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  1. Iran’s Role in Iraq: Room for U.S.-Iran Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Perspective Expert insights on a timely policy issueC O R P O R A T I O N Iran’s Role in Iraq Room for U.S.- Iran Cooperation? Alireza Nader The rise of...Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has led to argu- ments in favor of U.S.- Iran cooperation in combating the group, as immediate American and...the-ground presence in Iraq. While the United States and Iran ultimately have divergent long-term goals for Iraq, and face disagreements on many other

  2. Iran’s Activities and Influences in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-13

    Iran has suffered some set backs over the past year because its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are increasingly competing and often...Iranian protege forces abroad. During 2005-6, the height of sectarian conflict in Iraq, Badr fighters in and outside the ISF, as well as JAM militiamen

  3. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  4. Iraq-Iran chemical war: calendar, mortality and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the calendar, mortality and morbidity of Iraq-Iran chemical war among Iranians based on researchers’ reports. Methods: We used national and international databanks such as PubMed, ISI, Scopus, Irandoc and Iranmedex and studied 350 articles related to chemical agents and their effects on different organs. The main criteria for qualification of articles were relevancy orientation and being published in approved medical journals. Results: The Iraqi army invaded to west and southwest Iran using chemical weapons such as nerve agents (NAs and sulfur mustard (SM. Most victims were civilians including women and children. These attacks had imposed more than 150 types of diseases and complications on Iranians and the frequency of death was 2%-3%. Most reports were about respiratory problems and a few were in the domain of socio-economic damages. Conclusion: At present, 25 years after the end of war, the victims are faced with different complications induced by chemical agents and it is estimated that they will be continuously troubled by these problems in future. Key words: Chemical warfare; Wounds and injuries; Iran; Iraq

  5. Chemical weapons and the Iran-Iraq war. A discussion of the UN Security Council's response to the use of gas in the Iran-Iraq war.

    OpenAIRE

    Øygarden, Randi Hunshamar

    2014-01-01

    The Iran-Iraq war was the longest interstate war in the 20th century, and lasted from 1980 to 1988. Iraq estimated that 30,000 Iranians lost their lives because of chemical weapons. Gas had not been used in warfare in such an extent since World War I, but during the Iran-Iraq war chemical weapons were used frequently. The first serious allegations of use of chemical weapons came in 1983, when Iranian troops became victims to poisonous gas. Incidents of use of gas followed...

  6. Genetic HLA Study of Kurds in Iraq, Iran and Tbilisi (Caucasus, Georgia): Relatedness and Medical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Ester; Campos, Cristina; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Gomez-Casado, Eduardo; Salih, Shadallah Fareq; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Al-Qadi, Rawand

    2017-01-01

    Kurds from Iraq (Dohuk and Erbil Area, North Iraq) have been analyzed for HLA genes. Their HLA genetic profile has been compared with that of other Kurd groups from Iran and Tbilisi (Georgia, Caucasus) and also Worldwide populations. A total of 7,746 HLA chromosomes have been used. Genetic distances, NJ dendrograms and correspondence analyses have been carried out. Haplotype HLA-B*52—DRB1*15 is present in all three analyzed Kurd populations. HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 is present in Iraq and Georgia Kurds. Haplotypes common to Iran and Iraq Kurds are HLA DRB1*11—DQB1*03, HLA DRB1*03—DQB1*02 and others in a lower frequency. Our HLA study conclusions are that Kurds most probably belong to an ancient Mediterranean / Middle East / Caucasian genetic substratum and that present results and those previously obtained by us in Kurds may be useful for Medicine in future Kurd transplantation programs, HLA Epidemiology (HLA linked diseases) and Pharmacogenomics (HLA-associated drug side effects) and also for Anthropology. It is discussed that one of the most ancient Kurd ancestor groups is in Hurrians (2,000 years BC). PMID:28114347

  7. ‘Do not say they are dead’ : the political use of mystical and religious concepts in the Persian poetry of the Iran-Iraq war (1980-88)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi Mahani, Mahnia A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iran-Iraq war began on September 22, 1980 when Iraq attacked the border towns of Iran. The war lasted for eight years. The Iran-Iraq war is the longest conventional battle since World War II. It is estimated that on both sides there is about one million dead and three million wounded, thousands

  8. Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Hungary is a country of 93,000 sq km with 10 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Its constitution was written on August 20m 1949, substantially revised in 1989, and amended in 1990. The terrain is flat with low mountains in the North and Northeast and north of Lake Balaton, with a climate which is temperate. Primarily Magyar is spoken by the 92% population of Magyar, though Gypsies, Germans, Slovaks, Jews, southern Slavs, and other ethnic groups are also resident. Inhabitants are variously of Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, and other faiths. Life expectancy is 67-75 years. GDP is $35 billion, declining at a rate of 3%. Per capita income is $3300. The country's natural resources include fertile land, bauxite, and brown coal. Meat, corn, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables, fruits, sunflower seeds, machinery, buses and other transportation equipment; precision and measuring equipment; textiles; medical instruments; and pharmaceutical are areas of economic production. Energy, raw materials, machinery, and transportation equipment are imported, and machinery, buses, and other transportation equipment; medical instruments; pharmaceutical; textiles; other consumer manufactures; and agricultural products are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  9. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    political vacuum in Lebanon and the chaos and opportunity it inspired, was prime real estate for the newly minted Islamic Republic of Iran. As a student...Theory of International Relations, ( Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1973), p. 325; quoted in R.K. Ramazani, Revolutionary Iran, 20. 21 Nikki R

  10. STUDIES ON THE HELMINTHS INFECTION IN A KURDISH POPULATION IMMIGRATED FROM NORTHERN PART OF IRAQ TO IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Massoud

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available During 1979-77 a large number of Kurdish populations in northern part of Iraq temporarily immigrated to Iran and settled in Dezful area of Khuzestan province, south-west Iran. Faecal examination of 3,263 samples for intestinal metazoan parasites and 1,154 urine samples for detecting Schistosoma haematobium, infection were performed in different sex and age groups. The percentages of prevalent intestinal helminthes infection were: Ascaril11umbricoides 25%, Trichuris trichiura 16.3%, Hymenolepis nana 14%, Trichostrongylus spp. 2.5% and Hookworm 0.8%. Out of 1,154 urine samples only one infected case of S. haematobium from a 10 ears old male child were detected.

  11. Brothers or Rivals? Iran and the Shi’a of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Saddam Husayn Urges Iraqis to Rise Against ‘Infidel Occupier,’” GMP20030430000037, 30 April 2003. 2 William Beeman distinguishes “cultural memory” from...for public action.” William Beeman , “The U.S.-Shiite Relationship in a New Iraq: Better Than the British?” Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5...the invasion, Vice President Cheney voiced his concern about a potential “Iranian-style theocracy” in Iraq and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld

  12. Iran-Iraq War and Sino-Iranian Relation%两伊战争与中伊关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹良材; 冀开运

    2014-01-01

    两伊战争是中伊关系历史上的一个特殊时期。两伊战争对伊朗而言是惨痛的经历,对中国而言是恢复中伊两国友好关系的重要契机。两伊战争期间,伊朗在初期实行非理性的外交使之陷入国际孤立,其后由于战争的艰苦环境迫使伊朗改变对外政策,尝试改善与各国的关系。与此同时的中国正值改革开放新时期,以独立自主的外交政策发展与各国的关系,尤其重视与战略上对自身有重要意义的伊朗的关系。该时期中伊两国关系从一开始的冷淡甚至敌对逐渐走向深化合作,其原因除了两国文明的共同性及历史传统之外,还在于两国利益的契合点与互相需求:伊朗在国际孤立的困境迫使其需要外国的支持,在联合国上为其说话,战争环境下对进口武器弹药的需求,冷战格局下对抗美苏霸权的考量;中国认为伊朗地缘政治对本国利益具有重要意义,中国拥有独立的经济体系和国防工业可以满足伊朗需求,中国平等互利的交往原则更合伊朗心意。%The Iran-Iraq war is a special period in Sino-Iranian relation history. Though the war is a miserable experience for Iran, it is a great opportunity for China to resume its friendly relation with the country. At the early phase of the war, Iran's irrational diplomacy threw itself into international isolation, and then the difficult warring situation drove Iranian to change their diplomatic policies and attempt to improve Iran's relation with other counties. Meanwhile, at its beginning of reform and opening-up, China adopted self-reliant diplomatic policies and paid attention to Iran which is strategically important to this eastern Asia power. During the period, Sino-Iranian relation tuned from earlier coldness or even hostility to later intensified cooperation. There are multiple reasons for this change. In addition to similarities in civilization and historical

  13. Strategic Personality and the Effectiveness of Nuclear Deterrence: Deterring Iraq and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    after he spurned her romantic advances. Gilgamesh’s hubris insulted the gods, and while they could not slay him, they punished his arrogance by...Iraq has become a consumer society,” Iraqis were fond of boasting in the late1970s, “We have been spoiled with the good life, a lot of money, and...states). Some myth of the promised land, paradise, or utopia is normally part of Intuitive national myth. E. THINKING STATES (T) Thinking (T) states

  14. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  15. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  16. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-08-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  17. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  18. Evaluation of QTc interval in Iranian causalities (Janbazan of Iran-Iraq war receiving maintenance methadone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Abdar Esfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used in treatment of chronic pains. The current study was carried out to evaluate the QTc interval in Iranian causalities (Janbazan of Iran-Iraq war receiving maintenance methadone treatment. Materials and Methods: In 2010, one hundred war causalities in Isfahan who chronically take daily dose of 20 mg or more of methadone (more than 2 weeks, and did not have the history of cerebrovascular or coronary artery diseases, cardiac pacemaker, congenital prolonged QTC, or taking drugs affecting QTc, or having electrolyte abnormalities, were selected for the study. An electrocardiogram was taken from each patient using cardiofax instrument, and QTC was calculated manually. The data was analyzed using SPSS software with descriptive statistical methods and Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Findings: All patients were male and had the mean age of 45.6 ΁ 6.1 years. The patients received 20-240 mg methadone daily for 1 to 108 months. The QTc was prolonged in 25% of the patients (QTc 5 450 ms, with the mean of 472.72 ΁ 18.5 ms (range 450-508 ms and the mean daily dose of methadone 85.2 ΁ 59.0 mg. No significant relationship was observed between QTC interval on the one hand, and methadone dose (R = 0.025, P = 0.8, duration of treatment (R =-0.048, P = 0.68, age (R = 0.037, P = 0.71, and weight (R = 0.1, P = 0.21 of the patients, on the other hand. None of the patients had faint, syncope, arrhythmia, or sudden death. Conclusion: Oral methadone causes prolongation of QTC interval. However, the dosage of methadone and duration of treatment were not statistically related to QTC interval.

  19. Molecular and Morphometric Characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. from Different Water Sources of Northwest Iran as a Neglected Focus, Co-Bordered With the Country of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Aram; Fallah, Esmaeel; Mostafazadeh, Mostafa; Spotin, Adel; Shahbazi, Abbas; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Hazratian, Taimuor

    2016-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba spp. is a free-living opportunistic protozoan parasites, which can be found in tap, fresh and bottled mineral waters, contact lens solutions, soil etc. Objectives The present study is aimed to determine the Acanthamoeba spp. on the basis of their morpho-molecular aspects in different water sources of the West Azerbaijan province, Northwest of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 60 water samples were collected from rivers and tap waters during June to September 2015. The water samples were filtered through a cellulose nitrate filter and cultured on non-nutrient agar medium. The extracted DNAs were amplified and some ampliqons were sequenced using partial 18S rRNA for genotyping and phylogenetic analyses. Results Twenty-seven (45%) out of 60 water samples were positive to Acanthamoeba spp. using both culture and morphological examinations. In addition, 24 (40%) out of 27 positive samples in culture method were confirmed by PCR to be Acanthamoeba spp. Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of Acanthamoeba spp. in rivers reflects a risk alert for threatening human health in the region. However, well hygienic status of the tap waters considering Acanthamoeba spp. cannot be ignored in western co-border regions of Iran-Iraq. This study can also serve as a platform for further explorations of water sources in Iran and neighboring countries. PMID:28138374

  20. Gene migration for re-emerging amebiasis in Iran's northwest-Iraq borders: a microevolutionary scale for reflecting epidemiological drift of Entamoeba histolytica metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Asad; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Haghighi, Ali; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kohansal, Kobra

    2017-01-01

    In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp., a multiplex PCR was conducted. Amplicons were sequenced to reconfirm their heterogeneity traits and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, Entamoeba histolytica sequences of Iraq were retrieved from GenBank database. The suspected isolates were diagnosed as E. histolytica (2.2 %), Entamoeba moshkovskii (1 %), and Entamoeba dispar (0.4 %). Mixed Entamoeba infections did not detect among isolates. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes displayed star-like features in the overall isolates containing E.h1, E.d2, and E.m3 as the most common haplotypes. According to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test, high partial value of haplotype diversity (0.700 to 0.800) of E. histolytica was shown the total genetic variability within populations while nucleotide diversity was low among Iranian and Iraqi metapopulations. Neutrality indices of the 18S rRNA were shown negative values in E. histolytica populations which indicating significant deviations from neutrality. A pairwise fixation index (F-statistics [Fst]) as a degree of gene flow had a low value for all populations (0.001) while the number of migrants was 2.48. The statistically Fst value indicates that E. histolytica isolates are not genetically differentiated among shared isolates of Iran and Iraq. Occurrence of E.h1 between two regional populations indicates that there is dawn of Entamoeba flow due to transfer of alleles from one population to another population through

  1. Impacts of oil disturbances: lessons from experience. [1973-1974 Oil Crisis; 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution; 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the impacts of previous oil distrubances can be used to suggest the impacts of future oil disturbances. This paper reviews how the 1973-1974 Oil Crisis, the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution, and the 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War impacted the US and world oil markets. Various measures of impacts are considered, such as impacts on physical flows of crude and products, crude and product price changes on the US and world markets, impacts on stocks of crude and products, and impacts on refiners' inputs and outputs. Various macroeconomic indicators, such as gross national product, inflation rates, and unemployment, are also considered. Of particular interest in this study are the impacts that oil disturbances have had (and could have) on the availabilities of particular crude types and the abilities of US refiners to process crudes of various types in the short run. In addition, this paper reviews how the actions of the consuming countries and the major oil companies affected the impacts of past disturbances. The paper briefly discusses the likely causes and impacts of future oil distrubances and summarizes the lessons to be learned from past reactions to oil disturbances.

  2. EMME (Iraq)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Iraq Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for USAID/Iraq Local...

  3. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  4. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshandel, J. [Tehran University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The rationale behind Iran`s support for the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty being negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, is explained. The CTB is seen as crucial to nuclear non-proliferation, again supported by Iran. The Iranian nuclear energy programme exists, it is argued, for peaceful purposes only, despite international suspicions on weapons testing. Foreign policy too, it is argued, has favoured denuclearization of the region. With recent emnities with neighbouring states, and the USA, safeguards in treaties are a high priority. Iran argues for near-term security assurances and long term nuclear disarmament to remove the threat it perceives from the USA. No new states should be allowed to possess nuclear weapons and nuclear arsenals should be gradually eliminated, it is argued. (UK).

  5. Iraq: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    However, Iran now faces difficult choices in Iraq as its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other...Iran’s primary Shiite Islamist proteges in Iraq—the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI) and the Dawa (Islamic Call) party. Prior to 2007, the UIA

  6. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  7. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  8. Withdrawing from Iraq: Alternative Schedules, Associated Risks, and Mitigating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Iraq and the mainte- nance of stability. There is no guarantee that Iran would cooperate, although it might do so if it believes it would gain influence...Shahery, Martha Dunigan, Keith Gierlack, Todd C. Helmus, Renny McPherson, and Olga Oliker. 52 Withdrawing from Iraq: Alternative Schedules, Associated...letter to the MNF-I, February 27, 2009a. ———, interview with ABC reporter Martha Raddatz, Baghdad, March 10, 2009b. The Office of the UN High Commissioner

  9. Iran’s Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the region of Mashad. The founda- tion owns other assets, including universities and a Coca -Cola bottling plant.28 Ayatollah Vaez-Tabazi’s influence...highly nationalistic Iran of Mosaddeq and the early years of the Iran-Iraq War or the more-divided Iran that emerged at the tail end of World War

  10. The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...

  11. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  12. Has President Obama Chosen the Right Strategic Approach to Iran With the 2013 Dual Track Policy of Diplomacy and Sanctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    already fractured along both religious and nationalist lines.136 All Arab countries to a varying degree are engaged in a proxy conflict to prevent the...sanctions. • To respect Iranian national interests in Iraq. • To support Iranian demands for war reparations with Iraq (for the Iran-Iraq war

  13. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  14. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  15. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  16. Studies on mental health in Kurdistan - Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mofidi, Naser

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to carry out an epidemiological study on mental health related issues in the Kurdish population of Iran. This part of Iran suffered directly during the Iran-Iraq war 1980-1988. Iran is an Islamic republic with strict adherence to Islamic traditions, which has implications for the way of life and gender issues. Suicide is prohibited according to Islamic teaching, but still there is a rather high suicide incidence especially among young women, who burn themselves to d...

  17. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  18. Iraq: A Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jon C., Ed.

    Accused of harboring and supporting terrorists, Saddam Hussein's country of Iraq sits at the top of a short list of targets in United States war on terrorism. Iraq is a country about twice the size of the state of Idaho with a population of over 22 million. The country relies on oil for its economic well-being and controls what some estimate to be…

  19. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  20. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  1. Montesquieu in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Hamza

    2012-01-01

    The interest of the great philosopher, jurist, and political thinker of the French Enlightenment, Charles-Louis de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755), turned after having published the Lettres persanes (1721) to the study on premises of the lives, customs and laws of different nations, ethnicities. When his friend, Earl James Waldgrave (1684-1741), was appointed as emissary, ambassador to Vienna, to the court of Emperor Charles VI, King of Hungary as Charles III, King o...

  2. Montesquieu in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hamza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest of the great philosopher, jurist, and political thinker of the French Enlightenment, Charles-Louis de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755, turned after having published the Lettres persanes (1721 to the study on premises of the lives, customs and laws of different nations, ethnicities. When his friend, Earl James Waldgrave (1684-1741, was appointed as emissary, ambassador to Vienna, to the court of Emperor Charles VI, King of Hungary as Charles III, King of Bohemia as Charles II (1711–1740, Montesquieu accompanied i.e. escorted him.

  3. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  4. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross...... the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...... psychological discomfort and certain mental stressors....

  5. Hungary health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Peter; Szigeti, Szabolcs; Csere, Marton; Gaskins, Matthew; Panteli, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Hungary has achieved a successful transition from an overly centralized, integrated Semashko-style health care system to a purchaser provider split model with output-based payment methods. Although there have been substantial increases in life expectancy in recent years among both men and women, many health outcomes remain poor, placing Hungary among the countries with the worst health status and highest rate of avoidable mortality in the EU (life expectancy at birth trailed the EU27 average by 5.1 years in 2009). Lifestyle factors especially the traditionally unhealthy Hungarian diet, alcohol consumption and smoking play a very important role in shaping the overall health of the population.In the single-payer system, the recurrent expenditure on health services is funded primarily through compulsory, non-risk-related contributions made by eligible individuals or from the state budget. The central government has almost exclusive power to formulate strategic direction and to issue and enforce regulations regarding health care. In 2009 Hungary spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health, with public expenditure accounting for 69.7% of total health spending, and with health expenditure per capita ranking slightly above the average for the new EU Member States, but considerably below the average for the EU27 in 2008. Health spending has been unstable over the years, with several waves of increases followed by longer periods of cost-containment and budget cuts. The share of total health expenditure attributable to private sources has been increasing, most of it accounted for by out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses. A substantial share of the latter can be attributed to informal payments, which are a deeply rooted characteristic of the Hungarian health system and a source of inefficiency and inequity. Voluntary health insurance, on the other hand, amounted to only 7.4% of private and 2.7% of total health expenditure in 2009. Revenue sources for health have been

  6. Police Academy, Hilla, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-31

    Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) and the 11 contracts were valued at $5,262,015. A single contractor, Global Business Group Logistics (heretofore referred...Appendix B. Acronyms CPA Coalition Provisional Authority ClIN Contract Line Item Number CQC Contractor Quality Control GBG Global Business Group

  7. Inquiry on Iran-Iraq relations under the rise of IS from the perspective of geo-politics%地缘政治视角下“伊斯兰国”兴起后的两伊关系变化探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲国艳; 陈俊华; 沈长城; 喻发美

    2016-01-01

    历经“阿拉伯之春”后,中东多国在动荡与冲突中难以自拔,而反政府武装组织“伊斯兰国”却趁机兴风作浪。“伊斯兰国”的肆虐不仅使得中东地区的地缘政治格局更复杂,也给世界和平的维护带来了巨大挑战。“伊斯兰国”长期活跃在伊拉克-叙利亚边境地带,它的兴起将会对平淡的两伊关系带来重要变数。论文从地缘政治的视角归纳了IS兴起后两伊关系在宗教、经济、外交、军事等四大方面的变化,并指出中东地缘政治格局变化是促使两国关系变化的根本原因。“伊斯兰国”兴起后两伊关系迅速改善,促进中东三大地缘集团鼎立新格局的形成,也引起域外各国势力的政策变化。%The countries in the Middle East which have experienced the Arab Spring now are not able to carry on and remain fixed in social turmoil and clashes, while the anti-governmental armed group of the“Islamic State of Iraq and Syria” (IS) is taking advantage of the situation and inciting the con-flicts.The devastation made by IS caused not only the entanglement of the re-gional politics structure in the Middle-East area but also could lead to a bigger war to maintain the peace in the world. IS has been active for a long time on the border area between Iraq and Syria, and it could have a strong in-fluence on the already insipid relations between Iraq and Iran. We aim to sum-marize the interactions between these two countries in relation to religion, economy, diplomacy and state of the army under the rise of IS from the per-spective of geo-politics, and noted geopolitical situation in the Mid-East causing this changed.It promoted the formation of new patterns for separation of the three major geographical groups in the Middle East, also caused foreign countries to force policy changes because of the relationship between Iran-I-raq after the rise of IS.

  8. Mathematics Education in Hungary Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Tamas

    1988-01-01

    Changes in mathematics education from the 1950s to the 1980s are briefly described by the author, who was a leading mathematics educator in Hungary. Illustrations focus on personal experience and small group interaction. (MNS)

  9. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy.

  10. Iran Goes Nuclear: Predictive Responses to a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Workers Party ( PKK ) terrorist group against Turkey, Turkey and Iran developed security cooperation in 2008 to share intelligence and coordinate...The United States‘ response in deterring Iran‘s interference in Iraq and Afghanistan responsible for deaths of United States servicemen and women

  11. Iran’s Threat to the Strait of Hormuz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    alignment with Iraq in that war. Iran laid mines in the Gulf to disrupt tanker traffic and used Chinese-made Silkworm cruise missiles to damage oil...were the Silkworm missile storage sites and Iranian intelligence sites. Other strike packages included Bandar Abbas (to destroy IRIN and IRGC forces

  12. Baku paper reports Armenian role in Iran's nuclear program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The war in Iraq has made the subject of nuclear research in countries of the third world a matter of current interest. Talk at this time is mostly about Iran, which has oil, and American experts believe, will in the next 3-4 years be perfectly capable of making a nuclear bomb" (1 page).

  13. The library system of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žužana Žoldoš

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and activity of libraries in Hungary. It presents the general characteristics of the Hungarian library system; with particular types of libraries, library legislation, the development of special libraries and their roles in social, cultural and economic areas of Hungary. The following organisations have an important role in the development of librarian activity: department for librarianship of the Ministry of Culture, Centre for Librarian Science and Work Methodology at the National Library Széchényi in Budapest. The Centre for Library Procuration, which has an important role in forming the library’s fund, is presented as a special point of interest in the Hungarian system.

  14. IMF Loans to Hungary, 1996–2008

    OpenAIRE

    György Csáki

    2013-01-01

    Hungary has been an IMF member since May 1982 and has since benefited from the IMF’s lending instruments on 11 occasions. The IMF loans supported economic transformation (in the period between 1988 and 1993), facilitated Hungary in overcoming the transformation recession (in 1996) and helped to tackle economic crisis (in 2008). This paper analyses the two latter IMF loans in order to provide background context to Hungary’s IMF negotiations, ongoing since November 2011.Ever since 1982, Hungary...

  15. The Collapse of Iraq and Syria: The End of the Colonial Construct in the Greater Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    this case, local animosities got out 21 Barrett: The Collapse of Iraq and Syria of control resulting in a violent series of confrontations between...distur- bance; second, any ‘trifling disturbance’ could turn into a calamity given the simmering animosities between confessional and ethnic groups.16 It...Syria gained breathing space as Saddam Hussein, now thoroughly paranoid about his own Shi’a population, launched a war with Iran that would consume

  16. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, PKK ) have helped the KRG cope with the Islamic State offensive against Kurdish-controlled areas of northern Iraq since...Party ( PKK ) has long maintained camps inside Iraq, along the border with Turkey. Turkey continues to conduct periodic bombardments and other...military operations against the PKK encampments in Iraq. In October 2011, Turkey sent ground troops into northern Iraq to attack PKK bases following the

  17. Area Handbook Series: Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    urea fertilizer, and in 1987 Iraq continued to import fertilizer as an emergency measure. Meanwhile, additional fertilizer plants were 151 Iraq: A...Study 1980 and 1985; 1985 production totaled almost 150,000 tons. Iraq also produced maize , millet, and oil seeds in smaller quantities. A number of

  18. The Gifted and Gifted Education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The article is an overview on the provision of gifted education in Hungary. It describes views and approaches that have been and are present, including beliefs and the official provisions for gifted students. A separate part of the study introduces new innovations in gifted education in Hungary, as well as the research results. A very detailed…

  19. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components

  20. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  1. The Iraq Study Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Hilda Arellano —U.S. Agency for International Development Director in Iraq * Terrance Kelly—Director, Office of Strategic Plans and Assessments...President, Mercy Corps Michael O’Hanlon—Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies, The Brookings Institution George Packer—The New Yorker Carlos Pascual—Vice

  2. FDI in Hungary - the first mover's advantage and disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sass, Magdolna

    2004-01-01

    Presenting a case study of FDI in Hungary, this paper first reviews the characteristics of FDI in Hungary since the outset of transition. It then examines the determinants of FDI in Hungary, finding that early and comprehensive privatisation and the creation of a generally business-friendly policy environment played key roles in making Hungary an early leader in FDI flows to countries in Central and Eastern Europe. But the paper also observes that some of Hungary's first-mover advantage has b...

  3. Modeling And Forecasting War Effects On Macro Economical Variables Of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Hosein Sadr; Atefeh Shahabadi Farahani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate effects of the 8-year war between Iran and Iraq (1980-1988) on economical indices of Iran. The underlying objective of the paper is to provide support for a model that predicts these macro economical variables with the GMDH-neural network method. The macro economical variables that we analyzed include: gross domestic production (GDP)-investment – consumption- inflation- interest rate– net export- government budget.The results indicate that investment decrease...

  4. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  5. Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    platform after the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri in 2005, is hoping to maintain its slim majority after the June elections. The...overwhelmingly supported Michel Aoun, whose history of opposing Syria garnered support in the wake of the assassination of Rafiq Hariri. However, his

  6. The Role of Airpower in the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    aictivity, but itwaaloecuetepssin of these planes created a deterrent to tile other side", use of’ his p)tlaes,. 11w p)tlae,, could not objectiveix wAin ...Kippur War." .lerti.th’e Irf iterlnationial Reh/tio t 5. no. 2 (1981): 46-61. Beaufre, Andr5. 77T Sue: Eipedition /950. Translated by Richard Barry

  7. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    nuclear technology to Iran and expanding provisions of the USA Patriot Act (P.L. 107-56) to curb money- laundering for use to further WMD programs. Iran...identifying Iran as a “jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern”33 under Section 311 of the USA Patriot Act (31 U.S.C. 5318A). The Department...Sanctions Act , might not be inconsistent with the JCPOA. Other legislation, such as that to prevent finalization of a major U.S. sale of passenger aircraft

  8. Basrah Modern Slaughterhouse, Basrah, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    or PublicAffairs@sigir.mil Summary of Report: PA-09-189 Why SIGIR Did this Study SIGIR is charged to conduct assessments of Iraq reconstruction...there are few asphalt roads in the area and the network of stabilized earth tracks that run along raised berms in the area are difficult to navigate...tank systems guard houses electrical, mechanical, water, and sewerage utilities walkways and sidewalks garden area landscaping perimeter

  9. Find an Eye M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... See (Vatican City ) Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran(Islamic Republic Of) Iraq Ireland Isle ... Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2017 ...

  10. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Israel Italy ... Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger ...

  11. Find an Audiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... City State) Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy ... Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger ...

  12. GI Locator Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MCDONALD ISLANDS HONDURAS HONG KONG HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAQ IRELAND ISLE OF ... MOROCCO MOZAMBIQUE MYANMAR NAGORNO-KARABAKH NAMIBIA NAURU NEPAL NETHERLANDS NETHERLANDS ANTILLES NEW CALEDONIA NEW ZEALAND NICARAGUA NIGER ...

  13. This is Who We Are: The Politics of Identity in Twentieth Century Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    soap operas , TV serials, programs on martyrs and their families, documentaries or feature films on the [Iran-Iraq] war, and mythologization of clerics...49 Religiously Educated Monitors: The Assembly of Experts ......................................... 49 A Democratic Legislature: The...mandatory military service. He also initiated widespread changes to the nation’s educational system. Reza Shah’s educational reforms included the

  14. Irans atomprogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Det er nu utænkeligt at USA vil angribe Iran, og vi kan ikke længere forhindre iranerne i at nå et stadium, hvor de potentielt kan få atomvåben, mener Gary Sick, en af verdens førende Iran-eksperter. Udgivelsesdato: 10/10......Det er nu utænkeligt at USA vil angribe Iran, og vi kan ikke længere forhindre iranerne i at nå et stadium, hvor de potentielt kan få atomvåben, mener Gary Sick, en af verdens førende Iran-eksperter. Udgivelsesdato: 10/10...

  15. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-13/ pdf /2012-27642. pdf . 19 Other ISA amendments under that law included recommending against U.S. nuclear agreements with...1929) Prohibits transfer to Iran of nuclear , missile, and dual use items to Iran, except for use in light-water reactors (1737 and 1747). Resolution...including centrifuge development and heavy water research: By State - Nuclear Reactor Fuels Company; Noor Afzar Gostar Company; Fulmen Group; Yasa Part

  16. Understanding Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    national character.” And although national character analysis is out of vogue in the United States, I attribute the use of the term to the...also notable counter-examples of resource benefactions: for example, Norway, Britain , and North Sea oil and gas deposits. 124 Understanding Iran...English, Farsi, Italian, and Spanish. Sadjadpour’s recent commentary, articles, and testimony include “ Britain -Iran Standoff ,” PBS’s Newshour with

  17. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W; Ali, Malik H; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-03-06

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km(2) large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today.

  18. The Zach family in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Magda

    The Zach Family moved to Hungary. In the first decades of the 18th century the population was so low in Hungary that thousands of people moved into an almost empty country. In 1740 the physician Joseph Zach (1714-1792) came from Moravia to Esztergom which at that time had only 10 000 inhabitants. Soon he became the city doctor. It is very probable, that this was the place where he met Klara Sonntag, who became his wife. In any case, Zach moved to Pest, where he became the city doctor in 1746. The Invalide-Hospital built by Martinelli in 1726 was the biggest and most elegant house in Pest at that time - and it was giving shelter to 4000 invalids, whilst the city itself had only 11 000 inhabitants. There Zach became the ``protomedicus''. In 1751 Austrian Empress Maria Theresia visited this military hospital. She was so impressed by Zach's work that she honoured him with Hungarian nobility in 1765. From the corresponding official paper we know that he had three sons and three daughters. In 1791 he received citizenship in Pest. The Hungarian Magnates favoured the talented physician. The Lord Chief Justice Count György Fekete was also among his patients. His thirteen year-old son Count János Fekete became the godfather of Zach's son Franz Xaver Zach in 1754. It is very likely that Voltairian Count János Fekete influenced the personality of Franz Xaver von Zach. Galicia became Austrian Territory in 1772. Pater Liesganig was nominated to lead the Land-Survey Office of Galicia. Anton von Zach and Franz Xaver Zach were his co-workers in this very important task. At the same time Franz Zach became a professor of mechanics at Lemberg University and in its observatory he began his life-long astronomical observations. It is very probable that he joined the Freemasons here together with his godfather, now General, Jänos Fekete. Later they stayed in the same cities very often. The military and scientific works of the two Zach brothers Anton and Franz were so highly

  19. [Migration of dentists within Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  20. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  1. China-Hungary Friendship City Conference Held in Budapest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Hungary, the China-Hungary Friendship City Conference was held in Budapest from February 18 to 21.

  2. Iraq-lran chemical war: calendar, mortality and morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mahdiyeh Sadat Razavi; Mohsen Pirhosseinloo; Payman Salamati

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To review the calendar,mortality and morbidity of Iraq-Iran chemical war among Iranians based on researchers' reports.Methods:We used national and international databanks such as PubMed,ISI,Scopus,Irandoc and Iranmedex and studied 350 articles related to chemical agents and their effects on different organs.The main criteria for qualification of articles were relevancy orientation and being published in approved medical journals.Results:The Iraqi army invaded to west and southwest Iran using chemical weapons such as nerve agents (NAs) and sulfur mustard (SM).Most victims were civilians including women and children.These attacks had imposed more than 150 types of diseases and complications on Iranians and the frequency of death was 2%-3%.Most reports were about respiratory problems and a few were in the domain of socio-economic damages.Conclusion:At present,25 years after the end of war,the victims are faced with different complications induced by chemical agents and it is estimated that they will be continuously troubled by these problems in future.

  3. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  4. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  5. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  6. Wetlands Environmental Management For Agriculture In Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katai Janos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is located at the central Basin of Danube River, which is surrounded by the Alps and the Carpathians mountain range. The 84% of the Hungary area lies below 200 mBm. The rate of the flooded area is significant in the country. The average runoff of surface water exceeds hundred billion cubic meters. Streams and rivers from the surrounding area flow together with the Danube River into the Black sea. The 96% of the mentioned water quantity come from abroad; three-quarters of this water quantity enter the country in the Danube’s, Tisza’s and Drava’s riverbed. In my presentation, I would like to give an account about the status of wetlands in Hungary, its roles of agriculture and social life, difficulties encountered and future possibilities referring to literary sources.

  7. Balance of power theory, implications for the U.S., Iran, Saudi Arabia, and a new arms race

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Randall G.

    2008-01-01

    As a study in the Bush Doctrine of preventive warfare, the conflict in Iraq has been of great interest. However, the unintended consequences and the impact on regional instability also demand attention. There is a balance of power struggle taking place between Iran and Saudi Arabia which, because of Iran's nuclear ambitions, has drawn the attention of the international community and the ire of the United States. As a result, policy makers in Washington are compelled to determine a course of ...

  8. Schools and communities in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyady, Susan

    1980-09-01

    The democratic reform of public education in Hungary after the Second World War brought about a system which now includes Day-Care from the ages of 4-6 and compulsory Elementary School education up to the age of 16. A high proportion of students go on to Secondary education in vocational schools, special schools or grammar shools. The system is supplemented by career-counselling and provision for children with difficult home-backgrounds and for the mentally-retarded. District Councils are responsible for the schools in their areas and for the zoning that determines which schools children should attend. The environment of a school has a strong influence not only upon the standard of its facilities and the quality of its staff but also upon the function it is expected to fulfil in the community. Achievement is directly related to the degree of urbanization, but the increasing participation of farming-co-operatives in education in rural areas promises well for the development of better facilities and mutual understanding there. Housing estates in high-density residential areas make special demands which are being met in different ways. The role of the school in general is being expanded to include children's leisure time activities; at the same time factories are making a significant contribution locally through vocational guidance, financial help, and training-for-work programmes. Councils are implementing the requirements of public education resolutions to integrate school education into the whole scheme of public education, co-ordinating the activities of all social and cultural institutions, and developing new multi-functional complexes, to give a more effective and efficient service to the whole community.

  9. U.S. Strategic Predicament in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wenlin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Iraq war is the biggest experimental site of Bushism and the success or failure of the war there has a direct bearing on the spread of Bushism as a strategic model. Hence it is necessary to make a systematic assessment of America's situation in Iraq. The current situation shows that the United has got into an unprecedented strategic haziness. In the security field, U.S. forces have dispatched large number of troops to carry out suppression and won frequent victories,but they are suffering stronger resistances. In the realm of political reconstruction, the democratic process in Iraq is now under in accordance with the prescribed order, but religious contradictions are on the rise, and political structures become more fragile. Over economic reconstruction, the United States has kept increasing input and at the same time appealed to the international community for more assistance. Even though Iraq is faced with difficulties in the reconstruction. Therefore, there is a widening disagreement in America over "whether the U.S. is winning or losing the war in Iraq. "① Based on the major views of experts and scholars from both China and overseas,the author thinks that the following three criteria are important for judging whether the United States has succeeded or failed in pursuing its strategy in Iraq: the feasibility of strategic objectives, balance of objectives and means and adaptability of strategic means. Judged by the above-mentioned criteria, the United States is now landing in a strategic predicament in Iraq.

  10. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Congressional Research Service 49 • An Irish subsidiary of the Coca Cola Company, which provides syrup for the U.S.-brand soft drink to an Iranian...military power by hampering its acquisition of foreign technology and weaponry. U.S. assessments indicate mixed success in these efforts. Sanctions on Iran...Laundering Jurisdiction ................................................................. 28 Promoting Divestment

  11. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    flight 655), for which the United States paid Iran $61.8 million in compensation ($300,000 per wage -earning victim, $150,000 per nonwage earner) for...barrels per day) and again to implement the JCPOA (to remove any ceiling on Iran’s exports of oil). Implementation: Exemptions Issued The lack of

  12. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    and Sanctions Exemptions to Support Democratic Change/Civil Society in Iran ........ 32 Expanding Internet and Communications Freedoms...Reserves “Lock Up” Provision of ITRSHRA ..................................... 22 Weapons of Mass Destruction, Missile, and Conventional Arms Sanctions... Communications by Iranians ..................................................................................................................... 33 Measures to

  13. Population information activities in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csahok, I

    1984-12-01

    The focal point for all population information activities in Hungary is the Central Statistical Office which is responsible for the organization and implementation of the decennial population censuses and of the intercensal population surveys and other data collection activities. The Central Statistical Office publishes a large volume of population information. The results of the censuses are presented partly in special census volumes and partly in statistical yearbooks. The Demographic Yearbook and other publications present results of population studies and Hungarian statistics. The Demographic Research Institute, which is part of the Central Statistical Office, is primarily responsible for research activity. The main task of the Institute is to study and analyze population processes and phenomena, as well as explore main demographic trends, carried out by using Hungarian and international demographic data. Demografia and serial publications present results of research activities of the Institute. The Library and Documentation Service, also part of the Central Statistical Office, provides conventional library services. Its main activity is the collection of both Hungarian and foreign and international official statistical publications, as well as theoretical and methodological works. Of a stock of 650,000 volumes covering a wide range of social and economic sciences, in addition to data material, the library has nearly 120,000 official statistical publications consisting mainly of population statistics and demographic data. Another activity of the Library is the processing and dissemination of documentation and it acts as a 2dary source of both Hungarian and foreign publications, especially on demography. The documentation consists of translating articles, book chapters or documents of international organizations, editing annotated bibliographies and disseminating custom-made, user-oriented profiles. This computerized information retrieval system uses Text

  14. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  15. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It…

  16. Education of Gifted Pupils in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Zoltan; Joo, Andras

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the debate surrounding the education of gifted students in Hungary, examining whether an elitist or a democratic solution should be adopted. Considers the educational past, current problems, and psychological and pedagogical issues. Concludes that the best solution would be a democratic system that minimized social inequalities. (GEA)

  17. Hungary: Political transformation and environmental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole Jr, Laurence J.; Hanf, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    Hungary is undergoing both radical economic transformation and political change. Presently a number of challenges converge and compete simultaneously for attention and resources. Hungarian environmental policy and administration are part and parcel of these changes and the competing demands they mak

  18. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  19. Education of Mathematically Talented Students in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Julianna Connelly

    2010-01-01

    Hungary is famous for its production of large numbers of highly talented mathematicians and physicists. This study explores the Hungarian system for educating mathematically talented secondary school students with the goal of identifying successful features that may be applicable to education in the United States. Highlights of the Hungarian…

  20. Nematophagous fungi from soils of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik M. Muhsin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Filteen taxa of nematode-trapping fungi were isolated from soil samples collected in Iraq. Among them. seven taxa belonged to Arthrobotrys, two to cach of Dactylella, Dactyleria, Monacrosporium, and one to Stylopage and Cyslopage. The trapping devices of each fungal species were recognized. A brief description of each species from pure cultures is provided. All the reported taxa are new to Iraq.

  1. The Iraq Effect: The Middle East After the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    before the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States maintained strong mili- tary and political relations with Tehran, which also...reasons are also not new, explaining why Iranian interest in such a capability dates back to the Shah .19 Although there are tactical differences among...2008. As of January 2009: http://www.muslm.net/ vb /showthread.php?t=285888 ‘Aloush, Ibrahim, “al-Nufudh al-Amiriki fi al-Sharq al-Awsat [American

  2. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  3. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  4. Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae (Bryophyta in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzberger Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Racomitrioideae of the Grimmiaceae is represented in Hungary by seven species belonging to four genera, including Bucklandiella affinis (F. Weber & D. Mohr Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, B. heterosticha (Hedw. Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, B. microcarpa (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, Codriophorus aciculare (Hedw. P. Beauv., C. aquaticus (Brid. Brid., Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw. Brid. and Niphotrichum canescens (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. All species are briefly described and illustrated and their distribution in Hungary is mapped. A key for determination of genera and species is provided. Some ecological, bryogeographical and conservation questions related to particular species are discussed. The following new statuses and combinations are proposed: Codriophorus P. Beauv. sect. Hydrophilus (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., Codriophorus sect. Depressi (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., and Codriophorus sect. Andicola (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov.

  5. Political Economy of Privatization in Hungary: A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the political economy of privatization in its second phase in Hungary, the country which, overall, has gone furthest in privatizing public utilities, introducing elements of competition and setting up regulatory mechanisms and institutions to monitor them. The background to Hungary's reform path, the antecedents to privatization, the debate on the issues, the institutional framework and the progress of privatization in Hungary up to late 1993/early 1994 are well-document...

  6. [Dental care for foreigners in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter; Oesterle, August

    2008-10-01

    High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has been conducted so far, however its professional and economic significance has been indicated by day-to-day experience. Additionally, the term "dental tourism" also used in international scientific papers became a commonplace in Hungary with unfavourable connotations. The present survey was the first to study this phenomenon by scientific standards in the most involved areas, namely in the capital city Budapest and in three counties in the Western Hungarian Region. Data collecting was performed by a self-reported questionnaire sent via conventional mail to all members of the Dental Section of the Hungarian Medical Chamber practicing in those indicated regions. Respond rates were 20.65% in Budapest and 25.34% in Western Hungary. The sample obtained this way, clearly indicated dimensions of cross-border patient migration and its economic significance as well. In Western Hungary 80.81% of foreign patients came from the neighbouring Austria and two out of ten practices realized 40 to 100% of their income out of this business. In Budapest foreign patients' nationality was more diversified. The largest group arrived from the United Kingdom (9.93%). Nevertheless the economic impact of dental tourism in Budapest is not relevant and outbalanced by a considerable domestic demand on the local private market.

  7. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  8. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  9. Iraq: new power in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.

    An historical view of Iraq's new Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) draws on events dating back to the time of Hammurabi, when constant border clashes led to a code of toughness with neighbors and an aversion to distant military engagements. Hussein's policies are kept deliberately obscure and unpredictable, with initiatives toward both the West and the Soviet Union. The author examines Hussein and his government, concluding that Washington has misunderstood and underestimated both in respect to oil production and military capacity. She examines domestic socio-economic problems and sees the rural and urban cleavage as the most important. Iraq's policies and attitudes are described and the political opportunities regarding Iraq are noted.

  10. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  11. US Presence and Grounds for Cooperation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and United States in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Javadikouchaksaraei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, USA has not designed a policy to deal with Afghanistan and Iraq without Iran. One of the fundamental strategies of USA is to cooperate with the European Union, the Pacific, Russia, the Balkan Area, as well as the Caucasus the Middle East, North Africa, and Middle Asia. All of the countries relate to Iran in saving the Pacific. Iran is the most influential country in the area surrounding Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Northern Africa and Middle Asia. USA has to face Iran in the Middle East to meet the benefits of this relation. Therefore, such situation leads to the main question: does the attendance of USA in Afghanistan create the grounds for cooperation with Iran? Despite the existing disputes between the two governments, the attendance of USA in Afghanistan seems to have created new security, political, economic, and cultural fields for the cooperation of both countries.

  12. Motivational Factors of Travel to War Places in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Musai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran and Iraq war is not only the longest conventional war in 20th century, but also it is one of the most destructive wars of the world after World War II. During this long and unequal battle, brave defendants of the homeland with their unique braveries threw the violating enemy from Iran soil and created eternal epics. These eternal epics occurred with martyrdom and sacrifice of thousand children of this land and thousand soldiers were martyred in pure soil of the battle fronts. For this reason, appreciating and zealous people of Iran in years after holy defense founded tradition of visiting war zones and foothold of the soldiers and defenders of the land and this proper tradition was formed as caravans called Rahian Noor and hundred persons came to see war zones individually and collectively. What is important is that different factors caused to motivate the persons to travel to these zones and recognition of these factors can increase travel to these zones. This research has been done with use of semi-structured interview method. On the basis of results of this research, sacredness of the war places in Iran, values of Iranian culture, interest in seeing the left monuments and identity dependency caused to travel to battle fields in Iran.

  13. US Military Nurses: Experience of Coming Home after Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    BSN 36 40 10 14 CPT MAJ Critical Care NA NA 3 1991 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN 25 41 11 MAJ FNP NA 13,15 4 2002 2005 Iraq Iraq 6...MAJ MAJ LTC LTC LTC COL Behavioral Health ** 7 2007 Iraq 6 MSN 33 12 MAJ Med/Surg NA 8 2006 Iraq 12 MSN 46 21 LTC FNP 10 9 2009 Afghanistan...1LT Med/Surg NA 13 2004 Iraq 8 MSN 39 11 MAJ FNP 7, 9, 11 14 2004 2008 Iraq Iraq 7 12 MSN MSN 43 47 20 24 LTC COL Critical Care 13

  14. 31 CFR 575.329 - Areas of Iraq not controlled by the Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the “Green Line” and under the control of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) or the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in the following provinces of Iraq: Dahuk (Dohuk), Arbil (Erbil), and...

  15. Research in Foreign Language Education in Hungary (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medgyes, Péter; Nikolov, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In the past quarter century, Hungary has offered fertile ground for innovative developments in foreign language (FL) education. The appropriate, albeit disparaging, label applied to Hungary in the mid-1970s--"a land of foreign language illiterates" (Köllo 1978: 6)--no longer applies. In the wake of the dramatic changes of 1989, the…

  16. Sign Language Culture as Part of Multiculturalism in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarolta, Simigne Fenyo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate sign language culture as part of multiculturalism in Hungary. The study consists of two parts. Referring to the 13 national and linguistic minorities living in the territory of Hungary, the first part gives a short account of the narrower interpretation of multiculturalism according to which it…

  17. [Psychological status of Croatian refugees in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, N; Bosnić, D

    1993-01-01

    This presentation addresses the capability of Croatian refugees from Baranja to acclimatize themselves in the Republic of Hungary. The authors assessed the mental health of 100 refugees through a psychiatric interview using a questionnaire, specifically designed for the purpose of this research. Their ages ranged from 10 to 82 years, average age 38 years. The assessment of mental health of the refugees was conducted 6 weeks following their placement in a camp (social institution) of a small town (Maria Jüd) in Hungary. The authors found that refugees fled their homes and homeland in front of barbarous combined forces of local Serbs whom they identified as terrorists and Yugoslav Federal Army. Leaving homes and country was sudden and unexpected, but by their own will. The departure was accompanied by fear, anxiety, disbelief, despair, anger and rarely by panic behaviour. Fear for children's safety was on the first place, than fear from exposure to violent injury--torture and crippling, while threat for ones own life and life of relatives as well as loss of property were of milder intensity. Among the most dominant feelings refugees manifested during an interview were: home--and homeland sickness and uncertainty about the future. In 61% of the examinees, these feelings prevailed. Forty-two per cent of the subjects experienced emotional and psychosomatic disorders, primarily Beard's "neurasthenic syndrome". Only 5% of the refugees needed psychiatric help, mainly those who had psychic problems before they fled their homes. The authors conclude that Croats from Baranja who took refuge in Hungary had acclimatizational problems even 6 weeks after displacement, which were manifested as emotional and psychosomatic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. ICT INDUSTRY R&D IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIENN FEKO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Hungarian ICT Industry related research and development is analysed. The developments and characteristics of the sector are described on one hand on the available statistics and on the other hand on interviews taken with the representatives of leading ICT companies in Hungary. In this short paper in order to have a larger database, we use a more aggregated definition of ICT sector according to European Commission DG JRC, IPTS (NACE rev.1.1. The main objectives of the paper are: to present the main characteristics of the sector and to explore the main causes of relatively low R&D activity of the ICT sector.

  20. The War in Iraq: Scholarly Societies Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Questions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Sociological Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Historical Society, the American Psychological Association, and the American Anthropological Association have taken official stands on questions pertaining to America's current military involvement in Iraq. Here are their resolutions. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  1. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  2. Basrah Children’s Hospital, Basrah, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-28

    Iraq had been isolated from up-to-date medical practices for over 25 years. According to the Iraqi Ministry of Health (MOH), inadequate nutrition ...municipal water ministry to either provide a booster pump station at the tie-in point to the water main or a suction pump at the booster station. The

  3. The War in Iraq: Scholarly Societies Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Questions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Sociological Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Historical Society, the American Psychological Association, and the American Anthropological Association have taken official stands on questions pertaining to America's current military involvement in Iraq. Here are their resolutions. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  4. More Pressure on Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the UN Security Council adopts a new resolution to pressure Iran over its nuclear activities, the country maintains a tough stance On March 24, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a new resolution imposing tougher sanctions against Iran to

  5. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  6. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  7. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  8. What Will Iran Do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Iran's response to a UN resolution requiring it to halt its nuclear program looms large,experts sayWith the halt in fighting between Israel and the Lebanon-based Hezbollah militant group, the world's attention is again turning to the Iran nuclear issue. The international community had been waiting for Iran's response to the package of economic, political and security incentives

  9. Iraq Stability: Foreign Military Sales in a New War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Iraqi PM Haidar al-Abadi is a rational actor, as is Russian President Vladimir Putin . Arms deals and decisions between the two countries likely witt...FMS to Iraq reflects a decision of the organizational behavior model. Although President Vladimir Putin is a rational actor in charge of Russian...23 CHAPTER 6: Iraq and Russia Foreign Military Sales Decisions .... . .. .. ... . ..... . .... 24 Iraq Decisions on U.S. and

  10. Impact of Financial Liberalization on Financial Depth in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Hamad Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Mackinnon-Show hypothesis i.e. financial liberalization promotes financial depth in case of Iraq. Iraq launched a comprehensive program of economic and financial liberalization since 2003. Thus, this paper aims to answer the key question that “is financial liberalization stimulated the financial depth in Iraq?”. By applying the ARDL Autoregressive Distributed Lag model on quarterly data during the period 2005- 2010, the paper finds that the liberalization of interest r...

  11. Nuclear proliferation in the Near East. What is the reaction of the regional neighbors on Iran's nuclear program? An analysis based on the proliferation debate; Nukleare Proliferation im Nahen Osten. Wie reagieren die regionalen Nachbarn auf Irans Nuklearprogramm? Eine Analyse anhand der Proliferationsdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erny, Matthias [Zuericher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften (ZHAW), Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on the reactions of the neighbor states on Iran's nuclear program covers the following topics: Iran's position in the Near East: historical aspects, Iran's nuclear program. The nuclear proliferation and the theory debate: the role of nuclear weapons in the international policy, proliferation optimism, proliferation pessimism. Analysis of the players and theory criticism: nuclear states (Israel, Pakistan), emerging nuclear states (Saudi Arab, Egypt, Turkey, Syria), states without nuclear weapons (Iraq, Jordan, GCC states); analysis, theory criticism.

  12. Sickle cell disease in the Kurdish population of northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Jalal, Sana D; Nerwey, Farida F; Al-Sayan, Galawezh O O; Al-Zebari, Sahima S M; Alshingaly, Awny A; Markous, Raji D; Jubrael, Jaladet M S; Hamamy, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that sickle cell disease patients are clustered in two geographical areas in Iraq, one among the Arabs in the extreme south, another among the Kurdish population in the extreme north, where they constitute major health problems. However, no studies have focused on the genotypes responsible for sickle cell disease or the β-globin gene haplotypes associated with it. For the latter purpose, a total of 103 unrelated Kurdish sickle cell disease patients were evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the sickle cell mutation, followed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization for β- and α-thalassemia (β- and α-thal) mutations, whenever indicated. Results showed that the most common genotype was sickle cell anemia (68.0%) followed by Hb S/β(0)-thal and Hb S/β(+)-thal at frequencies of 24.2 and 7.8%, respectively. Eight β-thal mutations were associated with the latter two genotypes including: IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-110 (G>A), codon 8 (-AA), codon 44 (-C), codon 22 (-7 bp), IVS-I-1 (G>A), codon 30 (G>C) and IVS-I-6 (T>C). In Hb SS patients, the -α(3.7) deletion was documented in 10.0% and was the only α-thal mutation detected. Furthermore, 5' β-globin gene cluster haplotyping of 128 β(S) chromosomes revealed that the most common haplotype seen in 69.5% was the Benin haplotype, followed by the Arab-Indian haplotype in 12.5%. These latter findings closely resemble reports from neighboring Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Mediterranean countries, suggesting a possible common origin, but are in contrast to findings from the Eastern Arabian Peninsula and Iran.

  13. ANATOMIC INVESTIGATION OF HUNGARY'S COMMON SHRUB SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter ANTALFI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary a huge part of wooden plants are shrubs. Flora of hungarian forests is among the richest in Europe. Many plants can be classified as shrubs or trees as well, circumstances during their development define what they will become. The diverse world of shrubs and weeds delights the eye under 20-30 meter high trees. From these there are some well known which basically everybody recognises is lilac (Syringa vulgaris, elderberry (Sambucus nigra, dog-rose (Rosa canina, single-seeded hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica. To get these species better known – and occasionally foreshadowing their wood industry usage in some way – it is expendient to familiarize ourselves with their microscopic structure and characteristics. Nowadays there are several imaging methods known, however for examining floral tissue the optical microscope is still the most common one to be used.

  14. Seasonal Variability of Wind Climate in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉLINÉ NÉMETH, Csilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important effects of climate variability and climate change may comefrom changes in the intensity and frequency of climatic extremes. Responding to the need of newclimatologic analyses, complex wind field research was carried out to study and provide reliableinformation about the state and variability of wind climate in Hungary. First of all, special attentionwas paid on creation of a high quality, homogeneous data series. The research is based on 36-yearlong(1975–2010 wind data series of 36 Hungarian synoptic meteorological stations. The means andextremes of near-surface wind conditions assist in estimating the regional effects of climate change,therefore a complex wind climate analysis was carried out. Spatial and temporal distribution of meanand extreme wind characteristics were estimated; wind extremes and trends were interpolated andmapped over the country. Furthermore, measured and ERA Interim reanalysis data were compared inorder to estimate the effects of regional climate change.

  15. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  16. Diversity in Elementary Schools in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Szécsi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on views among Hungarian administrators, teacher educators, mentor teachers and teacher candidates concerning diversity, and explores their related life experiences. The views of 28 participants were examined with Q methodology and follow-up interviews. Results of the Q methodology suggest there were three distinguishing viewpoints. Viewpoint 1 tended to be supportive of diversity issues, Viewpoint 2 appeared to have ethnocentric attitudes, and Viewpoint 3 tended to be culturally sensitive, yet, focused on family responsibilities. Follow-up interviews indicated that the life-experiences of participants associated with the three viewpoints were significantly dissimilar. This investigation provides directions in developing more effective teacher preparation to better address the challenges of increasingly diverse students in Hungary.

  17. Are There Cultural Regions in Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER BENKŐ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing up cultural macro-regions in Hungary is hardly possible as not even two of the highly developed mezo-regions are contacting, not speaking about forming a bloc; they rather constitute a mosaic on the country map. Those on medium cultural level make up two groups, while, though the ones with a low standard are mostly found along the Danube as a single bloc, they are isolated by Pest county, statistically grouped in one region with them, with a genuine cultural level far exceeding the low cluster. Consequently, it is only justified to speak about cultural regions in the sense that, on the whole, Dunántúl is on a higher standard than the eastern half of the country.

  18. Impact of Iraq War on Bangladesh Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Debapriya Bhattacharya; Mustafizur Rahman; Ananya Raihan

    2003-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing an early assessment of the anticipated consequences of Iraq war and its possible impacts on Bangladesh economy. Critical insights and fact-based information on possible changes in several areas including oil price, flow of remittance, volume of export and import, migration of labour force etc., and how these will reshape the country’s economic settings in the post-war era, have been presented in the paper.

  19. Hard Lessons: The Iraq Reconstruction Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    availability and likelihood of disease outbreak. Their leadership, at USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance in Washington, was also averse to...development of Iraq.”46 Bremer tasked the council, chaired by Marek Belka—an economics professor who had served as Poland’s deputy prime minister and...that would rack Iraqi society in 2005 and 2006. • 203 • Chapter 20 Elections, Rule of Law, and Fighting Corruption Corruption is a disease which is

  20. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-08

    Al Sabah visited Iraq in February 2009. Saudi Arabia, which considers the Shiite dominated government in Baghdad an affront to what it sees as...to establish regional working groups on Iraq’s security, fuel supplies , and Iraqi refugees. Those groups have each had several meetings. A...breakdown is in the above section); • $4.22 billion for Electricity Sector; • $1.724 billion for Oil Infrastructure; • $2.131 billion for Water

  1. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-30

    45% 50% Iraq Diyala Agribusiness Construction Manufacturing Professional Services Wholesale , Retail Trade Transport and Storage Hotels, Restaurants and...would require less ambitious infra- structure improvements and reduce the danger of flooding themarket and depressing prices.The Chairman of BP...bymobile telephones or remote computers. In a nation where two-thirds of all adults own cell phones, but only one-fifth have bank accounts, authorities

  2. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    Caterpillar have repre- sentation in Iraq as well. Coca - Cola and PepsiCo continue to have strong sales. Coke has bottling plants in Erbil, Kerbala, and...Hilla; and the PepsiCo plant in Erbil employs 300 to supply the Kurdistan Region. Citigroup opened an office in Baghdad this year, and several U.S...hotel chains , including Sheraton, Marriott, Hilton Doubletree, Wyndham, and Best Western, continue to develop properties in the Kurdistan Region

  3. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    promoting brands of its products , such as yogurt and jams, in Iraqi shops primarily in southern Iraq. Some Iraqi businessmen are said to resent what they...province council, down from the 28 it held previously, and only 5 in Basra. Some observers believe that the poor showing for ISCI was a product of its...stopped work in the KRG region. Energy industry observers corroborate the KRG view and say Exxon will likely begin production in the KRG in late

  4. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    such as canola, sugar beets, lentils and winter vegetables are being seeded . Harvesting has begun for olives, sesame, cotton, and rice. Iraq is...and gas resources while ensuring that all Iraqis benefit equitably from hydrocarbon revenues. While there is, at present, a de facto sharing of...expanded market for Iraqi farmers. Seed treatment has begun for wheat, barley, and darnel while irrigation work continues for maize. Crops

  5. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    finding fuel. In southern Iraq, where temperatures in June started to reach 120 degrees Fahrenheit or more, the shortages of electricity and potable...regressed in the governance and economic development categories. Ratings for almost half the provinces remained unchanged from the previous MMQA. 451 For...SIGIR data call, 7/8/2010. 451 . U.S. Embassy-Baghdad, OPA, response to SIGIR data call, 7/2/2010. 452. U.S. Embassy-Baghdad, OPA, responses to SIGIR data

  6. Thi Qar Bee Farm Thi Qar, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vegetation and fields where bees once gathered pollen and beekeepers face hardships from droughts and lack of financial assistance. 1... Beekeeping in the Fertile Crescent dates back to ancient Mesopotamia. However, beekeeping was virtually unknown in southern Iraq. In 2005, a small group of...engineers and farmers in Thi Qar province formed the Iraqi Beekeeping Association of Thi Qar and started to disseminate the culture of beekeeping

  7. Regional Spillover Effects of the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    as they consider these camps to be an often miserable and dehumanizing last resort for dealing with dis- placed people.36 Still, serious problems...of thousands” of women and girls in Syria support themselves in this way.49 Tragically, Iraq women forced into this life are in danger not only from...the normal hazards associated with prostitution but have in some instances been murdered by male relatives in “honor killings.”50 In a number of

  8. Organic food purchase habits in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary organic food market has both demand and supply oriented aspect: several times not necessary products are distributed while the selection and volume of certain products are not satisfactory. Thus our aim was to develop a coordinated benchmark strategy to increase the trade of organic products. To get more details about the Hungarian organic food market we applied the “mystery shopping” method to observe changes in organic food supply and carried out a quantitative survey using a 1,000 member countrywide panel. Our results indicate that organic origin is considered somewhat important for every 4th respondent, while only 3.7% of the interviewees paid attention to put organic food products into their cart. The most serious obstacle is the doubt of surveyed individuals about the authenticity and the alleged benefits of organic products, complete with a high perceived price. “Price” is the most influential factor on shopping decision, but the advantageous “constant quality” and “health benefit” factors are just following it. Most of the respondents stated that they buy organic products directly from the producer (27.4%, but small retail outlets are likewise popular (though to a somewhat lesser extent. In conclusion, there is potential demand for ecological food products in Hungary. Although the proportion of conscious consumers is small; it significantly exceeds the current market share of the products. Consumers should be approached with better prices, smart retailing solutions and through awareness raising.

  9. Rare and little known Collembola species from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler, D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Pseudosinella bohemica Rusek, 1979 and Folsomides marchicus (Frenzel, 1941 are recorded from Hungary, the latter species for the first time. An illustrated morphological description of the two species is presented.

  10. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  11. Higher Education in Hungary: Facing the Political Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas

    1990-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of the integration of Hungary's higher education system into Europe's, in a discussion which covers the Hungarian system's structure and functions; participation in higher education; organization and management; and finance. (DB)

  12. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  13. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  14. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  15. Women Pose Innocent Victims of Landmines in Postwar Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Soroush

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Although in the last few years there has been an increasing attention to the problem of landmines, to date, the implications of women being victims of landmine has not been duly dealt with in the world including Iran, which is estimated to be the second most landmine infested country in the world. Still, provinces by the west border of Iran, 18 years after cessation of Iraq-Iran war suffer from the burden of vast areas, highly infested with landmines. This study aimed to provide a gender focused insight into landmine accidents in Iran."nMethods: In this retrospective study, women with documented deaths or injuries due to landmine and/or unexploded ordnances (UXO explosions as documented in their medical records between Jul 1988 (after ceasefire and Feb 2003 were studied in 5 western provinces of Iran. Data was analyzed by SPSS for Windows Version 11.P value under 0.05 was consid­ered statistically significant."nResults: During the 14-year study period, 252 women from 5 western provinces of Iran were reported to have injuries or death due to landmine and UXOs. All of the victims were civilians and the majority of them (47.6% had one or more amputations. Most of them were injured in the period between1994 and 1998. The majority of the patients were young."nConclusion: Women who should take care of themselves as well as their families are more prone to sufferings inflicted by landmines and UXO.

  16. Fission products from the damaged Fukushima reactor observed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Árpád; Dezső, Zoltán; Bujtás, Tibor; Manga, László; Lencsés, András; Dombóvári, Péter; Csige, István; Ranga, Tibor; Mogyorósi, Magdolna; Veres, Mihály

    2014-01-01

    Fission products, especially (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) were detected in many places worldwide shortly after the accident caused by natural disaster. To observe the spatial and temporal variation of these isotopes in Hungary, aerosol samples were collected at five locations from late March to early May 2011: Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI, Debrecen, East Hungary), Paks NPP (Paks, South-Central Hungary) as well as at the vicinity of Aggtelek (Northeast Hungary), Tapolca (West Hungary) and Bátaapáti (Southwest Hungary) settlements. In addition to the aerosol samples, dry/wet fallout samples were collected at ATOMKI, and airborne elemental iodine and organic iodide samples were collected at Paks NPP. The peak in the activity concentration of airborne (131)I was observed around 30 March (1-3 mBq m(-3) both in aerosol samples and gaseous iodine traps) with a slow decline afterwards. Aerosol samples of several hundred cubic metres of air showed (134)Cs and (137)Cs in detectable amounts along with (131)I. The decay-corrected inventory of (131)I fallout at ATOMKI was 2.1±0.1 Bq m(-2) at maximum in the observation period. Dose-rate contribution calculations show that the radiological impact of this event at Hungarian locations was of no considerable concern.

  17. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  18. Teaching Career Skills in War-Torn Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliah, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    While western Iraq's Anbar province was making headlines with its voter turnout this past December 2005, a quieter turnout of its young men was making headway graduating from school. In Habbaniyah, a volatile city where rockets and mortars destroy buildings and lives all too suddenly and frequently, the Iraq Construction Apprentice Program (ICAP)…

  19. Rules of Engagement: Three Perspectives of Violations in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    02, 71. 25 Deborah L. Jaramillo , Ugly War, Pretty Package: How CNN and FOX News Made the Invasion of Iraq High Concept (Bloomington, IN, Indiana...histoy_lessons/2002/01/fighting _fair.html Jaramillo , Deborah, L. Ugly War, Pretty Package: How CNN and FOX News Made the Invasion of Iraq High Concept

  20. Reparations for U.S. war crimes against Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corlett Angelo J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the basic tenets of just war theory and those of United States law regarding compensatory justice, it is argued that the U.S. invasion of Iraq from 2003-present is morally unjust and that the U.S. owes substantial reparations to Iraq.

  1. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  2. The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: A Policy Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG771 Goldsmith, Jack L. III, Assistant Attorney General, “‘Protected Persons’ in Occupied Iraq,” memorandum to Alberto ...R. Gonzales , Counsel to the President, March 18, 2004. Goodman, Amy, “Seymour Hersh and Scott Ritter on Iraq, WMDs and the Role of the Clinton

  3. Iran - waiting and watching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-07-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this... shall provide only products from Iraq or Afghanistan or services from Iraq or Afghanistan under...

  5. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    media efforts directed at the Iraqi’s and the new ruling elite. In the past, posters of martyrs littered the street of Shia neighborhoods in Iraq...Shia population at large and the government, which is currently incapable of developing the tourism infrastructure necessary in providing for the

  6. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  7. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  8. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Erika; Farkas, Ágnes; Kucsera, István

    2016-09-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free-living amebae that can be found in almost every range of environments. Within this genus, numerous species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK is a corneal disease that is predominantly associated with contact lens use, the epidemiology of which is related to the specific genotype of Acanthamoeba. This study reports seven (7/16; 43.75%) positive cases. Detection of Acanthamoeba in corneal scrapings is based on cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with the molecular taxonomic identification method. By PCR, seven samples were positive; cultivation was successful for five samples, probably because of the low quantity of samples. Genotype identification was carried out with a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR assay based on sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, and sensitivity and specificity were evaluated in comparison with traditional parasitological techniques. All seven detected Acanthamoeba strains belonged to the T4 genotype, the main AK-related genotype worldwide. These results confirmed the importance of a complete diagnostic protocol, including a PCR assay, for the clinical diagnosis of AK from human samples. Genotyping allowed the identification of all isolates in the T4 group, thus demonstrating the prevalence of this genotype in Hungary.

  10. Chemical Fertilizers Management Change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Urfi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of chemical fertilization in Hungary over the last three decades, could be divided into three periods: an extremely fast increase of consumption from the middle 60's to the middle 70's; a period of constancy till the 90's; permanent decrease, the phase of new reckless exploitation up to the present. The Hungarian nutrient-management has had a strongly negative nutrient-balance for the last 8 years. This fact is quite a problem for our country in meeting the expectations of EU member-states. Due to accumulation and consumption of nutritive materials in the soil, the income redistribution took place between the 80's and the 90's. Behind extreme soil utilization in planting practice, lie new environmental risks and negative economic effects. Although special conditions call for specific measures, these facts don't seem to be important either to legal administration or to the media. Therefore, the environment policy of not decreasing the nutrient content of soils any longer, is urgent.

  11. DIFFICULTIES OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE TISZA (TISA) REGION, HUNGARY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MÁRIA VASVÁRI; KATALIN ERDŐS MARTONNÉ

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary. In this paper the water-based tourism characteristics of Eastern Hungary are studied, mainly concerning the tourism development problems...

  12. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  13. 75 FR 26938 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both Iraq and the United States, and identification... International Trade Administration Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue.... Secretary of Commerce and the Iraq Minister of Trade established the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue...

  14. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East......, and its brand of Shi‘ism  has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  15. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  16. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East......, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  17. Teaching and Learning Science in Hungary, 1867-1945: Schools, Personalities, Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of teaching science in Hungary during both the time of the dual monarchy and the newly established independent Hungary after 1920. The integration of Hungary into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918) strengthened the effect of German speaking European science, the results of which were…

  18. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  19. Displaying Diaspora: Chinese Christian Presence in Hungary after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article draws attention to the significance of the “Christian” component in researching Chinese migrants’ presence in post-1989 Hungary within the framework of Chinese globalization and the globalization of Chinese Christianity. After a brief review of the dynamics of Chinese migration to Hungary and special focus on the formation of Chinese Christian Communities, the article examines how the concept of diaspora and the rhetoric built around it is used by missionaries to create new ways of understanding the world from migrants’ perspective and interpreting migration experiences as empowering and liberating divine arrangements for the well-being of their current residence and beyond. The case of Chinese migration to Hungary shows that the concept of diaspora implies a diverse range of community formation practices and the complexity of negotiating Chineseness, which highlights the need of revisiting the very concept of diaspora as reduced to a homogeneous and ethnically essentialized community.

  20. Lung cancer drug therapy in Hungary – 3-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldvay J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Judit Moldvay,1 György Rokszin,2 Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth,2 Lajos Katona,3 Katalin Fábián,4 Gábor Kovács5 1Department of Tumor Biology, National Korányi Institute of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2RxTarget Company Ltd, Szolnok, Hungary; 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 4Department of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 5National Korányi Institute of Pulmonology and Tuberculosis, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Hungary is a world leader in lung cancer deaths, so it is of crucial importance that patients have access to modern treatments. The aim of our analysis was to explore how drug treatments are used in Hungary and how they are compatible with international practice. The inpatient and prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary was used to study the frequency of certain chemotherapy protocols and duration of therapies during a 3-year period (2008–2010. During the study period, 12,326 lung cancer patients received first-line chemotherapy, a third of those (n=3,791 received second-line treatment, and a third of the latter (n=1,174 received third-line treatment. The average treatment duration was between 3 and 4 months. The first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly consisted of platinum treatment in combination with third-generation cytotoxic agents. A downward trend of gemcitabine, still the most common combination compound, was observed, in parallel with a significantly increased use of paclitaxel, and as a consequence carboplatin replaced cisplatin. Among the new agents, the use of pemetrexed and bevacizumab increased. Pemetrexed appeared mainly in second-line treatment, while erlotinib appeared also in second-line but mostly in third-line treatments. The first-line treatment of small-cell lung carcinoma consisted of a platinum–etoposide combination, while in the second-line setting

  1. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  2. World War II mythologies and the prewar reconstruction of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Beeny, Tara Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation interrogates the positionality of postconflict reconstruction efforts in Iraq within the broader discourse of the liberal peace and liberal reconstruction. It examines how U.S. policymakers planned and articulated the reconstruction of Iraq in relationship to historical examples, specifically the cases of West Germany and Japan. It questions how U.S. policymakers understood and utilized the examples of post-World War II reconstruction and the effect those examples had on the...

  3. Local Security, Policing, and Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    wisdom of my advisor, Dr. Paul Melshen. I would also like to thank Dr. Robert Antis and Colonel James Dickens , USA, who taught me so much about strategy...Eagleburger, Vernon Jordan, Edwin Meese III, Sandra Day O’Connor, Leon Panetta, William Perry, Charles Robb, and Alan Simpson, The Iraq Study Group...Edwin Meese III, Sandra Day O’Connor, Leon Panetta, William Perry, Charles Robb, and Alan Simpson. The Iraq Study Group Report. Washington, DC

  4. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  5. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system. Keywords: Planning Policy, Bilingualism, Education, Culture, Harmony, Language Shift

  6. Rain water harvesting at eastern Sinjar mountain, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Saleh; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad; Knutsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Iraq is facing water shortages and the problem is becoming more serious with time. The main water resources of Iraq (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) suffer from severe reduction in their discharges due to construction dams on the both banks of Rivers inside Turkey and Syria. Agricultural land had been reduced drastically due to water scarcity. Despite this fact, none of the Iraqi farmers had yet used non-conventional techniques to augment water resources to overcome water shortage problems such ...

  7. Contractors’ Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    significantly more than equivalent military personnel. For example, in Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes’s estimates of the overall cost of the war in...1287. Stiglitz , Joseph E., and Linda J. Bilmes. 2008. The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict. New York: W.W...operating in Iraq, with as many as 25,000 employees working for the U.S., Iraqi, and coali- 22. See Stiglitz and Bilmes (2008), p. 12. Their figures

  8. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  9. Electricity for Iraq; Elektriciteit voor Irak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    Twelve months after the official end of hostilities in Iraq, electricity supplies are back to pre-war standards. Nevertheless, it had been hoped that the situation would be much better by now, however power supplies remain nowhere near what a thriving community needs. Attacks and kidnappings do not make things any easier, with many large foreign companies scaling their activities down to the bare minimum. [Dutch] Een jaar na het officiele einde van de oorlog is de elektriciteitsvoorziening in Irak weer op het peil van voor de oorlog. Dat is fors minder dan gepland en slechts een fractie van wat een gezonde samenleving nodig zou hebben. De aanslagen en ontvoeringen maken het werk er niet eenvoudiger op. Grote buitenlandse concerns hebben hun activiteiten op een laag pitje gezet.

  10. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  11. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  12. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

  13. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  14. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mihaly; Durko, Matyas

    This document contains two case studies which provide an idea of the types of adult education programs available in Hungary. The first case study, prepared by Mihaly Sari, describes "The Month of Protecting Our Environment," a program developed in the small town of Puspokladany by a club of amateur anglers, a society for propagating…

  15. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, B.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise

  16. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  17. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  18. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  19. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  20. The Schools of Austria-Hungary. Bulletin, 1919, No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Peter H.

    1919-01-01

    The political changes now taking place in Austria-Hungary will be followed undoubtedly by far-reaching alterations in the school system, whereby old modes will be swept away and new ones inaugurated. In the present sketch the attempt is made to treat only such problems and movements as are likely to continue in some form and thereby maintain a…

  1. Politico-economical aspects of transition in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article the author portrays the past as the resource for the post-socialist transition in Hungary. He emphasizes that the market-based reforms in Hungary and exit for the Hungarian citizens into the small markets outside the state property system prove to be an asset for the transition. In the second part of the article the author delineates the specificities of Hungarian transition especially the externally-dependent form of emerging capitalism developed by the reforms in the 1990s. Besides he deals with the fragile relationships between the capitalism and democracy in Hungary concerning the role of trade-unions and measures concerning the work place. It is important to contextualize the Hungarian case within the frame of post-socialist transition and take into account its uniqueness. In the last part the author points to the problems Hungary confronts during the implementation of the so-called second-generation of transition reforms.

  2. Perspectives, Hopes and Disappointments: Higher Education Reform in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajos, Tamas

    1993-01-01

    Broad proposals for reform of higher education in Hungary are outlined. It is argued that the change needed is so great that neither higher education nor government can accomplish it independently; instead, limited and controlled conflicts between the interest of higher education and those of society must precipitate action. (MSE)

  3. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise meanin

  4. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  5. Otter Distribution, Status and Conservation Problems in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemenes I.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The river otter Lutra lutra has been protected in Hungary since 1974 and became strictly protected in 1978. However, the first and so far only survey of its distribution was carried out by me in 1987-88. I now report the results of this survey and discuss the present status and conservation problems of otter in Hungary. Otters are most plentiful in the south west. Because of contamination of many water courses, otters are dependent on fish farms of various sizes. Until now, these were subsidised, but now they are in private hands, but no compensation for otter-related losses are available, owners on low incomes cannot afford expensive mitigation measures. They would welcome the live-trapping and removal of problem otters, but the government would need to sponsor suitable areas for release of these animals. Conservationists in Hungary are seeking support for such a scheme. We think that it would be in the interest of the conservationists of Europe to help to maintain Hungary as one of the strongholds of otter and we are inviting suggestions and ideas on how to achieve this.

  6. Education of Roma Youth in Hungary: Schools, Identities and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajeva, Jekatyerina

    2017-01-01

    Historically, schools have been homogenizing institutions that often disadvantaged people of color and ethnic and religious minorities. In this article I examine Roma education in Hungary, focusing on (re)production of racial identities and the negotiation of ethnic labels. I distinguish two models of education as they relate to ideas of…

  7. Teaching the System of Social Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyigas, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Provides an inside perspective on the development of social work education in Hungary during the final years of communism and after the country regained its independence, when there was a strong focus on re-introducing social work and social sciences which had been repressed by the socialist regime in its denial of social problems and thus, its…

  8. Occurrence of Rare Tree and Shrub Species in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTHA, Dénes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Botany has been focusing on investigating rare taxa of theHungarian dendroflora since 1989. The research dealt with nearly 50 species regarding conditions of occurrence, habitat preference, reproduction and possible conservational management up to 2003. In the investigation of species, chorology was of primary importance. Since 1993 occurrence data have been systematically collected. As a first result, CEU grid-maps of 142 species, including all the rare dendrotaxa in Hungary, were published (Bartha – Mátyás 1995 using grid squares of 10' long. × 6' lat. equalling approx. 12 × 11 km. With organizational and methodological experience, focuses have moved to processing, correction and mapping of reference, herbaria and new field records. A detailed evaluation of the distribution of 34 rare species in Hungary was made and published (Bartha et al 1999. The Department of Botany at the University of West Hungary has been project coordinator of ‘Floristic Mapping of Hungary’ since 2001. The present study describes actual distribution maps of 20 rare tree- and shrub species with short analyses of their conditions in Hungary.

  9. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    long-coveted city of Kirkuk. The violence has affected the key driver of Iraq’s economy —its production and exportation of oil. Production levels...growth of oil exports appears to be fueling a rapid expansion of the economy . Iraqi officials estimated that growth was about 9% for 2013. Press...built up by the Qadhafi regime. It donated $100,000 and provided advisers to support elections in Tunisia after its 2011 revolution.41 Iran The

  10. Using Satellite Sensing to Study the Impact of Climate and Human Changes in the Mesopotamian Marshlands, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al barakat, R. H. R.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Iraqi Marshes (30°5'- 32°5'N and 44°5'- 48°5'E) considered as a one of the most important wetlands in the world and during past decades the marshlands area has varied between 10,500 km² to 20,000 km² during flood. These marshes are a good environment for variety of plants such as Reeds and Papyrus and home for many different species of birds. The three main marshes that make up the Iraq Marshes are - Al-Hammar marsh, Al-Huwaizah Marsh and The Central Marshes (Al-Omarah Marsh). They are supplied freshwater from two main rivers in Iraq - Tigris and Euphrates and from Karkha River that flows from Iran. We use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to monitor the behavior of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series between 1982 and 2014 as well as other land surface variable - Land Surface Temperature (LST), Evapotranspiration (ET) and Rainfall rates using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). In this research we divided the study into three periods (1982-1990, 1991-2003 and 2004-2014) and the marshes are exposed to a few significant droughts during 33 years. In this study we will examine the relationship between water cycle and land surface variables during these three periods.

  11. Snapshot of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Iraq is specific in having its own most predominant lineage (SIT1144/T1 which is not found among neighboring countries. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR can be useful in discriminating M. tuberculosis isolates in Iraq.

  12. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in three ethnic groups from Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Børsting, C;

    2013-01-01

    A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds....... However, this was most likely due to chance. High intrapopulation variability and no significant population structure were observed among the three ethnic groups from Iran. Pairwise FST values obtained from the mean numbers of pairwise differences between SNP profiles were calculated for Persians, Lurs......, Kurds and eighteen other worldwide populations. For each of the three Iranian ethnic groups, the lowest FST values calculated between an Iranian and non-Iranian populations were observed between Iranians and populations in Iraq and Turkey. The three Iranian ethnic groups grouped together with other West...

  13. Recent Sighting of Smooth-Coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli in Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1956, there were very few sightings of Iraq Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli especially after the Iraqi marshlands inundation. In April 2015, an adult male Iraq Smooth-coated Otter was trapped near Al-Edheam, in the northern part of Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq. The recent sighting along with present photographic record represents very rare evidence documenting the occurrence of L. p. maxwelli otter in Iraq since the1950s.

  14. Hungary 70”: Non-remembering the Holocaust in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pető, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of memory studies is usually focusing on processes of remembrance, looking at the actors, sites, processes, institutions of remembering. This article however looks at non-remembering as a conscious strategy of not participating in commemorations of the 70th Anniversary of the Holocaust in Hungary. It claims that lack of common language, the imprisonment of a “true” versus “false” dichotomy is contributing to the further pillarisation of the Hungarian memory culture.Los estudios de memoria privilegian habitualmente el análisis de los procesos de rememoración y recuerdo, tomando como base el estudio de los actores sociales, los lugares, los procesos y las instituciones del recuerdo. Este artículo, sin embargo, se enfoca en el proceso contrario, el de la ausencia de recuerdo como una estrategia consciente, en relación a la no participación en el 70 aniversario del Holocausto en Hungría. Argumenta que la carencia de un lenguaje común y la rigidez de la dicotomía “verdadero” o “falso” está contribuyendo a la polarización de la cultura memorialista húngara.

  15. Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006,” The New England Journal of Medicine , January 31, 2008, pp. 484-492. Iraq Casualties: U.S...Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006,” The New England Journal of Medicine , January 31, 2008, pp. 484-492. k. Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7023 Preference for products or services... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan... solicitation entitled “Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan” (DFARS 252.225-7024)....

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010)...

  18. The Influence of the of Iraq Kurdistan Banking System to Development of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sheykkha Nissrat Sabir

    2013-01-01

    The author is examine the questions of development of the financial and credit System in Iraq and Iraq Kurdistan, the most substantial problems are distinguished in forming and development of the banking system of Iraq and Kurdistan, and also their influence on development of industry of tourism.

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1. Applicability... prohibition. No person may conduct flight operations over or within the territory of Iraq except as...

  20. Investigation of dust storms entering Western Iran using remotely sensed data and synoptic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloorani, Ali D; Nabavi, Seyed O; Bahrami, Hosain A; Mirzapour, Fardin; Kavosi, Musa; Abasi, Esmail; Azizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    One of the natural phenomena which have had considerable impacts on various regions of the world, including Iran, is "dust storm". In recent years, this phenomenon has taken on new dimensions in Iran and has changed from a local problem to a national issue. This study is an attempt to investigate the formation of the dust storms crossing the Western Iran. To find the sources of the dust storms entering Iran, first we examine three determined dust paths in the region and their temporal activities, using MODIS satellite images. Then, four regions were identified as dust sources through soil, land cover and wind data. Finally, atmospheric analyses are implemented to find synoptic patterns inducing dust storms. Source 1 has covered the region between the eastern banks of Euphrates and western banks of Tigris. Source 2 is in desert area of western and south-western Iraq. Finally source 3 is bounded in eastern and south-eastern deserts of Saudi Arabia called Rub-Al-Khali desert, or Empty Quarter. Moreover, south-eastern part of Iraq (source 4) was also determined as a secondary source which thickens the dust masses originating from the above mentioned sources. The study of synoptic circulations suggests that the dust storms originating from source 1 are formed due to the intense pressure gradient between the low-pressure system of Zagros and a high-pressure cell formed on Mediterranean Sea. The dust events in sources 2 and 3 are outcomes of the atmospheric circulations dominant in the cold period of the year in mid-latitudes.

  1. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  2. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  3. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kamal K

    2012-02-01

    Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7 ± 9, BDL to 93.0 ± 3 and BDL to 343.1 ± 12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h(-1)), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials.

  4. Climate of Hungary in the twentieth century according to Feddema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Ferenc; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Feddema's (Physical Geography 26:442-466, 2005) bioclimatic classification scheme is applied to Hungary for the twentieth century using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data series. The method is tested in two modes. In the first, its original form is used which is suitable for global scale analysis. In the second, the criteria used in the method are slightly modified for mesoscale classification purposes. In both versions, potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated using McKenney and Rosenberg's (Meteorol 64:81-110, 1993) formula. We showed that McKenney and Rosenberg's formula could be applied to Hungary. According to Feddema's global scale application, local climates of the three main geographical regions, the Great Hungarian Plain, the North Hungarian Mountains, and Transdanubia, can be distinguished. However, the spatial distribution pattern within the regions is poorly reproduced, if at all. According to Feddema's mesoscale application, a picture of climatic subregions could be observed.

  5. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) clonal seed orchards in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly Redei; Zoltán Osváth-Bujtás; Irina Veperdi

    2006-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important stand-forming tree species in Hungary and its importance is increasing in many countries. The main aim of the discussed new selection programme is to identify black locust clones with good performance and good form for setting up clonal seed orchards. As a result of selection programme 16 new black locust clones have been improved. In spring 2002 a black locust seed orchard was established with the newly selected clones. About 40% of the plants can be considered to belong to the height growth rate class 1 and 2. Hungary was the first country where micropropagated black locust planting material was used for seed orchard establishment.

  6. The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

    2009-02-01

    The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kvaček & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Kučlin (Bohemia).

  7. Living with CO{sub 2}: experiences from Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M.; Nador, A.; Toth, E. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    In areas of Hungary, seepage of CO{sub 2} to the surface is an everyday occurrence and the villagers continue to live there quite happily, having learnt to adapt their buildings to reduce any risk. Indeed, the innovative Hungarians have turned the seepage of CO{sub 2} to their advantage and created a local industry based on a therapeutic treatment of immersion in CO{sub 2} and another selling naturally carbonated water. The article describes a visit by the NASCENT project team to this volcanic area of northern Hungary where high CO{sub 2} and radon concentrations are exploited. The NASCENT project is studying natural accumulations of CO{sub 2} to understand how CO{sub 2} is trapped in these reservoirs, the safety and stability of storage and the long term effects of migration to the surface. 4 figs.

  8. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  9. Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology of Some Medicinal Plants Used in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hawraz Ibrahim M; Ibrahim, Mohammed F; Hussain, Faiq H S; Sardar, Abdullah Sh; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The majority of Kurds inhabit a region that includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. This review shows that the traditional medicine is still used by Kurdish peoples and underlines the medicinal value of a great number of plants used locally. The medicinal uses include the treatment of a variety of diseases, ranging from simple stomach-ache to highly complicate male and female disorders; even sexual weakness and kidney stones are treated by plants. The majority of the plants that are used are for curing gastro-intestinal disorders and inflammation, followed by urinary tract disorders, skin burns, irritations and liver problems. In the last part of this paper, we also report the first results of our ongoing research project on the constituents of some uninvestigated Kurdish medicinal plants. The C-glycosylflavone embinin, the α-methylene acyl derivative 6-tuliposide A, and the iridoids aucubin and ajugol were isolated for the first time from Iris persica, Tulipa systole and Verbascum calvum, respectively. These plants are traditionally used against inflammation, pain, and skin burns.

  10. Wage setting in Hungary: evidence from a firm survey

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We document results from a survey of wage setting in Hungarian enterprises. The survey was developed and coordinated by the Eurosystem Wage Dynamics Network, and it was administered in 17 European countries; this allows us to put the Hungarian findings in context. The main conclusion from the survey is that while Hungarian firms operate in a quite flexible institutional environment, their wage setting practices are relatively rigid. In its wage setting outcomes, Hungary shares more similariti...

  11. Georeferencing the historical cadastral map sheets of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, Gábor; Biszak, Sándor

    2010-05-01

    In the historical Hungary, as a part of the Habsburg Empire, the first preserved and systematic cadastral survey was carried out between 1856 and 1859. Interestingly enough, this cadastral mapping, which was called in Hungary as 'Provisional' was surveyed simultaneously with the Stable Cadastre in the Austrian regions of the Empire. By the commission of the State Archives of Hungary, the Hungarian company Arcanum Ltd. scanned over 46,000 cadastral sheets of the Provisional Cadastre, mostly covering the present-day Hungary but also some copies covering parts of the present-day Croatia, Slovakia and Austria. The base ellipsoid was the Zach-Oriani hybrid (a=6376130 m; f=1/310). The fundamental point of the geodetic datum was the eastern pillar of the later destroyed astronomical observatory on the Gellérthegy, Budapest and the abridging Molodensky parameters from this datum to WGS84 are: dX=+1763 m; dY=+282 m; dZ=+568 m. The Cassini projection can be used for GIS integration with a projection center at the Gellérthegy with longitude=19d 3m 5.55s east of Greenwich; latitude=49d 29m 15.97s. The sheets were rectified by the calculated coordinates at the corner points. With the above given projection and datum parameters, the cadastral mosaic, based on the individual sheets and the digitized borders of the administrative units, is presented in any modern coordinate systems in GIS. Using this feature, the product is published as a DVD series by old counties as well as the distribution in the Internet.

  12. Psychosocial determinants of premature cardiovascular mortality differences within Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Maria; Skrabski, Árpád; Szántó, Zsuzsa; Siegrist, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The life expectancy gap between Central‐Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Hungary, and Western Europe (WE) is mainly attributable to excess cardiovascular (CV) mortality in midlife. This study explores the contribution of socioeconomic, work related, psychosocial, and behavioural variables to explaining variations of middle aged male and female CV mortality across 150 sub‐regions in Hungary. Design Cross sectional, ecological analyses. Setting 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Participants and methods 12 643 people were interviewed in Hungarostudy 2002 survey, representing the Hungarian population according to sex, age, and sub‐regions. Independent variables were income, education, control in work, job insecurity, weekend working hours, social support, depression, hostility, anomie, smoking, body mass index, and alcohol misuse. Main outcome measures Gender specific standardised premature (45–64 years) total CV, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular mortality rates in 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Results Low education and income were the most important determinants of mid‐aged CV mortality differences across sub‐regions. High weekend workload, low social support at work, and low control at work account for a large part of variation in male premature CV mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most noticeably to variations in premature CV mortality rates among women. Low social support from friends, depression, anomie, hostility, alcohol misuse and cigarette smoking can also explain a considerable part of variations of premature CV mortality differences. Conclusion Variations in middle aged CV mortality rates in a rapidly changing society in CEE are largely accounted for by distinct unfavourable working and other psychosocial stress conditions. PMID:16905723

  13. Private pension funds in Hungary : early performance and regulatory issues

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri

    1996-01-01

    Despite the limited scope resulting from the high payroll taxes for the compulsory, unfunded public pillar in Hungary's pensions system, the early voluntary private pensions fund performance has been encouraging. Investment returns have been well above the inflation rate and participation has expanded rapidly. However, the sector is highly fragmented and regulatory weaknesses exist: no compulsory use of custodian and licensed asset managers; use of book values and cashflow accounting rather t...

  14. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Paldy; Janos Bobvos

    2010-01-01

    In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality). Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mort...

  15. Development of millisecond and internal delayed electric detonators in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, D.

    1986-01-01

    The stages of developing millisecond and internal delayed detonators are discussed. The problems of their practical introduction in Hungary as well as the economic background of their production are outlined. The present situation, i.e. production possibilities, application of different detonator types as well as the expected progress in the field of detonator production and use in mines endangered by fire-damp are dealt with.

  16. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  17. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  18. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  19. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  20. Human trichinellosis in Hungary from 1965 to 2009*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatz K.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis was first documented in Hungary in 1891 and then there were an increased number of reports up to 1964 when the most severe outbreak occurred. After that, no information was available on the international literature on human trichinellosis which occurred from 1965 up to the present years. The aim of this study was to collect all the data available in Hungarian official data-sources on human trichinellosis which occurred from 1965 up to 2009 in Hungary. Furthermore, a comparative analysis was performed on the different serological tests used along the 45 years of investigation. In the period in question, 573 infections were documented in Hungary. Of them, 57 occurred in the years 1965-69, 130 in 1970-79, 302 in 1980-89, 27 in 1990-99, and 57 in 2000-09. The most common sources of infection were pork from backyard pigs and hunted wild boars. Sporadic cases and small family outbreaks marked the last ten years. The comparison of serological tests shows that the ELISA is a good test for the first screening, but ELISA-positive serum samples should be confirmed by western blot except for clinically clear-cut cases.

  1. Becoming a Mother in Hungary and Poland during State Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transition to motherhood in the first co-residential union in the dual-earner context of state socialism, namely in Hungary and Poland between the late 1960s and the end of the 1980s. Our analyses are based on data extracted from the Polish and the Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of the early 1990s. We use the hazard regression method as our analytical tool. Our results for Hungary indicate that women's employment does not necessarily reduce the propensity to become a mother if the combination of labor-force participation and family life has been facilitated by policy measures. In Poland however, this was more difficult, and state support was somewhat less generous, thus part-time workers and housewives had substantially higher first-birth intensity than full-time employed women. Even so, we find indication for Poland, that as policy measures increasingly improved the conditions to combine employment and family responsibilities, the propensity to have the first child increased. The timing of first birth varied greatly across educational levels. Highly educated women were more likely to postpone the transition to motherhood, which in turn resulted in their overall lower propensity to have the first child in both countries, but less so in Hungary than in Poland.

  2. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  3. The Iran-Iraq War of Exhaustion: The Result of the Paradoxical Trinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-05

    annihilation, the army is the critica -l cotnponent of the trinity. And, second, in (r-Ont inied on other side of form) 20 DISTRIBIJTION ’AVAILABILITY OF...citizens are soldiers in the revolution, and in response to the threat of U.S. military retaliation to the hostage crisis , Khomeini called for the... Crisis May Decide Gulf War." Jane’s Defense Weekly, 16 August 1986. pp. 246-247. Olson, William J. "The Gulf War: Peace in our Times?" Parameters

  4. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  5. Iranian Operational Decision Making: Case Studies from the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    intentions, they began a disinformation campaign, feeding false intelligence to the Iraqi high command through double agents.90 Because of these measures...planned a very large disinformation operation in which the Americans, the Soviets, and the Iraqis were deceived. This operation...featured the use of decoys, feints, and a disinformation campaign that success- fully fooled not only the Iraqis, but also their American allies

  6. Saddam’s War: An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    saddam hussein’s personality according to the theories of [ Sigmund ] Freud or [Alfred] Adler, or even [Ivan] Pavlov. We need the theories of these...psychologists because they bring in different elements: freud was the founder of the theory of the analytical method in psychology; adler is the one who

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of aridity indices in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şarlak, Nermin; Mahmood Agha, Omar M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the spatial and temporal variations of the aridity indices to reveal the desertification vulnerability of Iraq region. Relying on temperature and precipitation data taken from 28 meteorological stations for 31 years, the study aims to determine (1) dry land types and their delineating boundaries and (2) temporal change in aridity conditions in Iraq. Lang's aridity (Im), De Martonne's aridity (Am), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) aridity (AIu), and Erinç aridity (IE) indices were selected in this study because of the scarcity of the observed data. The analysis of the spatial variation of aridity indices exhibited that the arid and semi-arid regions cover about 97% of the country's areas. As for temporal variations, it was observed that the aridity indices tend to decrease (statistically significant or not) for all stations. The cumulative sum charts (CUSUMs) were applied to detect the year on which the climate pattern of aridity indices had changed from one pattern to another. The abrupt change point was detected around year 1997 for the majority of the stations. Thus, the spatial and temporal aridity characteristics in Iraq were examined for the two periods 1980-1997 and 1998-2011 (before and after the change-point year) to observe the influence of abrupt change point on aridity phenomena. The spatial variation after 1997 was observed from semi-arid (dry sub humid) to arid (semi-arid) especially at the stations located in northern Iraq, while hyper-arid and arid climatic conditions were still dominant over southern and central Iraq. Besides, the negative temporal variations of the two periods 1980-1997 and 1998-2011 were obtained for almost every station. As a result, it was emphasized that Iraq region, like other Middle East regions, has become drier after 1997. The observed reduction in precipitation and increase in temperature for this region seem to make the situation worse in future.

  8. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available California mastitis tests (CMT and white side test (WST were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79% and Escherichia coli (27.65%. This is the first report on subclinical mastitis report in Duhok area of Iraq.

  9. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  10. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  11. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  12. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  13. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  14. Environmental contamination by mercury in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernelöv, A

    1976-01-01

    Following the outbreak of organomercury poisoning in Iraq, an investigation was carried out during the spring and summer of 1972 to evaluate environmental contamination by organomercury.Analyses were performed on fish of several species (not typical predators) and on a few specimens of aquatic birds (not fish-eating). Most fish samples contained concentrations in muscle ranging from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg. These concentrations are within the range found in tropical rivers. Higher figures, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg, were found downstream from a caustic soda plant south of Baghdad. A few cases of very high mercury concentrations (25-30 mg/kg) were reported from an area where fish kills had occurred. Aquatic birds (ducks and waders) contained low concentrations of mercury (900-2750 ng/g). Tail feathers of seed-eating birds were found to contain 13 500-21 000 ng/g of mercury, which is about 10 times higher than values reported from Ethiopia and within the range found in Sweden and Canada. Insect-eating birds contained 1850-5200 ng/g, which is thought to be slightly elevated. Extremely high concentrations of mercury were found in muscle tissue of dead seed-eating birds (15 000-40 000 ng/g), while feathers contained similar concentrations (9000-52 000 ng/g). These extremely high concentrations were found only in the vicinity of storehouses where treated seed was kept. No birds of prey could be caught and analysed.

  15. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  16. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  17. 75 FR 21597 - Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq AGENCY: International... business culture in which deals are made on the strength of personal contacts. This trade mission offers U... an opportunity to begin identifying appropriate business partners. Mission Goals The goal of the...

  18. Iraq, Women’s Empowerment, and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    magazine, Layla. Doreen Ingrams, The Awakened: Women in Iraq, London: Third World Centre, 1983, p. 91. 42 32. Jacqueline S. Ismael and Shereen T. Ismael...Circumcision in North,” UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, www.irnnews.org/, last visited 02/02/06. 49 Ismael, Jacqueline S., and Shereen

  19. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework f

  20. Synchronizing USG Efforts Toward Collaborative Healthcare Policy Making in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Kaufmann (Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, October 2008), v. 37 LTC Lisa Forsyth of the Stabilization Office...some of the previous pitfalls experienced with training forces in Iraq. 61 Jane Ward, Kerrie Lindberg, Daniel McNulty and Mona Ternus, “A Global

  1. Consequences of the Iraq War for International and Constitutional Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that international law can be changed by state practice as it has been attempted by the attacking parties in the Iraq war, but also that their objective has failed because of unclear, changing, and mutually contradictory aims stated for the invasion. The incidents raise the need...

  2. review article two perspectives on the recent war in iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Ashcroft and Johnson view the war from two very different perspectives, their narratives ... gun in Iraq is James. Ashcroft's first book and Escape from Baghdad, his second. ..... the lowest, paid any attention to the international propaganda about the 'Coalition of .... the Second World War and the Vietnam War.35. Johnson's ...

  3. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration…

  4. 75 FR 55463 - Iraq Stabilization and Insurgency Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... the sale or marketing thereof obstructed the orderly reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and... marketing thereof, and interests therein, in which any foreign country or national thereof has any interest..., cultural, rare scientific, and religious importance that were illegally removed, or for which a...

  5. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The…

  6. Governing through Early Childhood Curriculum, "the Child," and "Community": Ideologies of Socialist Hungary and Neoliberal Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of state ideology in the formation of kindergarten curriculum documents in socialist Hungary during the 1970s and in contemporary neoliberal Australia. The study explores two landmark curriculum documents, of Hungary and Australia, respectively, comparing the ways in which "the child" is conceptualized in…

  7. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  8. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  9. Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after…

  10. Art Education in Post-communist Hungary: Ideologies, Policies, and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Andre; Gaul, Emil

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the interdisciplinary approach to art education in Hungary. Begins with the acceptance of the Kodaly method in the 1970s during the communist regime. Continues with Hungarian independence and the adoption of the National Core Curriculum in the early 1990s. Includes a concise explanation of Hungary's educational system. (MJP)

  11. Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after…

  12. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  13. Destined to be defaulted: Local government insolvency and bailout in post-transition Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barati-Stec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the waves of democratization and the development of the public administration and public finances in Hungary, with special attention municipalities caused by the changes in sub-national finance regulation since 2010. During the transition yeas, Hungary was very forward looking and the first among CEE countries to end central planning and to introduce market rules into the economy. Everybody expected the decentralization to be a success story. 25 years later, Hungary not only failed to meet the expectations, but also undergone though a situation in 2008 to start a massive recentralization process. This paper puts fiscal decentralization in Hungary in a historical context while critically investigating the findings of recent literatures on decentralization process in Hungary. The critical investigation of past experiences and reform steps of the current government suggest possible reform measures to solve the financial problems of Hungarian municipalities.

  14. Aspects of Anti-Semitism in Hungary 1915-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Before 1914 the vocabulary of anti-Semitism was already present in public discourses in Hungary, but it did not yet represent the central problem of a still ‘liberal Hungary.’ With the First World War, the Hungarian middle classes became the main losers in the social disruption of Hungarian society. 1916 must be seen as the turning point of the social splits and divisions. The former policy of the “Burgfrieden,” or party truce, was undermined by the profound psychological experiences of the war. In this context, old anti-Semitic stereotypes prejudices were reactivated while new ones emerged. Jews, in general, came to be treated as internal enemies, earning huge profits from the war at the expense of Christian Hungarian society that was being ruined. This paper analyzes three stages of growing anti-Semitic agitation in Hungarian society during the war: First, the attacks against the banks around 1916; second, the public debate on the Jewish question in 1917, opened by the publication of the book A zsidók útja [The Path of the Jews] by the sociologist Péter Ágoston and intensified by the “inquiry into the Jewish question” of the journal Huszadik Század [Twentieth Century]; third, the surge of anti-Semitism that began with anti-Semitic speeches in the Hungarian Diet in 1917, leading to a broad anti-Semitic campaign by predominantly Catholic newspapers, in which Otto Prohaszka and Bela Bangha were the leading figures. The thesis is that Hungarian anti-Semitism was far from being a spontaneous outburst of popular feelings. It was fairly well organized and coordinated, mainly by ecclesiastical circles. It was the First World War that proved to be the catalyst, contributing to an extreme anti-Semitism and thereby sealing the fate of “liberal Hungary.”

  15. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis strains from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Makrai, László; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Fodor, László; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

  17. Food irradiation in Hungary: commercial processing and development work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, B.; Szikra, L.; Ferencz, P.

    2000-03-01

    The result of an experiment with irradiated frozen poultry meat is presented. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the benefit of irradiation treatment for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. We found that an average dose of 4.5 kGy kills the bacteria in the meat. Agroster was involved in an EU project on the identification of irradiation treatment of spices and data from this project are presented. Commercial irradiation of spices has been used for more than 15 years in Hungary, proving the benefit of this technology

  18. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethes, G. (Allatorvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls.

  19. Start of exploration and mining of uranium ores in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolay, I.; Szomolanyi, G. (Mecseki Ercbanyaszati Vallalat, Pecs II (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The mining of uranium ores is the youngest branch in the history of the Hungarian ore mining. The exploration for uranium ores started in Hungary in the decade from 1947, using simple methods at the beginning to apply more developed technologies later on. From the year 1952 Soviet geologists and geophysicists joined the explorations using the most advanced instruments, in co-operation with the Hungarian experts. From 1953 explorations and developments have been concentrated on the SW area of Mountain Mecsek so that by 1957 the preliminary conditions of a successful Hungarian uranium mining were established.

  20. Analysis of production capacity in coal mining operations. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csicsay, A.; Moharos, J.

    1985-01-01

    The longwall mining machines in coal mines are extremely expensive. In the intensive periods of development most of the investments were expended to this machinery but their productivity was found to stay below expectations. After the assessment of the reasons the solution for this problem was sought and new measures were introduced. The analysis covered the survey of the losses and the service times experienced in 19 heavily mechanized longwall mines representing over half of this type in Hungary. Propositions to reduce time and financial losses and to improve the efficiency of mining machines are presented.

  1. Food irradiation in Hungary: commercial processing and development work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, B.; Szikra, L.; Ferencz, P

    2000-03-01

    The result of an experiment with irradiated frozen poultry meat is presented. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the benefit of irradiation treatment for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. We found that an average dose of 4.5 kGy kills the bacteria in the meat. Agroster was involved in an EU project on the identification of irradiation treatment of spices and data from this project are presented. Commercial irradiation of spices has been used for more than 15 years in Hungary, proving the benefit of this technology. (author)

  2. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  3. Iran funds dam completion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iran has signed a contract with unnamed foreign financiers for US$300M to fund two half-finished dam schemes, according to Tehran radio. The schemes are the Ostur dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan province and the Molla Sadra dam in Fars province. The Ostur dam will have a storage capacity of 2B m3 and a 160 MW hydro power station.

  4. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  5. Special Operations Forces of Hungary: Is a Transformation Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    the HDF’s grade structure is somewhat distorted, if one considers a pyramid as a desirable shape representing the numbers in various grades: less...high ranking officers on top, more enlisted in the base of the pyramid . In the end of 2008, there were 5,072 officers, 7,207 12 NCOs and 5,644...Unit, Bosnia ), MH ÖBZ (SFOR Security and Guard Battalion, Bosnia ), MH Száll.Z (Transport and Security Battalion, Iraq), KGYSZD (ISAF Light Infantry

  6. Astronomy in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  7. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  8. Suffering Has No Race or Nation: The Psychological Impact of the Refugee Crisis in Hungary and the Occurrence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Kéri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “European migrant crisis” is one of the greatest social, political, and cultural challenges since World War II. Hundreds of thousands of people exposed to multiple psychological traumas are trying to find shelter in Europe. It would be indispensable to gain more information about the mental health of these individuals. The aim of the present study was to explore the occurrence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among refugees arriving in Hungary. Participants received the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Revised (HTQ, which was validated against the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0 (MINI. We interviewed 450 asylum seekers (332 male, 43% from Syria. There were 189 men (57% and 85 women (72% who received the diagnosis of PTSD. Altogether, 274 asylum seekers (61% met PTSD criteria. Individuals from Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq plus other countries displayed similar PTSD rates. The extremely high occurrence of PTSD in asylum seekers suffering from the global crisis calls for immediate attention and efforts to implement integrated solutions in Europe.

  9. Genetic analysis of H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulated in broiler flocks: a case study in Iraq in 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraidi, Qayssar Ali; Madadgar, Omid; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been recorded in Eurasian for several years. Since 2004-2005, the disease has become endemic in Iraq, causing serious economic losses in the poultry industry. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), two out of eight protein-coding genes, play an important role during the early stage of infection and hinder virus assembling. Little is known about the genetic information of the H9N2 viruses currently circulating in Iraq; thus, gene sequences of six AIVS of the H9N2 subtype have been detected and analyzed in the period of 2014-2015 from different outbreaks of broiler flocks in five provinces situated in the middle and southern parts of Iraq. Genetic comparison of the partial sequences of HA gene indicated that all Iraqi viruses are related to each other and could be divided into two subgroups. Viruses of the first and the second subgroups demonstrated a high similar identity with Pakistani and Iranian viruses, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the NA protein of the all studied Iraqi viruses were very similar (95.2-100% identity), and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with Iranian, Pakistani, and Lebanese strains. All six recent viruses possessed histidine, alanine, and leucine at positions 183, 190, and 226, respectively, which are the key residues in receptor-binding sites. The Iraqi viruses were closely related to viruses of G1-like lineage isolated from poultry flocks of Iran and Pakistan, suggesting that possible epidemiological links could be derived from a common origin. Further investigations are required and should include the viral isolation and full-length molecular characterization of H9N2 AIVs in this area.

  10. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  11. The missing credit informat ion system in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA KIRÁLY

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is one of a few countries that do not operate either a national, non-profit, or a profit oriented business-based complete mandatory credit information system (i.e., credit register or credit bureau. In its absence, the Hungarian banks have not enough information on their borrowers to evaluate their creditworthiness, to apply behavioural scorings or proper risk management and credit pricing tools. The debate on the necessity of a complete credit information system has almost a decade long history in Hungary. Until now, despite all the professi onal arguments, the counter arguments from the point of view of personal data protect ion proved to be stronger. The lack of the complete credit information system became even more painful during the recent financial crisis, when the quality of the retail credit portfolio significantly deteriorated. This paper presents the most important milestones of the institutional history of the struggle for the complete credit information system and analyses the tendencies on the Hungarian retail lending market, with special regard to the lack of it.

  12. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Négyesi, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Kovács, Tamás; László, Elemér; Bihari, Zita

    2016-11-01

    Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover). Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5' resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH) method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0-5 cm) layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc.), to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  13. Lack of evidence of teratogenicity of benzodiazepine drugs in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A

    In order to investigate possible teratogenic effects of commonly used benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam) in Hungary, four approaches were used: 1. A retrospective case-control study of 630 cases with isolated cleft lip +/- cleft palate, 179 cases with isolated cleft palate, 392 cases of multiple congenital anomalies including cleft lip and/or cleft palate, and their matched control cases; 2. The Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Anomalies in Hungary, 1980 to 1984, involving 355 cases with isolated cleft palate, 417 cases with multiple congenital anomalies, and 186 cases with Down's syndrome (as positive controls). Benzodiazepines were taken by 14.9% of 11,073 control pregnant women studied; 3. A prospective study of 33 pregnant women attending the Counselling Clinic following ingestion of benzodiazepines during the first trimester of pregnancy; 4. An observational study involving 12 pregnant women who attempted suicide and one with accidental overdosage with benzodiazepines during pregnancy. None of these four approaches gave any indication of an association between facial clefting and in utero exposure to these substances.

  14. Allelopathic Effects of Invasive Woody Plant Species in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSISZÁR, Ágnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy may play an important role in the invasion success of adventive plant species.The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive woody plant species occurringin Hungary. Juglone index of fourteen invasive woody plant species in Hungary was determined by themethod of Szabó (1997, comparing the effects of juglone and substance extracted of plant species withunknown allelopathic potential on the germination rate, shoot length and rooth length of white mustard(Sinapis alba L. used as receiver species. Results have proven a more or less expressed allelopathicpotential in case of all species. The juglone index at higher concentration extracts (5 g dry plant materialextracted with 100 ml distilled water of almost every studied species approaches to 1 or is above 1, thismeans the effect of the extracts is similar to juglone or surpasses it. In terms of juglone index, theallelopathic potential of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.Swingle and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. were the highest. Besides these species the treatment withthe extracts of black walnut (Juglans nigra L., black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. and green ash(Fraxinus pennsylvanica MARSH. var. subintegerrima (Vahl Fern. reduced extremely significantly thegermination rate, shoot and root length, compared to the control.

  15. Hungary in transition: Environmental, economic, and political realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csanady, A. (ELTE Nature Conservation Club, Budapest (Hungary)); Csutora, M. (Budapest Univ. of Economic Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Feher, S.; Melanson, M. (Global Environment, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Karas, L. (Peace Corps, Budapest (Hungary). Environmental Programs); Radnai, A. (Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-01-01

    In the several years since the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet government, the unfortunate state of the environment in Hungary has become evident. After the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet approach to resource management and the first free democratic elections in Hungary, the state of the environment improved immediately in some areas due to the bankruptcy of heavy industries suddenly bereft of Soviet subsidies. Currently, the government is struggling with the development of NEPA-like legislation (the Environmental Act), which is intended to be modeled after the environmental acts of western countries and in harmony with the European Communities guidelines. The Environmental Act will include a section dealing with requirements for environmental impacts assessment. The most immediate and obvious environmental problems are air pollution and the contamination of potable groundwater and surface water supplies. Nearly 20% of the population now depends on contaminated drinking water sources, and 40% of the population is exposed to significant air pollution. Sources of ground and surface water contamination are the intensive, centralized agricultural practices which were initiated in the early 1960's, and the disposal of hazardous and toxic wastes by both the private sector and by the Soviet military at abandoned installations throughout the country.

  16. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    2010-01-01

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers in

  17. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  18. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  19. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  20. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Quaterly and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    Electricity Sector engineers, who provided day-to-day technical supervision and implementation management of GRD’s plan to bring Units 5 and 6 online ...telephone, mail, fax, and online contacts from people in Iraq, the United States, and throughout the world. Second quarter Reporting As of June 30, 2007...Investigative Task Force for Iraq Reconstruction SPOC Sector Project and Contracting Office Contractor TAMU Texas A&M University TBI Trade Bank of Iraq

  1. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction: Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    Sector engineers, who provided day-to-day technical supervision and implementation management of GRD’s plan to bring Units 5 and 6 online . GRD...fax, and online contacts from people in Iraq, the United States, and throughout the world. Second quarter Reporting As of June 30, 2007, SIGIR...Task Force for Iraq Reconstruction SPOC Sector Project and Contracting Office Contractor TAMU Texas A&M University TBI Trade Bank of Iraq TF-BSO

  2. Was the Decision to Invade Iraq and the Failure of Occupation Planning a Case of Groupthink?

    OpenAIRE

    Scheeringa, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the decision to invade Iraq and the failed planning for the occupation of Iraq. Since Janis introduced groupthink in 1972, the groupthink perspective has been used to explain foreign policy disasters such as the failure to anticipate the Pearl Harbor attack and the Bay of Pigs. However, the groupthink perspective is not universally useful for explaining foreign policy mishaps. While some have attributed the Iraq war to groupthink, the groupthink perspective has not bee...

  3. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  4. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-28

    Report on Iraq to Congress.” Jan. 17, 2001. 9 Sipress, Alan . “U.S. Funds Satellite TV to Iraq.” Washington Post, Aug. 16, 2001. 10 GAO study, Apr. 2004...cited above. 11 Brinkley , Joel. “Ex-CIA Aides Say Iraq Leader Helped Agency in 90’s Attacks.” New York Times, June 9, 2004. 12 Hersh, Seymour

  5. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.A. Alkhaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1 and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1 more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

  6. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  7. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  8. Far forward feasibility: testing a cricothyroidotmy simulator in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Mark W; Manahl, Michael; Acosta, Eric; Stutzmen, Joshua; Liu, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This study describes our experience with using a virtual reality simulator, CricSim, to enhance the training of combat medics to perform a cricothyroidotomy (surgical airway) while in Iraq. Over a six month period, 65 medics used the simulator as part of a Combat Medic Advanced Skills Training class while in Iraq and were asked to evaluate it. Students self-assessed comfort level with the procedure improved dramatically from baseline (p<5.6 x 10(-17)). The CricSim was rated highly on realism but only moderately on ease of use. The use of this simulator in a far forward setting was feasible, enhanced training, and provided necessary end-user feedback for future development of this training platform.

  9. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors.

  10. Human rabies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Howaizi, Nader; Biglari, Peyvand; Gholami, Alirez

    2014-10-01

    Like most Asian and African countries, Iran is highly endemic for rabies, which is a preventable disease with the timely utilisation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). With the availability of affordable vaccination in Iran, there are still several rabies deaths which are assumed misdiagnosed or received ineffective PEP. We reviewed the files of 16 human rabies deaths, consisting of two groups: 1, ineffective treatment; and 2, erroneous PEP. Most of the studied cases were male and were from rural areas. Stray dogs were found to be the common biting animal (68.75%). Of the patients, 10/16 (62.5%) who had injuries on their head and/or face demonstrated shorter incubation periods. The incubation period was longer in a 4-year-old boy who sustained injuries in his abdomen and back. All the patients in group 1 received four doses of vaccine and administration of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG), and death occurred with the mean of 49 days after the bite. This mean was 27 days in three patients in group 2, who received vaccine without administration of HRIG. In a total of 1,188,579 cases of PEP given in Iran during: 2002-2011, it is not known whether all PEPs were correctly administered by World Health Organization standards. Extending rabies awareness programmes and timely PEP education in the community in accordance with the implementation of rabies control measures might lead to a decrease in these unfortunate scenarios and heavy financial burden of vaccination required due to the prevalence of rabies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  12. The status of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in Hungary: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Halmos Gergő; Nagy Károly; Karcza Zsolt; Szép Tibor

    2015-01-01

    The Hoopoe is a widespread species in Hungary with the strongest populations on the Great plains. The fact that in 2015 it became ‛The Bird of the Year’ in Hungary offers the possibility to summarise the information about the distribution, population size, dispersion, migration as well as the nature conservation status of the Hoopoe population breeding in Hungary. In the period of 1999–2014 the number of breeding pairs and trend of population level was estimated based on the Common Bird Censu...

  13. Assessment potential wind energy in the north area of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. Hassoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is renewable and environment friendly, which can be connected for various end-uses. A precise knowledge of wind energy regime is a pre-requisite for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. However, due to the absence of a reliable and accurate Iraq Wind Atlas, further studies on the assessment of wind energy are necessary. The main purpose of this paper is present and perform an investigation on the wind energy potential in the northern area of Iraq. Therefore, in this study, wind data collected over a period of nearly three decades at five different locations in order to figure out the wind energy potential in this region. The data from selected stations were analyzed using the two-parameter Weibull probability distribution function. The higher probability frequency wind speed at windy month (July is found in Tuz and Tikrit stations. In Tuz the range (2.5-3.0 m/s taken about 45% from the domain wind, In Tikrit the high ranges of wind (3.5-4.0 m/s and (4.0-4.5m/s form 40.9% and 36.4% of wind speed frequency, but high frequency of low wind speed is concentrated at Biji, Kirkuk and Mosul. This is reflected on The maximum expected energy output (13.5kw/h occupied at Tikrit station. Overall The study presented here is an attempt to promote wind energy in north Iraq and to bridge the gap in order to create prospective Wind Atlas of Iraq.

  14. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-01-01

    California mastitis tests (CMT) and white side test (WST) were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79%) and Escherichia coli (27.65%). This is the first report on subclinical mastitis repor...

  15. THE AMERICAN WAY OF WAR: AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Mariana Gonzalez Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Import...

  16. Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    toppling of the regime, Iraq was also characterized by anomie. The concept of anomie, developed in the work of Emile 39 Durkheim and subsequently...behavior unconstrained by standard notions of what is acceptable. For Durkheim , this typically resulted from a crisis or transition in society in...concept of anomie, see The Durkheim and Merton Page at Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom, available at www.mdx. ac.uk/WWW/STUDY

  17. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Partic...

  18. Q Fever in US Military Returning from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    defervesced within 24 ours after starting empiric doxycycline, and his Q fever erology later returned positive. Both soldiers noted goats andering through the... Brucella , Ehrlichia, nd several Rickettsia species. Although it is endemic in Iraq, only 3 cases of Q fever ere reported during the Gulf War (1990-1991).3...most likely associated with the goats in the nvironment. In addition, although rheumatoid factor, ntiphospholipid antibodies, and smooth muscle

  19. United States Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Implementation in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    High 2 Commissioner Henry Gurney initiated some changes in 1950, but it was the arrival of General Gerald Templer in 1952 that led to ultimate...Library. Bacevich, A. J., James D.Hallums, Richard H. White, and Thomas F.Young. 1988. American Military Policy in Small Wars: The Case of El...Collection, Fort Leavenworth, KS. Iraqi General Officers. 2003. Transcription of interview by Colonel Green and CW4 Holton on 24 May at Camp Bucca, Iraq

  20. The Cost and Economic Corruption of the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    prices on the global economy with an in-depth analysis of the United States and China in 2004.10 Along similar lines, Coilin Nunan analyzed the...www.economicscenarios.com/pdfredir_sample.asp?issueNo=9 accessed March 2007. 11 Coilin Nunan , Oil, Currency, and the War in Iraq, November, 2004 http...effects of the war on oil prices, Coilin Nunan challenged the economic prowess of the United States as not being as stable as most think. Furthermore

  1. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  2. What Strategic Outlook Holds for America in Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zugui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Agreat controversy is stirring up the world opinion over the future direction of developments in Iraq, a matter affecting overall U.S. foreign policy and even the international power configuration as well. An accurate assessment, however, requires analyzing the relevance of the issue to U.S. vital interests, the results of its current policy over there and its ability to cope with further potential challenges. The author rules out U. S. giving up its cause in Iraq or the likelihood of any drastic modifications in its present policy. He also concedes its ability to achieve partial successful reconstruction in the war-torn country, albeit in a scaled-down version, far short of its original much-vaunted expectations. In sum, Washington will naturally make constant policy adjustments to meet challenges for realization of its dynamic phased goals and maintain its continued military presence there in a certain form so as to ensure its strategic interests in Iraq,the Greater Middle East and even the entire "arc of instability."

  3. [Gymnastics and therapeutic gymnastics in 19th century Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölnei, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Gymnastics as a way of healing and of preserving health spread in Hungary--almost exclusively among higher classes--only in the first half of the 19th century. The movement was inspired by naturopathic theories of the time, first of all by Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland's macrobiotics, by Vinzenz Priessnitz's hydrotherapy and by his healing gymnastics. Gymnastics has been utilized from the 30ies by a new bough of medicine, orthopaedy. The so called Swedish Gymnastics invented by Per Henrik Ling and by his son Hjalmar Ling or the method of the German gymnast Adolf Spiess were well known in Hungary as well. The pediatrist Agost Schöp-Merei founded the first Institute for Gymnastics in Pest in 1835. As orthopaedy developed, gymnastics was more and more utilized in curing locomotor disorders. Gymnastics however stood in close connection with hydropathy as well. Several institutes for hydropathy and gymnastics were founded in the 50ies and 60ies throughout the country. The most popular of them were those of Károly Siklósy and Sámuel Batizfalvy. Preventive gymnastics gained popularity only in the second half of the 19th century, as 1830 the French gymnast Ignatius Clair moved to Pest and founded the "Pester gymnastische Schule" (Gymnastics School of Pest). This private school flourished till 1863. The Gymnastic Federation of Pest (later National Gymnastics Federation), the first Hungarian sport club was founded in 1866. Tivadar Bakody played an important role in its creation. Gymnastics and sport at the beginning were closely connected with fire-service, so gymnastics clubs often functioned also as fire-guard-bodies. In the 70ies and 80ies the social basis of sport movement was slowly broadened out. The end of the century saw already 44 gymnastics-clubs in Hungary united in a single union, the National Federation of Gymnasts, which organized the education of the profession as well. The trend of development didn't cease up to the Great War. This time the movement was

  4. Landslide susceptibility estimations in the Gerecse hills (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, Gerzsenyi; Gáspár, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Surface movement processes are constantly posing threat to property in populated and agricultural areas in the Gerecse hills (Hungary). The affected geological formations are mainly unconsolidated sediments. Pleistocene loess and alluvial terrace sediments are overwhelmingly present, but fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the latest Miocene, and consolidated Eocene and Mesozoic limestones and marls can also be found in the area. Landslides and other surface movement processes are being studied for a long time in the area, but a comprehensive GIS-based geostatistical analysis have not yet been made for the whole area. This was the reason for choosing the Gerecse as the focus area of the study. However, the base data of our study are freely accessible from online servers, so the used method can be applied to other regions in Hungary. Qualitative data was acquired from the landslide-inventory map of the Hungarian Surface Movement Survey and from the Geological Map of Hungary (1 : 100 000). Morphometric parameters derived from the SRMT-1 DEM were used as quantitative variables. Using these parameters the distribution of elevation, slope gradient, aspect and categorized geological features were computed, both for areas affected and not affected by slope movements. Then likelihood values were computed for each parameters by comparing their distribution in the two areas. With combining the likelihood values of the four parameters relative hazard values were computed for each cell. This method is known as the "empirical probability estimation" originally published by Chung (2005). The map created this way shows each cell's place in their ranking based on the relative hazard values as a percentage for the whole study area (787 km2). These values provide information about how similar is a certain area to the areas already affected by landslides based on the four predictor variables. This map can also serve as a base for more complex landslide vulnerability studies involving

  5. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF DISABLED EMPLOYERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Nagymáté

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays employment is an evergreen topic in Hungary. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the state (on the basis of the 8/1983. EüM-PM Hungarian Law, for example for the group n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. My main goal is to analyze the n#8216;rehabilitationn#8217; of disabled people and to study the related firms and the connection between the employers and employees. My intentions were also to create a strategy for these people to be employed again and for the firms to be motivated to employ them. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217; can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities. Unfortunately, most of the enterprises donn#8217;t intend to employ disabled persons. Questionnaires were created in order to study the relationship between people living with disabilities and their possibilities to get employed on the labour market again. My study had two phases. In the first phase we focused on individual persons providing anonymity of the questionnaires. The research focused on special rehabilitation firms and their employees too (they are specialised to employ disabled employers. Two questionnaires for the above mentioned firms and their employees were created in order to gather information on their activities as well as relationship between the firms and its employees. It can be stated that this paper shows the relationship between the employers and employees. I will analyze the importance of factors in working among employers and

  6. Trichinellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahdavi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nTrichinellosis is both of veterinary and medical importance in countries where pig breeding and pork consumption exists. In Iran, people are forbidden to consume pork because of the religious regulations. Therefore, there have not been any human cases over the past decades except a doubtful case based on serological test. Although there are some sylvatic trichinellosis in wild life in different parts of Iran, but a little is known about the current prevalence in wild animals. To date, some cases of Trichinella nelsoni  in  golden jackals from Khuzestan Province; Trichinella spiralis  in wild boars, brown bears, golden  jack­als, jungle cat, from Mazandaran Province and stray dogs, Jackals, red fox, hyena, Meriones percicus in Isfahan; finally T.spiralis nelsoni in Herpestes auropuntatus from Khuzestan were reported. Based on these data  and consumption of ani­mal derived food products among some local hunters,  and not a safe and insure rodent control,  trichinellosis could be con­cern as an emerging disease, so more investigation and clinical awareness are needed in this regard.

  7. The reconstruction of science and technology in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pungor, E.; Nyiri, L.

    1993-01-01

    The revolutionary changes that have taken place in Eastern and Central Europe were triggered by a deep socio-economic and political crisis - primarily caused by the fact that these countries could not respond to the increasingly decisive challenges encountered since the mid 1970s. The intensive growth of the role of scientific and technological factors in competitiveness was not evident in the COMECON markets. One of the most interesting, and at the same time most exciting tasks of the ongoing transformation process is exactly how to change this situation. Hungary has set out to transform its complete science and technology system, based on the knowledge acquired in basic research, the existing system of international relations, and cultural traditions going back many centuries. 4 tabs.

  8. Management of black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species to be imported from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is the most important fast-growing stand-forming tree species in Hungary . Black locust plantations can be successfully established in response to arange of economic and ecological opportunities. Plantation survival and productivity are maximized by matching the species' growth characteristics with silvicultura l options and land management needs. In the paper the sequence of forest tending operations in black locust stands is proposed, based on results of long-term st and structure and forest yield trials. Implementing good silvicultural plans and models will lead to profitable black locust stands and greater acceptance of the species by land managers. Black locust would also beavery useful species for energy productions as the related research results have been shown in the paper .

  9. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  10. Talent identification in Hungary: From identification to investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Péter-Szarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of talent identification practices and challenges in Hungary. First, it gives a summary of gifted education in the country; then the general challenges of talent identification are introduced: difficulties of defining talent, talent as potential, environmental factors, the role of perseverance and motivation, and individual variety. Later, recent Hungarian identification practices are shown, followed by a summary and a conclusion about how our identification practice should be developed into an investigation of individual characetristics. We propose stronger focus on the use of cognitive profile tests, investigation of interest-based characteristics, the use of observation and dynamic assessment methods, teacher nomination and emphasizing the need for effort. The focus from identification toward investigation exploring individual needs and characteristics to provide the most appropriate pathway for development in the 21st century seems to be a more effective way of talent support than mere selection.

  11. Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, T; Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Varga, I

    2003-08-14

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence and worm burden of extraintestinal nematodes in 100 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Hungary. The overall prevalence of nematode infections of the respiratory tract was 76%. Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila) was the predominant species (66%), followed by Crenosoma vulpis (24%), Eucoleus (Capillaria) böhmi (8%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (5%). Pearsonema (Capillaria) plica was found in 52% of the urinary bladders. In 3% of the foxes, Trichinella britovi was present in muscle samples. The high prevalence of lungworms and P. plica and the fox colonisation in urban areas may enhance the prevalence of these nematode infections in domestic dogs and cats, and the flow of T. britovi from the sylvatic cycle to the domestic cycle, enhancing the risk of infections in humans.

  12. Neolithic pottery at Polgar-10 (Hungary: measuring the habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chapman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is self-evidently true that ceramics form the largest component of the artefact assemblages of the Neolithic and Copper Age of Central and Eastern Europe, yet we are still poorly informed about the final stage of the life of most vessels – their ultimate disposal. In this paper, I wish to consider the ways in which pottery can be studied with respect to disposal and deposition. An assessment of ten different kinds of pottery analysis is made, using site single contexts as the main unit of analysis. I propose that these analyses constitute ways of measuring Bourdieu’s term “habitus”. This contextual analysis is based on examples taken from the Neolithic settlement of Polgar-10, in North East Hungary, excavated by the Upper Tisza Project in 1994.

  13. STATISTICAL INFLUENCE OF LOCAL WEATHER ON CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MIKA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible effects of weather anomalies on mortality in cardiovascular illnesses are investigated in Hungary. Long-term (1971-2005 archives of ca. 2.0 million fatalities are analyzed. The mortality data are individually opposed to seven diurnal meteorological parameters, i.e. the mean, maxima and minima of temperature, cloudiness, wind speed, relative humidity and sea-level pressure. All investigations are performed for Budapest, with ca. 2 million urban dwellers, and for the rest of the county (the ‘rural’, representing over 8 million inhabitants in average of the 35 investigated years. The results support the decreasing (in winter and increasing (in summer effect of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in the rural environment, but this effect is not evident in summer for Budapest. Statistical effects of the other weather variables are less unequivocal.

  14. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improvement in Hungary: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÉDEI, Károly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the first forest tree species introduced andacclimated from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is a fast growing,nitrogen fixing, site tolerant, excellent coppicing species with frequent and abundant seed productionand relatively high yielding potential. It has a durable and high quality wood, which is used for manypurposes. Although native of North America, black locust is now naturalized and widely plantedthroughout the world from temperate to subtropical areas. In Hungary, this species has played a role ofgreat importance in the forest management, covering approximately 23% of the forested area andproviding about 19% of the annual timber output of the country. Due to the increasing interest in blacklocust growing in many countries, this study has been compiled with the aim of giving a summary onthe basis of research and improvement connected with the species over the past decades.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paldy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality. Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mortality by 10%; and the risk of death due to cardio-vascular diseases by 12%. The frequency of heat waves has been increasing since the nineties. The most extreme heat wave hit the country in 2007 with an excess mortality around 1100 cases. A three level heat health warning system was launched in 2005 as an action to support adaptation. A significant association was found between global radiation and the increase of melanoma cases. The incidence of melanoma morbidity increased between 2003– 2008, the number of new cases changed from 1854 to 2610. The data of the previous years support that there is an increasing risk of vector borne diseases, as the continuous increase of the incidence of Lyme diseases (15% per year showed it. Although tick-borne encephalitis is present in the country, the incidence of the disease does not show a strong correlation with climate variability. Diseases like West Nile virus and Hanta virus infection appeared and showed an increasing tendency. The vector of Leishmaniasis also appeared in Hungary. Another consequence of climate change is the temporal and spatial change of allergenic plant species. New, invasive plants will appear, the length of pollination has been increasing.

  17. 78 FR 77426 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both Iraq and the United States, and identification of opportunities for U.S. and Iraqi firms to work together; and --Attracting U.S. businesses to opportunities in Iraq and serving as a catalyst for Iraqi private sector...

  18. Dynamics of linguistic and social change: Minority languages in Hungary and the sociolinguistic situation of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, minority languages and processes of language shift/maintenance have become an important scholarly concern. This paper aims to describe in brief the sociolinguistic situation of the Serbian minority language in Hungary with special attention paid to the relation between language ideology and processes of language shift/maintenance. The first section of this paper presents the current socio-political framework for protection of minority languages in Hungary. The second paper's section provides an overview of the main sociolinguistic surveys of the minority languages in Hungary that have had many centuries of contact with Serbian i.e. German, Romanian, Bulgarian, and Croatian. Finally, the paper provides a quick recapitulation of the Serbian language research in Hungary, and depicts the current sociolinguistic situation of Serbian.

  19. Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market economy

  20. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  1. Flocculation of coal sludges produced in Hungary using Hungarian made polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory tests on the flocculation of coal sludges produced in the Mecsek mines (South Hungary) are discussed. Having used polymers of high molecular weight and medium degree of hydrolysis, the initial slurry concentration is to be increased four fold for a setting time of some minutes. Comparison is made among various types of polymers. By means of polymers produced in Hungary for testing purposes, the setting can be made more efficient.

  2. Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    MÁRIA VASVÁRI; KATALIN ERDŐS MARTONNÉ

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary. In this paper the water-based tourism characteristics of Eastern Hungary are studied, mainly concerning the tourism development problems (deriving mainly from the administrative borders) of Lake Tisza in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) region. The fragmentation into planning-statistical and tourism regions, counties, townships, and the recovery of the geographical area demanding special development are not smooth. The...

  3. Quality Assurance Strategies of Higher Education in Iraq and Kurdistan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…

  4. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  5. Post-Saddam Iraq and the Challenges of Peace | Agbebaku | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Iraq / United States (US) differences have lasted for quite some time. ... of the three axis-of-evils, is considered a threat to international stability and global security. ... it as efforts made by US and its allies have failed to restore peace to Iraq.

  6. Geothermal gradients and geothermal oil generation in southern Iraq: a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Local geothermal gradients in South Iraq were used in calculating the time-temperature indices of source rock maturation, as modified by Waples (1980). Accordingly, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and probably Paleozoic rocks are calculated to be within the thermal petroleum generative zone in several parts of southern Iraq.

  7. "The Kurds and the Role of Kurdistan Region in Developing Iraq" Where are Iraq and the Iraqi Kurds heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonymous, Student Author

    Iraq remains one of the hot topics in world politics today and probably more so in the coming decades, with its Kurds as an ever-evolving puzzle of the country's domestic stability and regional conflict. In modern history, the Kurds' resistance to "occupiers" of their region became more evident with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, following which they were promised their independence. Due to reasons explained in Chapter One--with energy and oil being some of these reasons--this independence, however, led to nothing but fading ink on dusty paper. Since the Kurds were only partially assimilated into their host states, they were treated as though they had a status apart from the host state, yet the host state denied Kurdish efforts to achieve self-determination. In some cases, the host state denied the very existence of the Kurdish culture. This created an ambiguous situation in which Kurds variously saw themselves as nationals of their host states or as Kurds or as both. For the purpose of this thesis, attention will be given mainly to Iraqi Kurds and their struggle for the right to self-determination which they were finally able to achieve following the Gulf War in early 1990s, leading to the establishment of a regional Kurdish government in Northern Iraq (explained in Chapter Two). Chapter Three will focus on what some of the ways to mediate such disputes may be, including the introduction of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy. It will demonstrate how Iraq can take advantage of wind and solar energy as alternative means to oil, by which the country's economy can diversify, and the security situation and ecological conditions can improve. This thesis will further focus on some of the potential challenges in Iraq that may surface in the future, and whether the Kurds can play a role in stabilising the country by remaining part of it, and if so, what may be some of the responsibilities of the Arabs of Iraq in order to provide the required incentives to

  8. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  9. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  10. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  11. Iran’s Security Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    see William 0. Beeman , "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in Iran...Books, 1984. Beeman , William 0., "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in...University Press, 1986. Wilber, Donald N., Iran: Past and Present, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981. Woodward, Bob, veil, New York: Simon and

  12. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  13. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  14. Spider Bite in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  15. CONSANGUINITY IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.Farhud

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8641 married couples were investigated from 28 Iranian populations for consanguineous marriages and coefficient of inbreeding. The results showed considerable differences in the rate and kind of consanguineous matings among the various urban, rural, tribal, and religious populations studied. The observed frequencies of the consanguineous matings in the populations of Iran are higher than those reported previously for the Middle Eastern populations. First cousin matings occurred more than second cousin matings among most of the groups studied. Uncle-niece matings occurred only among the Jews. The observed results were expected, considering the cultural, ethnic, and religious differences, and also the ecological and geographical conditions of the populations studied.

  16. Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven M.

    This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the…

  17. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  18. Sediment sampling and processing methods in Hungary, and possible improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Eniko Anna; Koch, Daniel; Varga, Gyorgy

    2016-04-01

    , best organized in the upstream countries, where also on tributaries like the Drau/Drava monitoring stations are in operation. Sampling frequency of suspended load is 3 to 7 per year in Hungary, and even lower downstream. Sediment management is a major challenge, as most methods developed until now are unsustainable, require continuous intervention and are expensive as well. However, there is a new focus on the subject in the 21st century, which still lacks uniform methodological recommendations for measurements and analyses, and the number of engineers with sediment expertise and experience is alarmingly low. Data related to sediment quantity are unreliable and often contradictory. It is difficult to produce high quality long-term databases that could support and enable the mathematical calibration of sediment transport models. Sediment measurements are different in different countries in Europe. Even in Hungary, sampling and laboratory techniques have changed several times in the past. Also, sediment sampling was never really systhematic, and the sampling campaigns did not follow the hydrological processes. That is how sediment data can hardly be compared; and the data series are inhomogeneous and they cannot be statistically analysed. The majority of the existing sediment data in Hungary are not suitable for the data supply needs of state-of-the-art numerical modeling. It is even problematic to describe the connections between water flow (discharge) and sediment transport, because data are scarce and irregular. Even the most modern measurement methods (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler [ADCP], or Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometry [LISST]) need calibration, which means field sampling and laboratory processing. For these reasons we need (both quantitatively and qualitively) appropriate sampling of sediment. In frame of projects and programs of the Institute for Hydraulic engineering and Water management of Eötvös József College, we developed the

  19. Rainwater harvesting at Koysinjaq (Koya), Kurdistan region, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Saleh; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Mustafa, Yaseen; Knutsson, Sven; Ahmed, Payman; Ghafour, Bahra

    2013-01-01

    Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) has been tested at Koysinjaq (Koya) District, Kurdistan region of Iraq, due to its limited source of water.The studied area consists of four basins with total area of 228.96 km2. The estimating volumes of harvested runoff for the four selected basins together for the study period (2002-2011) were calculated using the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) which is based on Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method.In this research, a comparison between m...

  20. Narrative Manipulation of Images from the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    Hiles, David

    2006-01-01

    My personal feeling is that citizens of the democratic societies should undertake a\\ud course in intellectual self-defence to protect themselves from manipulation and\\ud control. (Noam Chomsky, 1989a)\\ud This paper is offered in the spirit of Noam Chomsky’s plea that everyone\\ud should undertake a course in Intellectual Self-Defence. Welcome then to\\ud ISD101. We will begin with the observation that anyone in the UK who\\ud watched the ‘breaking news’ coverage of the second Gulf war with Iraq,...

  1. Britiske søfolk splitter Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts......Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts...

  2. Compilation of geogenic radon potential map of Pest County, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, K. Zs.; Pásztor, L.; Horváth, Á.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Szabó, J.; Szabó, Cs.

    2010-05-01

    222Rn and its effect on the human health have recently received major importance in environmental studies. This natural radioactive gas accounts for about 9% of lung cancer death and about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe due to indoor radon concentrations. It moves into the buildings from the natural decay chain of uranium in soils, rocks and building materials. Radon mapping regionalizes the average hazard from radon in a selected area as a radon risk map. Two major methods (concerning the applied radon data) have been used for mapping. One uses indoor radon data whereas the other is based on soil gas radon data. The outputs of the second approach are the geogenic radon potential maps. The principal objective of our work is to take the first step in geogenic radon mapping in Hungary. Soil samples collected in Pest County (Central Region of Hungary) in the frame of a countrywide soil survey (Soil Information and Monitoring System) were studied to have empirical information of the potential radon risk. As the first two steps radium concentration of soil samples, collected at 43 locations sampling soil profiles by genetic horizons from the surface level down to 60-150 cm, were determined using HPGe gamma-spectroscopy technique, as well as measurement of radon exhalation on the soil samples were carried out applying closed radon accumulation chamber coupled with RAD7 radon monitor detector. From these data the exhalation coefficient was calculated, which shows how many percent of the produced radon can come out from the sample. This rate strongly depends on the depth: at circa 100 cm a drastic decrease have been noticed, which is explained by the change in soil texture. The major source of indoor radon is the soil gas radon concentration (Barnet et al., 2005). We estimated this value from the measured radon exhalation and calculated soil porosity and density. The soil gas radon concentration values were categorized after Kemski et al. (2001) and then the

  3. Regional processes in Hungary - From PHARE to Smart specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Józsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Europeanisation and regionalization, European convergence versus local divergence are important and timely questions as regards the future of EU cohesion policy, that originally aimed to reduce economic, social and territorial inequalities. Recently, it does not solely support regional development and stimulate modernization processes, but also aims to advance competitiveness, job creation, innovation, and sustainable growth and development (Europe 2020 strategy, especially at the sub-national level. The comparison of regional processes, institutional systems, experience and the originating potential future scenarios of transition economies are interesting but yet under-examined fields of study. Is there a specific way (trajectory of regionalization in transition economies, or practices vary from country to country? Do EU level policy changes affect national and sub-national level institutions and processes and if yes, for what extent? PHARE programmes were introduced in the early 1990s, short after the change of regime, and following the EU accession, Structural Funds have become the main public financial instruments in these countries, accompanied with a massive foreign direct investment flow. The subsequent EU programming periods and the connected terminology have been predominantly shaping regional policy in these countries; Operational Programmes, Action Plans, Logical Framework Approach, Project fiches, Regional Innovation Strategies, Local Action Groups, Competitiveness Poles, Clustering, Smart Specialisation, Re-industrialisation are only a few keywords that describe this era. The objective of this study is to present a qualitative framework to the evaluation of the period from 1990 to 2015 in Hungary, as a case study of the transition economies, with the identification of the most important milestones and tendencies of regionalization. The relevance of the research is supported by the recent elimination of the NUTS II (regional level

  4. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports...

  5. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Dóra J.; Szabó, Dóra J.; Russell, Greg; Kirby, Phil; Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients' satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination) and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants' experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation), as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software). Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening. PMID:28078306

  6. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Fozy, Istvan; Galacz, Andras

    2016-04-01

    A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian-Bathonian interval is presented from the Obanya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is less well constrained and studied that other Jurassic time slices. The Obanya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Obanya and Kisujbanya and provides excellent exposures of a near continuous Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected; the Bathonian ammonites are especially valuable as this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by thin-bedded limestones (the Obanya Limestone) and is overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites (the Fonyaszo Limestone). The new data indicates a series of positive anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope recorded from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enables us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata.

  7. Objective and subjective thermal comfort evaluation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajtar Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort sensation can be predicted in the most exact way based on Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV model. This evaluation method takes all the six influencing factors into consideration: air temperature and humidity, air velocity, mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces, clothing insulation, and occupants’ activities. Fanger’s PMV method was developed for temperate climate and European people, with the participation of university students as subjects. Many researchers had investigated its validity in different geographic locations (i. e. climatic conditions, people and under non-laboratory circumstances. The results were summarised by van Hoof which had been published in the scientific references. The articles gave us the idea to elaborate the former measurement results. During the last decades thermal comfort was evaluated by our research team using subjective scientific questionnaires and applying the objective Fanger’s model in several office buildings in Hungary. The relation between the PMV and actual mean vote values were analysed based on these results. Investigations were carried out under steady-state conditions in winter time. We performed objective thermal comfort evaluations based on instrumental measurements using the PMV theory. Parallel to this we assessed the subjective thermal sensation using scientific questionnaires. The mathematical relationship between the actual mean vote and PMV was defined according to the evaluated thermal environment: AMV = PMV + 0.275, (arg. –1.7 ≤ PMV ≤ +0.5.

  8. Structural Components of Lifestyle and Beyond: The Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of when and how lifestyle and its components are important in social stratification. There is considerable consensus among scholars about the structure of the society being a consequence of hierarchical dimensions like occupation, income, or wealth. Some thirty years ago, largely based on Bourdieu’s “Distinction”, a new paradigm emerged highlighting the lifestyle components and the value-oriented cultural and material consumption in stratifi cation. The idea refl ects the empirical fi nding that inequality between social classes has largely decreased, giving priority to horizontal lifestyle differentiation instead of vertical inequality dimensions. From a theoretical viewpoint, a challenge in the approach is finding out to what extent lifestyle typology is of a non-vertical character in reality. This social determination of lifestyle is investigated for Hungary when comparing an occupation-based typology with a consumption-based one. On the one hand, results reveal that the effects of structural components on social status are stronger than those of lifestyle. On the other hand, lifestyle turns out to be less independent of social position and the top and bottom levels of the lifestyle typology are particularly predictable by structural measures.

  9. Hydraulic evaluation of the hypogenic karst area in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Erőss, Anita; Czauner, Brigitta; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst area, in central Hungary, is in the focus of research interest because of its thermal water resources and the on-going hypogenic karstification processes at the boundary of unconfined and confined carbonates. Understanding of the discharge phenomena and the karstification processes requires clarification of the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to present a hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on analyses of the archival measured hydraulic data of wells. Pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps and hydraulic cross sections were constructed, based on the data distribution. As a result, gravitational flow systems, hydraulic continuity, and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified in the karst area. The location of natural discharge areas could be explained and the hydraulic behavior of the Northeastern Margin Fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. The flow pattern determines the differences in the discharge distribution (one- and two-component) and related cave-forming processes between the Central System (Rózsadomb area) and Southern System (Gellért Hill area) natural discharge areas. Among the premises of hypogenic karstification, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the River Danube.

  10. Gender differences in suicide attempters in Hungary: retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Sandor; Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter

    2005-04-01

    To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. In the framework of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pecs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. A "typical" female suicide attempter could be characterized as follows: retired or economically inactive (OR=2.38), widowed (OR=6.55), divorced (OR=1.64), or with depression in her personal history (OR=1.27). Female attempters were mainly repeaters, using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. Among men, unemployment, living alone, never having been married, and problems with addiction were the main risk factors, while violent methods characterized the typical attempt In the cases of self-poisoning, men were more likely to take meprobamate or carbamazepine. Significant differences were found in the risk factors for suicide attempts between men and women. Since suicide is a multi-causal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should be complex and gender differences should be taken into consideration while building up our helping strategies.

  11. Results of nutritional screening in institutionalized elderly in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelovics, Zsuzsanna; Bozó, Réka Kegyes; Lampek, Kinga; Figler, Mária

    2009-01-01

    Dietetics contributes to life-long, sustainable health and optimal life quality of people. The knowledge of the nutritional state can be informative and normative in order to optimize personal care. The aims of this study were to summarize the relevant legislative considerations of nourishing the elderly in different long-term residential social institutions and to screen the nutritional state of those living there. No investigation of this type has ever been carried out in Hungary or in central eastern Europe before. We used the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) screening program for the evaluation of nutritional status. Our survey was done in 20 Hungarian nursing homes in 2006. The sample (n=1381) was representative of regional distribution and number of residents. In our study population 38.2% of the patients were endangered in point of malnutrition. The results of our survey call attention to the elevated number of elderly people at risk of malnutrition in nursing homes. As malnutrition has serious consequences regarding also quality of life, nutritional screening of nursing home residents is not only a basic economical interest, but is also in full harmony with the idea "not only to feed, but to nourish" and it is a basic moral duty.

  12. Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone and Methylisothiazolinone Sensitivity in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Györgyi Pónyai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to allowing of methylisothiazolinone (MI in cosmetics, cleaning products, and paints, an epidemic of MI-hypersensitivity emerged. Patch testing Kathon CG® (3:1 mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, MCI/MI does not correctly detect MI contact allergy, due to the low concentration of MI in the test material. Methods. A retrospective survey was performed to estimate the prevalence of MCI/MI hypersensitivity in 14693 patients tested consecutively between 1993 and 2014. Moreover, currently 314 patients were prospectively tested with the allergens MCI/MI and with MI during one year. Results. MCI/MI hypersensitivity increased retrospectively from 0.5% to 6.0%. By current prospective testing we detected 25 patients (8% with MCI/MI and/or MI positive reactions. Out of the 25 patients 10 were only MCI/MI positive, 9 were only MI positive, and 6 were MCI/MI and MI positive. If MI had not been tested separately, MI contact allergy would have missed in 36% of all detected cases and in 2.8% of the total 314 patients. Conclusions. The frequency of MCI/MI hypersensitivity is increasing also in Hungary. We confirm that, in order to detect MI contact allergy, it needs to be tested separately. A further increase of MI hypersensitivity might be expected in the future as products containing MI are still widely available.

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  14. Hydraulic evaluation of the hypogenic karst area in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Erőss, Anita; Czauner, Brigitta; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-09-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst area, in central Hungary, is in the focus of research interest because of its thermal water resources and the on-going hypogenic karstification processes at the boundary of unconfined and confined carbonates. Understanding of the discharge phenomena and the karstification processes requires clarification of the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to present a hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on analyses of the archival measured hydraulic data of wells. Pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps and hydraulic cross sections were constructed, based on the data distribution. As a result, gravitational flow systems, hydraulic continuity, and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified in the karst area. The location of natural discharge areas could be explained and the hydraulic behavior of the Northeastern Margin Fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. The flow pattern determines the differences in the discharge distribution (one- and two-component) and related cave-forming processes between the Central System (Rózsadomb area) and Southern System (Gellért Hill area) natural discharge areas. Among the premises of hypogenic karstification, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the River Danube.

  15. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  16. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  17. Serosurvey of pathogenic hantaviruses among forestry workers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Oldal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to survey the prevalence of human hantavirus infections among forestry workers, who are considered a risk population for contracting the disease. Sera collected from volunteers were tested for antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV and Puumala (PUUV viruses. Material and Methods: For serological analyses, full capsid proteins of DOBV and PUUV viruses were produced in a bacterial expression system, while Ni-resin was used for protein purification. Samples were screened for anti-hantavirus antibodies by ELISA, results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: A total of 835 samples collected from 750 males and 85 females were tested by indirect ELISA and positive test results were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of the 45 ELISA-reactive samples, 38 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The regional distribution of seropositive individuals was as follows: 1.9% (2/107 in the Danube-Tisza Plateau (Great Plains, 3.1% (10/321 in the Southern Transdanubian region, 5.2% (13/248 in the Northern Transdanubian, and 8.2% (13/159 in the North Hungarian Mountains. Conclusions: Our data show marked geographic differences in seroprevalence of pathogenic hantaviruses within Hungary, indicating elevated exposure to hantavirus infections in some areas.

  18. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains.

  19. Radiological aspects of red mud disaster in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Sas, Zoltán; Jobbágy, Viktor; Csordás, Anita; Szeiler, Gábor; Somlai, János

    2013-08-01

    One of the most severe industrial catastrophes happened in Kolontár, Hungary, on 4 October 2010. Red mud (bauxite residue) broke through the eroded wall of the red mud reservoir pond "Number X" and flooded the surrounding area. This led to the instant death of 10 people and the injury of more than 100 people. Red mud is enriched in radium and thorium isotopes; therefore, there is a chance that this flooding will increase radionuclide concentrations of soils and also in air. In this study we have examined the site to assess the realistic radiological risks. For the risk assessment the following parameters were determined: gamma dose rate, radon concentration, radionuclide concentration of red mud and air dust concentration. It was found that the radiation dose exposure resulting from red mud contamination was < 0.045 mSv y-1 (excluding radon), which can be considered negligible when compared to the average annual effective dose from natural sources (2.4 mSv y-1).

  20. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  1. Sustainable Wine and Grape Production, the Example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallás Edit Ilona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Before analysing the economic situation of winegrape production, it is practical to mention some issues concerning the industry. Grape production in Hungary suffered a severe crisis in the 1990’s regarding both production and sales. Its consequence is the decreasing area of grape production and the reducing number of grape producers. Lately, after our EU accession the grape and wine verticum has significantly improved. The situation is still grave today as the producers have to face the more and more intense competition in the market and cheap import products both on the national and international markets. Grape production is in a more disadvantaged situation than wine making and the risks are higher. We have to know the cost-profit situation of the well-discernible verticum parts to make recommendations. Despite the changes, the great fluctuation in income is typical for the industry. Grape is one of the plants where price often did not cover costs in the consecutive years. Costs of production cannot be assessed on their own. They can be judged in relation with the yield changes in real.

  2. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mulder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a rainfall–runoff model for five tributaries of the Tigris River, based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM observations, and potential evaporation from GLDAS model parameters. Our model includes a representation of the karstified aquifers that cause large natural groundwater variations in this region. Observed river discharges were used to calibrate our model. In order to get the total mass variations, we corrected for lake mass variations derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in combination with satellite altimetry and some in-situ data. Our rainfall–runoff model confirms that Northern Iraq suffered a drought between 2007 and 2009 and is consistent with the mass loss observed by GRACE over that period. Also, GRACE observed the annual cycle predicted by the rainfall–runoff model. The total mass depletion seen by GRACE between 2007 and 2009 is mainly explained by a lake mass depletion of 74 ± 4 mm and a natural groundwater depletion of 37 ± 6 mm. Our findings indicate that man-made groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region while depletion of lake mass and geology play a key role.

  3. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  4. Health Observatories in Iran

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    K Shad­pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  5. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  6. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  7. Regional Implications of Shi’a Revival in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ashura, the holiest day on the Shi‘a calendar. These attacks closely resemble acts in Mashad , Karachi, Quetta, and Mazar-i Sharif since the early 1990s...bombing of one of Shi‘ism’s holist shrines in Mashad , Iran, in 1994.14 Sunni militants in South Asia are products of the same training grounds in

  8. Concealed in the Open: Recipients of International Clandestine Jewish Aid in Early 1950s Hungary

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    Zachary Paul Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the emergence of the semi-clandestine efforts of a network of international Jewish philanthropies and the Israeli government to send material and financial aid to Jews in early-communist Hungary. Post Second World War Hungary was a special focus for Jewish aid organizations in the west and the Israeli government. They poured resources into Hungary, both to feed, cloth and provide medical care to hundreds of thousands of Jews, and to assist thousands of Jews migrating west through Hungary. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, the dominant Jewish aid organization in the world at the time, ran its largest and most expensive program in Hungary. Working with Israeli and Hungarian authorities, it financed a network of welfare services, often through the importation of scarce consumer goods and raw materials. As the Communist Party reshaped the economy, and pushed out “undesirable elements” from Hungarian life, this aid program served a growing population of impoverished, sick, and religious Jews, some exiled in Hungary’s countryside. This program increasingly took advantage of black market networks to distribute aid. Yet, after conditions deteriorated so much that this program ceased officially, Jewish aid providers in the US and Israel adapted their earlier practices and networks to take advantage of the impoverished consumer economy in program to distribute aid clandestinely to Hungarian Jews, with the cooperation of Hungary’s communist authorities.

  9. Risk factors for suicide in Hungary: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerfoot Michael

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hungary previously had one of the highest suicide rates in the world, but experienced major social and economic changes from 1990 onwards. We aimed to investigate the antecedents of suicide in Hungary. We hypothesised that suicide in Hungary would be associated with both risk factors for suicide as identified in Western studies, and experiences related to social and economic restructuring. Methods We carried out a controlled psychological autopsy study. Informants for 194 cases (suicide deaths in Budapest and Pest County 2002–2004 and 194 controls were interviewed by clinicians using a detailed schedule. Results Many of the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with suicide in other settings were also associated with suicide in Hungary; for example, being unmarried or having no current relationship, lack of other social contacts, low educational attainment, history of self-harm, current diagnosis of affective disorder (including bipolar disorder or personality disorder, and experiencing a recent major adverse life event. A number of variables reflecting experiences since economic restructuring were also associated with suicide; for example, unemployment, concern over work propects, changes in living standards, practising religion. Just 20% of cases with evidence of depression at the time of death had received antidepressants. Conclusion Suicide rates in Hungary are falling. Our study identified a number of risk factors related to individual-level demographic and clinical characteristics, and possibly recent societal change. Improved management of psychiatric disorder and self-harm may result in further reductions in suicide rates.

  10. Pathology of Iran tourism Brand

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    helya barezani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Destination branding is one the most challenging and attractive discussions place marketing and in the field of tourism marketing nowadays. Considering the plethora of advantages of branding concepts and activities for countries around the globe and high potentials of Islamic Republic of Iran as a tourism destination, in this paper authors have tried to assess the current situation of tourism brand and the effectiveness of branding activities in Iran based on Hankinson model (2004. To achieve the objectives of this research 102 members of Iranian DMO consisting of managers and experts in the respected subject have been questioned. Collected data were analyzed with mean comparing methods. Findings implicate that Core brand of Iran (including, brand personality, brand positioning and brand reality has serious problems and the degree of attention to branding activities and concepts is respectively too low. Based on our findings managerial and marketing recommends are presented.

  11. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

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    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  12. A Mini-Review of Track And Field’s Talent-Identification Models in Iran and Some Designated Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ghasemzadeh Mirkolaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification and training the athletes of the basic levels in track and field requires codifying a proper model like any other system so that any duplication is prevented as well as knowing the right path. The federation of track and field started to codify the national talent-identification scheme in track and field in 1385. Hence, the present studies track-and-field talent-identification patterns in some designated countries and compare them with the codified pattern in Iran. The research method of the present survey is of review which studies track-and-field talent-identification patterns in countries like the Russia (Soviet Union, the Germany (former East Germany, China, Australia, Romania, Italy, USA, England, Hungary, Canada, Japan, Qatar, Malaysia, and Iran. Studying track-and-field talent-identification pattern in Iran shows that lack of a new opportunity for trainees and unsustainability of the practical talent-identification scheme have been of its setbacks. Also, comparing the patterns shows that the most important principle of talent-identification scheme in designated countries are cooperation with the institutional sport, continuity of the talent-identification scheme, and supporting and training the elite athletes to help them reach the championship.

  13. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants among the Kurdish population of Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Shakir AR

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key enzyme of the pentose monophosphate pathway, and its deficiency is the most common inherited enzymopathy worldwide. G6PD deficiency is common among Iraqis, including those of the Kurdish ethnic group, however no study of significance has ever addressed the molecular basis of this disorder in this population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis among Iraqi Kurds. Methods A total of 580 healthy male Kurdish Iraqis randomly selected from a main regional premarital screening center in Northern Iraq were screened for G6PD deficiency using methemoglobin reduction test. The results were confirmed by quantitative enzyme assay for the cases that showed G6PD deficiency. DNA analysis was performed on 115 G6PD deficient subjects, 50 from the premarital screening group and 65 unrelated Kurdish male patients with documented acute hemolytic episodes due to G6PD deficiency. Analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism for five deficient molecular variants, namely G6PD Mediterranean (563 C→T, G6PD Chatham (1003 G→A, G6PD A- (202 G→A, G6PD Aures (143 T→C and G6PD Cosenza (1376 G→C, as well as the silent 1311 (C→T mutation. Results Among 580 random Iraqi male Kurds, 63 (10.9% had documented G6PD deficiency. Molecular studies performed on a total of 115 G6PD deficient males revealed that 101 (87.8% had the G6PD Mediterranean variant and 10 (8.7% had the G6PD Chatham variant. No cases of G6PD A-, G6PD Aures or G6PD Cosenza were identified, leaving 4 cases (3.5% uncharacterized. Further molecular screening revealed that the silent mutation 1311 was present in 93/95 of the Mediterranean and 1/10 of the Chatham cases. Conclusions The current study revealed a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Iraqi Kurdish population of Northern Iraq with most cases being due to the G6PD

  14. A Real Chance to Be the Member of EU"——An interview with Ambassador of the Republic of Hungary to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Hungary, as a new member of European Union, gains both opportunities and chal lenges. Facing such a situation that EU is China's second largest trade partner and vice versa, how will Hungary do to cooperate with China? On this occasion, we have interviewed H.E. Mihaly Bayer, Ambassador of the Republic of Hungary to China. Below is the interview with him.

  15. Lesson Plan on Comparative Political Systems: Compare and Contrast the Presidential Election System of the USA to the Parliamentary Election System of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel W.

    This lesson describes the current government of Hungary and its underlying political and electoral systems. The lesson is structured with: (1) background on the parliamentary model of government, political parties, and Hungary's unique electoral system; (2) a summary of the six major political parties in Hungary and voter information for the 1990…

  16. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S. Infantis clone in Hungary. PMID:28254986

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  18. Long-term of analysis of MODIS, NDVI and NDWI for the Mesopotamian Marshlands, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al barakat, R. H. R.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Mesopotamian marshlands are considered as a one of the most important wetlands in the world. During past decades, the marsh area has varied between 10,500 km² to 20,000 km² in flood seasons. These marshes are located in the Mesopotamain plain lying mostly within Southern Iraq and a portion of South western Iran, along Euphrates,Tigris and Shatt Al-Arab river which formed by the confluence of Tigris and Euphrates rivers. They are characterized by a good environment for various flora such as Phragmites australis and fauna. Through early 1990 to the present the marshes subjected to many changes such as water supply diversions that have dramatically impacted the ecosystem. By using a long-term values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), between 2000 and 2016, we examined the annual changes during entire time series in both of the vegetation and water coverage in the three majar marshes; Al-Huwaizah marsh, the Central marshes and Al-Hammar marsh. The long-term has been divided into three periods (2000-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2016) based on ratios of coverage vegetation and water. The 1st period is characterized by low coverage in both vegetation and water due to human activities, which is represented by the construction of a large number of dams on the downstream of Tigris and Euphrates rivers during late 1980s until 2003. The 2nd period shows significantly increasing coverage of greater than 50% were the increases in the vegetation coverage of the original marsh areas. The 3rd period shows increases in the barren lands, while the water bodies and vegetation coverage are decreased. This variations are attributed to different effects. First, the marshes have received little water due to constructions of dams in the upstream countries, and they were completed during 3rd period 2009-2016. Second they occurred during a period of severe

  19. The foreign policy of Iran in the Middle East and the American strategy of “system containment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Georgievitch Krasnov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of forming and implementation of foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI in the Middle East (Iraq, the Syria-Lebanese-Palestinian zone, Egypt, Gulf States and Yemen in the conditions of transformation of forms and methods of implementation of Washington’s strategy of “system containment” of the IRI are analyzed. Special attention is paid to identification of potential of IRI as one of leaders of the Middle East region. The main stages, the directions and implementation methods of strategy of “system containment” of the IRI as triangle complex of political, economic and military measures, performed by the USA and their allies for rendering multilateral pressure upon Tehran in order to change its foreign policy and the State power in the country, are shown. Change of a foreign policy line and approaches of Tehran to the solution of regional problems is considered in the context of escalation of pressure upon Iran from the USA and the states of the West. It is analyzed what forms and methods of the foreign policy and foreign economic activity implementation were used by Iran in the situation of increased political and economic risks, connected with toughening of the international and unilateral sanctions. In the conclusion, efficiency evaluations of Middle Eastern dimension of the Iranian foreign policy during the considered period are given and the tendencies of development of the situation around the IRI, that allow us to make the forecast for the medium term, are allocated.

  20. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.

  1. Measuring Cross-Sectorial Law Enforcement Capacity of Regulatory Agencies in Hungary

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    György GAJDUSCHEK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effectiveness of law enforcement by regulatory agencies in Hungary. Empirical data were collected from such diverse felds as consumer rights protection, construc-tion, road safety, labor regulation, etc. The data were analyzed using a simplifed rational choice model, looking for evidence of whether adminis-trative practices were effective in preventing ra-tional actors from breaking the law. The analysis robustly proves the ineffectiveness of regulatory activity, as the breaking of laws may yield, in a conservative estimate, 10 to 100,000 times more income than the expected monetary value of the fne. In brief, the government of Hungary is gen-erally unable to enforce its own laws. Though the paper makes use of data solely from Hungary, it aims to provide a methodology for measuring regulatory capacity more generally.

  2. Review of pressurized thermal shock studies of large scale reactor pressure vessels in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Fekete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, four nuclear power units were constructed more than 30 years ago; they are operating to this day. In every unit, VVER-440 V213-type light-water cooled, light-water moderated, ressurized water reactors are in operation. Since the mid-1980s, numerous researches in the field of Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analyses of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs have been conducted in Hungary; in all of them, the concept of structural integrity was the basis of research and development. During this time, four large PTS studies with industrial relevance have been completed in Hungary. Each used different objectives and guides, and the analysis methodology was also changing. This paper gives a comparative review of the methodologies used in these large PTS Structural Integrity Analysis projects, presenting the latest results as well

  3. APPLICATION OF THE EU-PRINCIPLES IN ROMANIA AND HUNGARY CONCERNING THE BOARDS OF LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance ensures that boards are able to exercise appropriate scrutiny over management and that shareholders, as owners of the company, are able to hold boards accountable. As such, a high level of corporate governance contributes significantly to investors' confidence and market stability, thus fostering business efficiency. In 2005 the European Commission launched a recommendation on the boards of listed companies and invited Member States to follow the guidelines. In 2008 both Romania and Hungary launched a new Code of Corporate Governance on the basis of the EU recommendations. In my paper I present the EU principles, and by examining the national codes of Romania and Hungary I analyze to which extent and in what issues these two countries have adopted the EU recommendations. I concluded that by the new codes of corporate governance issued in 2008 Romania and Hungary have followed to a large extent the provisions of the EU recommendation.

  4. Poroid Fungi of Hungary in the Collection of Zoltán Igmándy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABÓ, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoltán Igmándy (1925–2000, prominent Hungarian mycologist, worked as professor of forest protection at the University of West-Hungary Sopron. His main research area was the investigation of wood-inhabiting poroid fungi of Hungary, their occurrence and importance in forest pathology and wood protection. During his 40 years of scientific activity Igmándy created a rich fungal collection (herbarium Z. Igmándy which includes the complete polypore mycota known to occur in Hungary until 1990. The paper provides a brief compendium of the collection, a list of species characterised by the number of specimens, number of sampling locations and enumeration of the hosts and substrata of the specimens.

  5. Introduction: Questions of Space and Place in Scholarship on Modern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jobbitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on both the personal and intellectual factors that influenced this thematic cluster on space, place, and the making of modern Hungary, the authors situate themselves within the history of the post-socialist revival of geography in Hungary, outlining in particular emergent fields of study and new schools of thought that have transformed geographical research and teaching over the last decade. Having drawn together historians and geographers working in Hungary, Canada, and the United States, Part I of this two-part cluster represents an effort to bring different disciplinary streams and academic cultures into contact with one another, and has provided the authors with an opportunity to better survey the state of a very broad and dynamic field of study, and to identify and begin to address lacunae in their collaborative work.

  6. Iran: review of petroleum developments and assessments of the oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shammas, P. [APS Energy Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2001-07-01

    In this review the author comments on the likelihood of a significant improvement in the relationship between Iran and the US, with vital implications for the Middle East, during US President George Bush's term of office. From an American perspective, normalising relations with Iran will provide critical geopolitical advantages related to its energy security from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea as well as increased strategic options in dealing with Iraq and with an unstable Afghanistan. From the Iranian perspective, a breakthrough in relations with Washington will mean increased strategic leverage as a major transit route for oil and gas exports from Central Asia and an enhanced status in the region. Tehran will also be in a better position to balance its relations with the US, Russia and China to its own benefit. There are obstacles in the way, including deep mistrust among conservation factions in Tehran and Washington, but the road to normalisation has been paved gradually since President Mohammed Khatami took office in August 1997. The author also comments on the Iranian energy base; their geology and petroleum, oil and gas fields; refining sector; and their gas processing and export projects. (author)

  7. Sociopolitical development of the nursing profession in Iran: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Fooladi, Marjaneh; Parvizy, Soroor

    2016-01-01

    Significant sociopolitical changes in recent decades have not only influenced the nursing profession, but also the entire Iranian healthcare system. This study describes the historical evolution of the nursing profession within a sociopolitical context. This historical review of unpublished and published literature endorsed personal accounts of historic events by 14 of the oldest nurses in Iran chosen through purposive sampling method, as they shared their nursing experiences. Individual recollections were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and later analyzed through oral history analysis method. From the results, the 3 categories of the White Revolution, the Islamic Revolution, and Iran-Iraq war and 8 subcategories emerged, where participants identified factors that fundamentally changed the Iranian nursing profession. The nursing profession continues to develop and help revise policies to improve the healthcare system and quality of care. The findings of this study facilitate the better understanding of the influence of sociopolitical events on the nursing profession and guide the revision or development of new healthcare policies. PMID:28050243

  8. Characteristics of extreme dust events observed over two urban areas in Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abbas-Ali A Bidokhti; Maryam Gharaylou; Nafiseh Pegahfar; Samaneh Sabetghadam; Maryam Rezazadeh

    2016-03-01

    Determination of dust loading in the atmosphere is important not only from the public health point of view, but also for regional climate changes. The present study focuses on the characteristics of two major dust events for two urban areas in Iran, Kermanshah and Tehran, over the period of 4 years from 2006 to 2009. To detect extreme dust outbreaks, various datasets including synoptic data, dust concentration, reanalysis data and numerical results of WRF and HYSPLIT models were used. The weather maps demonstrate that for these events dusts are mainly generated when wind velocity is high and humidity islow in the lower troposphere and the region is under the influence of a thermal low. The event lasts until the atmospheric stability prevails and the surface wind speed weakens. The thermal low nature of the synoptic conditions of these major events is also responsible for deep boundary layer development with its thermals affecting the vertical dust flux over the region. Trajectory studies show that the dust events originated from deserts in Iraq and Syria and transported towards Iran. The main distinction between the two types of mobilizations seems to affect the dust concentrations in the Tehran urban area.

  9. Conflict in Neighboring Countries, a Great Risk for Malaria Elimination in Southwestern Iran: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Molaee Zadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the conflict such as war is one of the determinants of the flow of migrants and refuges with consequence of introducing infectious disease to other countries. This paper investigates the relationship between malaria incidence and forced immigration due to war from neighboring countries in Dezful district, southwestern Iran. All available data and accessible archived documentary records on malaria cases in the period 1988-2011 in Dezful Health Centers were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health authority of Dezful district was conducted to assess the trend of malaria incidence and prevalence in the last two decades. Malaria transmission dynamics was described using surveillance indicators viz, Annual Parasite Incidence (API, Slide Positivity Rate (SPR, Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER and based on personal information of patients. Two peaks of malaria incidence occurred during past two decades. The first one arisen by Iran-Iraq war due to residential instability in Dezful while the API reached to 8 per 1000. The second peak happened after to civil war of Afghanistan began which caused large immigrates moved into the study area. During the second peak, API reached 1.7 per 1000 at maximum and the majority of patients were immigrants. This study describes the linkage between incidence and prevalence of malaria and immigration due to civil conflict. Therefore, malaria screening of immigrants and early warning programme are effective to prevent outbreak of disease in a potential risk area such Dezful.

  10. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  11. Case reports: arsenic pollution in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Bux, M Khoda; Födényi, Rita; Kováts, Nora; Borbély, Gábor; Galbács, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Although arsenic contamination in the three countries described herein differs, a number of common themes emerge. In each country, the presence of arsenic is both long term and of geological origin. Moreover, in each of these countries, arsenic was only recently discovered to be a potential public health problem, having been first formally recognized in the 1980s or 1990s. In Bangledesh, exposure of the public to arsenic arose as a result of the search for microbially safe drinking water; this search resulted in the sinking of tube wells into aquifers. In Hungary, the natural bedrock geology was responsible for contamination of aquifer water. The genesis of arsenic contamination in Thailand arose primarily from small-scale alluvial mining activities, which mobilized geologically bound arsenic. Because of the complex chemistry of arsenic, and variability in where it is found and how it is bound, multiple mitigation methods must be considered for mitigating episodes of environmental contamination. The Ron Phibun region of Thailand has a 100-yr history of tin mining. A geological survey of the region was conducted in the mid-1990s by the Department of Mineral Resources and Department of Industry of Thailand, and was supported by the British Geological Society. Skin cancer in Thailand was first reported in 1987, in the southern part of the country; among other symptoms observed, there was evidence of IQ diminutions among the population. Arsenic water levels to 9,000 pg/L were reported; such levels are substantially above any guideline levels. A long-term plan to mitigate arsenic contamination was devised in 1998-2000. The plan involved removal of arsenic-contaminated land and improved management of mining wastes. However, at $22 million, the cost was deemed prohibitive for the regional Thai economy. An alternative solution of providing pipeline drinking water to the exposed population was also unsuccessful, either because arsenic contamination levels did not fall

  12. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  13. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  14. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VHA Forms & Publications Quality & Safety Quality of Care Ethics VA/DOD Clinical ... Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later develop symptoms of infectious ...

  15. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    .... IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan...

  16. Health impact assessment of quality wine production in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Bárdos, Helga; Adány, Róza

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol-related health outcomes show strikingly high incidence in Hungary. The effects of alcohol consumption are influenced not only by the quantity, but also the quality of drinks; therefore, wine production can have an important effect on public health outcomes. Nevertheless, the Hungarian wine sector faces several vital problems and challenges influenced by the country's accession to the European Union and by the need for restructuring. A comprehensive health impact assessment (HIA) based on the evaluation of the Hungarian legislation related to the wine sector has been carried out, aiming to assess the impact of the production of quality wine versus that of table wine, using a range of public health and epidemiological research methods and data as well as HIA guidelines. The study finds that the toxic effects of alcohol can be reduced with an increased supply of quality wine and with decreased overall consumption due to higher cost, although this might drive some people to seek illegal sources. Quality wine production allows for improved use of land, creates employment opportunities and increases the incomes of producers and local communities; however, capital-scarce producers unable to manage restructuring may lose their source of subsistence. The supply of quality wine can promote social relations, contribute to a healthy lifestyle and reduce criminality related to alcohol's influence and adulteration. In general, the production and supply of quality wine can have an overall positive impact on health. Nevertheless, because of the several possible negative effects expected without purposeful restructuring, recommendations for the maximization of favourable outcomes and suggestions for monitoring the success of the analysis have been provided.

  17. SET UP OF THE NEW AUTOMATIC HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL NETWORK IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NAGy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ and General Directorate of Water Management (OVF in Hungary run conventional precipitation measurement networks consisting of at least 1000 stations. OMSZ automated its synoptic and climatological network in 90’s and now more than 100 automatic stations give data every 1-10 minutes via GPRS channel. In 2007 the experts from both institutions determined the requirements of a common network. The predecessor in title of OVF is general Directorate for Water and Environment gave a project proposal in 2008 for establishment of a new hydrometeorological network based on common aims for meteorology and hydrology. The new hydrometeorological network was set up in 2012 financed by KEOP project. This network has got 141 weighing precipitation gauges, 118 temperature - humidity sensors and 25 soil moisture and soil temperature instruments. Near by Tisza-Lake two wind sensors have been installed. The network is operated by OMSZ and OVF together. OVF and its institutions maintain the stations itself and support the electricity. OMSZ operates data collection and transmission, maintaines and calibrates the sensors. Using precipitation data of enhanced network the radar precipitation field quality may be more precise, which are input of run-off model. Thereby the time allowance may be increased in flood-control events. Based on soil moisture and temperature water balance in soil may be modelled and forecast can be produced in different conditions. It is very important task in drought and inland water conditions. Considering OMSZ investment project in which new Doppler dual polarisation radar and 14 disdrometers will be installed, the precipitation estimation may be improved since 2015.

  18. Basic education in communist Hungary. A commons approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Gyuris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In commons research, the study of the ‘knowledge commons’ has emerged as a new field of interest over the last few years. Our paper begins by providing a brief overview of the state of research in the field, and proceeds by discussing some crucial but relatively underconceptualised issues. The difference between information and knowledge, and the ambiguities surrounding the claim that all sorts of knowledge can be considered part of the commons, are the focal point here. We also pay close attention to education, arguing that it is not a common good, but rather a common-pool resource institution that ensures that some forms of knowledge can be governed as a commons. With regard to these issues, the article provides a case study, one in which we analyse basic education in Communist Hungary, and look for evidence of the commons design principles as outlined in Elinor Ostrom’s IAD Framework. Given the complex nature of basic education, we investigate it from three points of view: as a service, as a set of physical structures (e.g. school buildings, and as a complex of organizational structures (e.g. legal and financial arrangements. On the basis of empirical findings we argue that basic education in the Stalinist epoch did not correspond to Ostromian design principles. Basic education, therefore, was not managed in an equitable way, and its geographical accessibility was uneven. During the ‘technocratic’ Communism of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the education system underwent important changes. However, though the circle of those who had some impact on the governance of education expanded, most individuals involved with the education system were still excluded. As a result, the commons approach did not become stronger in general, nor did spatial unevenness with respect to access to basic education decrease. The paper finishes with a brief conclusion of our findings and a discussion of some questions for future research.

  19. Monitoring of West Nile virus in mosquitoes between 2011-2012 in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Antal, László; Tóth, Mihály; Kemenesi, Gábor; Soltész, Zoltán; Dán, Adám; Erdélyi, Károly; Bányai, Krisztián; Bálint, Adám; Jakab, Ferenc; Bakonyi, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus. WNV strains are classified into several genetic lineages on the basis of phylogenetic differences. Whereas lineage 1 viruses are distributed worldwide, lineage 2 WNV was first detected outside of Africa in Hungary in 2004. Since then, WNV-associated disease and mortality in animal and human hosts have been documented periodically in Hungary. After the first detection of WNV from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 2010, samples were collated from several sources and tested in a 2-year monitoring program. Collection areas were located in the Southern Transdanubium, in northeastern Hungary, in eastern Hungary, and in southeastern Hungary. During the 2 years, 23,193 mosquitoes in 645 pools were screened for WNV virus presence with RT-PCR. Three pools were found positive for WNV in 2011 (one pool of Ochlerotatus annulipes collected in Fényeslitke in June, one pool of Coquillettidia richiardii collected in Debrecen, Fancsika-tó, in July, and one pool of Cx. pipiens captured near Red-Footed Falcon colonies at Kardoskút in September). The minimal infection rate (MIR=proportion of infected mosquitoes per 1000 mosquitoes) of all mosquito pools was 0.25, whereas the MIR of infected species was 2.03 for O. annulipes, 0.63 for C. richiardii, and 2.70 for C.x pipiens. Molecular data have demonstrated that the same lineage 2 WNV strain has circulated in wild birds, horses, humans, and mosquitoes in Hungary since 2004. Mosquito-based surveillance successfully complemented the ongoing, long-term passive surveillance system and it was useful for the early detection of WNV circulation.

  20. Right Radicalism and the Factors of Xenophobic Social Practices in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Ilya Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, during 2010-2015 the growing xenophobic attitudes are noticed in the society, and right radical extremist groups gain power. The aim of the article is to identify the most significant factors that encourage xenophobia in Hungary. The types of right organizations and their electoral performance are determined. Our hypothesis is that the activity of right extremist organizations influences the formation of xenophobic social practices in Hungary. By means of factor analysis the author identified the main directions and forms of activity of right radicals, determined the value of socio-economic dynamics of Hungary, characterized the attitudes of society, the law and the ruling elite to the problems of xenophobia and right radicalism. Among the most influential factors we should name: open propaganda of nationalist ideas; constitutional priority to the interests of ethnic Hungarians; parliamentary membership of the Movement “For a Better Hungary”; condoning by the ruling elite, the courts and the police of the right radical activity. The paper presents the trend in the contemporary Hungary: the public demonstrates intolerance to right radicalism in cases of criminal behavior, but for the most part is loyal to its ideologies. Except for oppositional human rights organizations and ethnic communities, a significant part of Hungarian society often shows nearly complete indifference to the issues of xenophobia, racial and ethnic discrimination. The author described five groups of factors that stimulate the reproduction of xenophobic attitudes and practices among various groups of the population: “historical”, institutional, socioeconomic, legal and political. The paper uses empirical data of public opinion polls conducted by leading research centers in Hungary, as well as statistical data of public authorities, civil society institutions.

  1. International Patients on Operation Vacation – Perspectives of Patients Travelling to Hungary for Orthopaedic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Kovacs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The importance of cross-border healthcare, medical and health tourism plays a significant role in the European health policy and health management. After dentistry, orthopaedic treatments are the leading motivation for seeking care in Hungary, as patients with rheumatic and motion diseases are drawn to the thermal spas and well-established orthopaedic centres. This paper aims to gain insight into foreign patients’ perspectives on their experience of having sought medical tourism in orthopaedic care in Hungary. Methods A patient survey was conducted in 2012 on motivations for seeking treatment abroad, orthopaedic care received and overall satisfaction. In addition, health professionals’ interviews, and 17 phone interviews were conducted in 2013 with Romanian patients who had orthopaedic treatment in Hungary. Finally, medical records of foreign patients were analysed. Results The survey was completed by 115 participants – 61.1% females, mean age= 41.9, 87% Romanian origin. Most of the patients came to Hungary for orthopaedic surgeries, e.g. arthroscopy, knee/hip prosthesis or spinal surgery. 72.6% chose Hungary because of related to perceived better quality and longstanding culture of Hungarian orthopaedic care. Over 57% of patients reported being ‘very satisfied’ with care received and 41.6% ‘satisfied’. The follow-up interviews further reflected this level of satisfaction, therefore many respondents stating they have already recommended the Hungarian healthcare to others. Conclusion Based on the findings, patients from neighbouring regions are increasingly seeking orthopaedic care in Hungary. Patients having orthopaedic care are highly satisfied with the quality of care, the whole treatment process from the availability of information to discharge summaries and would consider returning for further treatments.

  2. International patients on operation vacation - perspectives of patients travelling to Hungary for orthopaedic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Eszter; Szocska, Gabor; Knai, Cécile

    2014-11-01

    The importance of cross-border healthcare, medical and health tourism plays a significant role in the European health policy and health management. After dentistry, orthopaedic treatments are the leading motivation for seeking care in Hungary, as patients with rheumatic and motion diseases are drawn to the thermal spas and well-established orthopaedic centres. This paper aims to gain insight into foreign patients' perspectives on their experience of having sought medical tourism in orthopaedic care in Hungary. A patient survey was conducted in 2012 on motivations for seeking treatment abroad, orthopaedic care received and overall satisfaction. In addition, health professionals' interviews, and 17 phone interviews were conducted in 2013 with Romanian patients who had orthopaedic treatment in Hungary. Finally, medical records of foreign patients were analysed. The survey was completed by 115 participants - 61.1% females, mean age= 41.9, 87% Romanian origin. Most of the patients came to Hungary for orthopaedic surgeries, e.g. arthroscopy, knee/hip prosthesis or spinal surgery. 72.6% chose Hungary because of related to perceived better quality and longstanding culture of Hungarian orthopaedic care. Over 57% of patients reported being 'very satisfied' with care received and 41.6% 'satisfied'. The follow-up interviews further reflected this level of satisfaction, therefore many respondents stating they have already recommended the Hungarian healthcare to others. Based on the findings, patients from neighbouring regions are increasingly seeking orthopaedic care in Hungary. Patients having orthopaedic care are highly satisfied with the quality of care, the whole treatment process from the availability of information to discharge summaries and would consider returning for further treatments.

  3. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.

    2017-01-01

    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  4. [The school of drogists in Budapest and the history of education of drogists in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárencz, L

    2000-01-01

    The author, while writing the biography of the Hungarian pharmacist, Endre Kazay (1876-1923) came across a rich and still unpublished archival material regarding the history of the education of drogists in Hungary. The present paper focuses on the making of drogists, and the possibilities of secondary schooling of pharmacists in Hungary from the last decades of the 19 century up to the present days. The paper presents the history of the trade school of drogists, and also the rise and fall of this special profession, which is about to be forgotten. These so far unpublished data will certainly change our views on this subject.

  5. JPRS Report, Supplement, East Europe. Hungary: Antall Government’s Economic Program (The Kupa Plan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    HUNGARY: Antall Government s Economic Program (The Kupa Plan) REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE...SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 ’MIC QtfALWV flfSPEOTED y fN3 East Europe Supplement Hungary: Antall Government’s Economic Program (The Kupa Plan) JPRS-EER-91...079-S CONTENTS 8 June 1991 THE KUPA PLAN Antall Government’s Economic Program: The Kupa Plan [MAGYAR HIRLAP 17 Apr] 1 JPRS-EER-91-079-S 8

  6. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction: Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    residents. Although DoS officials have stated that Camp Hurriya has Internet connectivity, a mosque, and a gym , several humanitarian chal- lenges...remains uncertain.376 DoS also found that Iraq remains a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking...shelters that provided protective services to sex - trafficking victims. DoS granted Iraq a waiver from Tier 3 status based on its assessment that the

  7. Self-Reported Combat Stress among Troops Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    4 Au g_ 20 04 Se p_ 20 04 Oc t_2 00 4 No v_ 20 04 De c_ 20 04 Calender Year R at e* Iraq: Depression Rate (per 10,000) Iraq: Mean Monthly Death Rate...p_ 20 04 Oc t_2 00 4 No v_ 20 04 De c_ 20 04 Calender Year R at e or C ou nt Afganistan: Depression Rate (per 10,000) Afghan: Death count Figure 2

  8. Trends in traumatic limb amputation in Allied Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limb amputation has been a common injury occurring in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Compared to other injuries, less attention has been given to this serious, disabling wound. Purpose: The article describes the Allied military experience of traumatic limb amputation in Iraq and Afghanistan. It intends to inform health care personnel involved in the care of serving military personnel and veterans about the scale of these casualties. Methods: A literature se...

  9. Efforts of the British Empire to Build a State in Iraq After the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study searches for the policies carried out by the British Empire in Mesopotamia where the British invaded during the First World War. However, it will be convenient to know the political, social and economic background of Iraq or Mesopotamia as a general outline to understand the period clearly. Therefore, we have primarily tried to explain the overview of pre-invasion in Iraq. The traditional social structure of the Iraqi population and their relationship with the administration and each other have been questioned in the context of national identity. Then the developments in Iraq after the invasion have been discussed.The strategies which the Britain used to rule Iraq and the public’s reaction to this strategy have been investigated. In this context, the facts and the events such as the Mandate, 1920 Arab Revolt, the Cairo Conference of 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq have been focused. It has been endeavored to per-form an analysis to understand the present problems in Iraq by discussing the cause and effect relations of the facts and the events. The research has been prepared by benefiting from a rich bibliography based on the scientific works of the experts for Iraq and the Middle East. As a result, this research has revealed the difficulties in ruling Iraq both internally and externally due to its sui generis political, social and economic conditions and found out that the mistakes made in the nation building process have caused the instability occured at the present time in the country.

  10. Humanity Must Be Defended: War, Politics and Humanitarian Relief in Iraq, 1990-2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Iraq was the first political and humanitarian crisis to be described as a "complex emergency." Contested claims about human suffering there -- beginning shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and continuing for over a decade under UN sanctions -- became the justification for multiple forms of engagement and intervention by religious and secular NGOs, human rights organizations, journalists, political activists and foreign military forces. This dissertation explores how the internatio...

  11. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction: Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-30

    sectarianism and corruption, as well as the operational challenges of developing logis- tics capabilities. However, according to DoD, the MOI has...suitable for building. At the same time, the contractor accepted unrealis- tic schedules and costs for delivering projects and failed to accurately...also supported by UNEP and UNIDO . 525. IRFFI, UNDG Iraq Trust Fund Newsletter, November 2007. 526. UNAMI, “UN and the Government of Iraq Launch Local

  12. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Japanese to succeed. Yet Rand treats the two losers of World War II as democratic tabula rasa scraped clean of memories of political parties, electoral...America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, by James Dobbins Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 2 (February 2004) Reviewed by...or the U.S. Government. Click here for a PDF version of this article. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, by James Dobbins, et

  13. EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, K. L.; Green, F. H. Y.; Harley, R. A.; Vallyathan, V; Castranova, V.; Waldron, N. R.; Leonard, S.S.; Nelson, D E; Lewis, J. A.; Jackson, D A

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal reports in the press and epidemiological studies suggest that deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan may be associated with respiratory diseases and symptoms in U.S. military personnel and veterans. Exposures during military operations were complex, but virtually all service members were exposed to high levels of respirable, geogenic dust. Inhalation of other dusts has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects, but the pulmonary toxicity of ambient dust from Iraq has not b...

  14. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). March 17, 2016. 55 For detailed information on Iran-Kuwait relations , see CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait...pipeline-plans. 124 For detail on India’s foreign policy and relations with the United States, see CRS Report R42823, India -U.S. Security Relations ...45 India

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.

  16. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    Petrobras (Brazil) $34 million ? Oct. 2004 Yadavaran (oil). Finalized December 9, 2007 Sinopec (China) $2 billion 185,000 bpd (by 2011) June...2006 Gamsar block (oil) Sinopec (China) $20 million ? Sept. 2006 Khorramabad block (oil) Norsk Hydro (Norway) $49 million ? The Iran Sanctions Act

  17. Iran: Soviet Interests, US Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    progress- ing onward toward Zanjan, Qazvin , and ultimately to the western approaches to Tehran. Another two-pronged attack was launched simultaneously...their control over northern Iran, Russian forces occupied Tabriz in 1908 and ultimately marched as far south as Qazvin in the west and Mashhad in the

  18. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  19. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  20. Study of the properties of soil in Kirkuk, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Taqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil in Kirkuk city (IRAQ are studied using gamma and neutron radiation. Ten locations are selected for the process of making field measurements on soils at 40–50 cm depth levels then the samples were collected to be studied in the laboratory also. In the field, we measured the density and moisture contents of soils. The laboratory measurement has been performed to obtain mass attenuation coefficients, using gamma spectrometer contains shielded NaI (Tl detector at the energies of 59.5, 356.5, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The obtained results were presented and discussed. The study has practical importance to know the nature of the soil in the oil and agricultural city Kirkuk.

  1. SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, S.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Chiodi, P.; Immordino, F.

    2012-10-01

    Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage.

  2. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Using a Virtual Iraq: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Ressler, Kerry; Heekin, Mary; Rizzo, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been estimated to affect up to 18% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. Soldiers need to maintain constant vigilance to deal with unpredictable threats, and an unprecedented number of soldiers are surviving serious wounds. These risk factors are significant for development of PTSD; therefore, early and efficient intervention options must be identified and presented in a form acceptable to military personnel. This case report presents the results of treatment utilizing virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy (virtual Iraq) to treat an OIF veteran with PTSD. Following brief VRE treatment, the veteran demonstrated improvement in PTSD symptoms as indicated by clinically and statistically significant changes in scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1990) and the PTSD Symptom Scale Self-Report (PSS-SR; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993). These results indicate preliminary promise for this treatment. PMID:18404648

  3. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furhan T. Mhaisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided.

  4. Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Methods. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA, (STAI, (BDI, a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. Results: A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Conclusion. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them. However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  5. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  6. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep,in Diyala Governorate,Iraq.Methods:One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate,Iraq,during the period from November 2012 to May 2013.Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad.They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and midgut.The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water(1%)and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C,to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells,then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37 °C for 18 h.Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media(nutrient,blood and McConkey agars),and then incubated at37 ℃ for 24 h.Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips.Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1,2010.Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤ 0.05.Results:Two species of ticks were identified[Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum].High bacterial isolation rate was observed(483 isolates).A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus(63.14%).Six bacterial species were identified[Escherichia coli(28.36%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(18.01%),Bacillus cereus(14.69%),Staphylococcus aureus(13.66%),Citrobacter freundii(13.04%),and Enterobacter species(12.21%)].Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months(November,March and April);these coincided with high reproductive performance of ticks.Conclusions:The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  7. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  8. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesif Al-Hemiary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. Aims: To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. Subjects and methods: The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. Results: A total of 152 (50% response rate students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8% had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were “humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others” as well as “childhood dream,” “positive community appraisal of doctors,” and “ready availability of work for physicians.” About three-quarters (73.6% of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2% of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Conclusions: Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  9. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  10. Afghanistan and Iraq: DOD Should Improve Adherence to Its Guidance on Open Pit Burning and Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Chloropropane, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, Hexachlorobutadiene, Hexane, Naphthalene, nickel, and Vinyl acetate . Figures 8 and...that both Afghanistan and Iraq lacked markets for plastic and other recyclable materials, and military officers at one base we visited in Iraq said...plastic materials from some U.S. bases in Iraq were transported to Kuwait and Lebanon for recycling. However, our review found that such markets may

  11. Suicidal behavior by burns among women in two bordering provinces in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghehbandan, R; Dinn, N A; Rastegar Lari, E; Rastegar Lari, A

    2015-06-30

    The objective of the study was to describe epidemiologic features of suicidal behavior by burns among women in two bordering provinces in Iran. A prospective hospital-based study of all suicidal behaviors by burns among women was carried out in the Iranian provinces of Khorasan (which borders Afghanistan) and Ilam (which borders Iraq) in 2006. These two provinces suffered from war and economic instability with high rates of poverty and unemployment. Data were obtained from patients, family members, and/or significant others through interviews during the course of hospitalization. Of 181 hospitalized patients, 130 (71.8%) were female, representing a hospital separation rate of 5.4 per 100,000 person-year (P-Y). The rate of suicidal behavior involving burns among the rural population was higher than that in the urban population (6.3 vs. 4.7 per 100,000 P-Y, P = 0.09). The median age of the patients was 23 years old, with a mean (±SD) of 27.9 (±14.3) years old. Approximately 68.5% of women were married. Quarrels with "a family member, spouse, a relative, or a friend" (marital plus other conflicts) was identified as the most common precipitating factor (88.5%) in attempting suicide. More than one third of women were abused (physically and/or verbally) by family members (i.e. spouse, father-in-law). Case fatality rate in this study was 52.3% (68/130). Suicide by burns is still a socio-epidemiological problem in Iran, particularly among young, married women in rural areas. Social and economic conditions, as well as violence against women, play a major role in the high rate of suicide by burns. The findings of this study highlight the need for the implementation of a well-organized approach to reduce the rate of suicide by burns among the most vulnerable populations in Iran.

  12. European Union Law — Right of Free Movement — European Court of Justice Holds that the Slovak Republic Did Not Violate EU Law in Banning the President of Hungary from Entering Its Territory. — Case C-364/10, Hungary v. Slovak Republic, 2012 ECJ EUR-Lex LEXIS 2465 (Oct. 16, 2012)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

      Recently, in Hungary v. Slovak Republic, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that the Slovak Republic's decision to ban the President of Hungary from entering its territory did not violate EU law...

  13. Il viaggio religioso come strumento geopolitico. Il pellegrinaggio sciita e l’emergere dell’alleanza regionale tra Iran e Siria - Religious travelling as geopolitical instrument. The Shia pilgrimage and the rise of the regional alliance between Iran and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Scaini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Religious pilgrimage is almost as old as the history of men. This phenomenon has often been instrumentalized for political ends, creating the premises for new colonization processes, exerting local hegemonies or reinforcing strategic alliances. This article examines the recent re-discovery, in Shia perspective, of the holy sites in Syria. This “re-discovery” which initially was intended as anti-Iraq and pro-Iran has developed social implications and regional significance which cannot be thoroughly assessed for the moment. Among these there is an interesting gender issue. Women offer themselves as cultural mediators and therefore manage to increase their autonomy and obtain an economic independence which they propagate at home. Pilgrimage thus reveals itself as a kind of travel with strong political connotations.

  14. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  15. Gender-based violence against civilian women in postinvasion Iraq: (re)politicizing George W. Bush's silent legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Koo, Katrina

    2011-12-01

    This article explores the increase in gender-based violence against civilian women in Iraq since 2003 and connects it to the U.S.-led invasion of that country. It outlines the complex nature of the gender-based violence and the impact that it has had on civilian women in Iraq. It then analyzes the links between this violence and the politics of the postinvasion period. This article also explores how this violence has been politicized. Ultimately, the article (re)politicizes gender-based violence through a feminist lens and argues that the security of Iraq's women is fundamental to the stability of Iraq as a whole.

  16. Study of radiocarbon dynamics of Baradla Cave, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Mihály; Dezsö, Zoltán; Futo, Istvan; Siklósy, Zoltan; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Koltai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition of speleothems and their parent drip water reflects the isotope composition of the atmospheric CO2, the soil and the host rock and can sometimes be influenced even by the cave atmosphere. Owing to the fact that 14C in the bedrock has long decayed, the bedrock derived carbon content of the seepage water can be considered as inactive or "dead carbon". The initial dead carbon proportion (dcp) of a stalagmite or tufa layer, caused by the incorporation of the inactive carbon, can be calculated with the help of the C-14 level differences between the contemporary atmosphere and the formed stone carbonate. The revolutionary technological advances of 14C (AMS) have brought the possibility of analysing 14C dynamics of karst systems due to the small amount of demanded material. The Baradla-Domica Cave is the largest cave of Gömör-Torna Karst, a karst area situated in the northeast of Hungary, and located on the Slovakian-Hungarian borderland. The approximately 26 km long cave is a typical example of multi-level speleogenesis. As a case study we have investigated several recent (age < 50 years) and older (age about 10-11 kyrs) stalagmites and recent drip water, some freshwater tufa samples and the recent cave air carbon-dioxide of the Baradla-cave to study the carbon dynamics and dead carbon level there. According four modern stalagmites (formed 1991-2004) the current dcp is very small in Baradla Cave (3-7%). Stalagmites deposited in Holocene (U/Th dated) were also characterized by very small dead carbon contents (1-11% dcp). Outside the cave a dpc about 20-25% was found in a freshwater tufa sample. This relatively low dead carbon content might be either explained by the thinness of the limestone bedrock above (56-80 m) or the relatively fast infiltration conditions, or their combined effect. Cave air is enriched in CO2 (2-5 times higher than in natural air, not homogenous) but the source of this surplus CO2 is not the limestone according its

  17. The Major Trends of Food Consumption in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelita Kata Gódor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 20th century the food consumption levels were much lower than later in the century, when food production increased as well. The selection of foodstuffs became wider and we can observe the modernisation of nutrition principles too, which both had a positive impact on consumption. The variety of food was also affected by the increasing life expectancy. The emergence of more modern ways in food consumption is halted not only by the traditions but by the fact that healthier foods are more expensive than fat or cereal prices. There is a significant correlation between the income levels and the quality of consumed food, as it can be observed that in different regions in Hungary. My aim was also to investigate the change in consumer behaviour in parallel with the increase of income levels; to see which sort of foods are preferred by the wealthier, and which are preferred by the ones with less income. It is also important to analyse the economic and social indicators on regional and other spatial levels and to compare them with food consumption. The annual net income per capita is usually higher in more developed regions than in the less developed ones. Therefore, the expenditure spent on better quality and more expensive food products is also higher. Similarly, in the case of the population there are differences in consumer habits according to purchasing power. For instance, for people with higher income one of the most important factors is to buy healthy and high quality food, but for the ones with lower income it can be a struggle only to find food in sufficient quantities, and quality cannot be as much of an issue. In the consumer basket, foodstuff accounts for approximately one-third of the overall expenditure. In this study I analysed the annual expenditure of Hungary’s population on foodstuffs and the annual quantity of food consumed by households per capita on a regional level between 2010 and 2013.

  18. JURASSIC PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSDANUBIAN CENTRAL RANGE (HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTILA VÖRÖS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transdanubian Central Range (TCR is a flattened range of hills in northern Transdanubia (Hungary, formed mainly by Mesozoic carbonate rocks showing strong facies similarities with the Southern Alps and the Austroalpine domain. The Jurassic system is divided into several formations of predominantly pelagic limestones. Ammonoids are frequent and were collected bed-by-bed in numerous sections, providing an excellent biostratigraphic resolution. The thickness of the Jurassic system is usually small but changes along the strike of the TCR. It reaches a maximum thickness of 500 m in the western part; is very variable (10-400 m in the central segment (Bakony Mts. and rather low (less than 100 m in the east (Gerecse. In the Bakony segment, the thickness variation reflects the strongly dissected topography of the Jurassic sea-floor. Synsedimentary tectonics is dominated by normal faults; tilted blocks and listric faults may be inferred only in the east.Five main steps were identified in the palaeogeographic evolution: 1 Late Hettangian: carbonate oolitic shoals prevail, except for a few sites where non-deposition or neritic sediments occur. 2 Sinemurian and Pliensbachian: tectonic disintegration resulted in an intricate pattern of submarine horsts and intervening basins, with condensed sedimentation or non-deposition on the horsts and thicker, continuous sedimentary sequences in the basins. The submarine topographic highs are surrounded by aprons of redeposited material (scarp breccias, brachiopod coquinas, crinoidal calcarenites, spiculitic cherty limestones, while pure or argillaceous limestones (Rosso Ammonitico prevail in the distal areas. 3 Early Toarcian: the Tethys-wide anoxic event is superimposed on the previous submarine bottom topography; the resulting black shales and sedimentary Mn-ores are concentrated on the western sides of some horsts. 4 Dogger to Early Malm: radiolarites with heterochronous lower and upper boundaries (Aalenian to

  19. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  20. Whole-body counter intercomparison measurements in Hungary and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary). KFKI; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a co-operation agreement between Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf, Italian ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection and Hungarian KFKI Atomic Energy Research Centre, an intercomparison on WBC measurements using a modular bottle phantom was performed during 1995 in Hungary, on May-July 1996 in the Northern part of Italy. Results related to the relative bias for the three body masses are reported, together with indication of their compliance with ANSI report N13.30. It turned out that majority of the results were found to be within the performance criteria of the ANSI report, however there were also few outfalling results which were a good indication to check and improve the reliability of calibration and/or other methodological procedures. In the contrary of the expectance, the results related to 20 kg phantom resulted not significantly worse than those obtained for the adult phantom indicating the capacity for the participating WBC centres of measuring people from the general population. [Italiano] Nell`ambito di un accordo di collaborazione tra il Centro di Ricerca di Seibersdorf (Austria), l`Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell`ENEA (ENEA AMB PRO IRP) ed il Centro di Ricerca per l`Energia Atomica KFKI di Budapest (Ungheria), si e` svolto un interconfronto su misure WBC basato sull`utilizzo di un unico fantoccio modulare a bottiglie cui hanno partecipato centri WBC Ungheresi (1995) ed Italiani (Maggio-Giugno 1996). Nel presente rapporto tecnico vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti ed una loro analisi impostata sui criteri di valutazione recentemente proposti dall`ANSI nel rapporto N. 13.30. Sulla base di tale criterio la maggior parte dei risultati dell`interconfronto rientra nell`intervallo di accettabilita`; nei pochi casi di non accettabilita` si rende invece necessaria una revisione dei dati di calibrazione e delle metodologie. Contrariamente a quanto si poteva prevedere, i risultati relativi al fantoccio da 20 kg appaiono sostanzialmente

  1. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  2. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  3. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  4. Serbian: The Serbian Language in Education in Hungary. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Anton, Comp.; Solymosi, Judit, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims at providing a concise description of and basic statistics on minority language education in a specific region of Europe--the territory of Magyarország (Hungary). Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as…

  5. The Bologna Process as a Trojan Horse: Restructuring Higher Education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusztai, Gabriella; Szabo, Peter Cs.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in higher education in Hungary are strongly related to those in the economic and social environment. Since the change of the political system in the late 1980s, Hungarian economic development has been marked by periods of contraction and expansion. Notwithstanding this process, influenced in part by the state's imposition of restrictive…

  6. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  7. Age Group, Location or Pedagogue: Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Kindergartens in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teszenyi, Eleonora; Hevey, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Hungary has experienced significant political, economic, demographic and social changes since the end of Soviet domination in the 1990s. The gradual move towards liberal democracy has been accompanied by growing emphasis on individualism, choice and diversity. Universal kindergarten provision for five- to six-year-olds is a long established…

  8. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Hungary 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Hungary has been experiencing major changes and innovation initiatives in public education in the last decade. Transparency of school processes and a focus on outcome and effectiveness have become major issues. Accordingly, the methodology of making relevant data accessible to those concerned has gained major importance. In terms of assessment,…

  9. A Chronicle of School Music Education in Hungary, 1700-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Boglarka

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry is a chronological overview of the history of school music education in Hungary. The study explores the topic from a large-scale humanistic perspective, in which historical context, general education laws, individual institutions and music educators, as well as music curriculum, textbooks, and teaching methods serve as evidence. The…

  10. Whose Children Gain from Starting School Later?--Evidence from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwicker-Hamori, Szilvia; Kollo, Janos

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming…

  11. Retrospective study on the distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacsadi, Á; Papp, A; Szeredi, L; Tóth, G; Nemes, C; Imre, V; Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2016-04-15

    Europe has experienced the spreading of vector-borne helminths including heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) from the Mediterranean countries towards the northern ones in the past decades. Recently, the establishment of D. immitis was confirmed in Hungary on the basis of period prevalence studies involving dogs, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus). The aim of our retrospective study was to describe the spatial distribution of the parasite and the time course of spreading of D. immitis in Hungary. Necropsy records of 2622 dogs received at our laboratories from 2001 to 2015 were reviewed for heartworm infections. The locality of origin of animals was recorded in a geographic information system database and compared to the results of the period prevalence study involving wild canids. Autochthonous heartworm infection was detected in 27 dogs. The time course analysis indicates that the parasite established in Hungary in 2007. As temperature is one of the most important determinants of the distribution of D. immitis, the climate of the Great Hungarian Plain is the most suitable region for the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. Our studies revealed that the Great Hungarian Plain became a D. immitis endemic region for 2015. Nevertheless, sporadic cases in wild canids and dogs also occur in other regions of the country.

  12. The syphilis epidemics in Hungary 1985-2004, before entering the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Elyas; Nagy, Károly; Horváth, Attila

    2013-09-01

    In the decade prior to the turn of the millennium, great interest was raised, and rightly so, by the STD (syphilis and HIV/AIDS) epidemic that developed in the Eastern-Central European Region. Its coincidence with the far-reaching political and economic changes that took place at that time suggested a link between the two events.Hungary, where these infections had had low incidence before the period investigated, also experienced an increase in STD incidence. The trend in syphilis infection during the 20 years between 1985-2004, that preceded the turn of the millennium and when finally Hungary joined the European Union, have been analyzed. Due to the nature of venereological epidemiological surveillance in Hungary, syphilis prevalence data are appropriate for further analysis from socio-demographic aspects. Behavioural changes underlying the specific features of the epidemics in Hungary had developed several years earlier and cannot be linked to the political and economic changes that started in the early 90s. The only exception is the phenomenon of growing migration that appeared simultaneously with the political changes and had a decisive impact on the spread and level of infection in some areas in the country. As shown by our data, trends seen in specific demographic groups (females, rural population) preceded the suddenly occurring political changes by about 15 years.

  13. [Legal aspects and the treatment procedure of gender dysphoria in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-07-26

    The legal process of gender transition in Hungary had previously been more developed as in most European countries, as the law enabled transsexual people to change their name and gender before or without a medical treatment, which was unique at the time. Over the years, however, lots of European countries developed legal frameworks and accepted international standards of care for the treatment of gender dysphoria that Hungary did not follow. Currently in Hungary there is no consistent legal framework of gender transition, there is no official regulation or guidelines regarding gender transition process, no institution with the obligation to accommodate the process, and there is no nominated specialist in the state health care system whose remit included dealing with transsexual patients. The information on gender transition options both to the professionals and to the patients is limited and incoherent. This paper reviews the legal aspects and clinical management process of gender dysphoria in Hungary. Some issues regarding the Hungarian practice and possible solutions based on examples from the United Kingdom are addressed within the paper.

  14. Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.

    2004-01-01

    When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To ass

  15. Environmental Education and Training in Hungary. Training Discussion Paper No. 83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras; Kohl, Agnes

    In Hungary, the educational system is responsible for developing an up-to-date and enlightened attitude toward the environment. Elementary schools have made the greatest advance in environmental education during the past 10 years. Conditions for environmental education are most favorable in the gymnasium; secondary vocational education has the…

  16. Changes in the Booktrade and Publishing in Hungary 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the chaotic state of Hungary's booktrade and publishing industries. Presents a historical background that discusses the shift from centralized book distribution to a market economy and tables that reveal publishing trends. Impacts on the publishing industry include disruption of Hungarian traditions and development of alternative book…

  17. The Rationalisation of the Body: Physical Education in Hungary in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Miklos

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how "turnen", the modernised form of earlier gymnastic exercises, emerged in Hungary in the second part of the nineteenth century. It is argued that although the advocates of the "turnen" movement are gradually squeezed from the spheres of modern competitive sports, their strategies of expansion are successful: earlier…

  18. Concerns Related to the Education of Romany Students in Hungary, Austria and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1982-01-01

    Describes, in detail, the educational status of Romany students in socialist Hungary and, briefly, in nonsocialist Austria and Finland. Regardless of the country's politics, attempts at successful schooling, through better teaching methods and parental and adult involvement, must be interwoven with changing the prejudices and employment practices…

  19. The Hard Work of Interpretation: The National Politics of PISA Reception in Hungary and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eszter; Kiss, Adel; Fejes, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamic interaction between global policy and knowledge flows and two post-communist education systems--Hungary and Romania--with special attention to the appropriation of post-bureaucratic regulation tools and the structural changes enhanced by the knowledge transmitted by the Programme for International Student…

  20. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  1. Situation Report--Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General…

  2. Radioactive Waste Management on Hungary at the Turn of the Millennium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temesi, A.; Pellet, S.; Fritz, A.

    2003-02-24

    The paper describes the challenging situation related to the radioactive waste management in Hungary. It is also discussing the legal and financial background and overviewing the developed strategy and the steps to be taken to find a reliable and safe disposal for L/ILW.

  3. Report on the Vocational Education and Training System in Hungary. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocz, Tamas Kopeczi

    An intrinsic part of the transition to a modern market economy in Hungary has been the restructuring of the vocational education and training (VET) system. A positive side effect of the socioeconomic transition is the emergence of human resources development (HRD). The transition process has been successful in the school-based education system,…

  4. Transition of Education and the Economy in Hungary in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Tamas D.

    1993-01-01

    Addresses critical and extensively debated human resource issues involved with Hungary's transition to a market economy. Summarizes key problems, including educational system rigidity versus labor market flexibility and lack of feedback between growing unemployment and school system transformation. Highlights some proposed solutions consistent…

  5. Choice of School and Career, and Its System of Motivation in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Erno; Schuttler, Tamas

    In Hungary, a countrywide survey of school and/or career choice intentions among seventh-grade primary school pupils was complemented by an examination of the motives playing a role in the choice. School achievement was the strongest factor that decides the tendency of the intention of choosing a secondary school. Regarding career choices, the…

  6. Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.

    2004-01-01

    When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To ass

  7. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Hungary 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Hungary has been experiencing major changes and innovation initiatives in public education in the last decade. Transparency of school processes and a focus on outcome and effectiveness have become major issues. Accordingly, the methodology of making relevant data accessible to those concerned has gained major importance. In terms of assessment,…

  8. Nitrogen flows in the food production chain of Hungary over the period 1961–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong; Ma, Lin; Sárdi, Katalin; Sisák, István; Ma, Wenqi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from food production can cause serious environmental problems. Mitigation strategies require insights of N cycles in this complex system. A substance flow analysis for N in the Hungary food production and processing chain over the period 1961–2010 was conducted. Our results

  9. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Hungary 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoczky, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hungary's arts and cultural education. The cultural area "arts" has the following sub-areas: music, dance and drama, visual culture, film and media. In accordance with the contemporary approach to art, these are all independent branches of art. Although they have a number of common features, they are very different…

  10. Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.

    2004-01-01

    When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To

  11. The effects of family structure on the educational attainment of siblings in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, K. van; Graaf, P.M. de

    1995-01-01

    In this article we examine the impact of family structure on educational attainment in Hungary. Using a data-set collected in 1983 with information on all siblings of 17146 primary respondents, the effects of family size, birth order, and spacing were investigated. Hypotheses on these effects were b

  12. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Hungary 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoczky, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hungary's arts and cultural education. The cultural area "arts" has the following sub-areas: music, dance and drama, visual culture, film and media. In accordance with the contemporary approach to art, these are all independent branches of art. Although they have a number of common features, they are very different…

  13. First record of the genus Atrichops Verrall, 1909 in Hungary (Diptera: Athericidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Murányi, D.; Tarjányi, N.; Schöll, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first known larva of Atrichops crassipes (Meigen, 1820) from Hungary. The single specimen was caught with flushing of stones during a year-long monthly sampling in the Morgó Stream, Börzsöny Mts. Characterisation of the sampling site, list of the accompanying fauna and a figure on the habitus of the specimen are given.

  14. Nematodes from rocky grassland in Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations carried out on soil inhabiting nematodes living in andesitic rock regions ofBörzsöny Mountains. Seventeen species are listed. Heterodorus arcuatus (Thorne, 1939), new to the fauna of Hungary, isdescribed and illustrated in detail.

  15. Nematodes from rocky grassland in Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on investigations carried out on soil inhabiting nematodes living in andesitic rock regions ofBörzsöny Mountains. Seventeen species are listed. Heterodorus arcuatus (Thorne, 1939, new to the fauna of Hungary, isdescribed and illustrated in detail.

  16. The New Public Management is not that bad after all : Evidence from Estonia, Hungary and Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dan (Sorin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews the New Public Management (NPM) literature in Central and Eastern Europe, looking particularly at reforms in Estonia, Hungary and Romania. It finds that research that assessed changes in internal processes and activities within the public sector by far outnumber rese

  17. The Iran Nuclear Issue and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since August 2005, Iran on one side and the United States and the European countries on the other have been locked in a rangle over the Iran nuclear issue and tension has steadily escalated to a critical point as both sides stick to an uncompromising position. In earlier June 2006, in order to break the deadlock, the EU, with U.S. blessing, once again offered Iran a new package of incentives in an

  18. National Security And Institutional Pathologies: A Path Dependent Analysis Of U.S. Interventions In Iran, Guatemala, Cuba, And Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    eventually took Guatemala into a 30-year calamity of internal violence and repression, drastically increased the financial burden of U.S. aid, and...problem load on the existing institutional framework,” and that when change does occur it is generally in bursts that “set in motion waves of contagion ...States- controlled oil wells in Saudi Arabia.”80 The result was broad based financial and military support to Qavam’s government that allowed the Iranian

  19. Iran, Iraq, and the United States: The New Triangle’s Impact on Sectarianism and the Nuclear Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    March 6, 2006. 27. David Ignatius, “In Iraq’s Choice, A Chance for Unity,” Washington Post, April 26, 2006; see also Patrice Claude , “Jaafari Refuse...Daily, April 14, 2006. 71. Khalil, pp. 19, 135-136. 72. Richard Morin , “Unwelcome Neighbors,” Washington Post, July 3, 2005 p. B05. 73. Faleh A. Jabar

  20. Strategic Resources of Iraq, Turkey and Iran and the Development of Kurdish Nationalism: The Domestic, Regional and International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    corporation, Entreprise de Recherches et d’Activities Petrolieres (ERAP), was awarded a development and exploration contract. In 1972, the 47Sluglett, graa...the climatic conditions of the region. 102 The Ataturk Dam project, which is "being built by Turkish contractors, and without foreign financing ŕ 03 is...such as Japan, to assist in financing these development schemes. In the past decade, Turkey’s attempt to strengthen the economy by developing