and two intraspecific taxa, and 18 taxa to the Nostoc genus level were identified. Twelve Nostoc species and intraspecifi...

  14. Social Economy: the Potential and Challenges of Social Enterprises in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    GREBLIKAITE, JOLITA; GERULAITIENE, NERINGA; ZIUKAITE, ZIVILE; GARCIA-MACHADO, JUAN J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses the peculiarieties of social economy, focusing the scientific attention to social enterprises and their environment in EU and, especially, Lithuania. The research problem of the paper lays upon revealing the situation and development of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises in EU and Lithuania, especially emphasizing rural areas and their peculiarities. The aim of the paper is to disclose the role of social economy and the importance of social enterprises in it, es...

  15. GdF in Hungary: the East in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    After Germany and the Czech Republic, Gaz de France (GdF) has decided to export its know-how and technologies about natural gas into Hungary. Thanks to the Hungarian privatization program started in 1995, GdF could obtain the major participation in the Degaz and Egaz companies, two out of the five local distribution companies, and controls 22% of the natural gas distribution in Hungary. (J.S.)

  16. Anticipated future of Latvia and Russia during a global economic crisis: A mixed methods perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesovs Aleksandrs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study explored subjective predictors of more positive evaluation of the future of the country during a global socioeconomic crisis. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen for an exploration of students’ expectations in Russia and Latvia as countries contrasting in macro-contextual conditions. In 2009, Study 1 was designed as a thematic analysis of essays on topic “The Future of Latvia/Russia”. The results demonstrated that the future of a country is anticipated by taking into account external influences, the present of the country, and its perceived power and stability. In 2011, Study 2 involved these themes as independent variables in a multiple regression model. The results demonstrated that positive evaluation of the present and higher perceived power of the country are individuallevel predictors of more positive evaluation of its future. Observed concordance of models indicates relatively high importance of subjective view of the country in the changing world.

  17. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  18. Market conditions in Hungary, central europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, S.

    2000-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Hungary covering 38% of electricity consumption in the country. The nuclear electricity production of the four VVER440/213 type units in the year of 1999 was 14096 GWh, the second best result in the history of the company. After very detailed safety analyses Paks NPP started a safety upgrading program in 1996, and today the CDF values of the reactor units reached an internationally accepted value. The operational and safety culture and the level of safety was evaluated and reviewed by different international organizations like the IAEA, WENRA, WANO. Based on the conclusions of these international organizations the Paks plant w111 be ready for EU accession after the completion of the ongoing safety upgrading program. Capacity enhancement as a part of the preparation for the market conditions resulted a power upgrade around 20 MW for all four units. This way a relatively small investment in comparison with new installations resulted more efficient to market nuclear capacity. Last year the cost of a generated 1 kWh electricity was 5.98 Ft, which is still to be decreased in 2000. To upgrade the competitiveness of nuclear generation lots of efforts were done in the areas of plant management cost reduction, man-power efficiency upgrade. Un-bundling of activities not directly related to electricity generation in one hand, and more efficient cooperation with other VVER operators and the Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. in certain areas on the other hand are good examples for efficient steps in economic improvement. The company as one of the electricity producers also should follow the capabilities of producers in the neighboring countries like Slovakia and Ukraine, where electricity production is with government subsidiary. To find the right balance between the necessary investments and the market induced cost reduction is one of the most important task in Hungary in Eastern-Europe especially when the nuclear energy

  19. Significance of hidden advertising of the media business models in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rožukalne, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002 parliamentary and municipal elections in Latvia, media content researches have shown a considerable amount of hidden advertising: media publish information that is paid-for, yet not identified as advertising, assigning this information with the qualities of independent content, therefore misleading its audience. In order to analyze this practice, a research was commissioned to find out why Latvian media publish hidden advertising, what is the force behind this practice, who are com...

  20. Investigation on the essential mineral element contentents of cultivated and wild blueberry fruits in latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Pormale, Jolanta; Osvalde, Anita; Karlsons, Andis

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium murtillus) is one of the most popular wild-harvested fruit in Latvia, traditionally used in folk-medicine and food. Unfortunately there are wide fluctuations in yields. The recent years mark a tr...

  1. DESIGN AND LICENSING TRENDS OF THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailovs, Ivans Jānis; Krūmiņa, Aira Aija

    2016-01-01

    The general education program designing and licensing trends in Latvia in the period from 2010 to 2014 are analyzed in the article. Based on the general education program licensing data, it found that there isn’t a trend to license author’s program in primary education, while the secondary level of education author's programs are designed and licensed more often. The fact that primary education is more licensed programs in mathematics, science and technology, but in general secondary educatio...

  2. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  3. A profile of traumatic spinal cord injury and medical complications in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Nulle, Anda; Tjurina, Uljana; Erts, Renars; Vetra, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Study design A single centre retrospective study. Objectives To collect data and analyse the epidemiological profile of traumatic spinal cord injury and its medical complications during the subacute rehabilitation period. Setting Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Programme of the National Rehabilitation Centre, ‘Vaivari’, Jurmala, Latvia. Methods Information was collected in 2015 from the medical records of 134 patients with a traumatic spinal cord injury admitted for primary rehabilitation b...

  4. Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaka, Olga

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the framework of the doctoral thesis „Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)” a new theoretical approach to corporate communication in social media was developed which will help companies to successfully organize their communication with target publics in social media and will provide a new social media investigation tool for the researchers. An added communicative value model was developed by the author in the framework of the new t...

  5. The Challenges for Real Estate Mass Valuation and Taxation System for the Economic Stabilization of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Barvika, S; Rausis, A; Geipele, I

    2012-01-01

    The real estate tax policy, as well as a massive reform in the real estate mass valuation was among major reforms of the Latvian government in the financial crisis management plan. These reforms were supported by the International Monetary Fund and European Commission. One of the directions for economic recovery suggested by the lenders to Latvia was a reform of taxation system including reviewing of stagnated real property tax principles. This reform met total critici...

  6. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Dalia Streimikiene; Tomas Balezentis; Rimantas Dapkus; Radislav Jovovic; Veselin Draskovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sect...

  7. Quality benchmarking methodology: Case study of finance and culture industries in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zemīte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political, socio-economic and cultural changes that have taken place in the world during the last years have influenced all the spheres. Constant improvements are necessary to sustain in rival and shrinking markets. This sets high quality standards for the service industries. Therefore it is important to conduct comparison of quality criteria to ascertain which practices are achieving superior performance levels. At present companies in Latvia do not carry out mutual benchmarking, and as a result of that do not know how they rank against their peers in terms of quality, as well as they do not see benefits in sharing of information and in benchmarking.The purpose of this paper is to determine the criteria of qualitative benchmarking, and to investigate the use of the benchmarking quality in service industries, particularly: finance and culture sectors in Latvia in order to determine the key driving factors of quality, to explore internal and foreign benchmarks, and to reveal the full potential of inputs’ reduction and efficiency growth for the aforementioned industries.Case study and other tools are used to define the readiness of the company for benchmarking. Certain key factors are examined for their impact on quality criteria. The results are based on the research conducted in professional associations in defined fields (insurance and theatre.Originality/value – this is the first study that adopts the benchmarking models for measuring quality criteria and readiness for mutual comparison in insurance and theatre industries in Latvia.

  8. Characteristic Features of Publications on Architectural Competition Practice in Latvia, 1859–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Leitāne-Šmīdberga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition practice has been rather extensively published, as publications on architectural competitions are inseparable from the competition process itself. They are a significant part of representation that explicitly promotes understanding of the design, realization and implementation process, and are a way to communicate the project to the client, jury, community and authorities. Yet, there have always been insufficient consistent critical discussions on the architecture and planning discourse in Latvia, neither on competitions, nor on the related publications. The purpose of the paper is to distinguish features that characterize publications on architectural competitions in Latvia. Methodological principles and systematization of the materials have been carried out according to the historical and logical approach method based on studies of the collected examples and sources of over 1,000 publications on 960 competitions of the past 160 years. The paper systematizes publications on competition practice over the several time periods in Latvia (Russian Empire 1859–1918, Independence 1918–34, Authoritarian Regime 1934–40, Soviet Period 1940–90 and the Second Independence 1991–2013 according to their topics, the author’s professional profiles, type and content and, eventually their characteristic style. Insights into the development of local competition practice through related publications help to explain the formation of a significant part of the local architectural and urban discourse, as its understanding is partially determined by the plurality of representations and interpretations.

  9. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  10. Knowledge of the Importance of Iodine in Nutrition among Adults in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciekure Elīna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.

  11. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  12. Countrywide Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, F.; Osvay, M.

    1998-01-01

    Hungary has a countrywide early warning radiation monitoring network which consist of about 70 stations in an on-line connection with the Emergency Information Center of the National System for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness. The system consists of a variety of stations and organizations including Hungarian Meteorological Service, Ministry of Environment and Regional Policy operate their own networks which are not connected with the central system, but could in certain cases exchange the data. The overall impression of the early warning for the radiation emergency is very good, as the system is in the 24 hours on-line mode and raise alarm immediately if the measured values exceed the preset limit. It this respect, the organization appears very good and capable (together with laboratory services) to assure reasonable protection of the population. The possibility to measure the radioactivity in the environment, food and water exist through a series of laboratories, which operate throughout the country. Those appear to be reasonably well equipped and both the knowledge and the experience of their staff appear very high. The same applies for the tools and methods used to forecast the impact and the consequences. (author)

  13. Hungary making progress toward free market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Hungarian government made major progress in reorienting the energy sector toward a market economy in 1991. A study conducted by the International Energy Agency the progress was particularly evident in price reform and restructuring of the Hungarian energy industry. The pace of change has accelerated. Effective with fourth quarter 1991 through 1992 all the main energy enterprises will begin operating under new structures. Assuming that liberalized energy prices are set by suppliers to cover their costs and local governments do not subsidize district heating prices, all energy prices are to be at least at their economic cost level by mid-1992, IEA the. Some prices will be above this level because of sales taxes on gasoline and diesel and taxes on all imported energy. Hungary depends on imports for about half of its primary energy supply. Because domestic production has peaked, the share of imports will rise if consumption, after a likely further decline in the short term, returns to an upward trend

  14. 222Rn in wine cellars in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Szerbin, P.; Juhasz, L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured seasonal average 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary using Radamon type etched track radon detectors. The exposure period was 3 months, matching the seasons of 2003-2004. We also used an ionization chamber-type continuous 222 Rn-monitor (AlphaGUARD PQ222, Genitron Instruments, Germany) to study temporal variations of 222 Rn activity concentration in a selected wine cellar in the Tokajhegyalja wine region. This instruments also recorded temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity data. The etched track detector data revealed that the 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of wine cellars spread over a wide range, from the ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bq.m -3 up to 6 kBq.m -3 characteristic of natural caves. The temporal variation of 222 Rn activity concentration in the air of the selected cellar varied inversely with the variation of the atmospheric pressure. Earlier we observed similar phenomena in natural karstic caves connected to the surface with vertical shafts only. This suggests that relatively large volume of pore space of the embedding rock communicates with the volume of the cellar induced by the variation of the atmospheric pressure

  15. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  16. Case concerning Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project (Hungary/Slovakia). Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Hungary and Czechoslovakia in 1977 concluded a treaty for the building of dam structures in Slovakia and Hungary for the production of electric power, flood control and improvement of navigation on the Danube. In 1989 Hungary suspended and subsequently abandoned completion of the project alleging that it entailed grave risks to the Hungarian environment and the water supply of Budapest. Slovakia (successor to Czechoslovakia) denied these allegations and insisted that Hungary carry out its treaty obligations. It planned and subsequently put into operation an alternative project only on Slovak territory, whose operation had effects on Hungary's access to the water of the Danube. In this judgement, the Court found: (1) that Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, its part of the works in the dam project, as laid down in the treaty signed in 1977 by Hungary and Czechoslovakia and related instruments; (2) that Czechoslovakia was entitled ti start, in November 1991, preparation of an alternative provisional solution (called V ariant C ) , but not to put that solution into operation in October 1992 as a unilateral measure; (3) that Hungary's notification of termination of the 1977 Treaty and related instruments on 19 May 1992 did not legally terminate them (and they are consequently still in force and govern the relationship between the Parties); (4) and that Slovakia, as successor to Czechoslovakia became a party the Treaty of 1997.As to the future conduct of the Parties, the Court found: (1) that Hungary and Slovakia must negotiate in good faith in the light of the prevailing situation, and must take all necessary measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the 1997 Treaty; (2) that, unless the Parties agree otherwise, a joint operational regime for the dam on Slovak territory must be established in accordance with the Treaty of 1977; (3) that each Party must compensate the other Party for the damage caused by its conduct; (4

  17. Co-operation in nuclear development: The case of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroen, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hungary became a Member of the IAEA in 1957 and has participated in the programme of technical assistance and co-operation from its start in 1958. By the end of 1976, Hungary ranked as the fifteenth largest recipient of IAEA technical assistance. Since then, there has been a significant increase in overall technical co-operation activities, and by the end of 1988 a total of over US $9.5 million of assistance had been received by Hungary, making it the fifth largest recipient of all Member States. In view of this situation, a special evaluation review was carried out in 1989 of the IAEA's technical co-operation programme in Hungary over the period 1976-1989. This evaluation review has shown that, simultaneously with the increase in the IAEA's support, there has been a rapid development in Hungary of the national nuclear infrastructure and this has permitted the country to absorb and utilize the assistance provided to the maximum extent. 7 figs

  18. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  19. Regulatory aspects of uranium remediation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoevari, M.; Csicsak, J.; Lendvai, Zs.; Varhegyi, A.; Nam, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Hungary, there are numerous acts and decrees concerning the uranium ore mining remediation, including the aspects of radiation protection and release limits. The most important ones are: Mining Act, Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Protection Act, Water Management Act, Government Decrees No. 115/1993 and 152/1995. For radiation protection regulation the baselines are codified in the Hungarian National Standard MSZ 62/1-1989, while the release limits are prescribed in the order No. 3/1984 of Hungarian Water Authority (OVH), and in the standard MSZ 450/1-1989. According to the above documents, the limits for annual effective dose-equivalent are: (a) 50 mSv for persons occupied in nuclear industry or working with radioactive isotopes, this is relevant to mining and processing of uranium ore, (b) 5 mSv for the critical group of members of the public, in the case of long exposure this value could not exceed 1 mSv/a. In accordance to the EC directives, it is expected that the limit for the public will be decreased soon to 1 mSv/a. Release limits for discharge of natural radionuclides (U, Th, Ra, Rn) in surface water: (a) for uranium maximum 2 mg/dm 3 , (b) for radium-226 maximum 1.1 Bq/dm 3 . There are no general discharge limits for other pollutants in waste water, but the competent authorities may give individual limits if asked. Detailed limits are given only for drinking water for toxic and chemical components. Release limits for discharge of heavy metals are listed in order No. 3/1984 OVH. Of course, numerous licenses and permissions have to be obtained for remediation. The most important ones are the Environmental Protection Permission, based on a detailed environmental impact assessment, and the technical reclamation plans. Numerous authorities are involved in the licensing procedures (e.g. Mining Authority, Environmental Protection Authority, Water Authority, National Municipal Health Authority, etc.). (author)

  20. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  1. Regulation of Unmanned Aerial Systems and Related Privacy Issues in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūraitė Aurelija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in Lithuania has significantly increased. However, enjoying the advantages of this technology, which improves society’s socio-economical safety (public safety in a broad sense, raises some privacy concerns. This article analyses European Union and national legal regulations regarding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as well as legal tools for defence of the right to privacy or prevention from its breaches in the Republic of Lithuania. Unmanned aerial vehicles have become popular only recently; thus, legislation regarding their use has not yet become a common topic among lawyers. Furthermore, case law of the Republic of Lithuania is silent about it. Thus, the authors model a situation of breach of privacy using an unmanned aerial vehicle and analyse possible defence mechanisms.

  2. Occupational exposure of medical radiation workers in Lithuania, 1950-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samerdokiene, V.; Atkocius, V.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Valuckas, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the summary of historical exposures, measurement practice and evolution of the recording of the individual doses of medical radiation workers during 1950-2003 in Lithuania. The aim of this study is to present occupational exposure of medical radiation workers in Lithuania since the earliest appearance period. Data from publications have been used for the earliest two periods prior to 1969; data from the archives of the largest hospitals, for the period 1970-1990 and data from Lithuanian Subdivision of Individual Dosimetry of Radiation Protection Center, for the period 1991-2003. The analysis of the data obtained from personal records allows to conclude that the average annual effective dose of Lithuanian medical radiation workers was greatly reduced in radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine in all occupational categories from 1950 to 2003. During the last period 1991-2003 extremity doses clearly decreased and after 1994 were no longer present in Lithuania. (authors)

  3. Modeling of the Institutional System of Enterpreneurship Promotion: the Case of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Pauliukevicius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review the institutional system of entrepreneurship promotion that exists in Lithuania and to offer guidelines to improve it. The research results show that the unified institutional system of entrepreneurship promotion in Lithuania does not present: responsible institutions coordinate single measures and their implementation, but do not follow long-term general strategy. According to research findings, in order to improve the entrepreneurship promotion system of Lithuania there is a need to create the main institutional system out of responsable ministries (the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Social Security and Labour and define the boundaries of their responsibilities.

  4. Strategic policy and the logistics of crude oil transit in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasukeviciute, Irma; Roe, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the crude oil transit market in Lithuania and the significant economic and political role played by Russia. Beginning with an analysis of the strategic and political role played by crude oil in Lithuania there follows a discussion of the policies followed by the Lithuanian authorities following independence in 1992 from the Former Soviet Union. A content analysis approach is taken to establishing the main policy issues that dominate the sector. This technique combines both quantitative and qualitative approaches to a review of published material on oil transit in Lithuania and acts as a means of assessing expert opinion on the issues involved. The results from this analysis will be used in developing policy initiatives for the sector. The paper ends with some suggestions for further applications of the techniques used to oil transit policy issues in the region

  5. Influence of accessibility of services on Quality of Life of school children with Cerebral Palsy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibule L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of accessibility of services and health related factors on Quality of Life (QoL of school children with Cerebral Palsy (CP in Latvia. 80 children 47 boys and 33 girls with CP and their parents from all regions of Latvia took part in the study. Mean age of participants was 11,7 (SD± 3,5 years. 50 children without diagnosed chronic diseases formed the control group. Validated evaluation tools were used in the study (KIDSCREEN-52, GMFCS- E&R. The results show lower QoL in children with CP in comparison with their healthy peers and European children. QoL is influenced by the level of gross motor functions, lack of coordination of services, lack of rehabilitation infrastructure and presence of environmental barriers in Latvia.

  6. Smoking and attitudes towards it and its cessation among dental students in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jorma I; Filppula, Maarit; Maldupa, Ilze; Patja, Kristiina

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of smoking is higher in Latvia than in most EU countries. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge of dental students in Latvia about the effects of smoking on oral health and their attitudes toward smoking and its cessation. A cross-sectional survey among all the dental students in Latvia was conducted in 2011. Students at the Riga Stradins University were asked to participate in this anonymous, voluntary survey. The questionnaire included items concerned with the students' own smoking habits, their knowledge of smoking as an addiction and its health effects and their attitudes towards its prevention and cessation in a dental setting. The response rate was 87% (173/200). The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses. About one quarter of the students (24%) were daily or occasional smokers and almost half of the male students (46%) had smoked at least 100-times in their lifetime. The students revealed a lack of knowledge about the addictive nature of smoking, in that about half of the students did not consider smoking physically or socially addictive. About one fifth (21.4%) didn't consider environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) harmful to one's health. Although the students' awareness of smoking improved during their studies, the most significant factor related to their knowledge was their own smoking history (OR=2.7; p=0.021). Smoking was frequent among undergraduate dental students and they lacked knowledge of its addictiveness. More emphasis ought to be placed on education with regard to smoking and on cessation services.

  7. The present state and future prospects of the radioactive waste and spent fuel management in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylys, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) is the main source of the spent fuel and the radioactive waste (RW) in Lithuania. Now Lithuania is fully responsible for the management and disposal of its RW and spent fuel. The present scheme of spent fuel, solid, and liquid waste treatment is incomplete. The Department of Thermal and Nuclear Energy at Kaunas University of Technology proposed the new idea - cellular foam apparatus for the concentration of the liquid waste at Ignalina NPP. Some data and main results of the investigation of such apparatus are presented here. (author)

  8. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  9. Importance of the Marine Cadastre in the Development of the Real Estate Industry in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Stāmure, I; Kaminskis, J; Kowalczyk, K

    2017-01-01

    In Latvia, the issues of the Real Estate Cadastre are arranged; however, it should be noted that part of the issues affecting the Baltic Sea, i.e., the issues of the Marine Cadastre, are not covered by the Real Estate Cadastre. The status of the Baltic coastline is an essential element of infrastructure for all countries around the Baltic Sea. This baseline serves as the key element or reference for the Marine Cadastre. In place-to-place, this line is the dynamic element as it is possible ...

  10. Thyroid Nodularity and cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Farbtuha, T.; Matisane, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Radiation exposure was from rapidly decaying radioactive iodines, as well as from 137 CS and other long-lived radioisotopes. About 6000 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident were from Latvia. External radiation exposure was defined for 40% of them and the doses were 0.01-0.5 Grey (Gy). Although according to conclusions of authoritative experts of different countries, the actual doses of radiation might be at least 3-4 times higher. Because the thyroid is highly susceptible to cancer induction by ionizing radiation, our examination was conducted in 2001 to determine the prevalence of thyroid tumors in 1990-2000 and other nodular thyroid disease 14 years after the accident in Latvia's Chernobyl clean-up workers. The Latvian State Register for persons who have received ionising radiation in Chernobyl and Latvia's Cancer Register were used in this work as well as 1000 Chernobyl accident clean-up workers medical ambulatory cards were analysed. We have received that occurrence of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers was 10,6 times higher than in Latvia's population (men) in 1990-2000 and also it occurs at earlier age in comparison with population data (40-50 and 55-65 accordingly). This can be explained in two ways: either due to effect of the short-term or long-term external and internal radiation exposure (including, from the incorporated 131 I) on the thyroid tissue, or due to a better dispensarisation (obligatory thyroid ultrasound examination once per year) of the examined group. The first thyroid cancer was discovered in 1996 -after ten years of latent period. The relative risk of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers in 1996 was 33.27, and in 1997 -42.64. Then, the morbidity of the thyroid cancer exhibits tendency to decrease (RR 18.27 in 1998, and 9.42 in 1999). The presence of thyroid benign nodules was

  11. The Role of Ecotourism in the Reduction of Anthropogenic Load on Natura 2000 Territories throughout Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitis, Eriks; Leitis, Ēriks

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is able to contribute to biodiversity and to ensure the ecosystem function in Latvia through a complicated process of fulfilment of the established criteria for a valid ecotourism. The tourism flow in protected nature territories should be monitored, and the appropriate environmental management, education and a code of conduct need to be introduced. Ecotourism will serve for reducing the social and economic pressures on biodiversity and will promote responsible actions in support of environmentally friendly technologies and approaches. The areas selected for this study are the Natura 2000 territories that have undertaken the development of ecotourism facilities.

  12. Development of the nuclear technology in Latvia in the second half of 20 century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavars, V.; Tomsons, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the second part of 20th century Latvia that was at that time a part of the Soviet Union, one of the nuclear power world powers, participated in the development of nuclear technology. Already in the 60ies the local specialists created an original nuclear equipment highly recognized by specialists from different countries. The most important of them was critical assembly (zero power nuclear reactor) - RKS, large-scale gamma rays source - RK-LM, special control devices for space-rocket nuclear reactors and a renovated research nuclear reactor IRT-M with thermo power of 5MW, etc.(authors)

  13. Storage experience in Hungary with fuel from research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.; Hargitai, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Hungary several critical assemblies, a training reactor and a research reactor have been in operation. The fuel used in the research and training reactors are of Soviet origin. Though spent fuel storage experience is fairly good, medium and long term storage solutions are needed. (author)

  14. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  15. Creation and Characteristics of the New Fundamental Law of Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halász, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150/1, č. 9/2 TLQ (2011), s. 85-105 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : constitutional law * Fundamental Law of Hungary * Hungarian constitutional system Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  16. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  17. Development of Integrated Public Administration Custom Services in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laki, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case-study introducing a national project in Hungary establishing a countrywide public administration customer service system where accessibility was a key issue. Starting from the concept the paper describes the methods and organisational background how accessible design was integrated in the planning method and gives a feedback of site experiences.

  18. Teaching the System of Social Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyigas, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Provides an inside perspective on the development of social work education in Hungary during the final years of communism and after the country regained its independence, when there was a strong focus on re-introducing social work and social sciences which had been repressed by the socialist regime in its denial of social problems and thus, its…

  19. What Drives Economic Growth in Some CEE Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential factors that might generate economic growth, a target for any economy, this paper identified some determinants of economic growth in the countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries that are member states of the European Union. The foreign direct investment was the most important determinant of economic growth in most of the countries (Bulgaria, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania in the period 2003-2016, according to Bayesian bridge regressions. The indicators related to the level and the quality of labour resources proved to be insignificant in explaining the economic growth in these countries. Moreover, in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, the government expenditure on education had a negative effect on economic growth.

  20. From Batu to Janybek: Military Conflicts of the Ulus of Jochi with Poland and Hungary (2 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hautala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: The author of this article examines a number of military conflicts between the ulus of Jochi and both Hungary and Poland followed the first invasion of the Tatars in these lands in 1241. Research materials: For the most part, the author’s analysis is based on information of synchronous Latin sources in comparison with information contained in Russian and Mamluk chronicles. In addition to the Hungarian, Polish, and German chronicles, the author resorts to the use of the contents of the papal letters to Eastern Europe, which provide both the most reliable information about military conflicts and information on the Papal Curia’s measures to improve the defense of eastern borders of the Latin world from the Tatar raids. Research results and novelty: During the reign of Batu, Latin sources indicate extreme concern about the possible resumption of the western expansion of the Tatars in spite of the fact that, in reality, Tatar military activity on the eastern borders of Catholic Europe had an extremely minor character. On the contrary, during the reign of Berke, Tatars carried a very destructive raid on Lesser Poland. However, further Tatar expansion was interrupted by an unexpected collapse of the Mongol Empire. The subsequent reign of khan Mengu-Timur was distinguished with relative tension with the Catholic Europe. However, the actual attack on Hungary and Poland took place only under the khans Tuda-Mengu and Tula-Buga. Later, under the khans Tokhta and Uzbek, the tension between the Golden Horde and Catholic Europe weakened considerably, which, in particular, allowed the beginning of the Hungarian territorial expansion into Moldova. However, the end of the reign of khan Uzbek was characterized by a sharp deterioration of relations between the Golden Horde and Poland, which was associated with the beginning of the war of Galician succession. Analysis of the course of this war shows the apparent weakening of the influence of

  1. From Batu to Janybek: Military Conflicts of the Ulus of Jochi with Poland and Hungary (1 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hautala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article examines a number of military conflicts between the ulus of Jochi and both Hungary and Poland followed the first invasion of the Tatars in these lands in 1241. For the most part, the author’s analysis is based on information of synchronous Latin sources in comparison with information contained in Russian and Mamluk chronicles. In addition to the Hungarian, Polish, and German chronicles, the author resorts to the use of the contents of the papal letters to Eastern Europe, which provide both the most reliable information about military conflicts and information on the Papal Curia’s measures to improve the defense of eastern borders of the Latin world from the Tatar raids. The article examines the political events in chronological order, according to the reigns of the Jochid rulers. During the reign of Batu, Latin sources indicate extreme concern about the possible resumption of the western expansion of the Tatars in spite of the fact that, in reality, Tatar military activity on the eastern borders of Catholic Europe had an extremely minor character. On the contrary, during the reign of Berke, Tatars carried a very destructive raid on Lesser Poland. However, further Tatar expansion was interrupted by an unexpected collapse of the Mongol Empire. The subsequent reign of khan Mengu-Timur was distinguished with relative tension with the Catholic Europe, but the actual attack on Hungary and Poland took place only under the khans Tuda-Mengu and Tula-Buga. Later, under the khans Tokhta and Uzbek, the tension between the Golden Horde and Catholic Europe weakened considerably, which, in particular, allowed the beginning of the Hungarian territorial expansion into Moldova. However, the end of the reign of Uzbek Khan was characterized by a sharp deterioration of relations between the Golden Horde and Poland, which was associated with the beginning of the war of Galician succession. Analysis of the course of this war shows the

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILY-FRIENDLY WORKPLACES IN LATVIA:EXPLORATION OF OBSTRUCTIVE AND FACILITATIVE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Korpa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of family-friendly workplaces is an important aspect within thecontext of social inclusion and sustainability of society. Its importance is alsorecognized at European Union level in relation to European Union strategic aims.In order to promote development of family-friendlyworking environment it isimportant to identify and evaluate obstructive andfacilitative factors.The aim ofthe paper is the clarification of what hinders andwhat facilitates formation offamily-friendly workplaces in Latvia. The researchis based on 20 semi-structuredin-depth interviews with experts and 36 semi-structured interviews withemployers of different business organizations in Latvia.The research results reveal that development of family-friendly workingenvironment is a multidimensional process and the several participants (socialagents must get involved. During the research process acquired data discoverproblematic issues related to allocation of responsibility between state, localmunicipalities and private sector in the context ofempowerment of the requiredinfrastructure for work-family reconciliation. Theresearch shows that at presentthere is a lack of information, knowledge and studies of the real benefits gainedby all the parties involved, when organizations implement different initiatives,provisions, programs or strategies with the goal ofpromoting workers’ work andfamily reconciliation possibilities.

  3. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  4. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  5. Decadal oscillations of the aquatic chemistry of river waters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Porshnov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality changes of surface waters can be used to assess human impact intensity, but of importance is to consider also impacts of climate change/variability and naturally occurring changes of environmental quality. In Latvia, during the recent decades a major reduction of anthropogenic pressure has happened due to restructuring of economy and industrial production, resulting in major decrease of loading of many groups of pollutants. However, trends and driving factors for other groups of substances have not been much studied. Long term (1980–2012 results of hydrochemical monitoring, performed in rivers of Latvia, are analysed during this study in connection with long-term sets of hydrological and heliophysical data, using standard statistical approaches. Our results indicate that variation of some hydrochemical values, for example COD and total Fe, show clearly visible decadal oscillated character, while variation of some other values, for example phosphate P and total P, show some individual characteristics of decadal oscillations. These results indicate the presence of a large scale, geochemical and geophysical significant process: multiannual pulse of catchment, driven by variation of solar irradiance through complex interactions between global atmospheric circulation, groundwater and surface waterbodies. The process described in our study is significant from a geochemical point of view and must be taken into account in prediction of water quality and quantity. Impacts of natural processes should be considered in the planning of environmental policy.

  6. DSM energy saving pilot project report. Company Augstceltne Ltd., Riga, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krievins, P.; Cakuls, A.; Kaross, V.; Jansons, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a part of the Joint Latvian - Danish Project DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY SAVING. The Project is a part of the Danish aid and technology transfer to Latvia. It is the result of collaborative efforts between a Latvian team, consisting of the specialists from Latvenergo and a Danish team, which was represented by Danish Power Consult. The purpose of this pilot project was not only to carry out energy audit in the company Augstceltne Ltd and propose demand side management and energy saving measures. Another task of the project was the application of DPC energy audit methodic, measuring equipment and software in Latvian conditions and the promotion of energy saving programs in Latvia in this way. The Company Augstceltne Ltd was created to rent the rest of premises for many other independent companys and to earn money for surviving. Now the Company has 9 buildings with a total area of 26,920 square meters. The tower block has 23 floors and it is the main business centre. 66 companies are located in the building. (EG)

  7. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sector (industry, transport, households, agriculture, services, activity, demography, lifestyles, structural effects, energy savings etc. The results show that the reduction in final energy consumption in most EU members states before and after year 2008 can be related to the decline in energy intensities within endusers sectors. At the same time, the increase in final energy intensity after the year 2008 is attributed to expansion of energy demand sectors. Comparison of final energy consumption trends and drivers in Latvia and Czech Republic indicated that Czech Republic implemented more policies and measures in industry and tertiary sector and this provided for final energy consumption decreased and huge energy savings in these sectors.

  8. Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Latvian contribution to European security, which, for the purposes of this study, is understood as a territorial system of regional security. Such system is a combination of interconnected institutions with Latvian participation operating in the field of security, Latvian cooperation with other European countries in the field of security, and the European perception of major security challenges and threats (that Latvia may or may not agree with. A systemic approach to studying the role of Latvia in the territorial system of European security requires a solid theoretical framework. The theories of international relations discussed in this article fall into two categories: those where territorial security systems are viewed as a product of external factors, and those that focus on internal regional factors. In this article, the authors rely on a variety of methods, including those that are characteristic of classical theories of international relations (such as realism and liberalism, and those employed in social constructivism studies. It is concluded that Latvian cooperation with institutions and countries of the territorial system of European security is rather limited, which indicates either a lack of the country’s integration into the system or a crisis of the system itself. An important result of the study is the validation of a systemic approach to studying regional security systems. This angle proves particularly useful in identifying crises of territorial systems of regional security in various regions of the world.

  9. Epidemiological study of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Girdzijauskiene, Sigita; Gintiliene, Grazina; Butkiene, Dovile; Puras, Dainius; Goodman, Robert; Heiervang, Einar

    2018-04-24

    From the public health perspective, epidemiological data of child mental health and psychosocial correlates were necessary and very lacking in Lithuanian society that has been undergoing rapid socio-economic change since the past decades. Together with determining the prevalence rates of disorders and assessing the needs for the services, this study has also shifted attention from the highly selective samples of children attending children and adolescent mental health services towards less severe cases of psychopathology as well as different attitudes of parents and teachers. The aim of the first epidemiological study in Lithuania was to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the community sample of children. Child psychiatric disorders were investigated in a representative sample of 3309 children aged 7-16 years (1162 7-10-year-olds and 2147 11-16-year-olds), using a two-phase design with the Lithuanian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the first screening phase, and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) in the second diagnostic phase. The estimated point prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders was 13.1% for the total sample (14.0% for the child sample and 12.1% for adolescent sample). The most common groups of disorders were Conduct disorders 6.6% (7.1% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), Anxiety disorders 5.0% (5.9% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), with Hyperkinesis being less common 2.0% (2.7% for child sample and 1.2% for adolescent sample). Potential risk factors were related to individual characteristics of the child (gender, poor general health, and stressful life experiences), and the family (single parenthood, foster care, unfavourable family climate, disciplining difficulties, worries related to TV or computer use). The overall prevalence of youth psychiatric disorders was relatively high in this representative Lithuanian sample compared to Western European

  10. RETIREMENT PENSIONS IN LITHUANIA: 25 YEARS AND STILL IN TRANSIT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Skucaite

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adequate social security system is one of key elements of any modern society. Retirement pensions are usually attributed to the area of social security and – as such – pension system has multiple objectives, for example, to smooth income during lifetime of individual, to address poverty issues and similar. Due to ageing population and other circumstances many countries face difficulties when providing retirement pensions solely as part of social security system. Lithuania is not an exception, so – as in many other European countries – pension reform was implemented during the period of 2003 – 2004. Design of retirement pensions before and after reform is presented in this paper. Impact of reform for estimated amount of pensions and public finances as well as main areas of uncertainty are discussed. Un sistema de seguridad social adecuado es uno de los elementos clave en cualquier sociedad moderna. Las pensiones de jubilación se vinculan normalmente a la esfera de la Seguridad Social y, como tal, el sistema de pensiones tiene múltiples objetivos: la distribución de los ingresos durante la vida de los individuos o hacer frente al riesgo de pobreza, entre otros. A raíz del envejecimiento de la población y de otras circunstancias, algunos países presentan dificultades cuando la prestación de las pensiones de jubilación se plantea únicamente como una parte de la Seguridad Social. Lituania no es una excepción y así –como otros países europeos- implantó una reforma de las pensiones durante el período 2003-2004. En este artículo se presenta el diseño de estas pensiones antes y después de la reforma y se discute su impacto en cuanto al importe estimado de pensiones y las finanzas públicas, así como se refieren las principales áreas de incertidumbre.

  11. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) foci in Germany and Latvia (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Jochen; Schrader, Christina; Abel, Ulrich; Bormane, Antra; Duks, Arnis; Kalnina, Vaira

    2002-06-01

    Knowledge concerning the prevalence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in wild living tick populations is very important for understanding the epidemiology of the disease and for immuno prophylactic strategy. In Germany high and low risk areas of TBE exist. In the years 1997-2000, 533 autochthonous clinical TBE cases were recorded, in the high-risk areas of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg 140 and 363, and in the low risk areas in Hesse (Odenwald) and Rhineland-Palatinate 22 and 8, respectively. Corresponding to these case reports we have measured the virus prevalence in free living ticks in these four risk areas and compared these findings with the situation in high-risk areas in Latvia. In the years 1997-2000, 2,797 clinical TBE cases were recorded in Latvia. For the studies in Germany, a total of 17,398 Ixodesricinus ticks (14,860 nymphs and 2,538 adults) were collected by flagging and examined for TBEV, in Latvia the corresponding numbers were 525 I. ricinus ticks (350 adults and 175 nymphs) and 281 I. persulcatus ticks (adults only). Information concerning annual and seasonal differences of the TBEV prevalence in natural TBE foci is not available in Germany. This paper is a continuation of the study (Süss et al., 1999), starting in 1997. We investigated every year, in May and September, the virus prevalence in ticks in high risk areas of Bavaria (8 foci) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (5 foci). A total of 15,400 ticks (13,100 nymphs and 2,300 adults) were examined for TBEV. The ticks were tested for the presence of TBEV-RNA using a sensitive, nested-RT-PCR. The virus prevalence in the Bavarian foci of the whole tick population ranged from 0.3 to 2.0% during these four years, in adults between 1.2 and 5.3% and in nymphs between 0.1 and 1.4%. In the high-risk areas of Baden-Wuerttemberg, in the Black Forest, the estimated virus prevalence rates of investigated ticks varied from 0.2 to 3.4%, in adults from 0 to 4.8%, and in nymphs from 0.2 to 3.4%. Using the same

  12. The environmental protection in the Republic of Lithuania. Information bulletin No 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Collection of Lithuanian laws regulating environmental protection in Lithuania is presented. The main of them is the Law on environmental protection of the Republic of Lithuania. This law establish the main rights and duties of legal and natural persons guaranteeing the right of the population of the Republic of Lithuania to healthy and safe environment, harmonic development of the interaction between the society and nature. Among general principles of environment protection, regulation of economic activities and introduction of basis of taxation for environment pollution, the law defines the main requirements for the production and usage of radioactive materials, management of radioactive waste. According to the article 21 usage of radioactive materials for the production of nuclear weapons is prohibited. By the article 23 importation of radioactive waste into the Republic of Lithuania for storage, treatment and disposal is prohibited. Two governmental institutions - Environmental Protection Department and Ministry of Health are responsible for the preparation of regulations for the record-keeping, transportation, storage, disposal of radioactive materials as well as norms of radiation protection. The full text of the Law on taxes on the state natural resources, Law on taxes on environmental pollution are also included in this publication

  13. Russian as a Commodity: Medical Tourism and the Healthcare Industry in Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on Lithuania, where government policies continue to limit the use of Russian in education, the public space and the media, while the local economy has recognized proficiency in Russian as a commodity. This is particularly salient in the healthcare industry that grew significantly in the past years with patients from…

  14. Gap Year Students in Lithuania: The Value Orientations of Children from Wealthy Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonavicius, Vylius; Ozolinciute, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand the trajectories of students who defer entry to university. The study was conducted in Lithuania, a former Soviet Union republic. The phenomenon of a "gap year" is usually associated with young people, who decide not to enter higher education schools immediately after receiving secondary education, instead…

  15. Eu emission trading scheme and its implications on energy sector of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, D.; Mikalauskiene, A.

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives of the article are to analyse the theoretical principles of emission trading and to emphasize the main features and requirements of EU emission trading scheme. The goal of the article to assess the impact of GHG emission trading on economy and GHG emission reduction in EU and Lithuania

  16. Regulatory control of natural ionizing sources in Lithuania: Experience based on indoor radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Morkunas, G.

    1997-01-01

    The situation in legislation of protection against risks from natural sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania is described. The requirements of new standards came into conflict with the real situation which has not been evaluated before implementation of these standards. On the basis of recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 and results of indoor radon survey new action levels are being established. (author)

  17. The environmental protection in the Republic of Lithuania. Information bulletin No 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Collection of Lithuanian laws regulating environmental protection in Lithuania is presented. The main of them is the Law on environmental protection of the Republic of Lithuania. This law establish the main rights and duties of legal and natural persons guaranteeing the right of the population of the Republic of Lithuania to healthy and safe environment, harmonic development of the interaction between the society and nature. Among general principles of environment protection, regulation of economic activities and introduction of basis of taxation for environment pollution, the law defines the main requirements for the production and usage of radioactive materials, management of radioactive waste. According to the article 21 usage of radioactive materials for the production of nuclear weapons is prohibited. By the article 23 importation of radioactive waste into the Republic of Lithuania for storage, treatment and disposal is prohibited. Two governmental institutions - Environmental Protection Department and Ministry of Health are responsible for the preparation of regulations for the record-keeping, transportation, storage, disposal of radioactive materials as well as norms of radiation protection. The full text of the Law on taxes on the state natural resources, Law on taxes on environmental pollution are also included in this publication.

  18. Governmental policy and prospect in electricity production from renewables in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katinas, Vladislovas; Markevicius, Antanas; Erlickyte, Regina; Marciukaitis, Mantas

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the generation of electricity is based on the nuclear energy and on the fossil fuels. After the decommissioning of Ignalina nuclear power plant in 2009, the Lithuanian Power Plant and other thermal plants will become the major sources of electricity. Consequently, the Lithuanian power sector must focus on the implementation of renewable energy projects, penetration of new technologies and on consideration of the future opportunities for renewables, and Government policy for promoting this kind of energy. Production of electricity from renewable energy is based on hydro, biomass and wind energy resources in Lithuania. Due to the typical climatic condition in Lithuania the solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy are not used for power sector. Moreover, the further development of hydropower plants is limited by environmental restrictions, therefore priority is given to wind energy development and installation of new biomass power plants. According to the requirements set out in the Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market [Official Journal L283, 33-40, 27 October 2001], 7% of gross consumption of electricity will be generated from renewable energy by 2010 in Lithuania. The aim of this paper is to show the estimation of the maximum renewable power penetration in the Lithuanian electricity sector and possible environmental impact

  19. Analysing the Transformation of Higher Education Governance in Bulgaria and Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbins, Michael; Leisyte, Liudvika

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociological neo-institutional theory and models of higher education governance, we examine current developments in Bulgaria and Lithuania and explore to what extent those developments were shaped by the Bologna reform. We analyse to what extent the state has moved away from a model of

  20. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  1. Socio-spatial change in Lithuania – Depopulation and increasing spatial inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Ubareviciene

    2017-09-01

    This thesis focuses on four areas of social-spatial change: population decline, shifting residential patterns, social segregation and increasing regional inequalities. These processes characterised Lithuania in the recent decades. Firstly, due to its exceptional geopolitical situation (the experience of a shift from the Soviet Union to the EU and, secondly, due to the specific legacy of Soviet planning policy.

  2. E-Books in Academic Libraries: Results of a Survey Carried out in Sweden and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceviciute, Elena; Wilson, T. D.; Gudinavicius, Arunas; Šuminas, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on a study of e-books issues in academic libraries in two European countries representative of small language markets--Sweden and Lithuania. Method: Questionnaire surveys, using the same instrument, were carried out in Swedish and Lithuanian academic libraries. Analysis: Quantitative analysis was performed using…

  3. The Regulation of the Security of Electronic Information in Lithuania and Russia: the Comparative Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with such offences as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Therefore, the legal regulation of cybercrime is one of the most relevant problems in the world, including Lithuania and our neighbouring country, Russia. So far cybercrime analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. We have not succeeded in finding a comparison between the regulatory practices of cybercrime in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania in any of the references. The main goal of the thesis paper is to analyse and to compare the electronic information security legal framework of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania. The article consists of two parts. The first part deals with the comparative aspect of strategic documents—the program governing electronic information protection in Lithuania and the Russian Federation. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of electronic information protection legislative, legal framework Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation. It was found that at the moment in both countries there is a strategic document which defines the planned state policy in this area, but the lack of a Lithuanian Law which can fully and consistently regulate social relations in relation to electronic information security. Several different approaches have been used in the research. The authors have used a comparative method to investigate the Lithuanian and Russian legal framework for the security of electronic information. Empirical analysis of legal documents was used to determine the legal regulation of the security of electronic information in Lithuania and Russia. Legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation have been analysed. Having analysed the official

  4. The Regulation of the Security of Electronic Information in Lithuania and Russia: the Comparative Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with such offences as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Therefore, the legal regulation of cybercrime is one of the most relevant problems in the world, including Lithuania and our neighbouring country, Russia. So far cybercrime analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. We have not succeeded in finding a comparison between the regulatory practices of cybercrime in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania in any of the references.The main goal of the thesis paper is to analyse and to compare the electronic information security legal framework of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania.The article consists of two parts. The first part deals with the comparative aspect of strategic documents—the program governing electronic information protection in Lithuania and the Russian Federation.The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of electronic information protection legislative, legal framework Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation. It was found that at the moment in both countries there is a strategic document which defines the planned state policy in this area, but the lack of a Lithuanian Law which can fully and consistently regulate social relations in relation to electronic information security.Several different approaches have been used in the research. The authors have used a comparative method to investigate the Lithuanian and Russian legal framework for the security of electronic information. Empirical analysis of legal documents was used to determine the legal regulation of the security of electronic information in Lithuania and Russia. Legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation have been analysed. Having analysed the official

  5. The Acculturation of Russian-Speaking Adolescents in Latvia: Language Issues Three Years after the 2004 Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on acculturation strategies (attitudes and behaviors) in the language domain of Russian-speaking adolescents in Latvia in the context of the education reform. Data comes from a longitudinal study of adolescents from schools with Russian as the language of instruction in Riga; the same schools were invited to…

  6. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Review Mission in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A team of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experts today completed a mission to review nuclear security practices in Hungary. At the request of the Government of Hungary, the IAEA conducted the two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission that reviewed the nation's nuclear security-related legislative and regulatory framework, physical protection systems at Hungarian nuclear facilities, and security arrangements applied to the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. The IAEA team was led by Stephen Ortiz of the United States and included nine experts from six nations and the IAEA. The team met in Budapest with officials from the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, Hungarian Police Headquarters, National Security Authority and other relevant agencies. They also conducted site visits to the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility, the Budapest Research Reactor, the Budapest Training Reactor, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility and several other locations where high activity radioactive sources are used for different applications. ''At a time where development of a nuclear power programme is more than ever recognised as necessitating a strong commitment to safety, security and sustainability, the example given today by Hungary strengthens the message about the value of applying the IAEA Security Guidance,'' said IAEA Deputy Director General for Nuclear Safety and Security, Denis Flory, who opened the mission. ''Indeed, IPPAS missions, carried out at the appropriate time in the development of a nuclear power programme, provide valuable insights into how best to reach that goal.'' The IPPAS team concluded that nuclear security within Hungary has been significantly enhanced in recent years. The team also identified a number of good practices at the nation's nuclear facilities, and provided some recommendations and suggestions to assist Hungary in the continuing

  7. Teamwork in primary care: perspectives of general practitioners and community nurses in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A team approach in primary care has proven benefits in achieving better outcomes, reducing health care costs, satisfying patient needs, ensuring continuity of care, increasing job satisfaction among health providers and using human health care resources more efficiently. However, some research indicates constraints in collaboration within primary health care (PHC) teams in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of teamwork in Lithuania by exploring the experiences of teamwork by general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) involved in PHC. Methods Six focus groups were formed with 29 GPs and 27 CNs from the Kaunas Region of Lithuania. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis of these data was then performed. Results The analysis of focus group data identified six thematic categories related to teamwork in PHC: the structure of a PHC team, synergy among PHC team members, descriptions of roles and responsibilities of team members, competencies of PHC team members, communications between PHC team members and the organisational background for teamwork. These findings provide the basis for a discussion of a thematic model of teamwork that embraces formal, individual and organisational factors. Conclusions The need for effective teamwork in PHC is an issue receiving broad consensus; however, the process of teambuilding is often taken for granted in the PHC sector in Lithuania. This study suggests that both formal and individual behavioural factors should be targeted when aiming to strengthen PHC teams. Furthermore, this study underscores the need to provide explicit formal descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of PHC team members in Lithuania, which would include establishing clear professional boundaries. The training of team members is an essential component of the teambuilding process, but not sufficient by itself. PMID:23945286

  8. Russkie v Latvii: osobennosti sociokul'turnoj adaptacii i identichnosti [Russians in Latvia: Peculiarities of Socio-cultural Adaptation and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies trends and variations of the socio-cultural identity and integration of Russians in Latvia. According to the author, since the middle 1990s, two trends have been recognized - first, the “ingrowing” of ethnic Russians into the life of independent Latvia, and second, forming their new identity. The article presents a number of factors hampering the integration of ethnic Russians into Latvian society. Variations and options of socio-cultural identity and integration (or assimilation of the Russian population of Latvia are shown.

  9. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, S.; Geipele, I.; Kauskale, L.; Zeltins, N.; Staube, T.; Pudzis, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

  10. Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Onorato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the tax burden on labour income in Croatia, Austria, Greece, Hungary and Poland in 2013. The Taxing Wages methodology has been applied to hypothetical units across a range of gross wages in order to calculate net average tax wedge, net average tax rate, as well as other relevant indicators. When it comes to single workers without children, the smallest tax wedge for workers earning less than the average gross wage was found in Croatia, while Poland had the smallest tax wedge for above-average wages. Due to a progressive PIT system, the tax wedge for a single worker in Croatia reaches 50% at 400% of the average gross wage, equalling that of Austria, Greece and Hungary. Tax wedges for couples with two children show a similar trend.

  11. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  12. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  13. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  14. Relations between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kazan Khanate (1506–1552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.V. Pilipchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Khanate of Kazan. The aim of this study is to analyze the dynamics and characteristics of the relations of the Kazan Khanate with Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Jagiellonian eastern policy is rightfully considered as one of the most important policy directions of the Polish Kings and Grand Dukes of Lithuania in the 16th century. Researchers have traditionally paid much more attention to the history of relations of the Crimean Khanate with Lithuania and Poland. Relations of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Kazan Khanate have been considered in the source study articles by D. Mustafina and B. Trepavlov analyzing the content of documents preserved in the Lithuanian State Archives (Lithuanian Methric. The main theme of this article is the military and political history of Eastern Europe in the first half of the 16th century. The author aims to clarify to what extent the European policy of the Kazan Khanate depended on the personalities of Sahib Giray and Safa Giray and their personal relations with Sigismund I the Old. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that the author is the first to present to the researchers’ attention a complete picture of the Kazan-Lithuanian relations rather than focusing on particular issues of relations between the individual Grand Dukes and khans. The article examines the history of the interaction of the Kazan Tatars with Lithuanians and Poles in the context of relations of Lithuania with the Russian State and Crimean Khanate. Attempts to establish an anti-Russian alliance were undertaken during the first half of the 16th century. Mohammed Amin, from the dynasty of Ulugh Muhammad, expressed interest in the establishment of the union in 1506 only by the fact that it was profitable for him. In 1516–1518, the proposals of Sigismund I the Old to make an alliance did not meet the response in Kazan. In general, the dynasty of Ulugh Muhammad

  15. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  16. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  17. Results of Research about Consciousness of Foodstuff Consumers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolya Bravacz

    2013-10-01

    How self-restrictive and self-conscious are we when purchasing and consuming foodstuff? – with every foodstuff purchase we make decisions about our environment, which indirectly has an effect on the producers, manufacturers and dealers. I will briefly review the foodstuff consumers segments in Hungary, which first have been identified using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. I have identified the following consumer groups based on health consciousness: Conscious majority, Conscious by commitment, Economist “housewife”, Youthfully eclectic and Passives.

  18. The intellectual background of nuclear energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear specialists in Hungary has a long history, since several Hungarian nuclear scientists emigrated to the West before the second war. Some became Nobel-prize winners. In domestic universities, the education of nuclear science and technology has been also preferred. When the first Hungarian nuclear power plant in Paks started operation, well-trained specialists were available to operate it. The present opportunities for nuclear training and education are highlighted. (R.P.)

  19. An overview of the status of radiochemical analysis in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solymosi, J.; Toth, G.

    1994-01-01

    This overview covers the following activities at radioanalytical laboratories in Hungary: tracer techniques and their applications; some important new results; radioimmunoassay; x-ray emission analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis, Moessbauer-spectroscopy and their applications in various fields of science and technology; neutron activation analysis; radiochemical analysis for nuclear power plant applications activities in various laboratories; nuclear environmental analysis (radioanalytical methods for the investigation of contamination by nuclear facilities). (N.T.) 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  20. Gas regulation in Hungary. 5 years after privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varro, L.

    2002-01-01

    The political-economic environment of gas regulation in Hungary is characterized by: Unsustainable starting position; Gas a a default fuel (growth prospects); Scarce domestic capital; serious household exposure, political sensitivity.Import gas prices and the recommended regulatory bans are discussed.Future transmission and storage tariffs are about 12 euro/1000 m 3 and around 7 euro/1000 m 3 , resp. (R.P.)

  1. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  2. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-tech...

  3. Modeling maize response to climate modification in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Anda

    2006-01-01

    Modeling provides a tool for a better understanding of the modified plant behaviour that results from various climatic differences. The present study provides new information about the physiological processes in maize (Zea mays L.) in response to climatic changes. The aim was to help local farmers adapt to climate modifications in Hungary and mitigate the future consequences of these changes. A simulation model was applied to estimate the possible feedback on crop properties and elevated CO2....

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Paldy; Janos Bobvos

    2010-01-01

    In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality). Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mort...

  5. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  6. Incidence of legal abortions and congenital abnormalities in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The annual and monthly distributions of congenital abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes as confounding factors were evaluated in Hungary in reflection of the accident at the Chernobyl reactor. The different congenital abnormality entities and the components of fetal radiation syndrome did not show a higher rate after the Chernobyl accident in the data-set of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Among confounding factors, the rate of induced abortions did not increase after the Chernobyl accident in Hungary. In the 9th month after the peak of public concern (May and June, 1986) the rate of livebirths decreased. Three indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies as indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations, Down syndrome as an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations, and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities as indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Diagnoses were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the sporadic cases were evaluated. The analysis of indicator conditions did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effect of the Chernobyl accident in Hungary

  7. Effectiveness of Traumatic Brain Injury Management Guideline Introduction in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorinola, Abayomi; Buki, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Czeiter, Endre

    2018-01-01

    To describe the impact of the Traumatic Brain Injury management guideline introduction in Hungary. Hospital discharge records (HDR) including age, gender, codes of interventions applied, ICD codes of diagnosed disorders of patients admitted between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2010 with the diagnosis of intracranial injury (S06 by ICD10) from every inpatient institution in Hungary were collected from the database of National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). The Case Fatality Ratios (CFR) for one week, one month and six months were calculated for the periods before and after the guideline introduction. The change of CFRs was applied as indicators for change of clinical quality elicited by the guideline. The centers together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 23.4%, 37.7% and 47.5% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 22.1%, 39.1%, and 50.0% respectively. The secondary institutions together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.5%, 34.8% and 46.3% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.9%, 37.0%, and 48.9% respectively. None of the CFRs showed significant change. The effectiveness of TBI management guideline adaptation in Hungary is poor. Without supportive financing and external auditing system, guideline introduction alone cannot achieve standard clinical practice and a reduction in CFR.

  8. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  9. The current situation of uranium mining in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdi-Krausz, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the history of uranium production in Hungary. It focuses on the Mecsek Ore Mining Company, now known as Mecsekuran Limited, and its relationship with the Hungarian Government. From the start of uranium production in 1963 until May 1989 all production was exported to the Soviet Union under a bilateral contract. In exchange the Soviet Union agreed to provide fabricated fuel for the future Hungarian nuclear power plant. In May 1989 the Government of Hungary announced closure of its uranium mining operations because of the high cost of production. The paper describes the history of events since 1989, as well as the current plans to terminate all uranium production by 31 December 1997. The Mecsek Mountains lie in the southern part of Hungary, west from the Danube, about 30 km from the former Yugoslavian border, and north from the city of Pecs. Its eastern side is built up from medieval limestone and dolomites, while the western part is from sandstone and clay from the geological Paleozoic. In the eastern part high quality cokeable coal has been mined for more than 200 years, east from the city of Pecs; and in the western part uranium ore was discovered and the mining began only a few decades ago. (author)

  10. Cultural Integration and Cross–Cultural Management Challenges in the Central European Countries:Lithuania and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GREBLIKAITĖ, JOLITA; SROKA, WŁODZIMIERZ; DAUGĖLIENĖ, RASA; KUROWSKA–PYSZ, JOANNA

    2017-01-01

    The article focused on disclosing the situation of cultural integration in Lithuania and Poland leading to the different issues of cross–cultural management in labour market and companies activity. As the main research method, a critical analysis of scientific literature on cultural integration and cross–cultural management applied in the companies as well as secondary research data and legal documents are analysed focusing on both countries – Lithuania and Poland. Practical examples' analysi...

  11. Bioethics and power: Informed consent procedures in post-socialist Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putniņa, Aivita

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores two lines of development in the donor consent procedures in post-Soviet Latvia. The paper is based on secondary analysis of interview, focus group discussion data, and media and legal text material collected throughout three previously conducted research projects on organ transplantation, population genome project and xenotransplantation focusing on the historical development of the issues of donor consent across these three fields of medical technologies. The paper argues that the quality of consent depends not as much on political and legal change per se as on the strengthening of the position of both medical specialists and donors, facilitating bonds between the two. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asylum Seekers Crisis in Europe 2015: Debating Spaces of Fear and Security in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulle Aija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse emerging discourses of fear on the one hand and safety and security on the other. In the context of rupture - sudden, unprecedented asylum flows as well as the historical context of the fear and experience of losing the state’s freedom, we pose the following research question: Where do insecurities and fear come from and how are spaces of security and safety carved out through public discourses? We argue that, instead of singling out political discourses in Eastern European as filled with hatred towards other ethnicities and races or an inability to show solidarity with human suffering, we have to open up a far more deep reaching debate on the interplay of fear and the willingness to create safer, more secure futures. We illustrate this with examples from media debates in Latvia, in late 2015.

  13. Study of accessibility and quality of the patient information about medicines in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozolina V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Receipt of adequate amount of accurate patient information on medicines before their use is one of the main cornerstones of the treatment. Without the information medicines cannot be used safely and effectively. Basically, it can be argued that the information is converting the pharmacologically active substance into the medicinal product. Main source of information for patients in Latvia is Package leaflets. Label of medicines and patient information leaflet are drawn up in compliance with regulatory requirements, but for people it is often difficult to understand information contained in the package leaflets due to the complex language. The readability test – introduced as a mandatory requirement for marketing authorization and renewal of marketing authorization of medicines – improves the quality of package leaflets making them more patient “friendly”.

  14. The radioactive waste management concept: problem definition and solving in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.; Shatrovska, D.

    2003-01-01

    Development of radioactive waste (RW) management concept is treated as a key component of a general process - elaboration of the overall RW management strategy for a certain country/region. We present indication of possible solutions for crucial RW management problems for Latvia being in the same time rather generic for other countries. The importance of the Concept for Latvia follows from the planned decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) and from the recommended further upgrading of RW management organization in conditions of limited resources.The aim of this Concept is to stimulate the development of advanced, environmentally sound and population friendly system of RW management, in accord with the fair social system for the protection of human health and the environment, in line of international recommendations.The Concept foresees solutions for the safe management of RW for the period 2003-2010. The main problems to be analysed and solved in the Concept: 1.The increase of the RW quantity and a lack of the sufficient storage space. In addition to the traditional producers of RW such as medicine, industry, and science, there are two major operators in Latvia that have significantly increase the yearly amount of RW for disposal in recent years and will do so in nearest future - disposal off of the SRR decommissioning waste in the existing near-surface LILW-SL RW repository, which dictates the need for its enlargement. 2. The safety of the existent repository. To ensure protection of population and environment (including the Baltic sea) from exposure and radioactive contamination, proper measures shall be taken. The safety of RW repository should be upgraded via building long-term cover, according to recommendations of safety assessment (SA) by consortium CASSIOPEA. 3. Construction of a long term storage and the geological disposal site. Safe isolation of long-lived RW can be achieved by storage in the geological disposal site only, thereby; a

  15. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  16. Trends in the development of the use of natural gas in Latvia in the EU context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Gedrovics, M.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2004-01-01

    The work reflect the growing share of natural gas among various types of fuel used in the EU, which has taken place during the recent decade as a result of technological progress, better understanding of the environmental issues in the European Union as well as lower prices in comparison with those of the liquid fuel. The Latvian fuel balance of the recent years indicates that the prevailing energy resources are natural gas, oil products and firewood. The paper gives comparison of the share of natural gas in the balance of energy consumption in the EU and the future member states as well as a comparison of the energy balance in Latvia and the EU-15. (authors)

  17. Radiocarbon dating of floodplain and young terraces alluvial sediments of Latvia rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhards, G.; Saltupe, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper include new information about alluvial sediments structure and radiocarbon data of some Latvia free-meandering rivers (Gauja, Ogre, Liela and Maza Jugla, Daugava) floodplains and first terraces. In this present study we examined Gauja river floodplains in the different geomorphological and geological areas. Radiocarbon dating add the fact that the high level floodplain (4-5 m) formation and sediment accumulation take place 3000-5000 years before present (BP) middle level floodplains formed 1500-2100 years BP. Investigations show that one river terraces and floodplains with same relative height have a several absolute age. The rivers crossed same hypsometrical regions (highlands, lowlands) downstream in lowlands alluvial terraces performed as floodplains or from from floodplains to terraces with same height. On the highest, middle and in the lower parts of the rivers with free - meandering channel to - day the dynamic balance of the channel processes exits 4000-5000 years. (author)

  18. Cluster Concept in Policy Planning Documents: the Cases of Latvia and Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanete Garanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economy of the 21st century. A regional cluster can be defined as a combination of 5 dimensions – single sector enterprises that cooperate and compete; supportive enterprises from a wide range of sectors; public and government institutions interested in economic development of the sector and region; other institutions, like research, education, finance and others and the fifth is regional dimension, which combines all four previously mentioned dimensions into one region. From the literature review standpoint, the findings of the authors show that cluster ­based entrepreneurship has an important role in stimulating the firm’s performance, competitiveness and innovation. Authors’ findings show that cluster concept is implemented in the EU policy planning documents at all levels, while in the country level cluster policy is not a single policy issue, but is implemented in industry, regional and other policy aspects. Example from Latvia shows that in recent years cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important, if not central, role in policy planning documents, while evidence from Northern Cyprus shows that the importance attached to the concept of cluster­based economic development has not yet surfaced in the policy documents. Learning from experience of the EU and Latvia, the authors in cooperation with experts from University of Mediterranean Karpasia suggest policy makers in Northern Cyprus to implement cluster­based entrepreneur­ ship ideas in the policy documents using the bottom­up approach. In this way cluster based entrepreneurship is implemented in policy planning documents in Northern Cyprus at region, industry and national level. This paper is the first attempt towards cluster concept recognition in Northern Cyprus and therefore the topic is opened for further discussions and recommendations. The target audience of this paper is policy makers in Northern Cyprus

  19. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbakova, E.; Dzerve, B.; Eglite, M.; Frickausa, I.; Zvagule, T.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed γ-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  20. Procedural aspects of healthcare quality control in Latvia and its effect on legal protection of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liepins A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Commission data, 8–12% of patients cared for in hospitals throughout the European Union have suffered accidents related to the healthcare provided for them. The Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 9th March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare provides that the Member States shouldensurethat patients have easily accessible and transparent appeal procedures and mechanisms that provide possibilities for legal remedies in cases of inflicted harm during medical treatment according to regulations of the respective Member State. Healthcare quality control mechanisms are intended for two major purposes: to identify accidents that have occurred during medical treatment and to prevent similar accidents from reoccurring in the future. The aim of this article is to evaluate, firstly, the procedural aspects of healthcare quality control mechanisms in Latvia and, secondly, how healthcare quality control mechanisms have been affected with the implementation of the Directive 2011/24/EU in Latvian legal order, providing for a specific legal remedy – the newly created Medical risk fund. Conclusions are made on the procedural nature of the patients’ right to submit complaints and also the developments in Latvian court practice related to the healthcare quality control. The authors have also analysed regulations related to the Medical risk fund, its influence on the civil liability mechanisms of medical practitioners, as well as the patient’s right to obtainjust compensation for the harm inflicted to his health and the legal nature of opinions of the Health Inspectorate of Latvia.

  1. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Frickausa, I; Zvagule, T [Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine of P. Stradins State clinical Hospital, Riga (Latvia)

    1996-07-01

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed {gamma}-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government.

  2. Investigations of possibilities to dispose of spent nuclear fuel in Lithuania: a model case. Volume 1, Suitability of Geological Environment in Lithuania for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunas, S.; Satkunas, J.

    2005-01-01

    This Volume contains an overview of geological structure with respect to its relevance for waste disposal conditions and characteristics of crystalline rocks in Lithuania with respect to its relevance for waste disposal. The most prospective rock types are represented by cratonic (anorogenic) granitoid intrusions that in some places compose rather large massifs. These rocks are the least damaged by tectonic activity. Furthermore, the lithology variations at short distances are only minor that makes exploration much easier. Yet, other rock types (gneisses, mafic intrusions, migmatites) compose someplace only weakly fractured blocks that also may be prospective for repository

  3. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lithuania – Still a long way ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Musteikienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent advances in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, treatment of the disease, for the most part, remains the same as it was half a century ago. In recent years only two new anti-tuberculosis drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration. Though the prevalence of this disease is slowly decreasing all over Europe, new challenges appear. One of them is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. This problem is especially prominent in Lithuania, which is one of the 27 high MDR-TB burden countries in the world and falls behind neighboring countries in terms of the prevalence of the disease. The objective of this paper was to review the situation of tuberculosis and MDR-TB in Lithuania, and current available methods of treatment, control and diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Republic of Lithuania national energy strategy. Vol. 1: The strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IC Consult-ERM Energy Limited-COWI Consult-EC-PHARE Programme Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the strategic goals needed for modernizing the Lithuanian energy system, to identify the actions which will attain those goals and to advise how the actions may be implemented. Key issues of Lithuania`s energy sector are introduced and macro economic scenarios as well as projected energy demand scenarios are explained. Suggestions on energy demand and supply side options are presented and those options are examined in scenarios of possible future energy demand and supply developments. These scenarios differ according to various constrains relating to fuel import sources and prices, export potential, energy efficiency effects and fossils or nuclear/non-nuclear fuel choices. Finally, recommended strategy which is built on the evaluation of the scenarios is summarised.[Data].

  5. The Evaluation of Mutual Fund Performance in Lithuania Considering Risk and Timing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Gavrilova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Lithuania has witnessed a growing interest in investment promoted by the need to successfully manage available funds. Direct investments (e. g. buying and selling stocks require a specific knowledge of investment instruments. Therefore, an ordinary investor finds investment in mutual funds easier and cheaper. Usually the most important questions to the investor include measuring the results of a fund and the quality of the actions performed by the fund managers. The article evaluates the rates of mutual fund performance and identifies their shortages. The methods for evaluating investment return according to the level of risk and timing ability of the fund managers are presented using the Sharpe ratio and Treynor-Mazuy model on the basis of which mutual funds in Lithuania are analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BOOK SCIENCE IN LITHUANIA: DIVISION INTO PERIODS AND CHRONOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navickiene, Ausra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to distinguish two main periods in the history of Lithuanian book science: the initial period of formation of the book science started at the beginning of the 19th century and ended by the first decades of the 20th century; the period of the independent, autonomous development of book science from the beginning of the 20th century till now. The first period is also known as a bibliographic period of book science, because the disciplines investigating a book were concentrated around bibliography, which was understood as a universal encyclopaedic science of book at that time. The border between the two periods is marked by a change in the book researchworks: the wide concept of bibliography stopped dominating the discourse; book science and bibliography were understood as two disciplines with specific objects of research, their own structures and methods. It is difficult to point out a specific date of this change but it is certain that it must have happened not later than in the 20s of the 20th century. Within these two periods, it is possible to distinguish a variety of factors that influenced the development of book science.In Lithuania, book science has emerged and was formed within the European model of development. Just after a decade since the first courses in book science delivered in France at the end of the 18th century, the subject of book science was included into the programme at Vilnius University and later the lectures were read. The most significant European (French and German book science works were known to the academic faculty at Vilnius University and collected in its library. They were used as a foundation to create the first works of book history and theory in Lithuania. These works disseminated widely popular theoretical concepts enriched by original research, which helped the formation of independent disciplines of book science, bibliography and history of literature.The development of the autonomous book

  7. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Lithuania in Partnership are Targeting Ignalina NPP Decommissioning Support and Energy Sector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, V.; Grabia, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Lithuania and the EBRD have developed very effective working relations since the establishment of the Bank in 1991. The Bank is a major investor in Lithuania and has committed 400.4 million Euro in loans and equity investments for a large number of private and public sector projects. In addition, the EBRD supports Lithuania as manager of special international grant funds

  8. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  9. Family Social Environment and Parenting Predictors of Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Linas Šumskas; Apolinaras Zaborskis

    2017-01-01

    The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715) of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study wa...

  10. The Main Obstacles and Possibilities of the Cooperative Movement in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanauskas Julius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the obstacles of the cooperative movement in Lithuania and proposes new insights for the development of their activities. Analysis was based on and carried out using the Delphi survey methodological approach. The experience of a transnational Association of Producers Organisation “First International Association Fruit” was investigated as a relevant example. Suggestions for the development of Lithuanian cooperatives were worked out.

  11. The application of smart cities concept for citizens of Lithuania and Sweden: comperative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitana Dudzevičiūtė

    2017-12-01

    This research attempts to assess and compare largest different cities of Lithuania and Sweden in the context of smart cities’ concept. Due to the shortage and mismatching statistical information, the paper is limited with only four following indicators: smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, and smart governance. The analysis of indicators shows that Lithuanian major cities in all groups of criterion are below average while values of indicators in the case of Swedish major cities are much higher than average.

  12. The impact of Nordic adult education ideas on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresevičienė, Margarita; Trepulė, Elena; Trečiokienė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    This article analyses the role of the cooperation with and the influence of the Nordic countries on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania through adult education since the reinstatement of its independence from Soviet regime in March 1990 to the present. The authors focus on three main areas: (1) the training of Lithuanian adult educators; (2) the establishment and development of NGOs; and (3) the implications for a Lithuanian policy of adult education. Within the framework of Nordic-Baltic cooperation established among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8) in 1992, Lithuanian adult educators seized the opportunity to visit Scandinavian institutions and projects. Experiencing Nordic adult education ideas has resulted in a marked shift in Lithuanian adult educators' values, methodology and careers; and in the establishment of a series of very influential umbrella associations as well as hundreds of NGOs in Lithuania which work with adults and support functioning democratic values in society. This shift is related to the civic responsibility and active participation growing out of the bottom-up approaches of group work, cooperation, discussions and learning circles which are so inherent in the Nordic tradition of adult education. The internalisation of new democratic values was more complicated than expected for many Lithuanian politicians, adult educators and NGO leaders in terms of how political decisions were perceived and implemented. Furthermore, the influence of the Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education may also be traced in adult education policy implications in Lithuania. Some changes in the policies of contemporary Lithuania have not been successful and even failed to promote a democratic society.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Party Systems Development in Russia and Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Igor; Volovoj, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of factors such as ideology, the degree of populism, political leadership and form of the government a complex comparativeanalysis of the formation and development of the party system in Lithuania and Russia in the post-communist period wascarried out. Summing up, it should be noted that both Russian and Lithuanian party parliamentarism are being progressively consolidated.At the same time they continue to suffer from many shortcomings owing to negative historical heritage, chara...

  14. The policy of household waste management in lithuania: how we could recycle more responsibly?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaištaraitė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The Policy of Household Waste Management in Lithuania: How We Could Recycle More Responsibly? The main purpose of these bachelor thesis is evaluate the impact of Lithuanian policy of household waste management for habitants’ behaviour. In this work the author aims to find out the behaviour changes caused by implementing policy and give the recommendations for the more effective policy of household waste management. The issue raised in this work – although there is creating sorting infrastruct...

  15. Evolution of the policy of legal regulation on public procurement in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrazevičienė, Rima

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to present in overview of the evolution of the policy of legal regulations on public procurement in Lithuania in 1990-2004. The public procurement policy in this article is understood as the concept, principles and main aims of legal regulation on this sphere. According to some scientific researchers there are two major paradigm shifts of public procurement policy in the world - a shift from internal processes to value adding benefits and a shift to opening up of public purc...

  16. Heritage of sovietism in contemporary Lithuania: perverted conceptions of property relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kačiuška, Žilvinas

    2006-01-01

    With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central and Eastern European countries, including Lithuania, are sometimes called “the second Europe”, or the periphery of Western Europe. The cultural and economic distinctiveness of the “new Europe” is often explained by the “different” mentality of the societies of these countries, which was constructed by the Soviet model of collectivism and planned economy. Often it is argued that the slow changes in the mental categories in Central and Eastern Euro...

  17. The Concept of Basic Income: Global Experience and Implementation Possibilities in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Laurinavičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of universal basic income as one of the instruments of the asset-based policy, analyses its theoretical concept and practical examples. Latest trends in Europe, especially in Finland and Switzerland, are overviewed and possibilities to implement such an instrument in Lithuania are evaluated. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparative and logical analysis of statistical data, data grouping and presentation were used. Article finds out that the concept of basic income is being implemented on a small scale in the US state of Alaska and in a small autonomous territory of China – Macao. Finland and Switzerland are determined to fully implement the concept of basic income by providing monthly benefits to all their citizens. Although Lithuania is categorized as a country with high income inequality and high level of poverty risk, currently it is not possible to implement the concept of basic income in Lithuania: the state social insurance fund budget would not be able to fund sufficient benefits, and the benefits that could be provided by the budget would not comply with the objectives of the concept of basic income.

  18. Official and Public Dialogue in Lithuania-Russia Relationships: in Search of Communicative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya A. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Actual Lithuania-Russia relations are characterized as tension. The official rhetoric is strongly negative. The opportunities to maintain public dialogue are restricted, ideas to promote positive cooperation are being criticized by elites and government. Mass-media transmit the official standpoints of the government. Consequently, it works on even more amplification of the public break between the two societies, strengthening discredit, spreading stereotypes and myths about each other. That has been leading to estrangement between the societies of the both countries and also to increase of word outlook, emotional and mental break. In the historical perspective it might become the grand challenge for both states as neighboring countries. However, as in Russia so in Lithuania there are social communities that are interested in developing positive communication even in actual tense circumstances. Thereupon alternative communication platforms, belonging to “soft power” and public diplomacy, become special. The ones that nowadays maintain dialogue in Lithuania-Russia relationships are studied in this article. Besides, the obstacles to a constructive dialogue are revealed. Author gives recommendations on the most effective alternative platforms and “displays”

  19. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  20. Chemical Polymorphism of Essential Oils of Artemisia vulgaris Growing Wild in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Budiene, Jurga

    2018-02-01

    Compositional variability of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) essential oils has been investigated in the study. Plant material (over ground parts at full flowering stage) was collected from forty-four wild populations in Lithuania. The oils from aerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC(FID) and GC/MS. In total, up to 111 components were determined in the oils. As the major constituents were found: sabinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, both thujone isomers, camphor, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, davanone and davanone B. The compositional data were subjected to statistical analysis. The application of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and AHC (Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) allowed grouping the oils into six clusters. AHC permitted to distinguish an artemisia ketone chemotype, which, to the best of our knowledge, is very scarce. Additionally, two rare cis-chrysanthenyl acetate and sabinene oil types were determined for the plants growing in Lithuania. Besides, davanone was found for the first time as a principal component in mugwort oils. The performed study revealed significant chemical polymorphism of essential oils in mugwort plants native to Lithuania; it has expanded our chemotaxonomic knowledge both of A. vulgaris species and Artemisia genus. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and humans in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Kudirkienė, Eglė; Marcinkutė, Audronė; Bajoriūnienė, Almina; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-06-01

    Yersiniosis is one of the three leading foodborne zoonoses in Lithuania, and the incidence of 12.86 per 100,000 population was the highest among EU member states in 2010. Contaminated pig carcasses and subsequently undercooked pig meat are considered to be the primary transmission vehicle of enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica to consumers. With the aim of evaluating pigs as a possible source of human yersiniosis in Lithuania, this study investigated the genetic diversity of Y. enterocolitica isolated from pigs and human cases of yersiniosis. In addition, the antimicrobial resistance of selected isolates from both sources was compared. In total, 83 Y. enterocolitica strains were characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Overall, 68% of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 pulsotypes found in human clinical samples were identical to 81% of pulsotypes found in the pig production chain. Yersinia enterocolitica pulsotype II was confirmed as the dominant pulsotype in the pig production chain and was identical to nine of 19 Y. enterocolitica strains found in humans. All tested Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were resistant to ampicillin and erythromycin and sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Of the strains studied, 5% were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin. This study showed that pigs may be the main source of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. In addition, Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains isolated from the pig production chain and from yersiniosis patients shared similar resistance to different antimicrobials. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION ISSUES RELATED TO MIGRANTS ARRIVING TO HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Miklos Komives

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration flows appearing in the recent years have gained central relevance in Hungary. Previously people were having no opinion about the current situation of issues related to migration but the increased media attention lead to the development of mixed attitudes among people. Some people feel sorry for the families who are coming from the war zones and lost their homes, others have fear of losing their position at work, or their families because of the acts they have heard from the media and they are hostile to the issue of integration whether it is about education or the labour market. According to the statistical data; in the third quarter of 2015, more than hundred thousand asylum-seekers arrived to Hungary, which dropped drastically in the fourth quarter caused by the significant transformation of the asylum process. This study is intended to serve two objectives: first describe the comprehensive picture of labour market attitudes towards migrants and secondly to identify factors that affect the employment of foreigners in Hungary using secondary data sources. Based on this analysis those questions can be formulated, which may constitute a basis for further labour market researches for the integration of migrants. From our point of view there are vital aspects of the migrants’ successful social integration; we have to integrate the migrants who are coming to our country and plan to stay for a longer time to the field of education and the labour market. The social integration of migrants in a country is closely linked to employment, to the integration into the labour market, and in many cases one of the obstacles in this regard is the prejudiced behaviour and negative attitudes towards migrants which manifests itself as the discrimination in the labour market. The results of the European Commission confirm that in Hungary the ethnicity as a variable appears to be the second on the list of the most serious discrimination factors

  3. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  4. More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsone, Ieva; Lucenko, Irina; Perevoscikovs, Jurijs

    2016-12-01

    In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the goal of eliminating diphtheria within the WHO European Region by the year 2000. However, in 1990 an epidemic emerged within the Russian Federation and spread to other countries, including Latvia, by 1994. We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated adults. To improve disease control a supplementary immunisation campaign for adults was initiated in 1995, and by the end of 1998 national coverage among adults reached 70%, and reached 77% in 2003, but declined to 59% by 2014. Diphtheria remains a problem in Latvia with continued circulation of toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae. We recommend to strengthen immunisation to cover adults, as well as the education of health professionals and a serological survey. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  5. Municipalities as the subjects of tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.5+347.73The subject. Article deals with problem of the participation of the municipalities in tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is clarify how municipalities may participate in tax administration in the Republic of LithuaniaThe methodology of the research includes the analysis of Constitution and legislation of Republic of Lithuania, system analysis, logical-analytical method.Results, scope of it’s application. The existence of a unified state tax system, does not mean that the administrative-territorial unit (municipality do not possess certain powers upon the introduction of taxes and (or in the regulation of their collection. So, municipalities obtain part of the revenue by taxes, which rates are established by the councils of municipalities, not exceeding statutory dimensions, etc. Participation of municipalities in tax administration bases on the provisions of the Constitution on the law of the administrative territorial units to self-government and to have their own budget.Elements of centralization and decentralization, based on the recognition of the single state tax system, are combined in Lithuania in the determination of tax competence.The tax legislation of the Republic of Lithuania almost does not provide for local governments to participate in the tax collection process or in monitoring their collection.Tax laws provide the right to local authorities to refine (adjust the individual elements of taxes, although the establishment of these elements remain the exclusive right of bodies of the state (central authorities. Besides, local authorities have the right to establishment and the provision of common and individual tax benefits, the right to use the incomes received in the form of taxes, etc.Conclusions. Local authorities are involved in the process of tax regulation and possess a certain autonomy in this area – the Council of the municipality has the right to adjust tax

  6. Aspects of Anti-Semitism in Hungary 1915-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Before 1914 the vocabulary of anti-Semitism was already present in public discourses in Hungary, but it did not yet represent the central problem of a still ‘liberal Hungary.’ With the First World War, the Hungarian middle classes became the main losers in the social disruption of Hungarian society. 1916 must be seen as the turning point of the social splits and divisions. The former policy of the “Burgfrieden,” or party truce, was undermined by the profound psychological experiences of the war. In this context, old anti-Semitic stereotypes prejudices were reactivated while new ones emerged. Jews, in general, came to be treated as internal enemies, earning huge profits from the war at the expense of Christian Hungarian society that was being ruined. This paper analyzes three stages of growing anti-Semitic agitation in Hungarian society during the war: First, the attacks against the banks around 1916; second, the public debate on the Jewish question in 1917, opened by the publication of the book A zsidók útja [The Path of the Jews] by the sociologist Péter Ágoston and intensified by the “inquiry into the Jewish question” of the journal Huszadik Század [Twentieth Century]; third, the surge of anti-Semitism that began with anti-Semitic speeches in the Hungarian Diet in 1917, leading to a broad anti-Semitic campaign by predominantly Catholic newspapers, in which Otto Prohaszka and Bela Bangha were the leading figures. The thesis is that Hungarian anti-Semitism was far from being a spontaneous outburst of popular feelings. It was fairly well organized and coordinated, mainly by ecclesiastical circles. It was the First World War that proved to be the catalyst, contributing to an extreme anti-Semitism and thereby sealing the fate of “liberal Hungary.”

  7. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  8. Covariates of Current Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Budapest, Hungary, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alyssa; Kiss, Eva

    2005-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between health behavior risk factors and cigarette smoking in Hungary. From 1995 to 1999, the prevalence of current smoking increased from 35.9 to 46.0% among secondary students in Budapest, Hungary. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between smoking and other…

  9. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  10. Employment discrimination in hungary and its effect on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzesi, Zsuzsanna; Busa, Csilla; Varga, Ivett; Tistyan, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    A dramatic drop in employment occurred in Hungary following the change of regime which particularly affected the Roma, people of reduced working ability, and mothers with young children. Alongside economic considerations, the prejudices of employers and discrimination in employment constitute the most significant obstacles to returning to the workplace. The poor mental and physical health of these groups further reduces their chances of finding employment. Only legislation exists to manage the problem, which-in the absence of other interventions-has not brought a breakthrough in the employment of these groups in either the state or local governments or in private spheres.

  11. Special Status of Budapest, the Capital of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Temesi, István

    2012-01-01

    Hungarian capital, Budapest, has always had a special legal status within the system of self-government, except between 1949 and 1990. It is organised in two-tiers: it functions a single local self-government unit (the City of Budapest); while at the same time, its 23 districts enjoy their self-government powers. The paper analyses the history of organisation of Budapest is analysed, as well as the current system of local self-government in Hungary, in order to identify historical and current...

  12. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    András Kovács

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accep...

  13. Safety of WWER type nuclear power plants - viewing from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroess, L.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of WWER type nuclear power plants operating in Hungary is given, relative to the safety requirements accepted internationally; how safe can they be regarded and what can be done to assure a high level of safety in all case. After an overview of general safety criteria, an overall description of WWER-440 type nuclear reactors is presented. Design safety, operational safety issues are treated in detail. Safety inspection and safety-related research and development is discussed. Regarding the future, five different issues associated with nuclear reactor safety should be considered. (R.P.) 20 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  15. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethes, Gyoergy

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls. (V.N.)

  16. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  17. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  18. 'Vacation for your teeth' - dental tourists in Hungary from the perspective of Hungarian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, E; Szocska, G

    2013-10-01

    Hungary has become a popular destination for foreign patients in the last two decades, particularly in dental care. Since 2008, increasing prices in Western Europe coupled with Hungary's accessibility and availability of dental treatment, has meant the country has become a leader in 'dental tourism'. As the quality of care in Hungary is high and prices are more affordable than in Western Europe, and due to the freedom of movement of people, services and goods within the EU, patient flow into Hungary has increased progressively. The aim of this article is to provide comprehensive empirical evidence from the perspective of a recipient country in dental tourism. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Hungarian dentists (n = 273). Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of dental professional bodies (n = 10). Both research methods aimed to elicit dentists' views on the presence of dental tourism - particularly the push and pull factors (for example, source countries, competitors, information sources, patient motivation). The findings show that there are several reasons why Hungary could maintain a leading position in dental tourism. First, the cost/benefit ratio is outstanding. The affordable price and value for money were already recognised in the early 1990s and were appreciated even before Hungary joined the EU. Secondly, the high quality of Hungary's dental profession: a) dental professionals in Hungary are well-qualified dental practitioners who have received high level dental training; b) dental professional standards are up-to-date and often supervised; c) in Hungary dental technology, the quality of materials and equipment used in dental practices is of European level quality. The rate of complications in dental care is around 5%, similar to other European countries. Finally, previous treatment experiences are positive and patient satisfaction levels are high. More and more patients seek care in Hungary, and more and more

  19. Postinor -- the unique method of emergency contraception developed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, S

    1995-08-01

    In Hungary, an important form of emergency contraception (EC) is the pill containing 0.75 mg levonorgestrel, which is marketed by Gedeon Richter under the name Postinor in four-pill packages. Women are instructed to take one pill within an hour of any unprotected act of intercourse, up to four pills per month. The nature of the administration requires that women be in possession of the pills before they need them, and, while Postinor is marketed as an EC, the target market is young, unmarried women who experience infrequent intercourse. When it was first offered a decade ago, Postinor gained widespread use in place of contraception. The product was overused and there was a backlash in the medical community. Thus, the manufacturer changed its packaging instructions and removed the original 10-pill package from the market. While the price of the drug is considered prohibitive for use by adolescents, more than three million pills were sold in the past three years in Hungary and more than 60 million pills were sold in over 20 countries. Clinical studies show a failure rate of less than 1% and relatively few side effects (10-20% nausea and 20-40% bleeding) if not more than four pills per month are used. The World Health Organization is currently conducting trials to compare use of Postinor with the Yuzpe method. Results of these trials will be available in 1996.

  20. Radiation protection training for users of ionizing radiation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Elek, R.; Temesi, A.; Csizmadia, H.; Sera, E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the current and previous regulation related to the safety use of ionizing radiation, the personnel involved must obtain special qualification in radiation protection. In Hungary the radiation protection training are performed by appropriately certified training centers on basic, advanced and comprehensive levels. Certification of the training centers is given by the competent radiological health/radiation protection authority. The office of the Chief Medical Officer is the certifying authority for advanced and comprehensive levels training, as well as competent Regional Radiological Health Authority is responsible for basic level courses. The content and length of courses are specified in the regulation for all three levels of industrial, laboratory and medical users, in general. Some of the universities, technical and medical oriented are certified for advanced training for students as gradual course. Recently in Hungary there are 47 certified training centers for advanced and comprehensive courses, where the trainers should have a five years job experience in radiation protection and successful completion of comprehensive level course in radiation protection. (authors)

  1. Assessment of the Efficiency of Stroke Awareness Campaigns in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Béres-Molnár, Katalin Anna; Toldi, Gergely

    2018-03-01

    The critical period of stroke management lies between the disease onset and the time of the emergency call, relying on stroke-related knowledge of the population. Public campaigns play a role in spreading relevant health information. Due to the substantial expenses of these campaigns, the assessment of their efficiency is reasonable. We assessed the number of thrombolytic treatments performed in Hungary, subjected to national media coverage and in particular in Budapest, being the location of the Stroke Day campaign, in the period between 2008 and 2015. We compared the change in the daily mean number of thrombolytic treatments performed during the preceding and following day, week, and month. Data were also compared with annual means. No meaningful changes can be seen in the number of thrombolytic treatments on the days immediately following Stroke Days, and casual differences can be seen in the following week. The comparison of the numbers of thrombolytic treatments performed in the postcampaign months with the monthly means in the corresponding years revealed a positive effect in each year except for 2012, 2014, and 2015. Regarding the whole examined period, however, the effect is not statistically significant, neither for data obtained from Hungary nor from Budapest. Better outcomes were observed 1 month after a campaign than more immediately. This can be partly explained by ongoing media coverage in a given period rather than exposure of the public on a single Stroke Day. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  3. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  4. Prevalence and features of canine atopic dermatitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpataki, Noémi; Pápa, Kinga; Reiczigel, J; Vajdovich, P; Vörösi, K

    2006-09-01

    Medical records of 600 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were reviewed and evaluated with reference to history, geographical distribution, breed predilection, clinical signs and positive reactions to allergens as determined by intradermal skin testing (IDT) manufactured by Artuvetrin Laboratories. In 66.6% of dogs, the age of onset of atopic dermatitis was between 4 months and 3 years. Dogs living in the garden suburb of Budapest were more sensitive to house dust mites, fleas and moulds, and dogs from the western part of Hungary were more sensitive to weeds than to other allergens (p French bulldog, Doberman Pinscher and Bobtail which were over-represented among atopic dogs compared to the breed distribution of the general dog population of a large city in Hungary. Breeds with verified adverse reaction to food were Cocker spaniels, French bulldogs, Bullmastiffs, Bull terriers, St. Bernards, Tervurens, West Highland White terriers and American Staffordshire terriers (p < 0.05). The clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and their occurrence are in accordance with the data described in the literature.

  5. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pásztor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover. Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5′ resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0–5 cm layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc., to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  6. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonds Kasparinskis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the spatial relationships between environmental factors (Quaternary deposits, topographical situation, land cover, forest site types, tree species, soil texture and soil groups, and their prefix qualifiers (according to the international Food and Agricultural Organization soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Resources [FAO WRB]. The results show that it is possible to establish relationships between the distribution of environmental factors and soil groups by applying the generalized linear models in data statistical analysis, using the R 2.11.1 software for processing data from 113 sampling plots throughout the forest territory of Latvia.A very high diversity of soil groups in a relatively similar geological structure was revealed. For various reasons there is not always close relationship between the soil group, their prefix qualifiers and Quaternary deposits, as well as between forest site types, the dominant tree species and specific soil group and its prefix qualifiers. Close correlation was established between Quaternary deposits, forest site types, dominant tree species and soil groups within nutrient-poor sediments and very rich deposits containing free carbonates. No significant relationship was detected between the CORINE Land Cover 2005 classes, topographical situation and soil group.

  7. Cultural Adaptation of Erasmus Students in Latvia and Host University Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vevere Velga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationalisation of education and student mobility (incoming and outgoing has become a significant factor in the sphere of higher education. These processes lead to interaction between local students and exchange students, as well as between exchange students and host universities. Being in the foreign country for a certain period (one or two semesters requires some cultural and social adaptation that could or could not be problematic for various reasons. In order to maximise benefits for the exchange students and host universities, it is important to identify existing problems and to offer possible solutions. The aim of the current paper is to research the critical aspects of cultural adaptation process of ERASMUS students in Latvia. The international group that consists of a professor of the University College of Economics and Culture and three exchange students from Italy and Spain carried out the research. The empirical methods used were the following: a survey of ERASMUS students (non-probability purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with the host university ERASMUS coordinators. The data processing methods were the descriptive statistics as well as the thematic content analysis. On the basis of critical issues identified during the research process, the authors worked a set of practical solutions aimed at the host institutions.

  8. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  9. Possible further subjects of study in the field of fusion plasma theory in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: First fusion plasma theory relevant studies in Latvia were related to edge localized modes (ELMs). This work has been carried out at the Institute of Solid Physics and is nearing successful completion. The next suggested topic 'Stochastisation of magnetic field lines and its impact on fusion plasma' is related to the theory of ergotic magnetic fields. The stochastisation of magnetic field lines is thought to play a major role in fast energy loss events from magnetically confined fusion plasma due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Classical examples are sawtooth crashes and disruptions. Here it is thought that stochastisation plays a role in the enhanced reconnection rate, which is often observed. More recently, this process has also been proposed as an explanation for the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) phenomenon, which is repetitive rapid decrease of a neoclassical magnetic island due to its interaction with other MHD modes. The timescale for this phenomenon is clearly too fast to be explained by a conventional reconnection. The theoretical study of the onset of stochastisation will be illustrated for plasma parameters typical for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak operated at the Max-Planc-Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Germany

  10. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  11. Principles of the complex therapy of gliomas in Latvia (1993-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apskalne, D.; Ozolins, J.; Krumina, R.; Razuks, R.; Dzelzitis, J.

    1998-01-01

    60-70 malignant gliomas of 3rd and 4th degree of anaplasia are diagnosed in Latvia every year. The basic method of treatment of malignant gliomas is their surgical evacuation using CUSA, coagulation loops, binocular operation loupes and in several stages of surgery - microscope. Detailed morphological analysis of operation material according to 7 qualitative and 1 quantitative (Ki-67 antibody detection) signs. This analysis determines in general the choice of further method of complex therapy. Most often in the cases of malignant gliomas complex fractionated radiotherapy (55-60 Gy per course, 2 Gy per procedure) and systemic chemotherapy were used. In the cases when radiotherapy is not possible because of various side reasons and PI of gliomas is less than 5% and the structure is rich in blood vessels, only chemotherapy is used. Main agent are ACNU and CeeNU. Chemotherapy is carried in 2-3 stages, 6-courses in every stage. Interval between the courses - 6 weeks, between the stages - 6 month. When the schedule is accomplished CT and MR are done. At the present time 71% of the patients after complex therapy are in the phase of remission and in 29% of cases recurrent gliomas were diagnosed. (Full text)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  14. Factors Influencing Private Customers′ Trust in Internet Banking: Case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvarciany Viktorija

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector has developed and extended the usage of online services in the past decade. In fact, nowadays, Internet-based banking services dominate over other historically provided alternatives. This article discusses private clients′ trust in Internet banking in Latvia. The model of trust in Internet banking was developed based on four factors, distinguished in the scientific literature. They are provided information, bank’s characteristics, ebanking system and website of a bank. Hence, the goal of the research is to measure the impact of distinguished factors on trust in Internet banking. In order to determine how these attributes affect private customers′ trust, correlation and regression analysis were applied. The results showed that the most vital factor affecting private clients’ trust in Internet banking is e-banking system. What is more, it was found that provided information is a statistically insignificant factor and, hence, it was removed from the model. Respondents, being private customers, limit the breadth of study, thus the results do not reflect companies’ trust in Internet banking.

  15. Patient groups in art therapies: A case study of the health care field in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vende K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce the reader with an example of the arts therapies work in a children hospital in Latvia in order to describe art therapies work similarities and differences in three different specializations. Comparison will take place of patient groups in the work of art therapists in each specialization (art therapy, dance movement therapy and music therapy. The question of the research is: with which patient groups’ a specialist from a particular arts therapies specialization has worked within a year in VSIA BKUS children hospital “Gaiļezers” during the time period from 05.2009 to 05.2010?The results were gained by comparing patient groups at the age from 2,5 to 17 years in the children hospital and they showed that the art therapists and dance movement therapist most frequently were working with patients who have behaviour and emotional disorders. However music therapists are working more frequently with patients who have mental retardation.

  16. Comparative efficiency of wind turbines with different heights of rotor hubs: performance evaluation for Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukovs, V P; Zacepins, A J; Bezrukovs, V V

    2014-01-01

    Performance evaluation of wind turbines (WT) for different heights of the rotor hub is made based on the wind speed and direction data obtained in 2009–2013 on-shore in the north of Latvia using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measurement system mounted on a 60 m mast. Based on the measurement analysis results, wind speed distribution curves have been modelled for heights of up to 200 m using power and logarithmic (log) law approximation methods. The curves for the modelled Weibull's parameters are plotted in dependence on height. The efficiency comparison is made for different WT types taking into account the distribution of the wind energy potential in height in the Latvian territory. The annual electric energy production was calculated for the WTs with different heights of rotor hubs. In the calculations the technical data on the following WT types were used: E-3120 (50 kW, hub height 20.5/30.5/36.5/42.7 m), E-33 (330 kW, hub height 37/44/49/50 m), E-48 (800 kW, hub height 50/60/75 m) and E-82 (2.3 MW, hub height of 78/85/98/108/138 m)

  17. A representation of place attachment: A study of spatial cognition in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilters, Jurgis; Zarina, Liga; Raita, Liva

    2017-04-01

    Perception of geographical space is reflected in place attachment, i.e., a multidimensional cognitive-affective link between humans and their spatial environment. Place attachment balances emotions, conception of proximity. It is both social and spatial cognitive structure. Place attachment has an impact on people's actions, which in turn reversibly affect the environment in which people live. Place attachment provides emotional regulation for humans linking local - neighborhood-scale and country and world-scale environments. In Latvia a large-scale spatial cognition study has been conducted within participatory research project „Telpas pavasaris" ("Spatial Spring") by foundation Viegli. In the study 1523 respondents reported their associations characterizing certain type of places (e.g., safe place, dangerous place, far place, close place, dear place). The answers were analyzed according to several cognitive-affective categories including modes of experience, emotional valence, geographical distance, and perceptual modality. The current results indicate that socio-cognitive and affective information are primary in respect to purely spatial information (referring to spatial objects or regions and their relations). However, different types of geographical places and spatial objects (natural or artefactual) have to be distinguished and are significant to a different degree. Our results are important for environmental and urban planning because they show the ways how socio-cognitive and affective knowledge shapes the spatial cognition of geographic environment.

  18. Litva na puti k jenergeticheskoj samostojatel'nosti: opyt ili uroki? [Lithuania on the way to energy independence: an experience or a lesson?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the steps taken by Lithuania towards gaining energy independence in the interbellum and the Soviet periods. The author analyses the peculiarities of the republic's energy policy after achieving independence in the early 1990s and estimates the methods of diversifying energy supply in Lithuania.

  19. 1 December 2016 - First Deputy Chancellor of the Government of Lithuania R. Vaitkus signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dr Rimantas Vaitkus First Deputy Chancellor of the Government of Lithuania with Rectors of Kaunas Technological and Health Science Universities Republic of Lithuania on the occasion of the Signature of the Joint Statement of Intent by KTU and LUHS Rectors, Hospital of LUHS Kaunas Clinics and CERN.

  20. Final Report on DANCEE-NFNA-NERI-NEPA-Gene Modified Organisms (GMO) Workshop for the Baltic Countries Estonia - Latvia - Lithuania in Collaboration with CEE Biosafety and BEF, January 23-30, 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, H.; Damgaard, C.

    Report on Training Cource on GMO Risk Assessment in Silkeborg. -- DANCEE - Environmental Assistance to Eastern Europe. (NEPA) is DEPA - (National) Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Miljøstyrelsen). NFNA - The National Forest and Nature Agency (Skov- og Naturstyrelsen). BEF - Baltic Environm...

  1. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [es

  2. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  3. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  4. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology [es

  5. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology [es

  6. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  7. Gas and electricity prices in France and in the European Union in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    This publication presents and comments tables and graphs of data related to natural gas prices for enterprises and for households and to their evolution between 2013 and 2014, to the electricity price for enterprises and for households and to their evolution between 2013 and 2014 in European countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Croatia, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia, United Kingdom), in the euro Zone (19 countries), and in the European Union as a whole

  8. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [fr

  9. Industry turns its attention south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia's oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia

  10. Comparıson of Turkey and European Unıon Countrıes’ Health Indıcators by Usıng Fuzzy Clusterıng Analysıs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Alptekin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to classify of 27 European Union countries and Turkey with the healthcare indicators by using fuzzy clustering analysis. This study also investigates the position of Turkey compared to the European Union countries in terms of healthcare statistics. Fuzzy clustering analysis has been applied to the data obtained from 2012 World Health Report. Based on the Fuzzy clustering analysis, the countries were classified into two different groups. Turkey is placed in the same cluster as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

  11. Analysis Of Conservation Experience Of Heritage Objects In Lithuania (The Curonian Spit And Norway (The Vega Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Piekienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Vega Archipelago (Norway are objects on the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special kind of landscapes that have been formed not without human intervention. Landscapes created by nature itself or with human help are exceptional works which, as determined by the legal acts in regulation of these processes, have to be referred to as objects of cultural heritage. The cultural heritage must be protected, exhibited and viewed as objects of science and cognition. Lithuania and Norway have different conditions formed for identification, conservation and protection of these works, but both countries have recognized that protection of cultural heritage, passing it on for future generations is the duty of the state. Prospects of heritage management and development, and exchange of experience should be the top priorities for action in Lithuania.

  12. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  13. The Slovak Politics and Society in Austria-Hungary before the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Syrný

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the conditions in Austria-Hungary, respectively the Kingdom of Hungary, focused at political and social status of Slovakia (Upper Hungary. The political representation of the Slovak citizens (at about 12 % of the citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary since the begining of the 20th century went through dynamic transformation. This transformation went into the direction of some kind of deviation from the idea of Slovak autonomy within the Kingdom of Hungary. The general frame of the description of conditions of the era Austria-Hungary is based on autoritative researches by Slovak, Hungarian and Anglo-Saxon origin. There were used such scientific methods as analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization while solving the research tasks. In addition, the paper used the historical-situational method, involving the study of historical facts in the context of the period under review in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. The creation of the own statehood in cooperation with more powerful Czech politics became the new goal of the Slovak politics. This study will emphasize preconditions and development not only within political elites but also within the dimension of public climate of the Slovak part of the Kingdom of Hungary.

  14. The epidemiology of road traffic injuries in the Republic of Lithuania, 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunevicius, Raimundas; Herbert, Hadley K; Hyder, Adnan A

    2010-12-01

    This article highlights the epidemiology of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lithuania between 1998 and 2007. The purpose of this study is to explore the incidence of RTI, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), gender-specific rates and the RTI profile of different user groups. In doing so, this analysis attempts to emphasize the need for RTI prevention policies and programmes. Six databases were analysed using ICD-10 codes V01-V99, pertaining to the causes of road traffic crashes. Data between 1998 and 2007 were obtained from these databases to identify and calculate RTI incidence and mortality rates. This was then analysed with regard to ASMR, gender, user groups and the use of alcohol. In 2007, RTI incidence in Lithuania was reported as 270/100,000 people, 10.7% higher than in 1998. ASMR declined from 28 deaths per 100,000 in 1998 to 25 deaths per 100,000 in 2007. Between 1998 and 2007, the male ASMR declined from 46 to 40 deaths per 100,000 and the female ASMR decreased from 13 to 11 deaths per 100,000. Car occupant and pedestrian fatalities comprised 87% of all RTI deaths. Thirty-four percent of those injured and 21% of the dead were under influence of alcohol. From 1998 to 2007, the incidence of RTI has worsened and mortality rates remain high in Lithuania. Alcohol remains a prominent risk factor of traffic injury and death. The need to develop effective prevention programmes to address traffic injury is essential.

  15. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Development of Electronic Identification Measures in the Public Sector of Lithuania: Analysis of Alteration Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Petrauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze, assess and identify alteration possibilities of effective implementation of e-Identification technology solutions focusing on organization capabilities in the public sector of Lithuania.Design/methodology/approach – different methods were used in the research. Content analysis method was used for the issues related to application of e-Identification solutions, technology management and organizational capabilities. During the pilot research, information on specificities of organization capabilities to implement e-Identification solution in the public sector was gathered, analyzed and interlinked with content analysis via comparative and deductive methods.Findings – the research shows that the gap in the area of development of e-Identification solutions in the public sector in Lithuania is affected by the lack of organizational capabilities that need to be developed internally. The challenge is to foster organizational capabilities in the environment, influenced by rapidly emerging new technology solutions (use of smartphones and applications and limited legal regulation. Lifecycle of any technology solutions becomes shorter and jeopardizes its use and functionality in time; therefore, public sector institutions could benefit from holistic e-Identification solution diffusion strategy that incorporates aspects of organizational capabilities.Research limitations/implications – the research findings are limited by the nature of the pilot research (peer review, level of experience in their organizations and environment as well as the geographic scope of the research.Practical implications – the article portrays public sector environment of implementation of e-Identification solutions and particularities of organizational capabilities to manage its development.Originality/value – originality of the article is in the research and assessment of country specific future proof needs to alter and improve the existing

  17. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkuviene Skirmante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. Methods The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. Results The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 ± 8.8 and 14.2 ± 9.5 respectively, p Conclusion The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long-term unemployed. This leads to arguing for common efforts in providing needed social support and health care to reduce the effects of unemployment on mental health.

  18. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  19. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupcinskas, Limas; Rasmussen, Lone; Jonaitis, Laimas

    2013-01-01

    .5 times, the total macrolide consumption remains one of the lowest in Europe. We have not observed any significant changes in the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most widely used antibiotics during the recent 10-year period. The low resistance rate to clarithromycin might be related to the policy......The study evaluated the changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strains with primary resistance to antibiotics during the last 10 years in Lithuania. H. pylori susceptibilities to antibiotics were tested in 89 patients in 1998, in 81 patients in 2001 and in 90 patients in 2007...

  20. Influence of land fires on increase of heavy metal concentrations in river wasters of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatavičius, Gytautas; Sakalauskienė, Gaudenta; Oškinis, Vytautas

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of long-term environmental monitoring data show that in August and September 2002 heavy metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations increased in Lithuanian rivers. Resent investigation has indicated that increase of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) by 60–81 % in all the rivers that are subject to the State River Monitoring and could be correlative with land fires. Fires of forests and peat bogs have outspread all over Lithuania in the summer and the first half of autumn of 2002. This paper at...