WorldWideScience

Sample records for hungarian state railways

  1. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company Lake State Railway Company (LSRC) and Saginaw Bay Southern Railway... railway accounting purposes, LSRC functions today as an Interline Settlement System (ISS) carrier, while...

  2. The State of the Railways in SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Ladysmith were also under siege by the Republican forces. .... Railway engines were also provided with armour plating and almost every ... All photographs supplied by the Publicity and Travel Department of the. South African Railways.

  3. Propaganda Versus Genocide: The United States War Refugee Board and the Hungarian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Halász

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1944 the Second World War had been raging for more than four long years, with the death toll among soldiers and civilians alike climbing. European Jews constituted a special group of the victims, a fact that leaders of the Allied powers failed to acknowledge. In January 1944 a major revision of previous government policy was brought about in the United States with the establishment of the War Refugee Board in Washington, promising an American commitment to the rescue of European war refugees, including Jews. In March of the same year the situation for Jewish inhabitants in Hungary turned dire as German forces occupied the country. For lack of any other instantly applicable way to influence Hungarian developments, leaders of the new American War Refugee Board decided to launch a propaganda campaign to fight the Nazis and their accomplices. This paper will examine the motivations of American policy makers in focusing on political propaganda measures during the first phase of the Hungarian Holocaust (March–July 1944, and it will describe the logic and workings of the campaign as a means to save Hungary’s Jewry in the last full year of the Second World War.

  4. 78 FR 73585 - The Three Rivers Railway Company-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Mahoning State Line Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Three Rivers Railway Company--Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Mahoning State Line Railroad Company The Three Rivers Railway Company (TRRC) and Mahoning State Line Railroad...)(3) for a corporate family transaction. According to applicants, TRRC is a Class III railroad and a...

  5. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  6. THE PROSPECTS FOR IMPROVING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF ROLLING STOCK ON THE RAILWAYS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Ponomarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the main conditions of the effective and high-quality organization of rail hauling is availability of modern rolling stock. However, the analysis of technical condition confirms its considerable moral and physical deterioration. The main purpose of the article is search of possible ways of improvement of technical condition of the existing car fleet on the railroads of Ukraine. Methodology. The current state of a rail transport not fully meets the modern requirements. For the last decades updating of fixed assets has been provided generally at the expense of own means of the railroads and satisfied the need for capital investments only for 5-6 percent. At the same time, actually since declaration of independence of Ukraine the price growth rates for the products consumed by the railroads exceeded the fare growth rates that did not allow to update in necessary amount and to improve technical condition of the rolling stock. Findings. The article presents the analysis of freight rolling stock of Ukrainian Railways, which showed unsatisfactory condition of the cars. The railway industry today works on the old principles, which do not correspond to the modern world trends in organization of work of railway transport, contribute to the inefficiency of its functioning and impede further development, constraining the inflow of investment to this industry, hamper cooperation with private companies. Insufficient funding and imperfect system of repair and maintenance inhibit the development and reduce the competitiveness of railway transport of Ukraine. However, the implementation of strategic directions of development of the transport sector, a review of the above constraints and using the experience of advanced countries will steer the rail transport out of the crisis. Originality. The authors presented comprehensive consideration of issues to improve the car maintenance system while extending the life of their operation. Practical value

  7. Railway Construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Li Ping and Li Xinhu, the book actually is the result of research into “schemes of construction of railways in Yunnan and Tibet.” The book centers around research into the scheme of construction of the YunnanTibet Railway, conducting comprehensive studies involving political, economic, technological, social and State security fields.

  8. Parameter identification of multi-body railway vehicle models - Application of the adjoint state approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puel, G.; Aubry, D.; Funfschilling, C.

    2016-12-01

    For the calibration of multi-body models of railway vehicles, the identification of the model parameters from on-track measurement is required. This involves the solution of an inverse problem by minimising the misfit function which describes the distance between model and measurement using optimisation methods. The application of gradient-based optimisation methods is advantageous but necessitates an efficient approach for the computation of the gradients considering the large number of model parameters and the costly evaluation of the forward model. This work shows that the application of the adjoint state approach to the nonlinear vehicle-track multi-body system is suitable, reducing on the one hand the computational cost and increasing on the other hand the precision of the gradients. Gradients from the adjoint state method are computed for vehicle models and validated taking into account measurement noise.

  9. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  10. Research on the railway construction process quality model based on the state space method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shoudong; Zhou Guohua; Chen Haifeng; Zhao Guotang

    2013-01-01

    In the ISO9000“input-output”process model,the concept of process quality is difficult to get the cor-rect interpretation. From the“white box”theory of process,this paper puts forward the scientific meaning of the concept of process quality and the process quality model by taking the basic operating unit of 6M1E in the railway construction project for example. The basic operating unit system consists of technological natural process,opera-tion process and management process;the process quality of the basic operating unit system depends on the interre-lation and interaction among those three sub-processes,and also subjects to the impact of the external disturbance input factors. Finally,the cast-in-situ prestressed concrete continuous box girder construction process is utilized to elaborate the specific application of this theory in the quality management of the railway construction project.

  11. HUNGARIAN HIGHER EDUTATION-SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva DARABOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sustainability already goes far beyond the aspects of environmental protection; the knowledge and the education are also part of the sustainable development. In the field of education, a condition of realizing the sustainability is that the state should ensure a predictable and stable budget for the operation of institutions. Aim of the treatise, at first, is to examine the fulfilment of Europe 2020 Strategy objective affecting the higher education directly and then, based on statistical data, to present the trend in number of students of the Hungarian higher education and its composition by regions and to examine the change in the budgetary support.In order to retain the sustainability and competitiveness, the state and the institutions should make efforts to harmonise their sources and expenditures and to ensure a predictable, stable financial environment for the sector and its stakeholders.

  12. Emotional Intelligence of Hungarian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracsi, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The research focused on the personal and social competencies of Hungarian teachers as unexplored areas. The participants in the survey were 707 Hungarian teachers from elementary and secondary schools. In view of the expectations of the European Union related to new teacher roles, the following research question was formulated to guide the study:…

  13. Regional Disparities along the Romanian-Hungarian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the actual state and condition of territorial inequalities at the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which shows - at present - an evident advantage of the Hungarian side, from the point of view of complex socio-economical aspects. This advantage is especially outstanding for the Hungarian side in the field of infrastructural supply (drinking water, natural gas, and public sewage networks, but it is valid for some characteristics of human capital, too, (above all, with regard to the illiteracy rate and the proportion of highly skilled persons with bachelor degree. Despite these difficulties, these inequalities are not insurmountable and should not affect efficient cross-border cooperation between the two countries. This regional inventory facilitates the evaluation of the starting-point of this kind of cooperation and also depicts some aspects of the interregional cooperation of the four counties north of the Romanian-Hungarian border region which belong to the Carpathian Euroregion.

  14. The Chengdu Railway Administration:Advancing with the Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE Chengdu Railway Administration, one of the top 500 state-owned enterprises, is southwestern China's communications backbone. Established in 1952, it administers state-owned railway lines in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces and Chongqing Municipality, including nine trunk rail lines and three joint-venture rail lines. Of its 5,208 kilometers of railways, 659 kilometers are joint-venture mileage.

  15. 2007 Railway Statistics Bulletin of MOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issued by Statistics Center of MOR; Chen Qi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 2007, under the guidance of the Party Committee of MOR, the entire railway sector seriously carried out the deployment of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, adhered to the scientific outlook on development, exerted all efforts to accelerate railway construction and promote scientific and technological innovation and successfully fulfilled the train working diagram rescheduling for the sixth-round large-scale railway speed-up campaign.

  16. The National Union Catalog and Its Role in Reference and Research in the Hungarian Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlan, Judith B.

    The National Union Catalog (NUC), a repository of the cataloged holdings of major research libraries of the United States and Canada, has significance in the area of Hungarian studies despite special problems encountered in the separation of these cards from those in other languages and in editing Hungarian names and the use of accents. The Union…

  17. The Hungarian ICT sector – a comparative CEE perspective with special emphasis on structural change

    OpenAIRE

    Balázs Lengyel

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the Hungarian ICT sector from a Central European and Estern European perspective. It outlines the position of the ICT sector in Central European and Eastern European states. Furthermore, it describes the impact of ICT on structural improvement in the regiuon. In conclusion, it gives an overview of the Hungarian ICT policy.

  18. Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rådbo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41 where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas.

  19. Vajon in Translated Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structures the discourse marker vajon forms in translated Hungarian fiction. Although translation data has been deployed in the study of discourse markers (Aijmer & Simon- Vandenbergen, 2004, such studies do not account for translation-specific phenomena which can influence the data of their analysis. In addition, translated discourse markers could offer insights into the idiosyncratic properties of translated texts as well as the culturally defined norms of translation that guide the creation of target texts. The analysis presented in this paper extends the cross-linguistic approach beyond contrastive analysis with a detailed investigation of two corpora of translated texts in order to identify patterns which could be a sign of translation or genre norms impacting the target texts. As a result, a distinct, diverging pattern emerges between the two corpora: patterns of explicit polarity show a marked difference. However, further research is needed to clarify whether these are due to language, genre, or translation norms.

  20. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  1. Outlook for developing the Hungarian oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsengeller, I.

    1984-01-01

    Reports from the 72nd general meeting of the Hungarian state society of miners and metallurgists are presented. Half of the need for energy supply is provided by oil and natural gas. The annual extraction is 2 million T of oil and 7 billion mT of natural gas. The discovered reserves guarantee extraction for 10-30 years. The need is stressed for using new methods in oil refining to extract more valuable products. World Bank credit also has to be used for development of the industry.

  2. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  3. Multiple Operator Movements in Hungarian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surányi, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I argue for an approach to multiple operator constructions in Hungarian within a radically derivational model which heavily restricts the role of pre-fabricated functional A-bar projections and which holds that it is the verb in this language that carries and projects the relevant ope

  4. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  5. Railway Network Timetabling and Dynamic Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the current state of research concerning railway network timetabling and traffic management. Timetable effectiveness is governed by frequency, regularity, accurate running, recovery and layover times, as well as minimal headway, buffer times and waiting times. Analytic (queuing)

  6. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show......, which can be used for providing bandwidth-demanding applications, such as video surveillance. All in all, this thesis presents a feasible evolution in the field of railway communications. LTE technology together with the novel heterogeneous architecture may transform railway mobile networks from being......GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...

  7. Radiology education in Hungarian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Boetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    Basic concepts of nuclear physics are not more abstract and more difficult than those of electricity. For the orientation of the citizens of the 21st century, the Hungarian school curriculum has made them compulsory for all teenagers. According to the teachers' experience, the students find nuclear issues more relevant and more interesting than the topics inherited from the schoolbooks of earlier centuries. (author)

  8. Urban Railway Accessibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; YIN Yuanfei; YAN Hai; HAN Yan; QIN Huanmei

    2007-01-01

    Effective use of urban rapid railway systems requires that the railway systems be effectively connected with other transportation modes so that they are accessible. This paper uses the logit model and data to analyze the factors influencing railway access choices in a railway choice access model. The results indicate that access time, access cost, and access distance are factors significantly affecting railway access choices. The user's income significantly affects the probability of choosing to walk rather than to take a taxi,but is not related to choosing buses or bicycles. Vehicle ownership significantly affects the probability of choosing a taxi, but is not significantly related to the other modes. The conclusions provide an analysis tool for urban railway planning and construction.

  9. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  10. Functions of modal particles in Hungarian

    OpenAIRE

    Marusynets, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the functions of Hungarian modal particles from the Relevance Theory perspective, which offers a cognitive account of utterance interpretation. It is argued that Hungarian modal particles govern the selection of context by guiding the hearer towards relevant interpretation.

  11. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  12. An analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in counties located along road and railway corridors in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Silva Goncalves Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is increasing in Latin America, especially in Brazil, where 256,587 cases were confirmed in the last decade. Methods This study used a Bayesian model to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of ACL cases between 2000 and 2009 in 61 counties of State of Maranhão located along the three main road and railway corridors. Results During the study period, 13,818 cases of ACL were recorded. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL in the ten study years. The recorded incidence rate ranged from 7.36 to 241.45 per 100,000 inhabitants. The relative risk increased in 77% of the counties, decreased in 18% and was maintained in only five counties. Conclusions Although there was a decreased incidence of the disease, ACL was present in all of the examined municipalities, thus maintaining the risk of contracting this illness.

  13. What Influences the Savings Decisions of the Hungarian Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Horváthné Kökény; Zsuzsanna Széles

    2014-01-01

    We created a theoretical model of the main factors that influence household savings based on our secondary research, then conducted a questionnaire survey involving 4106 Hungarian households in the scope of primary research. The examined households had a low level of financial knowledge. They believe that financial literacy needs to be developed, since in general it is true that they are not adequately familiar with the various financial services and state aid options related to them. We came...

  14. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  15. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross...

  16. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  17. Centrifugal Model Tests on Railway Embankments of Expansive Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the centrifugal model tests on railway embankments of expansive soil in Nanning-Kunming railway,the author studied several embankments under different physical conditions. The stress and strain states and settlement of the embankments were analyzed, and the obtained results can be used as a reference to field construction.

  18. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  19. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  20.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth;

    -directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear......This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  1. Thermal state of the active layer and permafrost along the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet Railway from 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated changes in active layer thickness (ALT and permafrost temperatures at different depths using data from the permafrost monitoring network along the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet Railway (QXR since 2005. Among these sites, mean ALT is ~3.1 m, with a range of ~1.1 to 5.9 m. From 2006 through 2010, ALT has increased at a rate of ~6.3 cm a−1. The mean rate of permafrost temperature rise at the depth of 6.0 m is ~0.02 °C a−1, estimated by linear regression using 5 yr of data, and the mean rate of mean annual ground temperature (MAGT rise at a depth of zero amplitude is ~0.012 °C a−1. Changes for colder permafrost (MAGT <−1.0 °C are greater than changes for relatively warmer permafrost (MAGT >−1.0 °C. This is consistent with results observed in the Arctic and subarctic.

  2. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  3. 6th Congress of Croatian and Hungarian and 17th Congress of Hungarian Geomathematicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Tutek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this year's 6th Congress of Croatian and Hungarian and 17th Congress of Hungarian Geomathematicians was Geomathematics – from theory to practice and its key topics were • Applied geomathematics (geosciences, environmental science • Geomathematics in reservoir characterization and modelling • Hydrological and hydrogeological modelling • Theoretical geomathematics (geostatistics, neural networks, statistics • Geoinformatics (including GIS.

  4. THE SZEKLERS AND HUNGARIANS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Szeklers and Hungarians from Romania. This study regards, as its main topic, the possibility of establishing at present, a geodemographical entity on Romania’s territory, since certain representatives of the Hungarian ethnical minority in our country, and with a particular insistence of those in the vicinity of the western border, always remember to bring into view the problem of establishing an autonomy, common to a Székely Land, located in the central area of our country, which would include Mureş, Harghita and Covasna counties. Without carrying out a detailed account of this situation, it needs to be mentioned, just as it will emerge of the following presentation, that such an approach has neither the most reduced geodemographical support, since the Szeklers, after being assimilated by the Hungarian ethnic group, are no longer present at the census of 20 October 2011. By taking into account the above mentioned aspects, in order to be able to respond to the insistent requests for autonomy in Transylvania, we proceeded to highlight, through a fairly detailed approach of the Hungarian ethnical minority, obviously in point of the number of inhabitants and of their distribution on Romania’s territory, resulting of this the fact that the number of Hungarians is of 1,227,623 people, value which related to those 20,121,641 inhabitants of Romania, means 6.10%. The total number of mentioned Hungarians is characterized by a pronounced concentration on Romania’s territory, standing out by creating a corridor with a diagonal aspect, on the northwestsoutheast direction, consisting of seven counties, the first four (Satu Mare, Bihor, Sălaj and Cluj being registered with 2.01% (404,561 inhabitants of those 6.10% Hungarians, the following three (Mureş, Harghita and Covasna accounting for 3.03% (609,033 inhabitants, and hence in the corridor are present 5.04% (1,013,594 Hungarians of 6.10% at the level of the entire country. The above mentioned

  5. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Hong, Linh; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    , are avoided. Central parts of these new systems consist of safety-critical software the functional correctness of which is one of the key requisites for a reliable operation of the traffics and in particular for the safety of passengers. Until now the development of railway control software has typically been......This paper presents work package WP4.1 of the RobustRails research project. The work package aims at suggesting a methodology for efficient development and verification of safe and robust railway control systems. 1 Project background and state of the art Over the next 10 years all Danish railway...... signalling systems are going to be completely replaced with modern, computer based railway control systems based on the European standard ERTMS/ETCS [3, 4] by the Danish Signaling Programme [1]. The purpose of these systems is to control the railway traffic such that unsafe situations, like train collisions...

  6. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  7. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  8. An improved network model for railway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keping; Ma, Xin; Shao, Fubo

    In railway traffic, safety analysis is a key issue for controlling train operation. Here, the identification and order of key factors are very important. In this paper, a new network model is constructed for analyzing the railway safety, in which nodes are regarded as causation factors and links represent possible relationships among those factors. Our aim is to give all these nodes an importance order, and to find the in-depth relationship among these nodes including how failures spread among them. Based on the constructed network model, we propose a control method to ensure the safe state by setting each node a threshold. As the results, by protecting the Hub node of the constructed network, the spreading of railway accident can be controlled well. The efficiency of such a method is further tested with the help of numerical example.

  9. Necessity and effects of dynamic systems for railway wheel defect detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available State of railway vehicles highly influences transport safety due to vehicle derailments and in the same time worsens the quality of freight and passenger transportation. One of important elements that influence the state of railway vehicles is the wheel state. Wheel defects are common in railway transport. Therefore, timely defect detection is very important. This paper presents ways and effects of timely detection of wheel defects.

  10. Locomotive Schedule Optimization for Da-qin Heavy Haul Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiye Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main difference between locomotive schedule of heavy haul railways and that of regular rail transportation is the number of locomotives utilized for one train. One heavy-loaded train usually has more than one locomotive, but a regular train only has one. This paper develops an optimization model for the multilocomotive scheduling problem (MLSP through analyzing the current locomotive schedule of Da-qin Railway. The objective function of our paper is to minimize the total number of utilized locomotives. The MLSP is nondeterministic polynomial (NP hard. Therefore, we convert the multilocomotive traction problem into a single-locomotive traction problem. Then, the single-locomotive traction problem (SLTP can be converted into an assignment problem. The Hungarian algorithm is applied to solve the model and obtain the optimal locomotive schedule. We use the variance of detention time of locomotives at stations to evaluate the stability of locomotive schedule. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization model, case studies for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains on Da-qin Railway are both conducted. Compared to the current schedules, the optimal schedules from the proposed models can save 62 and 47 locomotives for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains, respectively. Therefore, the effectiveness of the proposed model and its solution algorithm are both valid.

  11. Tripping over the Dead: Hungarian-Israeli Holocaust Survivor Women's Narratives of Immigration, Restoration, and Remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the post-Holocaust, Israeli life of five female narrators of Hungarian origin as expressed in their inclusive life histories. A close reading of the later period in the life histories of the five women exposes how they experienced and view their post-Holocaust life as Holocaust survivors and new immigrants in a newly founded State. The women's narratives of finding housing, work, and starting new families show that despite practical hardship they look back on it all with humor, acceptance, and optimism. The women's narratives about the recurrence of Holocaust-related bad memories, nightmares, fears, and worries illustrate that the past is always present and shakes the stability of their post-Holocaust, seemingly rehabilitated lives. This instability or proneness to belated agony is even stronger for two women, who embark on journeys to their past Hungarian hometowns (accompanied by their husbands, likewise of Hungarian origin. The hometown visit narratives are compelling, bothering, and carry a nightmarish quality. Seen against the background of the five women's former Hungarian lives and identity, the narratives of emigration, remembering, and re-visiting clarify that all these experiences are shadowed by the women's Holocaust experiences. Yet, while their later lives offer them some consolation, the memory of the Nazi camps as that of the Hungarian scenes/sites of deportation to Auschwitz, are forever painful and poignant.

  12. 75 FR 44305 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 48322 and 48323. \\1\\ On July 14, 2010, MAL... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  13. Producing Just Papers or Creating Added Value? Snap-Shot about Quality Systems at Hungarian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil NYERKI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short historical review and the research results are presented, which are focused on the quality management systems used by the Hungarian SME’s. The research was based on an original empirical survey, conducted using a random sample of fifty managers from small and medium sized Hungarian enterprises. All of them use certified quality management systems. The paper presents their current state in the light of their responses, under several aspects. In conclusion, suggestions are given for the problems, such as measurement, development, and education on the research topic.

  14. DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES OF THE HUNGARIAN-UKRAINIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasztor Szabolcs

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the all pervasive globalisation trends previous state borders have become more permeable and subject to change. As borders disappear previously separated borderlands can unite and form a spatial unit where more increased economic interactions could integrate both sides to the global economy.The European continent is such a case which previously had been puctuated by strong state borders. Today the continent sees the physical and intellectual disappearance of borders. Regional integrations – like the European Union – spur this process and helps the integration of borderland inside and outside of the common market. The creation of a common market was a huge success and still a great deal of benefits are anticipated from the fulfillment. We are not taken by surprise when we see a massive increase in the number of border related studies and researchers. This field is very popular today. However the difference between Western and Eastern Europe is huge because eastern state borders are still strong or they link peripheral regions. There - under the communist times- border crossings were restricted and trade links were quite poor. No wonder that the tendencies of the past are still determining. This paper focuses on of one the most peripheral external borderland of the Schengen zone: the Hungarian-Ukrainian borderland. Expectations are running high and the disappearance of the border is a long-awaited hope. First I take into consideration the relevant economic theory in connection with more intense borderland dynamics. In the literature the trade theory, new economic geography and the traditional location theory approach this question. The approaches do not give coherent and clear-cut answers so I have to turn my attention to different empirical approaches. These show huge heterogeneity depending on the nature and character of the borderlands. In the mentioned case, settlement-level data are not fully available so I conduct a

  15. The 1956 Hungarian refugee emergency, an early and instructive case of resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.Y.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Soviet repression of the Hungarian uprising in 1956 caused an exodus of 200,000 refugees. Most of the refugees fled to Austria. Austria immediately called on states to help both financially and by physically sharing the refugees by means of resettlement. As a result, most of the refugees were re

  16. Online Testing of Hungarian Children's Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsolnai, Anikó; Kasik, László

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our cross-sectional investigation was to explore prosocial behavior at the ages of 9, 11, and 13, and to reveal associations between this social behavior and some background variables such as age, gender, and parents' educational attainment. The participants were 185 Hungarian students and their teachers. Two Likert-type questionnaires…

  17. Community Cable Television--Hungarian Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekfu, Andras

    This paper argues that, although community cable television is one of the most dynamic (although experimental) elements of the Hungarian media structure, it is well on its way toward institutionalization. It is suggested that whether community cable television is able to retain the spontaneity, innovativeness, and elasticity of its early days may…

  18. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  19. Railway separation: European diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, D.M.; Röntgen, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The European railway sector currently exhibits a wide variety of institutional configu- rations as a result of the reforms initiated by European legislation. This chapter de- scribes the situation in the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Great-Britain and France, providing a good coverage of the

  20. THE RAILWAYS THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possible to obtain much equipment from the ... military requirements. By 1933 the Brigade ... handle substantially more work than in peace- ... their civil duties after each journey. ... bour Construction Companies and Railway Te- ... were attached to the SA Engineering Corps, ... plex machinery, tools were not available.

  1. Railways Factory in Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Iacob-Mare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an exemption Analysis railway factory in Resita impressed having experience and also provide some technical characteristics of freight wagons representative technology, used to transport products made in factories in ReşiŃa.

  2. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In several European countries, national railway operators have been dismantled and partly privatized to create new contractual relations where operations originally performed internally are now outsourced to several companies. Breaking up work across several independent organizational and commerc......In several European countries, national railway operators have been dismantled and partly privatized to create new contractual relations where operations originally performed internally are now outsourced to several companies. Breaking up work across several independent organizational...... railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...... a contract, and the competencies of their employees working on the railway are controlled and provided by InfraMan. However, this regime faces a number of further challenges, including uncertainties related to the safety plans, contested responsibility for the education program, difficulties in controlling...

  3. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  4. Austro-Hungarian Bank building in Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladžić Viktorija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the negotiations between Austria and Hungary in 1867 when dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was formed, the question of the central bank was not touched to prevent further complications. In 1878, after years of prolonged negotiations, the central bank was successfully transformed into an institute in which Austria and Hungary had an equal share. The 'Austro- Hungarian Bank' acted as a central bank for both parts of the Empire. The dualistic character of the institute was characterized by two managements and two head offices in Vienna and Budapest. During first decade of 20th century it was built few dozens of bank buildings in Hungary and the most important: the central Austro-Hungarian Bank building in Budapest on Szabadsbg tjr 8. Bank building in Budapest was built according to the design made by Ignbc Alpbr who won the competition. Most of the other bank buildings built throughout Hungary were designed by architect Juzsef Hubert, but Austro-Hungarian bank building in Subotica was designed by architect Ferenc Juzsef Raichl in 1901. Main topic of this paper is research of architecture of Austro-Hungarian Bank Building in Subotica. It is obvious, although smaller in size, that the building was designed according to the main concept of the central bank building in Budapest. Compositions of the both facade applied similar architectural elements, like pillars, projections, attics, plinth and also decorative elements that symbolizes the function of a building. Inner organization of space also corresponds to each other, in both buildings: beside offices there were several apartments for renting. In contrast to other bank buildings in Hungary designed by Juzsef Hubert, bank building in Subotica, although made according to the concept of Central Bank building in Budapest represents remarkable and unique architectural masterpiece including all: architectural composition, decorative elements and function of a building.

  5. Entropy Analysis of a Railway Network’s Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Valério

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway networks are among the many physical systems that reveal a fractal structure. This paper studies the Portuguese railway system, and analyzes how it evolved over time, namely what concerns the structure of its different levels, and its distribution over the territory. Different mathematical tools are adopted, such as fractal dimension, entropy and state space portrait. The results are consistent with the historical evolution of the network.

  6. 175 years of railway technology. The railways in Germany; 175 Jahre Bahntechnik. Eisenbahnen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmann, Gerd-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    There is perhaps no better way to illustrate the development of German railways than by looking at historical maps. Starting with the first six kilometres of railway line in the year 1835, the new mode of transport developed into a network of main and branch lines that spanned the entire territory of Germany, and in so doing had a revolutionary impact on Germany's industry, commerce, population and state. In 1880, the German Reich had a rail network 33,838 km in length, and by the outbreak of the First World War the total network including local and branch lines had expanded to an impressive 65,000 km. This marked both the maximum extent and at the same time the zenith of the German railway system. (orig.)

  7. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; Freitas De Souza, Márcia Célia; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2015-12-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease.

  8. Modelling Of Random Vertical Irregularities Of Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podwórna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents state-of-the-art in analytical and numerical modelling of random vertical irregularities of continuously welded ballasted railway tracks. The common model of railway track irregularity vertical profiles is applied, in the form of a stationary and ergodic Gaussian process in space. Random samples of track irregularity vertical profiles are generated with the Monte-Carlo method. Based on the numerical method developed in the study, the minimum and recommended sampling number required in the random analysis of railway bridges and number of frequency increments (harmonic components in track irregularity vertical profiles simulation are determined. The lower and upper limits of wavelengths are determined based on the literature studies. The approach yields track irregularity random samples close to reality. The track irregularity model developed in the study can be used in the dynamic analysis of railway bridge / track structure / highspeed train systems.

  9. The development of railway safety in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    This study reviews the development of railway safety in Finland from 1959 to 2008. The results show that the level of safety has greatly improved over the past five decades. The total number of railway fatalities did not show any obvious decreasing or increasing trend during the first decade, but since the early 1970s the annual number of fatalities has decreased from about 100 to 20. The estimated overall annual reduction per year from 1970 to 2008 was 5.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from -8.2% to -2.6%). The reduction in subcategories per million train-kilometres from 1959 to 2008 was 4.4% per year for passengers, 8.3% for employees, 5.0% for road users at level crossings and 3.6% for others (mainly trespassers). The safety improvement for passengers and staff was probably influenced by the introduction of central locking of doors in passenger cars and improved procedures to protect railway employees working on the tracks. The number of road users killed at level crossings has fallen due to the installation of barriers and the construction of overpasses and underpasses at crossings with dense traffic, removal of level crossings, and an improvement of conditions such as visibility at crossings. The number of trespasser fatalities has seen the least decline. Key plans for the future include further reduction of the number of level crossings on the state railway network from the current roughly 3500-2200 by 2025, and involving communities in safety work related to railway trespassers.

  10. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  11. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  12. Strategies for Railway Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovey, E. C.

    1996-05-01

    Strategies are much talked about, but frequently lack any substance. The general concepts of strategic planning are discussed and the need for it to have a focus, i.e., a clear objective, are emphasized. A structural approach to strategic plan development is advocated, with a definition of the relevant issues being a prerequisite for success. Strategies, however, must be flexible and constantly reviewed even though the measures of success are often blurred. Railway noise is clearly amenable to strategic planning, but the issues will vary depending on the objectives of the organization. It is evident that railway noise technology, application and development, while important, needs to be substantially supplemented by other factors such as logistics and management issues to form an effective strategy in this domain.

  13. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  14. [Suggestions of reshaping medical education (The Hungarian medical elite at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) 1947-1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Szabó, József

    2017-03-01

    This study is part of the monograph entitled Scientific Elites and Politics (1945-1948) to be published soon. The relationships of political parties with several elite groups, such as groups of agronomic, human, economic, legal, technical and natural sciences, as well as the roles of these elites in scientific life, have been looked into and published in renowned periodicals. Using new sources, different specialist groups' and political powers' suggestions of reshaping medical education in 1947 and 1948, are presented. The medical elite's situation at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is also outlined. The study renders an account of the entire post-war medical elite. It will be stated who and based on what scientific achievement became member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, who was appointed to professor and who became a habilitated doctor. This study, which is a desideratum of research, may not only interest researchers but is aimed at a broader readership, including physicians. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(11), 432-437.

  15. Railway Statistics Bulletin of MOR in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Statistics Center of MOR

    2009-01-01

    @@ The year 2008 is an unusual and uncommon year. Under the strong leadership of Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the State Council, the Party's leading group of MOR led the cadres and staff of the national railway sector to implement the scientific outlook on development in a deep-going way and to comprehensively carry out the decision-making arrangements of the central government by adhering to placing the benefits of the nation and the people at the top priority with millions of people all of one mind to overcome difficulties, make exploration and innovation, and forge ahead in unity. With the efforts made, they triumphed over a series of severe test, successfully accomplished the task assigned by the Party and the State and won new victories of harmonious railway construction.

  16. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  17. Hungarian space research 1981-1985: Lectures and review articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This monograph presents an overview of Hungarian space research from 1981 to 1985. Topics discussed in the original report include the development of space research centers, the flight of the first Hungarian astronaut, Hungarian participation in international space programs such as the Vega/Halley's Comet mission and the BEALUCA materials science experiment, advances in astronomical research, and activities of the Cosmic Geodetic Observatory. Other topics discussed incude space biomedical studies, meteorological applications of space research, satellite communications, and satellite power supply systems.

  18. El + verb complex predicates in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Dékány

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structure of complex predicates comprising the verbal particle el- (`away' and a verb in Hungarian. I show that el- has different meaning contributions to the predication when combined with different types of verbs. I argue that despite the three seemingly unrelated meanings of el-, two uses involve the same lexical item. In these unifiable cases I analyze el- as a measure function that can measure in both the spatial and the temporal domains.

  19. Competitiveness of the Hungarian elite sport system

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of significant research conducted under the IOC PhD Student Research Grant Programme with the support of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. The main objectives of the research were to understand why Hungary is successful in specific sports and to explore the relationship between elite sport policy systems and success in international competitions. The increasing international sporting competition forces governments to invest more money in elite sport deve...

  20. Research on Relative Age in Hungarian Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Nikoletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400. The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

  1. Cultivating a Symbolic Ethnicity and Resisting Assimilation: Identity Work Among Hungarian Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Kolozsvari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Upon arrival in a host country with considerable ethnic diversity, such as the United States, immigrants are frequently confronted with various different perceptions of local, ethnic, and racial categories and identities. Living in the United States often challenges immigrants to reconsider, modify, or reconstruct their previous identities. This has happened, for example, to Eastern and Southern European immigrants in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and more recently to Korean, Filipino, Mexican and African immigrants from Ghana and Cape Verde, who all have had to reinterpret their identities upon arrival in the United States. Many new immigrants start thinking about themselves in ethnic terms for the first time and (rediscover their ethnicity. Through 20 in-depth interviews with Hungarian immigrants this study explores ethnic identity construction among Hungarians in the United States.

  2. THE PEOPLE FROM THE WORLD'S Highest Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seven years ago,China Railway 18th Bureau Group Co.Ltd was appointed to build the world's highest railway,namely Tanggula part (5072 metres above sea level) of Qinghai-Tibet Railway.In August of 2005,Liu Zhijun,the Minister for China Railways, announced that a link had been completed in the line at Tanggula Station.From here on,China Railway was to realize its dream-a railway at the summit of the world,through the efforts of Chinese workers in China Railway system.

  3. TAXONOMY AND STRUCTURE OF HUNGARIAN PERSONALITY-TRAITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SZIRMAK, Z; DERAAD, B

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on the application of the principles of the lexical approach to a non-Indo-European language, namely Hungarian. This language is a Uralic island surrounded on all sides by Indo-European languages. In addition, the Hungarians are, in terms of cultural features, Europeans. These con

  4. Competition assignment problem algorithm based on Hungarian method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Chao; REN Yongtai; GE Huiling; DENG Hualing

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Hungarian method can only solve standard assignment problems, while can not solve competition assignment problems. This article emphatically discussed the difference between standard assignment problems and competition assignment problems. The kinds of competition assignment problem algorithms based on Hungarian method and the solutions of them were studied.

  5. Hungarian University Students' Misunderstandings in Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanyi, Tamas; Toth, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    The misunderstandings related to thermodynamics (including chemical equilibrium) and chemical kinetics of first and second year Hungarian students of chemistry, environmental science, biology and pharmacy were investigated. We demonstrated that Hungarian university students have similar misunderstandings in physical chemistry to those reported in…

  6. Hungarian University Students' Misunderstandings in Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanyi, Tamas; Toth, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    The misunderstandings related to thermodynamics (including chemical equilibrium) and chemical kinetics of first and second year Hungarian students of chemistry, environmental science, biology and pharmacy were investigated. We demonstrated that Hungarian university students have similar misunderstandings in physical chemistry to those reported in…

  7. Check list of the Hungarian Salticidae with biogeographical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szüts, Tamás

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated check list of the Hungarian jumping spider fauna is presented. 70 species are recorded from Hungary so far. Four species are new to the Hungarian fauna: Hasarius adansoni, Neon valentulus, Sitticus caricis, Synageles subcingulatus. With 12 original drawings.

  8. Computer applications in railway operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hafez Fahmy Aly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the railway simulation technique is the formation of a model that can be easily tested for any desired changes and modifications in infrastructure, control system, or in train operations in order to improve the network operation and its productivity. RailSys3.0 is a German railway simulation program that deals with this goal. In this paper, a railway network operation, with different suggested modifications in infrastructure, rolling stocks, and control system, using RailSys3.0, has been studied, optimized, and evaluated. The proposed simulation program (RailSys 3.0 was applied on ABO-KIR railway line in Alexandria city, as a case study, to assess the impact of changing track configuration, operating and control systems on the performance measures, time-table, track capacity and productivity. Simulation input, such as track element, train and operation components of the ABO-KIR railway line, has been entered to the computer program to construct the simulation model. The simulation process has been carried out for the existing operation system to construct a graphical model of the case-study track including line alignment and train movements, as well as to evaluate the existing operation system. To improve the operation system of the railway line, eight different innovative alternatives are generated, analyzed and evaluated. Finally, different track measures to improve the operation system of the ABO-KIR railway line have been introduced.

  9. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  10. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  11. The Hungarian Peculiarities of National Remembrance: Historical Figures with Symbolic Importance in Nineteenth-century Hungarian History Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to place nineteenth-century Hungarian art into international context, this article calls for the theoretical discourse of cultural memory, when a suppressed community turns to their past and insists on their antecedents’ traditions for the survival of their culture. When, in the 1850s and 1860s, the leaders of the Habsburg Austrian Empire retaliated against Hungary for its 1848-49 “Fight for Freedom”, Hungarian visual art of the era rediscovered long-honoured figures of the historical past as the essential components of Hungarian national identity. This article argues that the successful visualization and memorialization of outstanding historical characters with symbolic values for the Hungarian nation was due to history painting itself as medium. The Hungarian painters’ choice of characters vigorously reacted to the changing political relationship between the Austrians and the Hungarians from the failure of the 1849 Hungarian Fight for Freedom until the 1850s and the 1870s involving the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Keeping it in mind, the display and the reception of four great paintings, Bertalan Székely’s The Discovery of the Body of King Louis II (1860, Viktor Madarász’s Péter Zrínyi and Ferenc Frangepán in Prison at Wiener-Neustadt (1864, Székely’s The Women of Eger (1867 and Gyula Benczúr’s The Baptism of Vajk (1875 are analysed.

  12. THE SHEEPSKIN EFFECT IN THE HUNGARIAN LABOUR MARKET 2010-2012: ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM THE HUNGARIAN GRADUATE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Andras Istvan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sheepskin effect is a wage increase connected to the attainment of a degree (or credential in addition to the wage gap connected to the completion of a schooling level (school years, exams passed etc.. This effect is often referred to as a phenomenon supporting the signaling (or screening hypothesis against human capital theory in the so called ‘signaling vs. human capital debate’ over the economic role of education. Many empirical studies in many countries have tested (mostly successfully this hypothesis during the last decades, but it has never been tested in Hungary. Therefore the main goal of the current study is to identify and measure the sheepskin effect in Hungarian higher education based on the country-wide, representative databases of the Hungarian Graduate Career Tracking System (HGCTS. The 2 databases used in the analysis are two HGCTS surveys from the years 2011 and 2012. The first part of the article is a literature review that summarises the results of the existing empirical sheepskin research and highlights their connections to the signaling vs. human capital debate. In the second part, empirical research is carried out based on the HGCTS data. This research has two phases. In the first phase subjective data are analysed (according to the perceived negative effect of not obtaining the degree in time, while in the second, mean differences are tested between net hourly wages of responder groups (1 who have the educational credential and (2 do not have it (even though they have finished all courses and passed all exams at the given educational level. The statistical analysis identified significant wage gaps between graduated responders and those who had not graduated but had passed the state exam (and so had finished all the exams in higher education before graduating on nearly all levels and in both samples (the only exemption was the post-Bologna master level in the 2011 sample. We can conclude that the existence of the

  13. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  14. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  15. Prevalence of malocclusions in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábris, Katalin; Márton, Sándor; Madléna, Melinda

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, associated caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in the Hungarian population using the World Health Organisation (WHO) questionnaire designed to assess dentofacial anomalies. A total of 483 adolescents (289 girls, 194 boys), aged 16-18 years, were assessed. Orthodontic anomalies were detected in 70.4 per cent of the sample. Crowding and spacing were observed in 14.3 and 17 per cent, respectively, with the latter being more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible (10.4 and 2.9 per cent, respectively). A Class I occlusion was found in 52.8 per cent of the subjects. A half cusp anomaly in the antero-posterior molar relationship was more prevalent than a full cusp anomaly (26.9 and 20.3 per cent, respectively). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the visible plaque indices scores (VPI) of the 340 adolescents with malocclusion were significantly higher (P adolescents who displayed no anomalies. The prevalence of malocclusion in the Hungarian population seems to be comparable with other European communities.

  16. Ottoman-Hungarian Conflict through Venetian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeynep YELÇE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The new phase in Ottoman-Hungarian relations starting with the ascension of Süleyman I and the following period of conflict have been thoroughly examined by scholars; causes and effects have been analyzed; and the process has been evaluated in a wide array of perspectives ranging from evaluations as a process of glorious conquest to a process of tragic enslavement. This paper moves away from such grand narratives to explore the way the process was perceived by contemporaries as they lived through the conflict. As such, this paper focuses on the letters of Lorenzo Orio, the Venetian ambassador in Buda between 1519-1523. From his arrival in Buda on June 5, 1519, to his presentation of his report to the Pregadi on December 22, 1523; Orio has been a close witness of the relations and conflicts between the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and the Hungarians. The information offered by Orio in these tumultuous times, as he tried to present a neutral stance for Venice, has not only added to the soft power of Venice but presents us the experience and perception of an era. In other words, it opens a window to the rumors, gossip, fears, and hopes in the daily lives of the contemporaries.

  17. Interconnecting tramway and railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, Christoph [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. H. Voessing GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Tramways and railways are governed by different sets of technical rules. Nowadays in Germany, there are also trams that operate on railway lines - and they do so in mixed traffic with passenger and freight trains. Quite apart from the operational particularities, there are also differences that need to be taken into consideration as regards the ways in which the different types of vehicle are guided and their clearance gauges. (orig.)

  18. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  19. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  20. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  1. From easel to professorship. The creation and consolidation of Hungarian professional fine arts education in Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Kristóf Murádin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study encompasses the history of fine arts education in Hungarian language from Transylvania, beginning from the end of the 19th century to recent times, placing special emphasis on the period between 1944 and 1948, when the number of fine arts educational institutions in Transylvania was the highest. Beside the Hungarian civil organisations from Transylvania (the Free Painting School from Baia Mare, the Barabás Miklós Guild and the Józsa Béla Athenaeum Fine Arts Free School from Cluj the state-run educational institutions (the Hungarian Art Institute from Cluj, the Ion Andreescu Fine Arts Institute that were attended by many students are also presented. With this, the study aims to offer a comprehensive perspective on the education of the succesive generations of Hungarian fine artists from Transylvania. Keywords: Hungarians of Romania, demographic dynamic of the Hungarian mi-nority in Transylvania, demographic changes, assimilation, ethnic classification. __________________ Este estudio abarca la historia de la educación de bellas artes de Transilvania en lengua húngara, empezando con el fin del siglo 19 hasta los últimos tiempos con énfasis especial en el período 1944–1948 cuando el número de las instituciones educativas de bellas artes fue lo más alto en Transilvania. Junto a las organizaciones civiles húngaras de Transilvania (La Escuela de Pintura Libre de Baia Mare, El Gremio Barabás Miklós y La Escuela Libre de Bellas Artes Józsa Béla de Cluj también se presentan las instituciones educativas estatales (Instituto Húngaras de Artes de Cluj, Instituto de Bellas Artes Ion Andreescu asistidas por muchos estudiantes. Con esto, el estudio tiene el objetivo de ofrecer una perspectiva exhaustiva sobre la educación de generaciones sucesivas de artistas plásticos húngaros de Transilvania. Palabras clave:Húngaros de Rumania, dinámicas demográficas de las minorías húngaras en Transilvania, cambios demogr

  2. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS...

  3. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... June 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 and 49 CFR Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway Company...

  4. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Northern Lines Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Northern Lines Railway, Inc. (NLR), has agreed to grant restricted local trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the rail lines owned by BNSF and leased...

  5. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately 1...

  6. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey 2014. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.

  7. Support system for generating statistics of existing railway rolling stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important element of the transport system in European countries. Assumptions of rail transport has become more and more attractive in both passenger and freight transport. An example of this may be just noisy action "lorries on track", the promotion of intermodal transport. The principal factors affecting the condition of railway traffic safety are: the technical condition of the railway infrastructure, the technical condition of the rolling stock, the operation of crossings. The main purpose of this article is to present a tool to assist generate statistics operation railway wagons. As part of the project telemetric module allows the location of the freight wagon and the state of its load. Computer program supports GPS module will enable the location of a wagon with an accuracy of 1 meter, generate graphs of speed, road grade and load freight wagon.sheet".

  8. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  9. INNOVATIONS ON BEIJING-TIANJIN INTERCITY RAILWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Huawu; Ren Hua

    2009-01-01

    High-speed railway is a complicated and huge system.Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway is the first high-speed line has started commercial operation in china.Significant innovations had been made on key technologies,and four challenging issues had been addressed,including system design and system integration,high requirements on track regularity and stability,strict requirements on safety and riding comfort,reliable operation control and high requirement on efficiency.China Railways spent three years to complete Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway.The operational performances of Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway showed that the overall technologies lead the world in the high-speed railway rankings.The technologies are convinced as the showcase and will be applied to build high-speed railway network in the future of China Railways.

  10. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  11. Technology report on Railway Embedded Network solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, M; BERNOCCHI, M; Just, P.; WEISS, AH; GOIKOETXEA, J; BILLION, J; NEMORIN, J

    2007-01-01

    Deliverable D3D.3.1 Technology report on Railway Embedded Network solutions is a deliverable of Work Package SP3D_WP3 ICOM Specification & Telecom Interfaces of Onboard and Train Train Networks. It takes place within the InteGRail Task 3D_03.1 State of the Art in Embedded Networks. The objectives of this deliverable are: - to consider which embedded communication network technologies are already into ser-vice within the trains; - to analyse Ethernet-based technologies; - to evaluate how Ethe...

  12. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  13. Progressive Dyslexia: Evidence from Hungarian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Aydelott, Jennifer; Genethliou, Marios; Jacobs, Helen; Weekes, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia who was premorbidly literate in two alphabetic scripts, Hungarian (L1) and English (L2). Testing was performed over a two-year period to assess the impact of progressive illness on oral reading and repetition of single words. Results showed significant decline in oral reading in both languages, and an effect of language status in favour of oral reading in L1. Phonological complexity was a significant predictor of oral reading decline in both languages. Of interest, we observed an effect of language status on task performance whereby repetition was better in L2 than L1 but oral reading was better in L1 than L2. We conclude that language status has an effect on repetition and oral reading abilities for bilingual speakers with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia. PMID:22713383

  14. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Widyanto, Utut; Malkhamah, Siti

    2015-01-01

    Law No. 23/2007 on Railways is opening the option for private sector or Local Government to be involved in railways. This study investigated experiences from other countries in railway restructuring especially their measures and model of restructuration. The countries investigated are Germany, Japan, Britain, and Sweden. After investigating restructuration experiences from other countries and looking on Indonesian railway condition, the study developed two approach of restructuration.The firs...

  15. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  16. [Hungarian psychiatry in the light of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimay, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    In order to get an accurate picture of mental health and psychiatric care, the article reviews the relevant structures and functioning of the European Union. It examines a few, important professional events that reflect the gaining significance of the issue of mental health within the EU; the 2005 World Health Organization's European Ministerial Conference, the 2008 European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being, and the results of the so-called Thematic Conferences. For the future of the European Union, the articles stresses the crucial need for the continuing research and development, and highlights the benefits of the European Research Region an its framework programmes especially in the fields of brain research and mental health research. The issue of mental health, its care providing system, and the atmosphere of the work place, as the surveying of the Eurobarometer underscored, should be treated as priorities for the EU and during the Hungarian presidency. The programme of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union provides priority to the presentation of the European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being to the Council Conclusion, as well as to the organization of a priority research presidential conference on the regions R and D, entitled "Discovery research in neuropsychiatry: depression, anxiety and schizophrenia in focus." The articles emphasizes the challenges of Hungarian psychiatry, first and foremost the difficulties of human resources, the theoretical context and determined perspectives for the establishment of the new National Psychiatry and Addictology Institute, the need of the move towards GP's and community care, and the importance of the cooperation with civil organizations, and scientific information gathering. The given tasks can only be achieved along with the professional development of psychiatry, with a change of perspectives towards EU since a concentrated multi level allocation of resources is only possible in the

  17. Water cycle investigations in Hungarian forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judit Sitkey

    2006-01-01

    From the biological point of view the value of autotrophy plant association is determined by the carbon fixation and the carbon cycle. Among the plant associations of Hungary, forest has the largest biological carbon fixation and carbon cycle. In general,the annual water cycle is the key factor in the organic material production of the Hungarian forests. The most intensive water consumption and organic material production take place from May till July, which period is named main water consumption and respectively main growing period. In Hungary the categories of the forest climate are characterized by main tree species and based on the forest climate covers 8% of the forest area, hornbeam-oak forest climate covers 22%, sessile oak-Turkey oak forest climate covers48% and forest steppe climate covers 22%. Partly in the frame of ICP-Forests, the Department of Ecology in the Forest Research Institute carries out long term, complex ecophysiological investigations on several sample plots (so-called basic plots) throughout the whole country. The organic material production (growth), the nutrient and water cycle, the measurements of air pollutants and meteorological parameters, as well as chemical analyses are all part of the investigations. As a comparison the figure of two basic plotsforest steppe climate in the hydrological year of 2001-2002. In the Hungarian forest 60%-70% of the precipitation is used for interception, evaporation, and in the vegetation season, for the transpiration both in beech and forest steppe climate. From other point of view, only 30%-40% of the open air precipitation infiltrates into the soil and can be utilized by the forest.

  18. New Features of Educational Media Development in Hungarian Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras

    1994-01-01

    The development of educational technology media in Hungarian secondary education is discussed in terms of changing general pedagogical requirements; the influence of interactivity on teaching procedures; training teachers and developing educational media; and new statutory frameworks. (AEF)

  19. Exploring of Chinese High-speed Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    liuYoumei

    2004-01-01

    Based ion experiences of high-speed railways in foreign countries,the speed-raise situation of the Chinese railways,the research & development and test of high-speed transportation carries,as well as the prospective of high-speed railway in China are introduced.

  20. Benchmark analysis of railway networks and undertakings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark analysis of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international railway benchmarking s

  1. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  2. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  3. Innovation and Internationalization of Hungarian SMEs in the IT Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csonka László

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to look at the extent and type of internationalization among Hungarian information technology (IT small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the possible relationship between the degree of innovativeness and the internationalization of these companies. Information technologies play an important role in the Hungarian economy: this sector is one of the most R&D intensive industries in which many SMEs are active.

  4. Excise Tax Overshifting in the Hungarian Beer Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bakó, Barna; Berezvai, Zombor

    2013-01-01

    We conduct this paper on excise tax shifting in the Hungarian beer market. Using a regression model we show that tax overshifting occurs in this market. We present a model with oligopolistic competition to explain how tax overshifting can occur because of the separated vertical structure. Our results suggests that Hungarian beer producers compete in Bertrand fashion and the hypothesis of collusion between beer producers can be rejected.

  5. Allowance officers Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies on the eve of the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of historical material provides information on measures of state and military administration on the eve of the First World War to improve the welfare of Russian officers and Austro-Hungary, through various forms of material incentives, which are reflected in the cash payments, promotions, awards and social guarantees. On the basis of archival materials of the study period, open scientific publications and Internet resources there are disclosed the features of the destination of salaries, various allowances and compensations Russian army in comparison to the Austro-Hungarian army, who spoke Russian opponent in the First World War. The author notes that the existing system of money allowances in the Russian army was more advantageous than in the Austro-Hungarian army. However, neither one nor the other could not fully meet the needs of the majority of officers of both armies, entered as opponents in the First World War. One of its major shortcomings, both in Russia and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was a wide gap in the amounts of all kinds of money allowances between chief officers, staff officers and generals.

  6. Playing with anthems: The formation of the cult of empress Elisabeth in Hungarian music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windhager Ákos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reveal how the cult of Empress Elisabeth affected the reception of three different volumes of Hungarian music. These three works are: Erzsébet-emlény (Elisabeth Memorial Album, 1854 edited by Kornél Ábrányi; Erzsébet (Elisabeth, 1854 opera by Károly Doppler, Ferenc Doppler and Ferenc Erkel; and Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth (The Legend of Saint Elisabeth, 1865 by Franz Liszt. In spite of their high artistic level, the first two works were banned by the cultural elite who interpreted them as Habsburgian political music after the downfall of the dual state. On the other hand, the intentionally apolitical oratorio by Franz Liszt was regarded by the same cultural elite as the highest standard of artistic representation of the Empress. As a consequence of parallel distribution of both imperially and nationally constructed memories, a strange diffusion appeared in the social sphere, especially in Hungarian cultural memory. Conflicting memories emerged due to the discrepancy between the original Hungarian political myth (Kossuth-myth and Empress Elisabeth’s cult. Using the terminology introduced by Claude Lévi-Strauss, I have labeled this situation as the clash of the cold and hot society in Hungary during the 19th century.

  7. A project of upgrading the operations control system of the Hungarian electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oroszki, L.; Kovacs, G.

    1998-07-01

    About 20 years ago an on-line EMS/SCADA system replaced the previously used off-line control system in the Hungarian power system. The system that has met the technological requirements of that time now became obsolete. A project started in 1995 by the Hungarian Power Companies, Ltd. (MVM Rt.), the regional utility companies and the power plant companies, with funding through a World Bank loan to cover international procurement, aims to upgrade that system into a complex, intelligent and state-of-the-art process control system. The new hierarchical system will rely on a distributed computer network structure, universally accepted hardware/software interface standards and communication protocols and use hardware platform independent software. The automatic generation control, performed from the National Dispatch Centre, will have expanded functionality, the most important single item of this will be the inclusion of automatic voltage/var control. The upgrading project includes the replacement of the substation and power plant remote terminal units and the installation of a telecommunication network to provide this telecontrol system with the necessary communications links. The supply contracts for both the master station and the remote terminal unit parts were awarded to the winners of open international bidding processes. In the project implementation MVM has the overall responsibility and works with assistance from international and Hungarian engineering firms.

  8. Towards the Internet of Smart Trains: A Review on Industrial IoT-Connected Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Castedo, Luis

    2017-06-21

    Nowadays, the railway industry is in a position where it is able to exploit the opportunities created by the IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) and enabling communication technologies under the paradigm of Internet of Trains. This review details the evolution of communication technologies since the deployment of GSM-R, describing the main alternatives and how railway requirements, specifications and recommendations have evolved over time. The advantages of the latest generation of broadband communication systems (e.g., LTE, 5G, IEEE 802.11ad) and the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for the railway environment are also explained together with the strategic roadmap to ensure a smooth migration from GSM-R. Furthermore, this survey focuses on providing a holistic approach, identifying scenarios and architectures where railways could leverage better commercial IIoT capabilities. After reviewing the main industrial developments, short and medium-term IIoT-enabled services for smart railways are evaluated. Then, it is analyzed the latest research on predictive maintenance, smart infrastructure, advanced monitoring of assets, video surveillance systems, railway operations, Passenger and Freight Information Systems (PIS/FIS), train control systems, safety assurance, signaling systems, cyber security and energy efficiency. Overall, it can be stated that the aim of this article is to provide a detailed examination of the state-of-the-art of different technologies and services that will revolutionize the railway industry and will allow for confronting today challenges.

  9. Towards the Internet of Smart Trains: A Review on Industrial IoT-Connected Railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Castedo, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the railway industry is in a position where it is able to exploit the opportunities created by the IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) and enabling communication technologies under the paradigm of Internet of Trains. This review details the evolution of communication technologies since the deployment of GSM-R, describing the main alternatives and how railway requirements, specifications and recommendations have evolved over time. The advantages of the latest generation of broadband communication systems (e.g., LTE, 5G, IEEE 802.11ad) and the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for the railway environment are also explained together with the strategic roadmap to ensure a smooth migration from GSM-R. Furthermore, this survey focuses on providing a holistic approach, identifying scenarios and architectures where railways could leverage better commercial IIoT capabilities. After reviewing the main industrial developments, short and medium-term IIoT-enabled services for smart railways are evaluated. Then, it is analyzed the latest research on predictive maintenance, smart infrastructure, advanced monitoring of assets, video surveillance systems, railway operations, Passenger and Freight Information Systems (PIS/FIS), train control systems, safety assurance, signaling systems, cyber security and energy efficiency. Overall, it can be stated that the aim of this article is to provide a detailed examination of the state-of-the-art of different technologies and services that will revolutionize the railway industry and will allow for confronting today challenges. PMID:28635672

  10. Phase Synchronization in Railway Timetables

    CERN Document Server

    Fretter, Christoph; Weihe, Karsten; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Timetable construction belongs to the most important optimization problems in public transport. Finding optimal or near-optimal timetables under the subsidiary conditions of minimizing travel times and other criteria is a targeted contribution to the functioning of public transport. In addition to efficiency (given, e.g., by minimal average travel times), a significant feature of a timetable is its robustness against delay propagation. Here we study the balance of efficiency and robustness in long-distance railway timetables (in particular the current long-distance railway timetable in Germany) from the perspective of synchronization, exploiting the fact that a major part of the trains run nearly periodically. We find that synchronization is highest at intermediate-sized stations. We argue that this synchronization perspective opens a new avenue towards an understanding of railway timetables by representing them as spatio-temporal phase patterns. Robustness and efficiency can then be viewed as properties of t...

  11. Operating the railway traffic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton PEPEVNIK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the valid traffic policy and development strategy of the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovenian Railways have to consider the developmental and strategic aims of European railways. The perspective of progress is basically determined by skimming the European system development, by taking over the European system and managing the railway traffic in the connection with the European railway system.Technology and organization of the railway traffic system present the sum of all technological and organizational elements and processes that takes part in providing aims of the system. The aims are defined as solving transport problems in railway system. The term system is defined, from the formal mathematical viewpoint, as a whole that is usually complicated or even very much complicated. Therefore, the railway system is complex as well, and that is why it has to be managed precisely. In the narrow sense of meaning, technology and work organization both comprises a variety of means and procedures to realize basic activity that can be seen as a perfect unit, and that can be the process of passengers and freight transport in a transport system.Because of the prompt development of microelectronics and computer engineering, a new generation of electronic signal-safety devices appeared.All these changes from the past few years that have been introduced into railway technology, enable railway to become attractive and competitive to other means of traffic. Therefore, the Slovenian Railways have to follow novelties in traffic technology development and gradually modernize its railway network.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL CAPITAL INVESTMENTS TO ENSURE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Every year more attention is paid for the theoretical and practical issue of sustainable development of railway transport. But today the mechanisms of financial support of this development are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine the optimal investment allocation to ensure sustainable development of the railway transport on the example of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» and the creation of preconditions for the mathematical model development. Methodology. The ensuring task for sustainable development of railway transport is solved on the basis of the integral indicator of sustainable development effectiveness and defined as the maximization of this criterion. The optimization of measures technological and technical characters are proposed to carry out for increasing values of the integral performance measure components. To the optimization activities of technological nature that enhance the performance criteria belongs: optimization of the number of train and shunting locomotives, optimization of power handling mechanisms at the stations, optimization of routes of train flows. The activities related to the technical nature include: modernization of railways in the direction of their electrification and modernization of the running gear and coupler drawbars of rolling stock, as well as means of separators mechanization at stations to reduce noise impacts on the environment. Findings. The work resulted in the optimal allocation of investments to ensure the sustainable development of railway transportation of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway». This allows providing such kind of railway development when functioning of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» is characterized by a maximum value of the integral indicator of efficiency. Originality. The work was reviewed and the new approach was proposed to determine the optimal allocation of capital investments to ensure sustainable

  13. FORMATION OF ESTIMATED CONDITIONS FOR LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of this research is to substantiate the technical limits of the railway track (under reliability status for the formation the regulatory framework for reliability and functional safety of the railway track in Ukraine. Methodology.In order to achieve the goal of research analysis methods of the technical states of elements and trackforms that are typical of operation conditions of the railways in Ukraine were used. Findings.Technical states accordance of elements and trackforms to reliability status under existing regulations was defined. These conditions are based on the track assessments in accordance with the dimensional tape results. The status of each element of the track design affects its deformation work, but the rules are still absent that would connect state of track elements with the state of the track by estimation of the dimensional tape. The reasons on which the limits are not set were established. It was found out which researches are necessary to conduct for their installation. Originality. The classification of the reliability state of a railway track for permitted deviation at the track laying and maintenance was developed. The regulation importance the technical states of ballast section and subgrade for the developed classification was established. Practical value. Ukrzaliznytsia (UZ is a founding member of the Council for Railway Transport of the Commonwealth. This body issued interstate standard State Standard 32192-2013 «Reliability of railway equipment. Basic concepts, terms and definitions». On this basis developed a new interstate standard «Security functional of railway equipment. Terms and definitions». At the same time UZ is a member of the cooperation of railways in International Union of Railway Transport where rules with reliable and safe operation of railways are established in all transport branches. This study will help implement these standards on the railways of Ukraine, improve the

  14. Economics students’ migrations in the Hungarian higher education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Pusztai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian Higher Education has faced several structural challenges since the regime change of 1990. The ‘golden age’ seems to be over and the government tends to impose severe limits on institutions regarding the number of state-financed students, the minimal application points and the institutions’ missions. These new aspects influence the application procedures, as students are eager to achieve the highest price-value combination on the education market, which leads to internal and external migrations. In this study, we focus on the former, by using the agglomeration analysis of higher education institutions. We apply a modified Universal Law of Gravity to gather information about social and/or economic phenomena. On the level of single individuals, these types of decisions are random, but on the collective level, they can be characterized by certain principles and rules. This study explores the changes in the agglomeration areas and the limiting factors related to colleges and universities, offering economic education between 2004 and 2014. This period is adequate, as to identify the peculiarities and different influences of the market, the government, and the global trends and to identify the new spatial roles of the institutions.

  15. Soil-atmosphere relationships: The Hungarian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Ferenc; Rajkai, Kálmán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Mona, Tamás; Horváth, Ákos

    2015-10-01

    This study discusses scientific contributions analyzing soil-atmosphere relationships. These studies deal with both the biogeophysical and biogeochemical aspects of this relationship, with biogeophysical aspects being in the majority. All of the studies refer either directly or indirectly to the fundamental importance of soil moisture content. Moisture has a basic influence on the spatiotemporal pattern of evapotranspiration, and so 1) on cloud formation and precipitation events by regulating the intensity of convection, and 2) on the trace-gas exchanges in the near-surface atmosphere. Hungarian modeling efforts have highlighted that soils in the Pannonian Basin have region-specific features. Consequently, shallow and deep convection processes are also, to some extent, region-specific, at least in terms of the diurnal change of the planetary boundary layer height and the spatial distribution of convective precipitation. The soil-dependent region-distinctiveness of these two phenomena has been recognized; at the same time the strength of the relationships has not yet been quantified.

  16. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, van Mark; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad Th.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings. Pa

  17. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  18. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  19. International Equity Portfolios and Currency Hedging: The Viewpoint of German and Hungarian Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Bugár, Gyöngyi; Maurer, Raimond

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the benefits derived from international diversification of stock portfolios from German and Hungarian point of view. In contrast to the German capital market, which is one of the largest in the world, the Hungarian Stock Exchange is an emerging market. The Hungarian stock market is highly volatile, high returns are often accompanied by extremely large risk. Therefore, there is a good potential for Hungarian investors to realize substantial benefits in terms of risk redu...

  20. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  1. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS FUNDING MECHANISMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE RAILWAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pashchenko, Y.; Korin, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper found that the implementation of the priority areas of railway infrastructure, defined transport strategy Ukraine requires significant funding required amounts which are absent in Railways and the state budget of Ukraine. It was determined that one of the effective tools of financial security of railroad infrastructure is a mechanism of public-private partnerships. Based on this the essence of public-private partnership, its main characteristics and forms of implementation. Deals wi...

  2. Object-oriented model of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is improvement of the railway stations functional model; it leads to time expenditure cut for formalization technological processes of their work through the use of standard elements of technology. Methodology. Some technological operations, executives and technology objects are considered as main elements of the railway station functioning. Queuing techniques were used as the methods of research, simulation, finite state machines and object-oriented analysis. Findings. Formal data structures were developed as the result of research that can allow simulating the operation of the railway station with any degree of detail. In accordance with the principles of object-oriented approach in the developed model, separate elements of station technology are presented jointly with a description of their behavior. The proposed model is implemented as a software package. Originality. Functional model of railway stations was improved through the application of object-oriented approach to data management. It allow to create libraries of elementary technological processes and reduce time expenditure for formalization the technology of stations work. Practical value. Using of software package that it was developed on the base of proposed model will reduce time expenditure of technologists in order to obtain technical and operational assessment of projected and existing rail stations.

  3. Real-time Railway Traffic Management: dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  4. Development of railway of Ukraine and formation a new subsection from the management by railway

    OpenAIRE

    Suponieva, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the article there are the considered questions of development of railway tourism, substantiate necessity of creation of tourist centers. The offered common directions and principles of activity of railway tourist centers.

  5. [How to help and promote Hungarian medical publications?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurik, Imre

    2010-02-07

    The journal impact factor (IF) is often recognized as a symbol of scientific prestige and relevance. However it is greatly influenced by the field or scope of journals, publisher, scientific, editorial, and economic background. Although there are many suggestions to modify the most important scientometric parameter, it is widely used to compare journals, individuals, departments, scientific outputs to judge academic promotions, grant allocations, awarding appointments. Most of the researchers use international database searching relevant publication, which will be cited in their own paper. Unfortunately these international databases refer only few Hungarian journals. It is recommended to develop and maintain a Hungarian Electronic Medical Bibliography, divided by the field of scientific interest (e.g., diabetology, gastroenterology, public health, urology etc.). Authors can upload the list or full text of publications, if copyright agreements allow, and search other Hungarian papers for citation, to promote each others. Organizer, manager, host and supporters of this database are very welcomed.

  6. Hollywood on the Danube: Hungarian Filmmakers in a Transnational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Portuges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exile, emigration and displacement have marked the trajectories of Hungarian filmmakers over the past century. Michael Curtiz, the Korda brothers—Alexander, Vincent and Zoltán—André de Toth, Emeric Pressburger, Vilmos Zsigmond, Miklós Rózsa, Peter Lorre, Géza von Radvány and other talented artists have crossed borders, cultures and languages, creating such classics as Casablanca, Somewhere in Europe, The Red Shoes and The Lost One. The legendary sign posted in Hollywood studios read: "It is not enough to be Hungarian, you have to have talent, too!" Accompanied by film extracts, rare footage, personal interviews, archive photographs, and documentary materials, my presentation explores the transnational odysseys of these Hungarian directors, producers, cinematographers, composers, actors and screenwriters whose artistic contributions became an indispensable part of international cinema, suggesting that the challenges of emigration may also offer opportunities for critique, self-examination and artistic creativity.

  7. Development of the security system of the new Hungarian banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfi, Sandor

    2000-04-01

    The more than 75 year old Hungarian Banknote Printing Corporation is an enterprise with a rich history. It is located in the very center of the capital, only some blocks away form the Parliament. Most people on this side of the Atlantic may not even have heard about the Hungarian currency, the Forint. Some may remember that after the WWII it was Hungary, where the severest hyperinflation in the world took place. As we come from a manufacturing company , we can give you information about deliberation and experiences of application of optically variable features on banknotes and some observations made in the past two years since the new Hungarian bank note series is ins circulation.

  8. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4- mile...

  9. The Network effects of Railway Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2006-01-01

    Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...... be examined by queuing time. This paper gives examples of network effects and describes the importance of the size of the analysis area and the connections between trains in the railway network....

  10. Named Entity Recognition in a Hungarian NL Based QA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkl, Domonkos; Szidarovszky, P. Ferenc; Kardkovacs, Zsolt T.; Magyar, Gábor

    In WoW project our purpose is to create a complex search interface with the following features: search in the deep web content of contracted partners' databases, processing Hungarian natural language (NL) questions and transforming them to SQL queries for database access, image search supported by a visual thesaurus that describes in a structural form the visual content of images (also in Hungarian). This paper primarily focuses on a particular problem of question processing task: the entity recognition. Before going into details we give a short overview of the project's aims.

  11. Abstracts of the 27th Hungarian conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abstracts, Conferences, Congresses, Symposiums...

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available About 100 participants took part in the 27th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by the Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Thirteen papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered almost all fields of rabbit research (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  12. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  13. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...... illustrated as well as the degree of electrification for different countries. Traffic parameters such as passenger occupancy rates, per capita freight and passenger traffic are presented for European conditions. The relationship between average train speed and distance between stops is shown for a variety...

  14. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  15. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  16. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Csörnyei; László Csató; János Farkas; Ino Curik; István Nagy

    2010-01-01

    Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA) and gestation length (GL) were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records) and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records) sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets), were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14) for HLA and 0.08 (0.17) for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27) for HLA and 0.26 (0.35) for HLW. Estimated...

  17. The Water Pricing Effects on the Water Use of the Hungarian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László VASA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has remarkable surface and subsurface water resources which result in important comparative benefits. In Hungary, before the political change, the water prices were determined by the state. According to the underlying principles of the communism, the water prices were very low as well. After the political and economical change in Hungary, from 1990 the water market started to be oligopoly-like: today the water supply is managed by regional water-work companies which are operating under state coordinated frames (e.g. price allowance, state-fixed prices containing profit. The consequences of the changeover to the capitalism have several effects; there is a need for the validating of the real costs and the environmental aspects in the water prices. This new approach led to the increased water-prices. In this study, the reaction of the Hungarian households to the growing of the water-rates is examined. The research work is based on primary statistical data. The analysis shows that the water consumption is hardly decreased and the sparing of water became more important. The study overviews the Hungarian water consumption structure as well.

  18. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  19. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were…

  20. "Unraveling Intercultural communication in an Hungarian cookie Company"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a Hungarian company going through the double transition of having been recently acquired by a foreign corporation and, at the same time, reorienting its business approach from east to west. This juncture in time for Central and Eastern European companies, namel...

  1. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  2. US-Hungarian Relations Ten Years After 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Glant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 1966, the tenth anniversary of the 1956 Revolution, was a key year in US–Hungarian relations. Diplomatic relations were raised from the lowest to the highest level, but suspicion and tension remained. Neither side knew what to expect from the other on account of the anniversary, the Vietnam War, economic and cultural negotiations, and the fate of Cardinal Mindszenty. A traditional diplomatic historical approach is supplemented here with cultural materials to present the full scale of contacts ranging from high political issues to the visit of Hollywood movie star Kirk Douglas in Budapest. First Secretary of the Legation for Press and Cultural Affairs Edward Alexander receives special attention, because he played a crucial role in the events of 1966. As press secretary, he helped calm Hungarian fears over what American journalists might report about the anniversary, while as cultural affairs officer he worked on documenting and expanding American cultural presence in Hungary. In the latter capacity, he opened the USIA Library at the Legation, fraternized with blacklisted painters of the Zuglói Kör [‘Zugló Circle’], monitored the Hungarian stage production of My Fair Lady, and reported on the publication of American literature in Hungarian.

  3. Medical Liability in the Light of New Hungarian Civil Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The number of medical malpractice lawsuits filed each year in Hungary has considerably increased since the change of regime. The judicial decisions and practices on determining and awarding wrongful damages recoverable for medical malpractices in the Hungarian civil law have been developing for decades.

  4. Long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvo Dajčman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the fractal structure of the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns. The presence of long memory components in asset returns provides evidence against the weak-form of stock market efficiency. The starting working hypothesis that there is no long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns is tested by applying the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS (1992 test, Lo’s (1991 modified rescaled range (R/S test, and the wavelet ordinary least squares (WOLS estimator of Jensen (1999. The research showed that the WOLS estimator may lead to different conclusions regarding long memory presence in the stock returns from the KPSS and unit root tests or Lo’s R/S test. Furthermore, it proved that the fractal structure of individual stock returns may be masked in aggregated stock market returns (i.e. in returns of stock index. The main finding of the paper is that both the Croatian stock index Crobex and individual stocks in this index exhibit long memory. Long memory is identified for some stocks in the Hungarian stock market as well, but not for the stock market index BUX. Based on the results of the long memory tests, it can be concluded that while the Hungarian stock market is weakform efficient, the Croatian stock market is not.

  5. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  6. "Great Expectations:" The Motivational Profile of Hungarian English Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Csizer, Kata; Menyhart, Adrienn; Torok, Dora

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate what characterizes the language learning motivation of Hungarian English language students in terms of Dornyei and Otto's process model of motivation ("Motivation in Action," 1998). We used a mixed-method research design, in which qualitative interviews conducted with 20 students were supplemented with questionnaire…

  7. Linguistics in Language Teaching: The Case of Finnish and Hungarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsoly, Eszter; Valijarvi, Riitta-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of various linguistic sub-disciplines in teaching Finnish and Hungarian. We sketch the profile of the two languages, including difficulties in learning and teaching them, and the context in which they are taught in the UK. Using examples from our own teaching, we argue that a linguistically oriented approach is well…

  8. Medical Liability in the Light of New Hungarian Civil Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The number of medical malpractice lawsuits filed each year in Hungary has considerably increased since the change of regime. The judicial decisions and practices on determining and awarding wrongful damages recoverable for medical malpractices in the Hungarian civil law have been developing for decades.

  9. Behaviour Profile of Hungarian Adolescent Outpatients with a Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, Elek; Csorba, Janos; Suli, Agota; Grosz, Zsofia

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour dimensions of 244 Hungarian adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a dual diagnosis (intellectual disability and psychiatric diagnosis) were examined by means of the adapted version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001). Four IQ subgroups were created: borderline, mild, moderate…

  10. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Handgrip among Hungarian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Karsai, István; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and sex-related variation in handgrip strength and to determine reference values for the Hungarian population. Method: A sample of 1,086 Hungary youth (aged 11-18 years old; 654 boys and 432 girls) completed a handgrip strength assessment using a handheld dynamometer. Quantile regression was…

  11. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  12. Routing trains through railway stations: complexity issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of routing trains through railway stations. This problem occurs as a subproblem in the project DONS that is currently being carried out under the supervision of Railned and Netherlands Railways. The project DONS involves the determination of the

  13. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...

  14. Performance analysis of railway infrastructure and operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Research on performance assessment of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international benchm

  15. Milestones in 60 years of railway construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In 1952, construction of the ChengduChongqing railway was completed. The line was the first to be established after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.The first railway network was constructed and put into operation under

  16. Reliability and heterogeneity of railway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel); R. Dekker (Rommert); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReliability is one of the key factors in transportation, both for passengers and for cargo. This paper examines reliability in public railway systems. Reliability of railway services is a complex matter, since there are many causes for disruptions and at least as many causes for delays t

  17. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  18. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  19. Reinventing Crew Scheduling at Netherlands Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fischetti (Matteo); L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Timmer (Gerrit); M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel); E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe the successful application of a sophisticated Operations Research model and the corresponding solution techniques for scheduling the 6,500+ drivers and conductors of the Dutch railway operator NS Reizigers (Netherlands Railways). In 2001 the drivers and conducto

  20. [Psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the Codependence Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Anikó; Knapek, Éva; Balázs, Katalin; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the internal consistency of the subscales of the Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire (CdQ, Roehling & Gaumond, 1996). Thus, a reliable measurement of codependency for professionals become available in Hungary. The Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire enables professionals to identify codependent individuals. Our sample (N=137) was recruited from the general population and from self-help groups (82 individuals); and patients with borderline personality disorder (55 individuals) were recruited as clinical control group. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alfa and principal component analysis. In addition, in order to investigate the latent structure, factors analyses and hierarchical cluster analysis were used. Based on our results, the Cronbach's alfa values of the subscales of 'control', 'reliability' and 'intimacy' indicate appropriate reliability, however, the subscale of 'enmeshment' indicates poor reliability. The originally assumed factor structure is not supported by the results of the statistical analyses. The subscales are not separate from each other, which is also indicated by the correlations of the total scores of the subscales. The reliability of the Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire is nearly identical to the original data, except for one subscale ('enmeshment subscale'). Based on these results the Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire is considered to be reliable. Besides the Hungarian adaptation, the strength of this study is the investigation of a clinical sample. The use of the questionnaire is recommended without the subscale of 'enmeshment' and further 5 items, and it is suggested to use as one scale.

  1. Identity, tradition, society. Experiences from the south Hungarian region great plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szarvak Tibor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period before the 1990s, models of identity were not allowed if they differed from the expectations of the political authorities (national ethnic, political, religious, socio-cultural etc, so that the issue of identity could not appear in public discourse. From the standpoint of traditional communities, there were some elements which led to significant consequences: state socialism and social practice could not cure the traumas of two world wars, which were additionally burdened by the disintegration of traditional communities existing before the period of state socialism, as well as by the indistinct Hungarian identity, the consequence of a deformed internationalism. All these factors led to the situation in which the majority of the Hungarians did not have established patterns of identity at the beginning of the 1990s, which was, however, of vital importance for the constant changing requests of social environment. During the 1990s and earlier, people carried out mostly sociological and socio-osychological researches to introduce and investigate the main features of national identity.

  2. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu of...

  3. On China's High-Speed Railway Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-tong FANG

    2011-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have become increasingly prominent in matters of transportation.Compared with road,air,and sea transportation,railway transportation has the advantages of a large transmission capacity,with rapid,safe,and on-time travel,requiring less land resources,with lower energy consumption,less environmental pollution,and the capacity to operate under most weather conditions.In particular,high-speed railway technology has been growing rapidly.Since the world's first high-speed railway was built in Japan in 1964,more than ten countries and regions have developed high-speed railways,operating over a total of more than 10000 km.High-speed railways not only provide the public with a new type of rapid,convenient,safe,and comfortable travel,but also greatly boost the socio-economic development of the country.

  4. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  5. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  6. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  7. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  8. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  9. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which...... is based on the Stålmarck algorithm. While some requirements are easily proved, others are virtually impossible to manage du to a very large potenbtial state space. We present what has been done in order to get, at least, an idea of whether or not such difficult requirements are fulfilled or not, and we...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  10. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard;

    2016-01-01

    for predicting vibrations in nearby buildings in an early stage of the building process. The strategy is based on that there is a fairly good knowledge of the properties of the ground and that some on-site vibration measurements are made. By combining these with finite-element analysis, the vibration level......Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...... for the residents. It is necessary, even at an early stage of planning, to assess the extent of the vibrations and state requirements for the building in order to avoid costly changes at later stages. Ground vibration induced by railway traffic is studied in the paper. The aim is to develop a strategy...

  11. Reliability of Railway Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMichiel Vromans was born on January 31, 1976, in Veghel, the Netherlands. In 1994- 1995 he visited the Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, USA. His focus that year was on both geography and mathematics. In 1995 he started his study in Econometrics at the University of Groningen, w

  12. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company (MNRC...

  13. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company (MNRC...

  14. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from the Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVS) and... states that the lease agreement between PVS and PVR will not contain any interchange commitments....

  15. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  16. Composite indicator for railway infrastructure management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen M. Famurewa; Christer Stenstro¨ m; Matthias Asplund; Diego Galar; Uday Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and analysis of railway infra-structure capacity is an essential task in railway infra-structure management carried out to meet the required quality and capacity demand of railway transport. For sustainable and dependable infrastructure management, it is important to assess railway capacity limitation from the point of view of infrastructure performance. However, the existence of numerous performance indicators often leads to diffused information that is not in a format suitable to support decision making. In this paper, we demonstrated the use of fuzzy inference system for aggregating selected railway infrastructure performance indicators to relate maintenance function to capacity situation. The selected indicators consider the safety, comfort, punctuality and reliability aspects of railway infrastructure performance. The resulting composite indicator gives a reliable quanti-fication of the health condition or integrity of railway lines. A case study of the assessment of overall infrastructure performance which is an indication of capacity limitation is presented using indicator data between 2010 and 2012 for five lines on the network of Trafikverket (Swedish Trans-port Administration). The results are presented using cus-tomised performance dashboard for enhanced visualisation, quick understanding and relevant comparison of infra-structure conditions for strategic management. This gives additional information on capacity status and limitation from maintenance management perspective.

  17. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  18. Manual railway structure; Handbuch Eisenbahninfrastruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrich, L. (ed.) [Spitzke AG, Grossbeeren (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Content: trace and rail geometry, cross section, civil engineering, rail welding, rail/road crossings, wheels, vehicles, power connectors, line tracing, electrical equipment, power supply of electric railways and energy efficiency, operational specifications of infrastructure, safety engineering on railways, telecommunications, functional safety, environmental measures, maintenance and component management, attachments. (GL) [German] Das Handbuch wendet sich an den praktisch taetigen und planenden Ingenieur, an den Verantwortung tragenden Fachmann und an technisch interessierte Fuehrungskraefte sowie an Angehoerige von wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen und Behoerden und auch an Studierende. In den einzelnen, miteinander vernetzten Kapiteln werden die technischen und operativen Grundlagen und Zusammenhaenge der Eisenbahninfrastruktur sowie der Interaktion von Infrastruktur und Fahrzeug in Mass und Zahl dargestellt. Es wird Wert darauf gelegt, dass der Nutzer nicht durch ausufernde Prosatexte, sondern durch eine knappe, aber fakten- und detailreiche Darstellung mit Bildern, Zeichnungen, Diagrammen und Tabellen einen schnellen Zugriff auf das gesuchte Wissensgebiet bzw. auf die nachzuschlagenden Einzelheiten erhaelt. Systematisch organisierte Querverweise vermitteln die Komplexitaet und Vernetzung der Ingenieurdisziplinen der Eisenbahninfrastruktur. Der in seinem engeren Fachgebiet kundige Leser soll ueber dieses hinaus in den Kapiteln der anderen Gewerke der Eisenbahninfrastruktur auf umfassende Darstellungen zurueckgreifen koennen, die ihm fundierten Erkenntniszugewinn fuer seine Arbeit an den Schnittstellen bieten. Es werden anerkannte Verfahren und Berechnungen sowie ein umfangreiches Datenwerk mit Zahlen, Tabellen und Diagrammen, nach denen man heute unter Zeitdruck meist vergeblich in den verschiedenen Einzelpublikationen sucht, an die Hand gegeben. (orig.)

  19. Red-light traffic enforcement at railway crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic witih smart vision systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. Embedded loop sensors can detect and count passing vehicles, radar can measure speed and presence of vehicles, and embedded vision systems or stationary camera systems can count vehicles and estimate the state of traffic along the road. This work presents a vision system which is targeted at detecting and reporting incidents at unsecured railways crossings. These crossings, even when guarded by automated barriers, pose a threat to drivers day and night. Our system is designed to detect and record vehicles which pass over the railway crossing by means of real-time motion analysis after the red light has been activated. We implement sparse optical flow in conjunction with motion clustering in order to detect critical events. We describe some modifications of the original Lucas Kanade optical flow method which makes our implementation faster and more robust compared to the original concept. In addition, the results of our optical flow method are compared with a HOG based vehicle detector which has been implemented and tested as an alternative methodology. The embedded system which is used for detection consists of a smart camera which observes one street lane as* well as the red light at the crossing. The camera is triggered by an electrical signal from the railway as soon ss a vehicle moves over th this line, image sequences are recorded and stored onboard the device.

  20. Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou Intercity Railways were approved officially by the National Reform and Development Commission (NRDC). The Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway will be located briefly in parallel with the existing Shanghai-Nanjing Railway, starting from Shanghai and ending at Nanjing via Kunshan, Suzhou,Wuxi, Changzhou, Danyang and Zhenjiang, with a total length of 300 km for the main line, among which 32km will be in Shanghai and 268 km in Jiangsu Province.

  1. ROBUST STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR RAILWAY VEHICLE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Zeng Jing; Cao Dengqing

    2003-01-01

    The lateral stability for railway vehicle dynamic system with uncertain parameters and nonlinear uncertain force vector is studied by using the Lyapunov stability theory. A robust stability condition for the considered system is derived, and the obtained stability bounds are not necessarily symmetric with respect to the origin in the parameter space. The lateral stability analysis for a railway bogie model is analyzed by using the proposed approach. The symmetric and asymmetric results are both given and the influence of the adjustable parameter ( on the stability bounds is also discussed. With the help of the proposed method, the robust stability analysis can provide a reference for the design of the railway vehicle systems.

  2. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    In the railway field, planning the maintenance and renewal strategy from Life Cycle Cost (LCC) perspective gets more and more attentions recent years. The new approach looks at all the costs through the infrastructure life span and use the annuity (continuing payment with a fixed total annual...... spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level...... of railway maintenance and renewals....

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS, RANKING AND CLUSTERING OF HUNGARIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÁSZLÓ MAKRA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to rank and classify Hungarian cities and counties according to their environmental quality and level of environmental awareness. Ranking of the Hungarian cities and counties are represented on their „Green Cities Index” and „Green Counties Index” values. According to the methodology shown in Part 1, cities and counties were grouped on different classification techniques and efficacy of the classification was analysed. However, they did not give acceptable results either for the cities, or for the counties. According to the parameters of the here mentioned three algorithms, reasonable structures were not found in any clustering. Clusters received applying algorithm fanny, though having weak structure, indicate large and definite regions in Hungary, which can be circumscribed by clear geographical objects.

  4. Breeding value estimation in the Hungarian Sport Horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, János; Komlósi, István; Mihók, Sándor

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for a range of traits in Hungarian Sport Horses, and to compare several methods of estimating breeding value (BV) in this breed. The analyses were based on the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook, results of self-performance tests (SPTs) and show-jumping competition results. An SPT comprises subjective judgement of conformation traits, movement analysis traits and free-jumping performance, assessed via ordinal scores. Genetic parameters of SPTs were estimated with an animal model. Different measurements of the competition performance were compared using the same repeatability model. Estimates of BV for sport were made with random regression models using a first-order Legendre polynomial. Heritability was found to increase and permanent environmental variance to decrease continuously with age. BVs can be estimated at different ages and from these a composite BV index can be computed. It is possible to weight BVs for the specific age of a horse.

  5. Translating Family Names in Hungarian: A Diachronic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we focus on the translating practice and translatability of surnames used in Hungarian, from the problems of translating the immediate predecessors of surnames to the questions of translating surnames today. Our main interest is in how multilingualism, language contact situations, language prestige considerations, customs, fashion and other potential factors affect the use of these names in different languages, and the translatability in a wider sense in the actual practice in Hungary and other countries. We shall look at name translation practice in medieval documents, the relevant questions of spontaneous and conscious surname changes, the changes of Hungarian surnames used outside of Hungary, and finally the questions of translating surnames occurring in fiction.

  6. 匈牙利香肠%Hungarian sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼

    2008-01-01

    英文名:Hungarian sausage原产地:匈牙利行走匈牙利,从来不用为食物烦恼。这个国家从草原到城市,没有哪里找不到香肠摊子,在小摊上付出少许银两,匈牙利妈妈就会笑盈盈递过来一段香肠。

  7. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s AP-42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction projec...

  8. ADRIAN HATOS, School Performance and Language of Hungarian Ethnic Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN HATOS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the thorniest issues of the linguistic policies in North-Western Transylvania was the establishment of linguistic arrangements in the mandatory education system. Supported also by arguments which refer to the equal opportunity rule, native language education for ethnic minority children, concerning especially the Hungarian language, has flourished both in mixed schools, and in schools that are segregated in terms of the teaching language. This article assesses the effects that the various linguistic contexts in which a Hungarian teenager in the region studies can have on his/her performance in school, compared to the performance of his/her colleagues who study in Romanian. I start from two hypotheses: linguistic shortcoming and opposition culture. The hierarchical linear regression modeling of the average of school results scores in the seventh grade, on a sample of over 3 700 pupils in the eighth grade in Bihor County, indicates a significant and systematic disadvantage of Hungarian pupils, although small as an absolute value, irrespective of the linguistic arrangement. Moreover, both the linguistic disadvantage thesis and the opposition culture model can be supported, although the results are not conclusive from this point of view.

  9. The Greek charter of the Hungarian King Stephen I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkovski Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Hungarian Christian ruler, King Stephen I (997-1038 issued several charters that have survived to this day. One of them is the charter issued on behalf of the nuns from the Monastery of the Holy Theotokos in Veszprémvölgy. The charter was written in the Greek language, and has been the subject of many studies. The original has not been preserved; what remains is a copy from the time of King Coloman, dated to 1109. The charter has not been published in a critical edition in any language other than Hungarian and even though it has been examined by numerous Hungarian scholars, many questions remain open. The aim of the author is to provide a critical edition and an English translation of the charter, but also to clarify some remaining doubts about the charter and its contents. Furthermore, some comparisons will be made with the Byzantine charters issued at the beginning of the 11th and during the 12th century.

  10. What do the Hungarian young people think about the nuclear?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmandi, T.; Aszodi, A.; Boros, I.; Hanti, A.; Legradi, G.; Petofi, G. [Budapest University of Technology and Economys, Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest (Hungary)

    2001-07-01

    During the last few years new challenges and opportunities appeared on the nuclear agenda, like the improvement of the economic competitiveness, enhancing radiation and waste safety, strengthening of the role of the public acceptance. It seems that the future of the nuclear industry depends on several things. On the one hand the scientific and technical development in the last decades worked up sufficient nuclear safety and radiation protection, and nuclear methods are widely used in the industry, agriculture and medical systems, as well. On the other hand there are some other interesting questions, like Human Relations and the public acceptance of the nuclear energy still lying ahead of us. The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1998 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to answer the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this paper our experience what we have drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth is summarised. (author)

  11. Causes of ransom private railways in the Russian Empire during the reign of Alexander III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Gurianov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a number of reasons, redemption of private railways in the Russian Empire during the reign of Alexander III. Preconditions for this step. After the defeat in the Crimean War, the state began to consider two basic ways construction of railways: the expense of the treasury at the expense of private capital, including foreign ones. Attempts to organize joint capital of private foreign and domestic on the example of the main Russian Railway Company ended sadly. Foreign capital is mainly interested in speculation on the Russian stock exchange, as a result the majority of the company's shares went to the Russian capital. To support the private Russian capital the government has gone the way of the guarantee capital, in certain cases, as a joint stock or bond or one of the types of capital. When distribution concessions were not crucial economic factors, and the proximity to the elite or the corruption component. Often concession won by those who offered the lowest price, which affects the quality of railway construction in the country. As a result of the concession is not got the most professionally trained people who are almost entirely the burden shifted to the state, and profits for the most part getting any private owners. As a result, such practice is ruinous for the Treasury forced the government to buy back a significant portion of private railways on acceptable terms. As a result, initially malpractice and corruption safeguards prevent a real manifestation of self-employment initiatives

  12. Study on the Hungarian algorithm for the maximum likelihood data association problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianguo; He Peikun; Cao Wei

    2007-01-01

    A specialized Hungarian algorithm was developed here for the maximum likelihood data association problem with two implementation versions due to presence of false alarms and missed detections. The maximum likelihood data association problem is formulated as a bipartite weighted matching problem. Its duality and the optimality conditions are given. The Hungarian algorithm with its computational steps, data structure and computational complexity is presented. The two implementation versions, Hungarian forest (HF) algorithm and Hungarian tree (HT) algorithm, and their combination with the na(i)ve auction initialization are discussed. The computational results show that HT algorithm is slightly faster than HF algorithm and they are both superior to the classic Munkres algorithm.

  13. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  14. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  15. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    For the modern railways, maintenance is critical for ensuring safety, train punctuality and overall capacity utilization. The cost of railway maintenance in Europe is high, on average between 30,000 – 100,000 Euro per km per year [1]. Aiming to reduce such maintenance expenditure, this paper...... presents a mathematical model based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) which is designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballasted track for the time horizon up to four years. The objective function is setup to minimize the actual costs for the tamping machine (measured by time...... recovery on the track quality after tamping operation and (5) Tamping machine operation factors. A Danish railway track between Odense and Fredericia with 57.2 km of length is applied for a time period of two to four years in the proposed maintenance model. The total cost can be reduced with up to 50...

  16. Efficiency and Robustness in Railway Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Pisinger, David

    Passenger railway transport is an effective means of providing high capacity transport that is energy efficient and has low emissions. As the population of Denmark grows and there is an increased request for mobility, there is a need for railway services offering greater capacity and more...... problems beyond past approaches, and where applicable, investigate solution methods that place more focus on the passenger and passenger experience. To cater to the growing demand for rail transport, and compete with different modes of transport, Danish railway operators must offer a consistent, reliable...... to effectively model, investigate, and solve railway planning problems. Despite advances in computational power these large problems are still challenging to solve, especially as more modelling detail is sought. Within a Danish context this thesis seeks to apply operations research methods to different planning...

  17. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  18. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-01-01

    Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model) and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is a...

  19. Railway noise barriers: Measurements and Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ausejo Prieto, Miguel; Recuero López, Manuel; Fausti, Patrizio; Cremonini, Renzo

    2009-01-01

    Trains Trains passages passages generate generate aa very very annoying annoying noise noise toto the the inhabitants inhabitants ofof their their environs environs.. To To reduce reduce this this annoyance annoyance, noise noise barriers barriers are are installed installed near near several several railway railway lines lines.. Nowadays Nowadays, acoustic acoustic simulation simulation programs programs are are used used inin order order toto optimize optimize the the design design ofof the...

  20. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  2. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  3. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš Zdeněk; Jandová Monika

    2016-01-01

    Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market) and regulated competition (competition for the market). Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed an...

  4. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  5. Development of Intermodal Transport at Croatian Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hurtiš

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the railway transport in the EU, in particularthe acceptance of the E U instructions which regulate theright of "the open access to the railway" is the reason forchanges on the European intermodal transport market. TheCommunity of European Railways creates the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways which will exclusively perform railfreight transport. That freeway net has been created in EUmember countries, but they are also extended to the countrieswith the candidate status for the membership in the EU, as wellas to the countries outside the European Union where the qualityof the railway infrastructure enables transport service to beperformed at the required level. Transport at the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways will be performed, for the most part,by the contemporary technologies which enable redirection ofthe goods from the road ways to the railways. Croatian Railwaysis planning to build and open truck terminals by the beginningof the year 2007 in Spacva, Split, Rijeka, Koprivnica andZagreb. This is necessary in order to introduce its own trains forthe transportation of trucks (so calledRo-La trains, which willhelp redirect approximately 150,000 heavy trucks a year fromthe roads to the railways. That way Croatia will profit at theecological and economic level, as well as regarding transportsafety.

  6. THE BASING OF STABILIZATION PARAMETERS OF A FORTIFIED RAILWAY BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to stabilization parameters determination of reinforced railway bed. At the present time, the railway plays the leading role in transport system to ensure the needs of freight and passenger traffic. In modern conditions railway operation concentrates on ensuring the necessary level of track reliability, including the roadbed, this is one of the main elements of road structures. The purpose of this article is the determination of basic parameters of stress-strain state to stabilize the soil subgrade embankment by reinforced materials. Methodology. To achieve this goal the following tasks of researches were solved: the effect of reinforcing layer of geomaterial on deformation properties of soil subgrade in various design of strengthening was investigated, the distributions of stresses in the subgrade were determined, reinforced of geomaterials under state load. Experimental studies to explore the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress were carried out. Findings. The analysis of the results of performed experimental and theoretical studies permitted to do the following conclusions. In conducting researches determined the distribution of stresses in the subgrade reinforced geomaterials under static load. The complex of experimental studies allows exploring the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress. Originality. On the basis of the theoretical studies have been regarded the problem of determining the stress-strain state of subgrade reinforced geomaterials by measuring stresses in its application for step loads. Practical value. The practical value was presented by the results of evaluating the effect of reinforcing way for changing the stress-strain state of subgrade.

  7. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems : Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.

  8. How to Sell a Railway: Lessons on the privatization of Three Dutch Railway Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); M. Leijten (Martijn)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution, we provide a comparative analysis of the Dutch government’s attempts to realize private investments in three national railway mega-projects: the Betuwe Route, a dedicated freight railway line connecting the Rotterdam harbour to the German rail network, the High

  9. Real-time Railway Traffic Management: dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay propagation

  10. How to Sell a Railway: Lessons on the privatization of Three Dutch Railway Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); M. Leijten (Martijn)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution, we provide a comparative analysis of the Dutch government’s attempts to realize private investments in three national railway mega-projects: the Betuwe Route, a dedicated freight railway line connecting the Rotterdam harbour to the German rail network, the High Spee

  11. Optimization of piezoelectric energy harvester for wireless smart sensors in railway health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensor network is one of the prospective methods for railway monitoring due to the long-term operation and low-maintenance performances. How to supply power to the wireless sensor nodes has drawn much attention recently. In railway monitoring, the idea of converting ambient vibration energy from vibration of railway track induced by passing trains to electric energy has made it a potential way for powering the wireless sensor nodes. Nowadays, most of vibration based energy harvesters are designed at resonance. However, as railway vibration frequency is a wide band range, how to design an energy harvester working at that range is critical. In this paper, the energy consumption of the wireless smart sensor platform, Imote2, at different working states were investigated. Based on the energy consumption, a design of a bimorph cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester has been optimized to generate maximum average power between a wide-band frequency range. Significant power and current outputs have been increased after optimal design. Finally, the rechargeable battery life for supplying the Imote2 for railway monitoring is predicted by using the optimized piezoelectric energy harvesting system.

  12. Risks of an epidemic in a two-layered railway-local area traveling network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Hui, Pakming; Lin, Haiqing; Liu, Zonghua

    2013-01-01

    In view of the huge investments into the construction of high speed rails systems in USA, Japan, and China, we present a two-layer traveling network model to study the risks that the railway network poses in case of an epidemic outbreak. The model consists of two layers with one layer representing the railway network and the other representing the local-area transportation subnetworks. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we also study a simplified model that focuses on how a major railway affects an epidemic. We assume that the individuals, when they travel, take on the shortest path to the destination and become non-travelers upon arrival. When an infection process co-evolves with the traveling dynamics, the railway serves to gather a crowd, transmit the disease, and spread infected agents to local area subnetworks. The railway leads to a faster initial increase in infected agents and a higher steady state infection, and thus poses risks; and frequent traveling leads to a more severe infection. These features revealed in simulations are in agreement with analytic results of a simplified version of the model.

  13. Vibration control of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension with magneto-rheological dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Oh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents vibration control performances of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using a magneto-rheological damper tested on the roller rig. In order to evaluate control performances, a mathematical railway vehicle model with 15 degrees of freedom is first derived to represent the lateral, yaw and roll motions of the car body, bogie frame, and wheel set, respectively. Based on the formulated model, the design parameters of magneto-rheological damper are determined to undertake a compatible comparison with dynamic performances of conventional (existing passive railway vehicle suspension system. The designed magneto-rheological damper is manufactured and its field-dependent damping force characteristics are experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, in order to enhance the ride quality of a railway vehicle suspension equipped with magneto-rheological damper, a skyhook controller associated with an extended Kalman filter is designed in a state space representation. The railway suspension system incorporated with the car body and two bogies is then experimentally set up on the roller rig in order to evaluate the ride quality. It is demonstrated from experimental realization of the controller that the ride quality of the suspension system with magneto-rheological damper can be significantly enhanced compared with the existing passive suspension system.

  14. Representation of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers and Refugee Affairs In Hungarian Dailies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla VICSEK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available How does the press in Hungary write about refugees, asylum-seekers and refugee affairs? We sought to answer this question. Articles appearing in 2005 and 2006 in two leading national Hungarian dailies were examined with quantitative content analysis. The results show that the articles analyzed often treat refugee affairs as an “official” political matter. The high proportion of legislation and political positions conveys the image that refugee affairs are a state or intergovernmental matter, an “official”, legal, political issue rather than for example a humanitarian question. Most of the articles published in both papers write about problems and conflicts in connection with refugee affairs. The negative media image has different significance for different topics. We argue that the question of refugee affairs is a topic where the image shown by the media is of great relevance: the media can be a more important source of information on this subject than personal contacts.

  15. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  16. Improvement of Hungarian Joint Terminal Attack Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    LST Laser Spot Tracker NVG Night Vision Goggle ROMAD Radio Operator Maintainer and Driver ROVER Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver TACP......controllers was based on NATO standards, but conducted by experienced helicopter pilots in Hungary. In 2009, the United States (US) offered to help

  17. The new system of the talent development program in Hungarian soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csáki István

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: due to a series of failures and the drastic reduction in the quality of Hungarian soccer, greater emphasis should be put on coaches’ professional development and talent development programs. The aim of this study was to present the newly established Hungarian Soccer Development Program that focuses on the development of youth talent.

  18. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  19. The acquisition of Hungarian high front unrounded short vs. long vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajdó, K.; Wempe, T.G.; van der Stelt, J.; Pols, L.C.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined spectral properties of the Hungarian vowel pair /i/ vs. /i:/ with contrasting phonemic vowel lengths in 2;0 and 4;0 years old boys acquiring Hungarian as their native language. Results were obtained by an automated pitch-synchronous bandfilter analysis method that estimates the

  20. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  1. [Participation of Hungarians in the Elaboration of Principles of Genetics and of Biotehchnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sótonyi, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    It was in 1983 that Robert Bud, director of The Science Museum in London, made it public that the principles of biotechnology, and the term itself were first put into words by a Hungarian scientist, Károly Ereky (The use of life. A history of biotechnology. Cambridge - New York--Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 1993). Károly Ereky stated that if raw material is used to produce consumer goods with the help of living organisms, the workflow data can be collected in biotechnology. He phrased the principles of biotechnology in his book published in German in 1919 called Biotechnology, ranking him among the world's greatest (Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin, 1919). In 1918 in Brno, three years before the birth of Mendel, count Imre Festetics formulated his theses in 4 points in his publication "Die genetische Gesetze der Natur" (Oekonomische Neuigkeiten und Verhandlungen. Brünn, 22: 169-170, 1819), using the word 'genetics' for the first time in the world. It was Vitezslav Orel, director of the Mendel Museum in Brno, who brought the attention of the world to this fact in 1989, based on the documents possessed by the Museum. The English scientist J.R. Wood published his new findings in 2001, accord- ing to which Festetics summarized his results in the form of four genetic laws well before Mendel, describing principles of the process of mutation and inheritance. Festetics provided evidence for the improvement of the stock by cross-breeding. He stated Mendel's second law on the importance of selection. He called attention to the priority of internal genetic fac- tors. Hungarians can rightly be proud of Károly Ereky (1878-1952) and count Imre Festetics (1764-1847).

  2. A tutorial on fundamental model structures for railway timetable optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure...

  3. A concept of public safety monitoring in large railway nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Siergiejczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is to identify risks of public safety in railway transport and the concept ofresetting the system of monitoring and supervision of railway facilities in a large railway node by theexample of Warsaw Railway Junction – WWK. Switched concept of the system of monitoring andsupervision of railway facilities in a large railway node is an open computer system that allows futureexpansion of the spatial: it means that you can enter into the system more and more monitored objectsand increase the monitored area in a given subject. The proposed solution is an example of a systemthat allows monitoring and surveillance improvement in safety of railway transport.[b]Keyword[/b]s: public safety, railway junction, system, monitoring

  4. Computerization of Hungarian reforestation manual with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimber, Kornél; Gálos, Borbála; Mátyás, Csaba; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Hungarian forests are highly sensitive to the changing climate, especially to the available precipitation amount. Over the past two decades several drought damages were observed for tree species which are in the lower xeric limit of their distribution. From year to year these affected forest stands become more difficult to reforest with the same native species because these are not able to adapt to the increasing probability of droughts. The climate related parameter set of the Hungarian forest stand database needs updates. Air humidity that was formerly used to define the forest climate zones is not measured anymore and its value based on climate model outputs is highly uncertain. The aim was to develop a novel computerized and objective method to describe the species-specific climate conditions that is essential for survival, growth and optimal production of the forest ecosystems. The method is expected to project the species spatial distribution until 2100 on the basis of regional climate model simulations. Until now, Hungarian forest managers have been using a carefully edited spreadsheet for reforestation purposes. Applying binding regulations this spreadsheet prescribes the stand-forming and admixed tree species and their expected growth rate for each forest site types. We are going to present a new machine learning based method to replace the former spreadsheet. We took into great consideration of various methods, such as maximum likelihood, Bayesian networks, Fuzzy logic. The method calculates distributions, setups classification, which can be validated and modified by experts if necessary. Projected climate change conditions makes necessary to include into this system an additional climate zone that does not exist in our region now, as well as new options for potential tree species. In addition to or instead of the existing ones, the influence of further limiting parameters (climatic extremes, soil water retention) are also investigated. Results will be

  5. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION IN HUNGARIAN DAIRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozsa Andrea

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary sample for the analysis is framed on the basis of three criteria: amount of the subscribed capital, sales revenues and product structure. Those companies are regarded as competitors that have subscribed capitals in excess of HUF 250 million, consistently high levels of sales revenues and diversified product structures. The preliminary sample consists of 7 companies. In 2012, their total sales revenues were as high as about 50% of the overall amount of sales revenues in the sector. Three of the 7 companies are possessed by foreign owners in full or part, whereas 4 of them belong to Hungarian owners. In 2012, Hungarian-owned companies covered more than one-third of the combined sales revenues of the 7 leading companies. Hence, the competitive positions of these 4 companies based on their financial positions are examined. These calculations have relied on the annual reports for the period of 2008–2012 (balance sheets, income statements, cash flow statements. The research has implemented a comprehensive and comparative financial analysis. The main question is what the key financial characteristics of the Hungarian-owned companies are. Financial indicators are calculated and their time-series analysis is accomplished to describe the sample companies’ capital structures, liquidity and profitability. Using comparative analysis of the applied financial ratios the study determines (1 which company has the most advantageous financial conditions for the successful operation; (2 which companies have disadvantageous financial situation; and (3 which companies are in potential financial distress situation. Potential bankruptcy positions are examined by the applications of Altman and Springate models.

  6. Yaroslav Okunevsky: Ukrainian doctor and rear-admiral of the military fleet of the Austria-Hungarian Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanitkevych, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Yaroslav Okunevsky (1860 - 1929) was born in Halychyna, Ukraine and graduated from the University of Vienna (1884). He served as a ship's doctor in the military fleet of the Austria-Hungarian Empire. Later, he attained the rank of Rear-admiral of the Military Fleet. He promoted access to healthcare for sailors and instigated the first statute of navy medical service. Many nations awarded him the highest honors. He is also the author of scientific and medical publications as well as interesting memoirs from the trips to many countries of the world. In 1919-1921, he participated in the process of establishing Ukraine as an independent state.

  7. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF... Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA), between milepost 7.95 (just north of West... the City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Cal. (the line). The line traverses United States...

  8. A meta-analysis of surveys into vibration annoyance from railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Koopman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The EU-project CargoVibes aims to describe the expected annoyance due to vibration among residents living near (freight) railway lines. Compared to the state of knowledge on the annoyance response to noise, relatively little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure and annoyance. E

  9. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL....2 in Enterprise, in Coffee County, Ala. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses United States...

  10. Qinghai-Tibet Railway (II) :Environmental Protection Highlighted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGYI

    2003-01-01

    The State authority concerned gathered various expert opinions in order to develop an ecologically friendly railway.An appraisal meeting was held in Beijing, and the government of the Tibet Autonomous Region set up a leading group, headed by Leqoi, the autonomous regional government chair-

  11. Contextualizing History in Hungarian Films of the New Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Orban

    2016-01-01

    Hungarian films produced after the year 2000 build on the historical reality of the fall of communism and anticipate, or come to terms with, entry into the European Union.  This article will explore six films that deal with history through multiple perspectives to dramatize the dynamic between historical events and human responses to them.  These films reference history, or efface it, as a way of problematizing the relationship between human behavior and history.  Colossal Sensation [Világszá...

  12. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  13. Taikunshan Tunnel on Ningbo-Taizhou-Wenzhou Railway Linked Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On April 27, Taikunshan Tunnel on Ningbo-Wenzhou Railway was linked up. The railway line is an important project in the National Mid-term and Long-term Railway Network Development Program, and serves as an important part for the rapid passenger transport network with the backbone of "four east-west corridors and four south-north corridors".

  14. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope...

  15. A New Filtering and Smoothing Algorithm for Railway Track Surveying Based on Landmark and IMU/Odometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingan; Wu, Wenqi; Jiang, Mingming; Li, Yun

    2017-06-19

    High-accuracy railway track surveying is essential for railway construction and maintenance. The traditional approaches based on total station equipment are not efficient enough since high precision surveying frequently needs static measurements. This paper proposes a new filtering and smoothing algorithm based on the IMU/odometer and landmarks integration for the railway track surveying. In order to overcome the difficulty of estimating too many error parameters with too few landmark observations, a new model with completely observable error states is established by combining error terms of the system. Based on covariance analysis, the analytical relationship between the railway track surveying accuracy requirements and equivalent gyro drifts including bias instability and random walk noise are established. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the new filtering and smoothing algorithm for railway track surveying can reach 1 mm (1σ) when using a Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG)-based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with gyro bias instability of 0.03°/h and random walk noise of 0.005 °h while control points of the track control network (CPIII) position observations are provided by the optical total station in about every 60 m interval. The proposed approach can satisfy at the same time the demands of high accuracy and work efficiency for railway track surveying.

  16. A New Filtering and Smoothing Algorithm for Railway Track Surveying Based on Landmark and IMU/Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingan Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-accuracy railway track surveying is essential for railway construction and maintenance. The traditional approaches based on total station equipment are not efficient enough since high precision surveying frequently needs static measurements. This paper proposes a new filtering and smoothing algorithm based on the IMU/odometer and landmarks integration for the railway track surveying. In order to overcome the difficulty of estimating too many error parameters with too few landmark observations, a new model with completely observable error states is established by combining error terms of the system. Based on covariance analysis, the analytical relationship between the railway track surveying accuracy requirements and equivalent gyro drifts including bias instability and random walk noise are established. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the new filtering and smoothing algorithm for railway track surveying can reach 1 mm (1σ when using a Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG-based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU with gyro bias instability of 0.03°/h and random walk noise of 0.005 °h while control points of the track control network (CPIII position observations are provided by the optical total station in about every 60 m interval. The proposed approach can satisfy at the same time the demands of high accuracy and work efficiency for railway track surveying.

  17. Model of Wagons’ Placing-In and Taking-Out Problem in a Railway Station and Its Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuijiang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing-in and taking-out wagons timely can decrease wagons’ dwell time in railway stations, improve the efficiency of railway transportation, and reduce the cost of goods transportation. We took the locomotive running times between goods operation sites as weights, so the wagons’ placing-in and taking-out problem could be regarded as a single machine scheduling problem, 1pijCmax, which could be transformed into the shortest circle problem in a Hamilton graph whose relaxation problem was an assignment problem. We used a Hungarian algorithm to calculate the optimal solution of the assignment problem. Then we applied a broken circle and connection method, whose computational complexity was O(n2, to find the available satisfactory order of wagons’ placing-in and taking-out. Complex problems, such as placing-in and transferring combined, taking-out and transferring combined, placing-in and taking-out combined, or placing-in, transferring, and taking-out combined, could also be resolved with the extended algorithm. A representative instance was given to illustrate the reliability and efficiency of our results.

  18. Location Selection of Chinese Modern Railway Logistics Center Based on DEA-Bi-level Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fenling Feng; Feiran Li; Qingya Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Properly planning the modern railway logistics center is a necessary step for the railway logistics operation, which can effectively improve the railway freight service for a seamless connection between the internal and external logistic nodes. The study, from the medium level and depending on the existing railway freight stations with the railway logistics node city, focuses on the site-selection of modern railway logistics center to realize organic combination between newly built railway lo...

  19. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35665] Aiken Railway Company, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway Company in Aiken County, SC On October 31, 2012, Aiken Railway Company, LLC (AIKR), a noncarrier, filed a verified notice of...

  20. Spanish Intonation of Hungarian Learners of Spanish: Yes or No Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Baditzné Pálvölgyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present dissertation is a comparative study of the intonation of yes-no questions in Hungarian and Spanish. Based especially on my own corpora, I examine the realization of the main accent in utterances, pitch range, and the intonational patterns applied. First, these aspects will be investigated in a Spanish corpus (Corpus 1 then in a Hungarian corpus (Corpus 2 and after that, I will make hypotheses about the ways Hungarians pronounce Spanish yes-no questions. These predictions then will be validated by means of a corpus containing Spanish yes-no questions produced by Hungarian learners of Spanish (Corpus 3. My predictions were the following: (a As the place of main accent in an utterance depends on lexical stress, and lexical stress placement obeys different rules in the two languages, it is predictable that Hungarian learners of Spanish will not produce Spanish main accents according to the Spanish norms. (b Hungarian uses a narrower pitch range than Spanish, thus, the Spanish yes-no interrogatives produced by Hungarian learners are expected to have a narrower pitch range. (c The intonation contours applied will be investigated in 3 subgroups of yes-no questions: ordinary yes-no questions, echo yes-no questions and yes-no questions followed by a vocative. Ordinary yes-no questions in Hungarian are typically accompanied by rising-falling contours, whereas in Spanish, by rising ones; Hungarian echo yes-no questions have several main accents, each triggering a rise-fall contour, while in their Spanish counterparts there is one main accent in these cases, with a characteristically rising pattern. Yes-no question + vocative sequences contain two intonation units in both languages, but in Hungarian the yes-no interrogative conserves its rising-falling melody, and the vocative is accompanied by a fall, unlike in Spanish, where both contours are rising, and the final vocative is given the higher rise. Based on these observations, the prediction

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced...... for railway power conditioner (RPC). This paper presents a simplified quantitative comparison of five previous modular RPC topologies for negative sequence compensation in V/V and SCOTT traction systems, aiming for an optimal selection of the compensators. Performance criteria such as transformer requirement...

  2. EURailNoise: a study of European priorities and strategies for railway noise abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivoda, M.; Danneskiold-Samsøe, U.; Krüger, F.; Barsikow, B.

    2003-10-01

    The European Union is developing its noise policy by using a number of expert groups on specific noise issues. One of the most relevant noise problems is railway traffic which is dealt with by Working Group 6 (WG 6). The Commission of the European Union appointed a consortium of six consultants and experts in railway noise to prepare a study on European priorities and strategies for railway noise abatement. The main purpose of this study was to support the work within WG 6 and to create an inventory of measures for future railway noise abatement policy of the European Union. The EURailNoise study was to be completed in autumn 2001. The countries included the European Union member states, together with Norway, and Switzerland, and three prospective members (Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland). The EURailNoise study consisted of three main parts. The baseline was a review of current European legislation on railway noise generation as well as noise perception. In parallel a documentation of cases, where technical measures against railway noise had been successfully applied, was prepared using a classification of "good practice", "promising new technology", and "promising research results". The second part covered the potential for further noise reduction demonstrated for High Speed Passenger Traffic, S-Trains, Locomotives, Trams, Freight Traffic, Track Design and finally Wheels and Track Monitoring and Maintenance. Thirdly, a strategy for future activities of the Commission concerning the reduction of rail noise was to be proposed including a proposal for noise emission limits. This paper summarizes the results of the EURailNoise study.

  3. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  4. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2001-05-01

    We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

  5. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2004-05-01

    We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. The hatching results of indigenous Hungarian speckled hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the pilot farm of Szeged University Faculty of Agriculture we keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the naked-neck type since 1977. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavor to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the hatching results of both type of speckled hens, during more than 20 generations.

  7. Effect of special Hungarian probiotic kefir on faecal microflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária Figler; Gyula Mózsik; Béla Schaffer; Beáta Gasztonyi; Pongrác (A)cs; Béla Szili; Regina Rab; Sándor Szakály

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a four-week consumption of a special Hungarian probiotic agent (Biofir(R)) on the faecal microflora in human healthy subjects.METHODS: The effect of Biofir(R) with 106/cm3 initial germs on the faecal microflora was studied in 120healthy volunteers (71 females, 49 males). The traditional Russian type kefir was used as control. The various germ groups and pH values were determined in wk 2, 4and 6.RESULTS: The number of all microbes increased during the 4-week probiotic treatment. The number of microbes increased 4.3-fold in the control group and 6.8-fold in Biofir-treated group. The probiotic kefir caused multiplication of the probiotic flora, meanwhile the undesired bacteria multiplied in the control group. No significant change of pH values of the faeces was found in both groups.CONCLUSION: The Hungarian probiotic kefir (Biofir(R)) is capable of promoting multiplication of probiotic bacterial flora in the large bowel.

  8. WEAKNESSES OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRADITIONAL HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of the management of traditional higher education institutionsemerged in Hungary following the change of the political system in 1990,however, an appropriate answer has not been found to date. The first step inthe management of reform is identification of the issues that need to beresolved through the implementation of changes.The present research has been aimed at identifying the present weaknessesof the inner management system of traditional Hungarian universities, thusfind a solid starting point for reforming it. I conducted in-depth interviews inthe course of research, with 10 top university managers who represent 9institutions, thus the majority of traditional Hungarian universities. Such aresearch has not been made at least for the last decade.In my paper first I present the current legal framework of the system ofuniversity management. Then I give an assessment of it on the basis of theinterviews, analysing the deficiencies, the external and internal obstacles toefficient management I conclude that the present leaders of theuniversities can exactly identify those deficiencies of the system and therelated external and internal circumstances that lead to disturbed operationand low efficiency. The results obtained through the interviews suggest that areform of the internal management should rearrange intra-university powerrelations and harmonize scopes of responsibility and competence. A shifttoward a stronger central, rectoral and a more limited faculty- and bodyrelatedmanagement appears necessary.

  9. Hungarian Accounting Regulations: Exposed to the Cross-Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight two factors influencing Hungarian accounting regulations: the legislation of accounting in the last 25 years and the most important features of the taxation system. Both of them can influence the main requirement of the Hungarian Act on Accounting, the true and fair view. The research methods are based on a synthesis of the national and international literature. The authors examine the regulation system embedded in the legal and economic environment. The paper shows the accounting legislation in Hungary after the changing of the regime, its asymmetry, the attitude of the legislators and the current situation. The analysis of the tax system is connected to the provisions of accounting, highlighting the problems of the tax administration, the relation between corporate tax and the resultsof accounting and the intention to simplify it. The main conclusion is to make the system more flexible, in line with the legal and fiscal institutions, to fulfil its important requirements.

  10. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  11. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  12. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... against service transit times and railway asset productivity. Methods to investigate the quality of supplement time allocation are necessary to reduce the behavioral response and the waste of resources. This is a preliminary study that investigates train delay data from the year 2014 supplied by Rail Net...... overall aggregate timetable supplement, reduced transport travel times, and higher productive utilization of train rolling stock. The study results will lead eventually to both better allocation of time supplements in timetable structures, and identification of areas that should be a high priority...

  13. Investigation of Torsional Oscillations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridrichovský Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of semiconductor electro-technics during last decades allowed us to produce railway vehicles with very high tractive power. High performances reveal new problems that were unknown until these days. One of these problems are torsional oscillations of running wheelsets, which may appear and compromise the safety of railway vehicles. This article analyzes dynamical events that may occur in drives of the vehicles and that are bound with transmission of the torque to the wheels during the operation of the vehicle, which is exposed to the variable external influences (adhesion conditions, track irregularities, variation of wheel forces, etc.. This is based on the idea of a model of simplified drive of the real railway vehicle, which is used for simulation purposes. The model serves for the parametric analysis of individual components, to make an effective design or control remedy.

  14. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...... the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...... of the Portuguese broad gauge railway network (1948-2012)....

  15. An optimisation framework for determination of capacity in railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Within the railway industry, high quality estimates on railway capacity is crucial information, that helps railway companies to utilise the expensive (infrastructure) resources as efficiently as possible. This paper therefore proposes an optimisation framework to estimate the capacity of a railway...... to the train types. This is done using a mathematical model which is solved with a heuristic. The developed approach is used on a case network to obtain the capacity of the given railway system. Furthermore, we test different parameters to explore computation time, precision and sensitivity to input...

  16. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is applied to simulate the effect of the ballasted track. The influence of therolling surfaces roughness and vehicle velocity on the rolling noise is investigated.

  17. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  18. Lexical Borrowing in the Speech of First-Generation Hungarian Immigrants in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Hatoss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports findings of a sociolinguistic project which investigated language contact phenomena in the speech of first-generation Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The research aimed to identify and analyze English lexical items borrowed into the spoken Hungarian of first-generation Hungarian–English bilinguals. This research had a mixed methods approach including a quantitative element (count of lexical manifestations by categories such as part of speech and a qualitative element in which the various lexical manifestations have been subjected to a linguistic analysis. The Hungarian National Corpus was used as a reference guide to determine the status of these phenomena in the lexicon of Standard Hungarian. The data were collected through semi-structured sociolinguistic interviews with 22 Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The findings demonstrate that (a first-generation Hungarians are highly creative language users and integrate a large number of English lexical items into their speech. Most lexical borrowings belong to the derivational blends with the highest proportion of the nominal group. Lexical borrowings from English are morphologically integrated with Hungarian-derivational suffixes and inflectional case markings. This research provides original empirical data to better understand the various inter-language lexical manifestations in Hungarian–English bilingual contexts. The study adds to the relatively small body of research on Hungarian–English bilingualism in diasporic context and contributes to understanding lexical borrowing from a contact linguistic perspective.

  19. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  20. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  1. Translating Welsh Drama Into Hungarian Through English: A Contextual Introduction to Sêra Moore Williams’ Crash in Hungarian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Minier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a predominantly contextual introduction to my translation of a contemporary Welsh play by Sêra Moore Williams, Crash (2004, into Hungarian. Williams' three-person drama for young people was written originally in the author's native language, Welsh, and translated into English by the playwright herself. In my translation process of the play from English to Hungarian the intermediary role played by English raises ethical concerns from a postcolonial perspective, while in a pragmatic sense it is almost a necessity to rely on it when communicating Welsh-language cultural production to the broader international public, including to other minor languages. The article will place the drama in its generic context, introducing the play as a Theater in Education piece, as Williams' work has been inspirational in the development of tantermi színház [classroom theater] in Hungary since the early 2000s. As a specific case study within the case study, the additional discussion of the translation of Williams' polysemic title will provide an insight into the role such a significant paratext plays in uprooting a dramatic text from one culture to another.

  2. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  3. Improved measurement methods for railway rolling noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Janssens, M.H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the issues related to railway noise type testing are discussed and potential improvements to existing procedures are put forward. New and improved methods that also go beyond the scope of type testing are presented that help to characterize and analyze rolling noise more accurately. These

  4. Crew Scheduling for Netherlands Railways: "destination: customer"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); M. Fischetti (Matteo)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract: In this paper we describe the use of a set covering model with additional constraints for scheduling train drivers and conductors for the Dutch railway operator NS Reizigers. The schedules were generated according to new rules originating from the project "Destination: Customer"

  5. Models for Predictive Railway Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential growth in transport demand in the next decade and beyond requires a change from reactive to proactive traffic control to maintain and improve the reliability of railway traffic. In order to enable an anticipative approach to traffic management, it is necessary to develop the tools for

  6. Models for Predictive Railway Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential growth in transport demand in the next decade and beyond requires a change from reactive to proactive traffic control to maintain and improve the reliability of railway traffic. In order to enable an anticipative approach to traffic management, it is necessary to develop the tools for

  7. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...

  8. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  9. COMORAN. Condition monitoring for railway applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herden, Marc-Oliver; Friesen, Ulf [Knorr-Bremse AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to make sure that railway vehicles undergo maintenance as a function of their true condition. COMORAN is a system developed by Knorr-Bremse to achieve precisely that as far as bogie components are concerned. (orig.)

  10. Introducing gaming simulation in the Dutch railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the Dutch railways in the domain of capacity management and traffic control is increasingly difficult to implement because of the large interconnectedness of all processes and separation into different institutions and organizations. Meanwhile there is a push for quality improvements l

  11. Monitoring of transition zones in railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, B.; Priest, J.; Holscher, P.; Powrie, W.

    2009-01-01

    Transitions between railway track on embankments or natural ground and fixed structures such as bridges and culverts often require substantial additional maintenance to preserve line, level and ride quality. This extra maintenance not only increases costs but also causes delays. Despite its

  12. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  13. Future impact of road and railway noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Roo, F. de; Eisses, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    An exploratory study bas been undertaken to put into perspective future impact of road and railway noise until 2050 in The Netherlands, taking into account potential economic and mobitity growth, noise policy and legislation, demography and technical progress. Estimates were made of average noise le

  14. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

  15. Polymorphism of clotting factors in Hungarian patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemirani, Amir-Houshang; Szomják, Edit; Balogh, Emese; András, Csilla; Kovács, Dóra; Acs, Judit; Csiki, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon may have a genetically determined risk for clotting factors that predispose them to aberrant microvascular thrombosis. We investigated the prevalence of factor V substitution of G to A at position 1691 (FVLeiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in these patients. Two hundred (158 women, 42 men, mean age of 42.4 ± 13.7 years) consecutive patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and 200 age-sex-matched healthy controls of Hungarian origin were included in a case-control study. The prevalence of methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous among patients was significantly lower than in the control group (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9, P Raynaud's phenomenon and control subjects. FVLeiden, prothrombin G20210A, and polymorphism, prothrombin G20210A mutations have no apparent effect on the etiology of primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

  16. Logistic centres in the Hungarian traffic network -A Current Smvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Schubert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available As Europe's economic integration proceeds, Hungary- situatedin the continent's geometric centre - is called upon to accommodatea huge volume of transit traffic. Congestion on thecountry's highways, already a serious problem, makes it desirableto shift transit freight traffic onto railways. For this purpose,and also to make transportation generally more efficient,the so-called logistic service centres are being established. Theseare expected to play a decisive role in the European freight trafficnetwork. An expeditious extension of their services is urgentlyneeded.

  17. Hungarian perspectives on emigration and immigration in the new European architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoke, L

    1992-01-01

    After a brief review of Hungary's history as a receiving country, the author assesses projected changes in Hungarian migration policy designed to prevent a massive new influx of refugees and other migrants from eastern and central Europe.

  18. Delay-Aware Online Service Scheduling in High-Speed Railway Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shengfeng Xu; Gang Zhu; Chao Shen; Yan Lei; Zhangdui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the downlink service scheduling problem in relay-assisted high-speed railway (HSR) communication systems, taking into account stochastic packet arrivals and quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. The scheduling problem is formulated as an infinite-horizon average cost constrained Markov decision process (MDP), where the scheduling actions depend on the channel state information (CSI) and the queue state information (QSI). Our objective is to find a policy that minimizes the ave...

  19. Fuel cells in railway systems. Project report; Brennstoffzellen im Schienenverkehr. Projektbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The project report describes the state of the art of fuel cell technology and the specific requirements of railway systems. Potential applications in the state of Schleswig-Holstein are gone into. [German] In diesem Projektbericht wird der Stand der Brennstoffzellentechnik und die Entwicklung von Anforderungen des Schienenverkehrs an diese Technik ermittelt. Darueber hinaus wird untersucht, inwieweit eine Modellregion Schleswig-Holstein zur weiteren Entwicklung der Technik beitragen kann.

  20. Fuel cells in railway systems. Project report; Brennstoffzellen im Schienenverkehr. Projektbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The project report describes the state of the art of fuel cell technology and the specific requirements of railway systems. Potential applications in the state of Schleswig-Holstein are gone into. [German] In diesem Projektbericht wird der Stand der Brennstoffzellentechnik und die Entwicklung von Anforderungen des Schienenverkehrs an diese Technik ermittelt. Darueber hinaus wird untersucht, inwieweit eine Modellregion Schleswig-Holstein zur weiteren Entwicklung der Technik beitragen kann.

  1. A digital filter-based approach to the remote condition monitoring of railway turnouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Marquez, Fausto Pedro [ETSII, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: FaustoPedro.Garcia@uclm.es; Schmid, Felix [Railway Research UK, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Railway operations in Europe have changed dramatically since the early 1990s, partly as a result of new European Union Directives. Performance targets have become more and more exacting, due to reductions in state support for railways and the need to increasing traffic. More intensive operations also place greater demands on the hardware of the railway. This is true for both rolling stock and infrastructure subsystems and components, particularly so in the case of the latter where the time available for maintenance is being reduced. The authors of this paper focus on the railway infrastructure, and more specifically on points. These are critical elements whose reliability is key to the operation of the whole system. Using intelligent monitoring systems, it is possible to predict problems and enable quick recovery before component failures disrupt operations. The authors have studied the application of remote condition monitoring to point mechanisms and their operation, and have identified algorithms which may be used to identify incipient failures. In this paper, the authors propose a Kalman filter for the linear discrete data filtering problem encountered when using current sensor data in a point condition monitoring system. The reason for applying Kalman filtering in this study was to increase the reliability of the model presented to the rule-based decision mechanism.

  2. Foreign trade trends in the Hungarian-Romanian turnover of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós VÁSÁRY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accession to the European Union (EU has brought a lot of advantages for all the new member states (NMS. The general and wide range implementation of economic integration gave the hope of economic prosperity and macroeconomic stability for all the new member states. In the case of foreign trade of agricultural products the possibility of expansion has opened after EU integration. The chance to build and stabilize new trading relations was especially important for the small countries with an open economy. In general, it can be concluded from the analysis of EU membership that the trade among new member countries has substantially expanded as a result of increasing trading activities in relation to member states which integrated into the EU in 2004 and also due to the elimination of former trading barriers and a growing common internal market. Starting from this, the examination of trading of goods between particular countries is also justified. The important aspects in considering the possible solutions for the consequences of the economic crisis in 2008 are: the strengthening of regional markets, the utilization of geographical conditions and the increasing role of comparative advantages. The present study details how the Hungarian-Romanian agricultural trade has changed in the frames of bilateral trading activities due to the second wave of Eastern expansion and what tendencies can be observed. In regards to trading of goods, it is reviewed which products show concentration and which products can be characterized with comparative advantages.

  3. Application of an iterative framework for real-time railway rescheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo); L.P. Veelenturf (Lucas); J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSince disruptions in railway networks are inevitable, railway operators and infrastructure managers need reliable measures and tools for disruption management. Current literature on railway disruption management focuses most of the time on rescheduling one resource (timetable, rolling st

  4. STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE HUNGARIAN MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY INFLUENCING THE QUALITY STRATEGY OF THE PIG SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga NAGYNÉ PÉRCSI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian company structure in the meat industry is very different from the structures in the major meat industrial EU countries. While in the latter ones the concentration and specialization have strengthened, in Hungary these processes did not happen or in just a limited way. Therefore the Hungarian companies face handicaps concerning economies of scale and specialization compared to the EU companies.

  5. Macro-aspects affecting sport sponsorship: The case of Hungarian professional soccer clubs’ sponsors

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Berkes; Mihály Nyerges; János Váczi

    2007-01-01

    Hungarian soccer and sponsorship market is a relatively new and unexplored subject of research in the field of sports sponsorship in view of the fact that most studies have focused on the major European soccer leagues so far. This paper focuses on the Hungarian soccer sponsorship market, which gives a variety of comparisons to other studies (Chadwick — Thwaites 2005; Couvelaere — Richelieu 2005; Bühler 2006) on soccer sponsorship focusing on the major soccer markets. A comprehensive overview ...

  6. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kenesei, Zsófia; Gyulavári, Tamás; László SEER

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels an...

  7. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Zsófia KENESEI; Gyulavári, Tamás; László SEER

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels an...

  8. The acquisition of Hungarian high front unrounded short vs. long vowels

    OpenAIRE

    Zajdó, K.; Wempe, T.G.; van der Stelt, J.; Pols, L.C.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined spectral properties of the Hungarian vowel pair /i/ vs. /i:/ with contrasting phonemic vowel lengths in 2;0 and 4;0 years old boys acquiring Hungarian as their native language. Results were obtained by an automated pitch-synchronous bandfilter analysis method that estimates the spectral envelope representation of vowels. Subsequent data reduction was achieved via principal component analysis. Examining the spectral differentiation of vowels with contrasting phonemic vowel ...

  9. Color Vision and the Railways: Part 1. The Railway LED Lantern Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Casolin, Armand; Long, Jennifer; Hilmi, Mohd Radzi

    2015-02-01

    Lantern tests and practical tests are often used in the assessment of prospective railway employees. The lantern tests rarely embody the actual colors used in signaling on the railways. Practical tests have a number of problems, most notably consistency of application and practicability. This work was carried out to provide the Railway LED Lantern Test (RLLT) as a validated method of assessing the color vision of railway workers. The RLLT, a simulated practical test using the same LEDs (light-emitting diodes) as are used in modern railway signals, was developed. It was tested on 46 color vision-normal (CVN) and 37 color vision-deficient (CVD) subjects. A modified prototype was then tested on 106 CVN subjects. All 106 CVN subjects and most mildly affected CVD subjects passed the modified lantern at 3 m. At 6 m, 1 of the 106 normal color vision subjects failed by missing a single red light. All the CVD subjects failed. The RLLT carried out at 3 m allowed mildly affected CVD subjects to pass and demonstrate adequate color vision for the less demanding railway tasks. Carried out at 6 m, it essentially reinforced normal color vision as the standard. The RLLT is a simply administered test that has a direct link to the actual visual task of the rail worker. The RLLT lantern has been adopted as an approved test in the Australian National Standard for Health Assessment of Rail Safety Workers in place of a practical test. It has the potential to be a valid part of any railway color vision standard.

  10. Lessons from Objects: Designing a Modern Hungarian Childhood 1890-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Winick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Art and architecture assisted Hungary’s delivery into modern Europe, and many Hungarian designs of the early twentieth century invoked the child rather than the adult as the ideal citizen. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Hungarian designers, design reformers and the Ministry of Culture and Education expressed national identity through design, emphasizing objects and spaces for children as a key element in defining a national culture. This research unfolds a vital dimension of Hungarian culture by examining a selection of objects and spaces—nursery designs, children’s clothing, school architecture, the Budapest Zoo and book illustrations—made for Hungary’s children during different periods of the last century. Working in partnership with the Iparművészeti Múzeum—the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest—as well as several public and private collections across Hungary, I researched a number of important children’s designs that helped to shape the lives and experiences of twentieth century Hungarian children.  Central to my research is how social and political forces shaped designs and how these designs helped children identify as Hungarian citizens. Looking at five material case studies, I hope to demonstrate the ways in which designers negotiated issues of Hungarian identity, tradition, and modernity.

  11. Magyar Nemzeti Helynévtár [The Hungarian National Toponym Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, István

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The website of the Hungarian National Toponym Registry was launched in October 2015 (www.mnh.unideb.hu. The Hungarian National Toponym Registry is a digital database designed to store and manage the complete synchronic and diachronic place name stock of the Hungarian language area. The database consists of two units: the Hungarian Names Archives (www.mna.unideb.hu, which stores place names in text and excel files (and incorporates approximately 450,000 data and the Hungarian Digital Toponym Registry (www.mdh.unideb.hu, the early and modern modules of which can be accessed as online databases (incorporating approximately 280,000 data. Data can be retrieved through a number of organisation and search options focusing on different features; the results can be projected to maps; detailed information is available with regard to each name form and indicated place. The paper presents the workings of the Hungarian National Toponym Registry, summarising the project’s progress, some further objectives, and the scientific and social significance of the research programme.

  12. Extreme differences in SLCO1B3 functional polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Agnes; Szalai, Renata; Magyari, Lili; Bene, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Melegh, Bela

    2015-05-01

    Variants in SLCO1B3 transporter are linked to disposition and uptake of drugs and show high degree of heterogeneity between populations. A total of 467 Roma and 448 Hungarian subjects were genotyped for SLCO1B3 c.334T>G and c.1683-5676A>G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of SLCO1B3 334GG (41.54% vs. 8.04%, pRomas and Hungarians. A significantly increased prevalence was found in SLCO1B3 1683-5676G allele frequency in Hungarians compared to the Roma population (15.07% vs. 3.43%, p≤0.001). The frequency of SLCO1B3 334G allele was significantly increased in Roma population compared to Hungarians (70.56% vs. 52.23%, p=0.001). The LD values between the examined SNPs were 80 and 90 in Roma and in Hungarian samples, respectively. Our results highlight notable pharmacogenetic differences between Roma and Hungarian populations, which may have therapeutic implications.

  13. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    GSM - Railways (GSM - R) is the first international communication network designed specifically for railway s. Most of the deployed GSM - R networks were initially used only to provide the railway voice communication. However, as more of these GSM - R networks begin to support the European Train...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...

  14. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  15. Dr. Andras Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division, Budapest, Hungary

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) and Barbara Vizkelety Secretary of the Hungarian CERN Committee visiting the ASACUSA experiment on the Antiproton Decelerator Photo 02: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) visiting the ASACUSA experiment on the Antiproton Decelerator with (from left to right) Dezso Horvath, Cecilia Jarlskog, Barbara Vizkelety Secretary of the Hungarian CERN Committee. Photo 03: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) and Barbara Vizkelety Secretary of the Hungarian CERN Committee visiting the ASACUSA experiment on the Antiproton Decelerator.

  16. Research on the State of Subgrade Engineering in Permafrost Region Railway during the Early Operation%多年冻土区铁路运营初期路基工程状态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石刚强; 李永强

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:由于温度和水分的介入以及运营条件的诱发,使运营期间冻土路基工程状态的研究变得更为复杂.通过对运营初期多年冻土路基工程状态的现场调查和监测,从路基变形、地温变化、水热环境三个方面研究运营初期多年冻土区路基的工程状态,提出路基裂缝病害的解决措施,为铁路安全运营和养护工作服务.研究结论:(I)多年冻土区路基工程在运营初期,路基变形总体呈衰减趋势,已经趋于稳定.(2)路基大多数断面多年冻土上限上升和上限形态趋于稳定,地基冷储量增加,多年冻土上限上升是在降低土体温度的基础上实现的.(3)路基工程状态变化首先是地温场的变化改变了发生变形的土层位置和厚度,同时地温场的不对称造成变形差异,诱发裂缝发生,水热环境的变化导致裂缝发展.(4)采用热学不对称的路基结构,能减缓上限形态的不对称性,从而减小路基横向差异变形,抑制路基工程裂缝的发生和发展.%Research purposes:Studies on the status of subgrade engineering in permafrost region is complicated by the intervention of temperature and water and railway operating conditions. Based on in - site investigation and monitoring during the early operation of the QTR, this paper studied the status of subgrade engineering from three aspects, subgrade deformation, geothermal changes and hydrothermal conditions, and proposed solutions to subgrade cracks to ensure railway safely and conservation. Research conclusions; (1) During the Early Operation, the subgrade engineering in Permafrost Region Railway, we found that the overall deformation has been on the decline and subgrade deformation has stabilized. (2)The upper limits of permafrost in most subgrade sections have increased, their statuses have stabilized and the cold reserves of bases have increased. The increase in upper limits is a result of the decrease in soil temperature. (3) The

  17. Railway vehicle performance optimisation using virtual homologation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, H.; Madeira, J. F. A.; Ambrósio, J.; Pombo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike regular automotive vehicles, which are designed to travel in different types of roads, railway vehicles travel mostly in the same route during their life cycle. To accept the operation of a railway vehicle in a particular network, a homologation process is required according to local standard regulations. In Europe, the standards EN 14363 and UIC 518, which are used for railway vehicle acceptance, require on-track tests and/or numerical simulations. An important advantage of using virtual homologation is the reduction of the high costs associated with on-track tests by studying the railway vehicle performance in different operation conditions. This work proposes a methodology for the improvement of railway vehicle design with the objective of its operation in selected railway tracks by using optimisation. The analyses required for the vehicle improvement are performed under control of the optimisation method global and local optimisation using direct search. To quantify the performance of the vehicle, a new objective function is proposed, which includes: a Dynamic Performance Index, defined as a weighted sum of the indices obtained from the virtual homologation process; the non-compensated acceleration, which is related to the operational velocity; and a penalty associated with cases where the vehicle presents an unacceptable dynamic behaviour according to the standards. Thus, the optimisation process intends not only to improve the quality of the vehicle in terms of running safety and ride quality, but also to increase the vehicle availability via the reduction of the time for a journey while ensuring its operational acceptance under the standards. The design variables include the suspension characteristics and the operational velocity of the vehicle, which are allowed to vary in an acceptable range of variation. The results of the optimisation lead to a global minimum of the objective function in which the suspensions characteristics of the vehicle are

  18. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  19. The Afghanistan National Railway: A Plan of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    railway system for Afghanistan, as well as the regional connectivity im- peratives, to develop recommendations for large capital-investment...and most efficient railway route to seaport, the railway will lack the revenue to expand and sustain itself. Enabling regional connectivity and...purpose is to enable self-sustainability and economic inde- pendence via mineral-based traffic to provide regional connectivity and serve as a

  20. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    OpenAIRE

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; ef...

  1. Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway Will Be Constructed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Liu Junsha, Minister of Railway, Wang Qishan, Mayor of Beijing and Dai Xianglong,Mayor of Tianjin represented Ministry of Railway, Beijing Municipal Government and Tianjin Municipal Government signed the contact. In July this year, Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway will start to be constructed and will completed in December 2007. It is estimated that in July 2008, it will be put into operation.

  2. Electrification of Chinese Railways; Elektrifizierung der Chinesischen Eisenbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmert, G.; Wang, Kuizhong [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Beijing (China). Unit 0512; Jiang, Xianguo [TSDI (The 3rd Railway Survey and Design Inst.), Tianjin (China); Martens, G. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Chinese Railways plan to extend their railway network to 100,000 km by 2020. Electrification is a factor of major importance in this project. Some 2,000 km of railway lines are to be newly electrified with the AC 27.5 kV 50 Hz system while 1,000 km will be reconstructed. New equipment and technology will be used with Germany being involved in this project. (orig.)

  3. Model for Dimensioning Technology and Capacity of Border Railway Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Kire Dimanoski; Gordan Stojić; Slavko Vesković; Ilija Tanackov

    2012-01-01

    The participation of the national rail networks in the European corridors requires certain modifications and their redefinition. Because the railway stations are special parts of the railway networks, they should be modernized, especially in south-eastern Europe. The main issue in the process of construction or reconstruction of railway stations is dimensioning (projection) of infrastructure facilities. The dimensioning of the infrastructure capacity is in direct correlation with the projecte...

  4. A new generic problem formulation dedicated to electrified railway systems

    OpenAIRE

    Desjouis, Boris; Remy, Ghislain; OSSART, Florence; Marchand, Claude; Bigeon, Jean; SOURDILLE, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —In this paper, a new generic problem formulation dedicated to railway electrification systems is proposed. This formulation meets the needs for evolutivity of modern simulation tools by using meta-models for the railway network components. This approach has been applied to developp a new general-purpose electrified railway simulator. As an example, a DC electrification system has been simulated and the results compared to those of a classical simulator for validation ...

  5. Response of soil microflora to impact of heavy metals in zones of influence of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bobryk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring research on the areas intensively and continuously affected by technogenic loading has remained topical until nowadays. The soil as a basic component of many ecosystems, including the structure of its microbial cenoses, remains an informative index of a system’s overall stability. The areas affected by railway transport have been scarcely studied. Due to the above, the aim of this work has been to establish the transformation regularities of soil microbial cenoses of territories close to railways and to establish the groups of microorganisms that are a sensitive criterion of technogenic vehicular influence. For the purpose of microbiological research, soil samples were taken at different distances from the railway track (0, 25, 50, 100 and250 m within five monitoring sections of the Tchop – Uzhhorod – Sambor railway (in the territory of Zakarpatska oblast. The number of ecological trophic groups was identified by means of inoculation on nutrient media using the method of serial dilution of soil suspensions. The research showed that in all types of soils that were adjacent to railway tracks, the number of ammonifiers and spore microbiota was high due to the high content of heavy metals (beyond the background levels. Besides, the bacterial microflora on beef-extract agar was characterized by homogeneity with domination of enteric bacteria and spore bacteria. Simultaneously, the numbers of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, micromycetes, oligonitrophils, amylolytic and pedotrophic microflorae were shown to be low compared to the control. Farther from the railway track, pigmental species of bacteria appeared in the soil samples, attesting to the activity of self-purification processes. Correlation analysis of the data showed that the soil microbiota of the railway-side areas was undergoing changes as affected by heightened contents of heavy metals. Existence of medium and close connections was established between the number of

  6. Analysis of Pricing Mechanism for Railway Passenger Transport%铁路客运定价机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2016-01-01

    运价是决定铁路行业在运输市场竞争所占地位的关键因素,不仅影响着行业的盈利运营能力,也关系着行业的未来发展。为探讨铁路客运定价的途径和方法,分析美国、日本、英国、德国等国家铁路运价定价体系,为我国铁路客运价格改革提供经验和启示。%Rate is the key factor for the railway industry to win the competition in the transport field. It not only affects the profit operating ability for the railway industry, but also decides the future development of the indus-try. To study the methods of the railway passenger transport pricing, this paper discusses the railway pricing sys-tem of the United States, Japan, Britain, Germany and other countries. It provides experience for railway passen-ger transportation pricing reform in China.

  7. The prevalence of notched audiograms in a cross-sectional study of 12,055 railway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most reported occupational diseases internationally. The occurrence of audiometric notches is emphasized in both American and European guidelines for the diagnosis of NIHL. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of notched audiograms among railway personnel with and without noise exposure to better assess the usefulness of such notches in the diagnosis of NIHL. The most recent audiogram from 1994 to 2011 of a total of 12,055 railway workers, age 20 to 65 years, was obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the Norwegian State Railways (NSB). The prevalences of three types of notched audiograms, Coles notch, notch index, and 4 kHz notch, were computed, in relation to age, sex, and occupational noise exposure. Coles notch in either ear was found in 63% of the male railway maintenance workers, exposed to noise levels of 75 to 90 dB(A), compared with 53% of the non-noise exposed (railway personnel. The usefulness of audiometric notches in the diagnosis of NIHL is therefore limited.

  8. Review of experience of major reform of railways of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.Martsenyuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the possibility of the foreign countries experience in the reforming of railway transport of Ukraine. Methodology. On the basis of comparative analysis the suitability of foreign experience of infrastructure branches reformation, dividing the range of problems to the questions of ideological and methodological character, and of course, taking into account the peculiarities of the situation in Ukraine is estimated. As for the first range of problems, it is, first of all, the choice of the form of ownership. Findings. Experience shows that both types of property have not only the beneficial but also the negative impacts. On the one hand, it is the state railways have the conditions for development and implementation of the new technologies such as high-speed trains, construction of which, as well as construction of specialized lines would be impossible without appropriate research base, and without public funding. On the other – private companies. operating on a concession basis, usually provide a higher level of services at affordable rates. Originality. It can be concluded that there is no direct correlation between the ownership form of railroads and economic or qualitative characteristics of their work. The necessity of various forms of technical and economic relationships, the existence of separate railways at the regional and local levels, which offers a great opportunity to overcome the monotony of operation, in the development of railways towards greater differentiation of service levels is proved. This however does not mean that the only alternative is to sell concessions to private enterprises, especially if the transfer of ownership is not supplemented by commitments to support public transport at a certain level. Practical value. Examples of positive governance are opposed to the equal examples of private management and vice versa. Deep analysis of reforming experience of world leading railways will prevent from

  9. Information system in the function of railway traffic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton PEPEVNIK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationalization of economic operations, increasing productivity and internal resources exploitation trends are one of the basic tasks of an individual economy that is gained by regular installation of information system. The article presents information system in the function of railway traffic management as it becomes extremely important for every company to get information by means of information system in order to assure successful business deciding process, for mastering, optimization and integration of business processes. Railway traffic is an economic activity that concerns with the freight and passengers traffic and supports transport problems by using information system.The development of information railway system results in freight and passenger traffic management of the Slovenian railways (SŽ and in connection with foreign information systems by means of Hermes network for transferring data about freight and passenger traffic among railways. Due to the widespread information railway network, the article presents only the use of freight information transport system, in details its shunting.The application of freight transport management (FTM presents freight traffic mastering and controlling on the Slovenian railways as the whole, at any time and in real time. It enables the receiving, control, monitoring and supervision of freight wagons and trains. The managing programme of shunting station is a constituent part of the Slovenian railway information system and is included into the application for freight traffic management at the Slovenian railways.

  10. Micro-simulation based analysis of railway lines robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Railway Undertakers and Railway Infrastructure Managers have a variety of parameters to measure robustness of timetables: this paper examines empirical data collected from Nederlandse Spoorwegen on the heavily occupied railway line between The Hague and Rotterdam in The Netherlands. The results...... show that the robustness indicator examined are affected by infrastructure changes in different ways. A micro-simulation of the line is used to determine the robustness of different railway infrastructure scenarios measuring the capacity consumption, as well as the share of trains affected by amount...

  11. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system.

  12. An Improved Walk Model for Train Movement on Railway Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; MAO Bo-Hua; GAO Zi-You

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic.

  13. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity......In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...

  14. The research of railway freight statistics system and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EXT is a JavaScript framework for developing Web interfaces, this paper describes the Ext framework and its application in railway freight statistical and analyzing system and Statistical methods. the paper also analyzes the design, function, implementation and so on of the system in detail. As information technology and the requirements of railway transportation organization and operation continue to improve, railway freight statistical and analyzing system improves obviously in the index system, decision analysis and other aspects, better meeting the work requirements. It will play a more important role in the railway transport organization, management, passenger and freight marketing.

  15. Pilot Course or Flying University? A University Course on Hungarian Language and History Taught in Wellington, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Koller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors, a historian and a language-learning expert, recently devised an introduction to Hungarian history, language and culture for students in Wellington, New Zealand. We describe the origin and circumstances of New Zealand’s Hungarian community, why we thought to develop a Hungarian language course, and how the course relates to the interests of New Zealand students. After explaining our approach to historical and linguistic components of the course, we consider the future of Hungarian studies in New Zealand.

  16. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeš Zdeněk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market and regulated competition (competition for the market. Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed and there is a question how to proceed with the competition development – whether to promote competition on the market or competition for the market. Based on European and modelling experience, there is an argument for more competition for the market.

  17. The noise factor in railway locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, T

    1982-09-01

    This article concerns the problem of acoustic work conditions on railway locomotives. The objective results of sonometric surveys in locomotive cabins are compared with subject data received from locomotive crews obtained by means of a specific questionnaire 'The Subjective Estimation of Noise'. The analysis touched 9 type of locomotives; steam, diesel and electric engines. We asked drivers of different age groups and with varying lengths of professional service for their opinions The aim of the investigation was to determine the following points: 1. to analyse the drivers' subjective estimation of the noise in the locomotive cabins; 2. to define length of time for which the driver remains under the influence of the noise after finishing work; 3. to investigate the question of perception and understanding of sounds and vocal signals used in the locomotive. These problems are a small part of the general plan to improve work conditions on the Polish National Railways.

  18. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  19. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level...... and compared. A case study is introduced in the article to demonstrate how the framework works to compare timber sleepers and concrete sleepers from strategic planning level. Two Life Cycle Cost oriented policies are discussed to illustrate: high quality track is necessity to improve the cost efficiency......In the railway field, planning the maintenance and renewal strategy from Life Cycle Cost (LCC) perspective gets more and more attentions recent years. The new approach looks at all the costs through the infrastructure life span and use the annuity (continuing payment with a fixed total annual...

  20. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  1. Quantitative Methods for Assessment of Railway Timetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd Hermann

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to improve the attractiveness of future railway timetables. To achieve this goal,the qualitative term “timetable attractiveness” needs to be made quantifiable. To establish what timetableattractiveness is, the thesis gives an introduction to railway timetables...... sections)VIII Summary- Compressed timetables based on the blocking time theory3. Degree of deviation from timetable planning rules (Robustness of the timetable)- Focus on agreed upon running times and timetable supplements4. Conflict Risk Index (Robustness of the timetable)- The number of potential train...... path conflicts at a station and their estimated risk level5. Timetable train path fix points (Robustness of the timetable)- Geographical and temporal distribution of potential train path conflicts6. Proportion of train paths with shared rolling stock (Robustness of the timetable)- Number of train paths...

  2. Effect of the different cover crops on the soil moisture in a Hungarian vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Ádám; Miglécz, Tamás; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Török, Péter; Tóthmérész, Béla; Drexler, Dóra

    2017-04-01

    in 2015, at two sampling dates (April and June). During sampling the soil moisture content was measured in seven different depths per sampling point in five replicates: 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm, 60 cm, and 70 cm. We found significantly lower indices in case of the Lolium perenne treatment compared to the Grass-forb, and Control treatments in 40-70 cm depth. The results are in accordance with the results of previous research, that state that the use of Lolium perenne in the inter-rows can be sustainable in case of at least 7-800 mm precipitation/year, or under irrigated conditions. Among the three species-rich mixtures we have not found significant differences, but the results show that the Grass-forb mixture (with Plantago lanceolata domination) utilized the least moisture from the soil. Literature Donkó Á, Miglécz T, Valkó O, Tóthmérész B, Deák B, Kelemen A, Török P, Zanathy G, Zsigrai Gy, Drexler D (2015): Intercropping experiments in Hungarian vineyards. HUNGARIAN AGRICULTURE RESEARCH. 24 (4): pp. 31-34. (2015) Miglécz T, Valkó O, Török P, Deák B, Kelemen A, Donkó Á, Drexler D, Tóthmérész B: Establishment of three cover crop mixtures in vineyards. SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE 197: pp. 117-123. (2015)

  3. Optical-electronic system controlling the position of a railway track with the help of reference marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrygina, Margarita A.; Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Verezhinskaia, Ekaterina A.

    2016-04-01

    Rail transport is the largest rail network worldwide. If you compare the number of passengers and of goods transported by different modes of transport, it appears that the share of rail transport represents a very tangible part of them. Ensuring a high level of rail safety is currently one of the primary tasks of States and organizations involved in rail. In order to contain a railway and to provide its performance, you must ensure a high quality of the Railway, so the establishment of systems to control the position of the path is relevant, especially in the field of optical-electronic instrument making. The purpose of work is development and research of optical-electronic system for controlling the position of a railway track with the help of reference marks.

  4. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  5. Methodology and algorithms for railway crew management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, R.; Gomide, F. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Lagrimante, R. [MRS Logistica S.A, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Crew management problems are highly important for many transportation systems such as airlines, railways and public bus transportation. Despite recent advances, scheduling methodologies and decision support systems still need improvement, especially their computational efficiency, practical feasibility and use. This paper briefly overview classic crew management approaches. It discusses various practical issues concerning classic methods and suggests a new approach and algorithms. Computational results and experience with actual data and real world situations are also reported. (orig.)

  6. ON THE INSTABILITY OF THE RAILWAY VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The railway vehicles have two sources of instability. The most common is the hunting induced by the reversed conic shape of the rolling surfaces of the wheels. The other one is related by the anomalous Doppler effect that can occurs when the train velocity exceeds the phase velocity of the waves induced in the track structure. Some aspects regarding the two sources of instability are presented.

  7. APPRAISAL OF USED WOODEN RAILWAY SLEEPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003 on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.

  8. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  9. [Mild cognitive disorders in railway locomotive crew workers (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhogina, O A; Zakrevskaya, A A; Serikov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Functional reliability of engine operator and engine operator's assistant is one of the most important factors in railway safety. Ability to railway locomotive operation is determined via suitability criteria of occupationally important qualities of operator and operator's assistant, and of nervous system functional state. Lower reliability manifested in worse functional state of engine operator or in lost occupationally important qualities can be connected with various diseases of which most prevalent are cardiovascular disorders. Transitory brain circulatory disorders can cause cognitive disturbances varying in severity. When mild cognitive disorders, precise diagnosis leads to effective prevention of the diseases development and preserved occupationally important qualities in engine operators. Neuropsychologic methods for mild cognitive disorders help not only to diagnose presence and intensity of cognitive defect, but to suggest a mechanism of its development, that eventually increases efficiency of correction.

  10. Equilibrium analysis of mixed passengers in urban railway network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 吴建军; 孙会君

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to describe the passengers’ route choice behaviors in urban railway traffic with stochastic link capacity degradation by considering two types of demand, sensitive and insensitive passenger. The insensitive passengers choose their route without paying much attention to congestion. To the contrary, sensitive passengers who consider route congestion choose travel route based on generalized cost. An equilibrium state is given by variational inequalities in terms of travel generalized cost, which is represented by the combinations of mean and variance of total travel time. The diagonalization algorithm is given to solve this programming. Results show that insensitive passengers have large effects on the path choice than sensitive ones, especially for the larger demand.

  11. Comparison of lactase persistence polymorphism in ancient and present-day Hungarian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Dóra; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Csányi, Bernadett; Bogácsi-Szabó, Erika; Czibula, Ágnes; Priskin, Katalin; Bede, Olga; Bartosiewicz, László; Downes, C Stephen; Raskó, István

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia varies ethnically and geographically among populations. A C/T-13910 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the lactase gene is known to be associated with lactase non-persistence in Europeans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lactase persistent and non-persistent genotypes in current Hungarian-speaking populations and in ancient bone samples of classical conquerors and commoners from the 10th-11th centuries from the Carpathian basin; 181 present-day Hungarian, 65 present-day Sekler, and 23 ancient samples were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by the dCAPS PCR-RFLP method. Additional mitochondrial DNA testing was also carried out. In ancient Hungarians, the T-13910 allele was present only in 11% of the population, and exclusively in commoners of European mitochondrial haplogroups who may have been of pre-Hungarian indigenous ancestry. This is despite animal domestication and dairy products having been introduced into the Carpathian basin early in the Neolithic Age. This anomaly may be explained by the Hungarian use of fermented milk products, their greater consumption of ruminant meat than milk, cultural differences, or by their having other lactase-regulating genetic polymorphisms than C/T-13910. The low prevalence of lactase persistence provides additional information on the Asian origin of Hungarians. Present-day Hungarians have been assimilated with the surrounding European populations, since they do not differ significantly from the neighboring populations in their possession of mtDNA and C/T-13910 variants.

  12. Assessment of IT solutions used in the Hungarian income tax microsimulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I.; Hardhienata, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of information technology (IT) in diverse microsimulation studies and presents state-of-the-art solutions in the traditional application field of personal income tax simulation. The aim of the paper is to promote solutions, which can improve the efficiency and quality of microsimulation model implementation, assess their applicability and help to shift attention from microsimulation model implementation and data analysis towards experiment design and model use. First, the authors shortly discuss the relevant characteristics of the microsimulation application field and the managerial decision-making problem. After examination of the salient problems, advanced IT solutions, such as meta-database and service-oriented architecture are presented. The authors show how selected technologies can be applied to support both data- and behavior-driven and even agent-based personal income tax microsimulation model development. Finally, examples are presented and references made to the Hungarian Income Tax Simulator (HITS) models and their results. The paper concludes with a summary of the IT assessment and application-related author remarks dedicated to an Indonesian Income Tax Microsimulation Model.

  13. EXAMINATION OF MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS IN USE IN HUNGARIAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranyai Tünde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A good textbook must meet a number of pedagogical, psychological, scientific, esthetical, and other requirements. The presented research examines whether the mathematics textbooks in use in Hungarian primary schools in Romania meet those requirements. We used documentation, contents analysis and surveys as research methods. We examined the mathematics textbooks against requirements in appearance, style and language, editing, approach and contents material. Following contents analysis we can state as a positive result that the textbooks provide a great variety of problem solving tasks, while meeting the principle of progressivity. Nevertheless, they contain mathematical mistakes, scientific inaccuracies, are not in total agreement with the curriculum and their language is inappropriate. These findings are supported by the results of our survey. The hundred and two teachers asked in the survey gave a medium qualification to the primary school mathematics textbooks. The most often quoted flaws are the lack of differentiated, layered and task based teaching material, as well as the inappropriate language owed to bad translation of the textbooks originally written in Romanian.

  14. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  15. Resource Allocation for Downlink Multi-Cell OFDMA Cognitive Radio Network Using Hungarian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Forouzan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of resource allocation for downlink part of an OFDM-based multi-cell cognitive radio network which consists of multiple secondary transmitters and receivers communicating simultaneously in the presence of multiple primary users. We present a new framework to maximize the total data throughput of secondary users by means of subchannel assignment, while ensuring interference leakage to PUs is below a threshold. In this framework, we first formulate the resource allocation problem as a nonlinear and non-convex optimization problem. Then we represent the problem as a maximum weighted matching in a bipartite graph and propose an iterative algorithm based on Hungarian method to solve it. The present contribution develops an efficient subchannel allocation algorithm that assigns subchannels to the secondary users without the perfect knowledge of fading channel gain between cognitive radio transmitter and primary receivers. The performance of the proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm is compared with a blind subchannel allocation as well as another scheme with the perfect knowledge of channel-state information. Simulation results reveal that a significant performance advantage can still be realized, even if the optimization at the secondary network is based on imperfect network information.

  16. 76 FR 62497 - Grenada Railway LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Grenada, Montgomery, Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and Madison Counties, Miss.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... 49 U.S.C. 10903 to abandon the southern segment of its line of railroad between milepost 622.5 near... Vaughan. \\1\\ GRYR acquired this line from the Illinois Central Railroad Company in Grenada Railway,...

  17. Contextualizing History in Hungarian Films of the New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Orban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian films produced after the year 2000 build on the historical reality of the fall of communism and anticipate, or come to terms with, entry into the European Union.  This article will explore six films that deal with history through multiple perspectives to dramatize the dynamic between historical events and human responses to them.  These films reference history, or efface it, as a way of problematizing the relationship between human behavior and history.  Colossal Sensation [Világszám – Dodó és Naftalin] (2005 and Children of Glory [Szabadság, szerelem] (2006, for example, examine Hungarians’ moments of defiance during the 1956 uprising but shape historical events to fit human constructs.  Contemporary history provides satire of rising capitalism in The District! [Nyócker!] (2005 whose plot weaves historical figures into a modern rendition of Romeo and Juliette.  Miracle in Krakow [Csoda Krakkóban] (2004 also presents a book as its central metaphor, and, like The District!, the book allows some of history’s uglier moments to be erased.  Béla Tarr’s Werkmeister Harmonies [Werkmeister harmóniák] (2000 and Nimród Antal’s Control [Kontroll] (2003, films without overt historical markers, provide allegorical visions of societal unrest that can be read as allusions to millennial concerns.

  18. 'Should We Leave or Stay?' Notes on Recent Hungarian Outmigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva V. Huseby-Darvas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study is based on Hungarian electronic media sources, informal interviews and similar personal communications, as well as statistical data provided by kind and cooperative colleagues in Hungary. Addressing the recent, massive outmigration from Hungary, the article explores some of the primary push-and-pull factors, and then discusses responses to the emigration phenomenon itself and its likely long-term demographic, social and economic implications, by scholars as well as by politicians from both the governing party and the opposition. To give the emic perspective, I cited and translated from my conversations with a few young emigrants, would-be-emigrants, and mothers’ of these young people, and thus illustrate the issue from those most involved. Then, by also citing scholars, authors, columnists, and politicians my aim was to offer the etic, or outsiders’ view, but – since for various reasons – they also appear to be involved in and concerned with the problem of outmigration, theirs is still an emic perspective, though of a different order. Realizing that the present attempt is merely a quick snapshot of an ongoing, potentially volatile and dynamic process, further research and a multidisciplinary attempt to interpret and analyze the recent emigration from Hungary are needed.

  19. Antiinflammatory activities of Hungarian Stachys species and their iridoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Balogh, Ágnes; Czigle, Szilvia; Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Blazsó, Gábor

    2012-04-01

    The antiinflammatory activities of aqueous extracts prepared from the aerial parts of ten Hungarian Stachys species were investigated in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test after intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats. Some of the extracts were found to display significant antiphlogistic effects when administered intraperitoneally and orally; in particular, the extracts of S. alpina, S. germanica, S. officinalis and S. recta demonstrated high activity following intraperitoneal administration. At the same dose of 5.0 mg/kg, these extracts exhibited similar or greater potency than that of the positive control diclofenac-Na. The main iridoids present in the investigated extracts, ajugoside, aucubin, acetylharpagide, harpagide and harpagoside, were also assayed in the same test, and high dose-dependent antiphlogistic effects were recorded for aucubin and harpagoside. These results led to the conclusion that most probably iridoids are responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of Stachys species, but other active constituents or their synergism must also be implicated in the antiinflammatory effect.

  20. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varjú Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environmental diplomacy. Environmental cohesion across a border can be identified as soon as two regions - alongside the border - start to cooperate in order to improve environmental conditions and to ensure equal access to natural resources and environmental services. After a literature review environmental cohesion is evaluated in multidimensional way, using empirical quantitative and qualitative data and a two-pillar based methodological approach. The Croatian-Hungarian border area was closed for a long time. As a result, developments avoided the area, on the other, natural resources remained mainly untouched. However, the two countries have had different approaches towards the area, while, Croatia made efforts to build another water power plant, Hungary intended to preserve and extend a Natural Park. This contradiction remained until the accession process of Croatia. Finally the disagreement between the two countries was moderated by a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve that was created alongside the border in 2015. The post-2010 period has been characterised by an increasing number of environmental-related cooperations.

  1. PENENTUAN MATCHING MAKSIMUM PADA GRAF BIPARTIT BERBOBOT MENGGUNAKAN METODE HUNGARIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Abrori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Matching is a part of graph theory that discuss to make a pair, that can be used to solve many problems; one of them is the assignment problem. The assignment problem is to make a pair problem for n as the employees and for n as the duties, therefore each employee gets one duty, and each duty is given exactly for each employee. The assignment problem can be solved by determining the matching in weighted bipartite graph through Hungarian Method. It can be determined from the alternating tree of a formed edge. If there is augmenting path, that augmenting path is used to form the more number of matching. If the formed path is alternating path, therefore the process is labeling the new node until finding the augmenting vertices. This matching is called as the perfect matching with the number of maximum weighed side in weighted bipartite graphs. The result matching is the solution for the assignment problem by giving an employee with a duty.

  2. Voting Patterns on Hungarian Parliamentary Elections in 2002–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabás Rácz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post–communist transitional era, Hungarian elections show diverse results among various areas, raising the question if there are firmly embedded differences between some parts of the country. In the light of the election returns between 1985–2006, it appears that there is a more or less definite pattern. This study will examine the 2006 legislative returns and compare the results with the previous trends and especially the 2002 data, testing the validity of the findings indicating the presence of some fairly constant regional standards of voting. As a main indicator of past trends we use mostly the territorial (party lists which provide more accurate picture of voting preferences that individual districts which in runoffs carry an indirect distortion of voters’ primary preferences by other considerations.2 For a deeper analysis of the recent 2002 and 2006 elections, we will compare the first run individual district voting outcomes, as they give the more accurate picture of the voters’ real preferences.

  3. Perspectives on railway track geometry condition monitoring from in-service railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, P.; Roberts, C.; Yeo, G.; Stewart, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a view of the current state of monitoring track geometry condition from in-service vehicles. It considers technology used to provide condition monitoring; some issues of processing and the determination of location; how things have evolved over the past decade; and what is being, or could/should be done in future research. Monitoring railway track geometry from an in-service vehicle is an attractive proposition that has become a reality in the past decade. However, this is only the beginning. Seeing the same track over and over again provides an opportunity for observing track geometry degradation that can potentially be used to inform maintenance decisions. Furthermore, it is possible to extend the use of track condition information to identify if maintenance is effective, and to monitor the degradation of individual faults such as dipped joints. There are full unattended track geometry measurement systems running on in-service vehicles in the UK and elsewhere around the world, feeding their geometry measurements into large databases. These data can be retrieved, but little is currently done with the data other than the generation of reports of track geometry that exceeds predefined thresholds. There are examples of simpler systems that measure some track geometry parameters more or less directly and accurately, but forego parameters such as gauge. Additionally, there are experimental systems that use mathematics and models to infer track geometry using data from sensors placed on an in-service vehicle. Finally, there are systems that do not claim to measure track geometry, but monitor some other quantity such as ride quality or bogie acceleration to infer poor track geometry without explicitly measuring it.

  4. Experiment Study of Fiber Optic Sensing in Railway Security Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Fan; De-Sheng Jiang; Wei-Lai Li

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at some security problems in railway running and the application condition of existing technology, this paper studies some issues of using fiber optic sensing technology in railway security monitoring. Through field experiment measuring the strain of the rail and analyzing the experiment data, the method of diagnosing the health condition of rail and wheel is investigated.

  5. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  6. The IMAGINE source model for railway noise prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGINE railway traffic noise source model is described, which is a further elaboration and completion of the Harmonoise model. Within the EU project Harmonoise, a model was proposed including most of the main railway noise sources. In the IMAGINE project, complete formulation was put forward

  7. The effects of 10 years Railway investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period.......The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period....

  8. The Ginghai-Tibet railway and Tibet tourism: travelers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Ming Su; Geoffrey Wall

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly by increasing the accessibility and affordability of travel from China to Tibet. This study evaluates the railway's impacts on tourists' travel decisions and experiences in Tibet. The relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination experience in...

  9. Organizational-economic principles of reforming of the railway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of vertical division of railways of the countries of the European community are investigated. The received effects and factors which influence increase of competitiveness and efficiency of activity of a railway transportation with the account of the current legislation of the European community are analyzed.

  10. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  11. Structural vulnerability and intervention of high speed railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Funian; Wang, Shuliang; Dai, Yang; Wang, Yixing

    2016-11-01

    This paper employs complex network theory to assess the structural vulnerability of high speed railway networks subjected to two different malicious attacks. Chinese, US and Japanese high speed railway networks are used to discuss the vulnerable characteristics of systems. We find that high speed railway networks are very fragile when suffering serious disturbances and two attack rules can cause analogous damages to one high speed railway network, which illustrates that the station with large degree possesses high betweenness, vice versa. Meanwhile, we discover that Japanese high speed railway network has the best global connectivity, but Chinese high speed railway network has the best local connectivity and possesses the largest transport capacity. Moreover, we find that there exist several redundant paths in Chinese high speed railway network and discover the critical stations of three HSRNs. Furthermore, the nearest-link method is adopted to implement topological interventions and to improve the connectivity and reliability of high speed railway networks. In addition, the feasibility and effectiveness of topological interventions are shown by simulations.

  12. Routing Trains through railway stations: model formulation and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter); L.G. Kroon (Leo); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); M. Salomon (Marc); S. Dauzere-Peres; S. van Hoesel (Stan); H.W. Ambergen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of routing trains through railway stations. This problem occurs as a subproblem in a project which the authors are carrying out in cooperation with the Dutch railways. The project involves the analysis of future infrastructural capacity requirements

  13. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure...

  14. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  15. Running times on railway sections with heterogeneous train traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Huisman, Tijs

    2001-01-01

    In contemporary railway traffic, different train services often run on the same track of a railway section. Since these train services generally travel at different speed, this may result in delays due to fast trains being caught behind slower ones. This note investigates these delays developing a s

  16. The Penarroya mining railway; El Ferrocaril minero de Penarroya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado Contreras, J. I. de

    2009-07-01

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  17. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  18. Prediction Models of Free-Field Vibrations from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Jens; Persson, Kent; Persson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and railways close to where people work and live. Annoyance from traffic-induced vibrations and noise is expected to be a growing issue. To predict the level of vibration and noise in buildings caused by railway and road traffic, calculation models are needed. In the present paper, a simplified prediction...

  19. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  20. The IMAGINE source model for railway noise prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGINE railway traffic noise source model is described, which is a further elaboration and completion of the Harmonoise model. Within the EU project Harmonoise, a model was proposed including most of the main railway noise sources. In the IMAGINE project, complete formulation was put forward ta

  1. Performance of LTE in High Speed Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with a number of shortcomings in terms of capacity and capability. These shortcomings become a major issue for railways as GSM-R may limit the number of running trains in some areas and it cannot support advanced data services. Hence...

  2. Running times on railway sections with heterogeneous train traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Huisman, Tijs

    In contemporary railway traffic, different train services often run on the same track of a railway section. Since these train services generally travel at different speed, this may result in delays due to fast trains being caught behind slower ones. This note investigates these delays developing a

  3. The Poetry of 1.5 and Second-Generation Israelis of Hungarian Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my 2014 article in this journal, in which I presented a beginning of work on contemporary Israeli prose writers of Hungarian origin. My analysis of those works showed that they are governed by recurring concerns, or literary themes, such as: the memory or post-memory of the Holocaust; Hungarian-to-Hebrew language and translation peculiarities; preoccupation with the family's past, including that of remote relatives; and fascination with home objects, dishes, and recipes representing the family's Hungarian past. Following my work on those prose works, in this article I focus on the works and worlds of 1.5 and second-generation Hungarian-Israeli poets and explore, first, the presence of the concerns or themes governing this group's prose works, and, second, issues of identity through the poets' depictions of experiences such as persecution, displacement, emigration, and re-settlement in Israel. My present discussion of the 1.5 and second-generation Hungarian-Israeli poets is divided into four themes: the Holocaust as an epitome of catastrophe, the Holocaust as memory and post-memory, co-fusion of languages and cultures, and the eternal mental displacement of the poets' parents.

  4. Hungarian Pig Sector: Actual Problems and Prospects for the Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dunay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the Hungarian pig sector has undergone remarkable changes. In the 1980s, the Hungarian pig sector was the main pork product provider of the Eastern bloc, but after the political and economic transition, the sector lost its main markets and the size of pig herds decreased radically. The economic changes have brought negative impacts for all the players of the pork supply chain: the producers have been mostly affected, but slaughterhouses and the processing industry had to face new circumstances as well. The goal of this paper is to review the present situation and the current problems of the Hungarian pig-producing sector and to draw up the main prospects and favourable directions of the future by the findings of the SWOT analysis of the Hungarian pig sector and based on the proposed directions of the government’s new pork strategy. As the pig sector is an important pillar of the Hungarian agriculture and the rural communities, it is worth to summarize the sector’s present market position and to set those opportunities, which could give advantages for Hungary in the international competition. The paper concluded that the most prominent problems of the pig sector are caused by the economic and structural problems of the sector, based on the problem tree and sector’s SWOT analysis the main external and internal factors were detected, and the results were compared to some measures of the government’s pork strategy.

  5. The Austro-Hungarian occupation regime in Serbia and its break-down in 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dimitrije

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the occupation of Serbia during the First World War by Austro-Hungarian forces. The first partial occupation was short-lived as the Serbian army repelled the aggressors after the Battle of Kolubara in late 1914, but the second one lasted from fall 1915 until the end of the Great War. The Austro-Hungarian occupation zone in Serbia covered the largest share of Serbia’s territory and it was organised in the shape of the Military Governorate on the pattern of Austro-Hungarian occupation of part of Poland. The invaders did not reach a clear decision as to what to do with Serbian territory in post-war period and that gave rise to considerable frictions between Austro-Hungarian and German interests in the Balkans, then between Austrian and Hungarian interests and, finally, between military and civilian authorities within Military Governorate. Throughout the occupation Serbia was exposed to ruthless economic exploitation and her population suffered much both from devastation and from large-scale repression (including deportations, internments and denationalisation on the part of the occupation regime.

  6. Cultures unfolding: experiences of Chinese-Hungarian mixed couples in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kovács

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The research outlined in this paper focuses on a subfield related to Chinese migrants’ integration in Hungary: Chinese-Hungarian mixed partner relationships. I present some findings of an anthropological study on Chinese-Hungarian couples in Hungary, although other localities may also be involved in some of these couples’ lives. Participants and procedure Based on interviews conducted with members of Chinese-Hungarian married, cohabiting and dating, separated or divorced couples, and on data gathered through predominantly online fieldwork, this research explores notions and values that are at play in shaping the dynamics of these relations. Results The sample of thirty-seven couples features two characteristically different types of relationships: those referred to as “student love”, and the relationships of “typical” Chinese migrants with Hungarians. The former tend to be much more successful and persistent in time, with two cases of divorce or separation out of sixteen, whereas the latter are considerably less persistent, with eight cases of divorce or separation and two cases of crises out of thirteen bonds. Another notable finding is that Chinese-Hungarian marriages are much more persistent in time if the Chinese partner is female. Conclusions The paper consists of the following consecutive parts: an introduction to the Chinese migrant context and inter-ethnic partner relations in Hungary; a review of relevant literature; presentation of research methods and fieldwork; presentation and discussion of the research sample; presentation of some results from the interviews; and conclusions.

  7. Efficient Algorithm for Railway Tracks Detection Using Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite imagery can produce maps including roads, railway tracks, buildings, bridges, oceans, lakes, rivers, etc. In developed countries like USA, Canada, Australia, Europe, images produced by Google map are of high resolution and good quality. On the other hand, mostly images of the third world countries like Pakistan, Asian and African countries are of poor quality and not clearly visible. Similarly railway tracks of these countries are hardly visible in Google map. We have developed an efficient algorithm for railway track detection from a low quality image of Google map. This would lead to detect damaged railway track, railway crossings and help to schedule/divert locomotive movements in order to avoid catastrophe.

  8. [Optimally control urban railway noise by sound propagation path].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-qing; Li, Zheng-guang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bang-jun

    2008-08-01

    In order to control railway noise pollution in urban areas, the residential district located near the Zhegan railway in Hangzhou urban was taken for example, and some controlling measures were proposed based on the investigation in railway noise impact as well as the planning of the district, the environmental scene and the project devises. The measures included setting man-made soil slopes, noise barriers and virescence. Combining some of them could be a typical noise reduction scheme. The professional software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise reduction results of every scheme. Results show that the maximal difference of noise reduction is 19.4 dB and the noise reduction effect of the second scheme is best. However, if only railway noise influence is considered, the first scheme is best. The research results can provide reference for residential districts planning and noise control near the railway in urban areas.

  9. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  10. Preventive Maintenance of Railway Tracks: Ballast Performance Anticipation in the Cameroon Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba Minsili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research study is to produce a methodology that provides an understanding of the mechanical behaviour of ballast and its degradation in order to reflect field performance of different ballast materials used by CAMRAIL in their railway network, and to better anticipate an efficient planning of the railway track maintenance. Based on existed literature, on collected data of different railway sections, and on the finite element analysis of the vehicle-track mechanical interaction, a preventive ballast cleaning and renewal strategy, formulated through ballast deterioration indexes is proposed. Comparing to the ongoing dayto- day maintenance strategy the proposed functionality-based preventive maintenance offers the following advantages: security and comfort of users; forecasting of ballast corrective measures; planned maintenance actions; higher functional and exploitation level of the track and availability of needed materials and mechanisms. The administration of CAMRAIL has promised to extend further the findings of this work in other to fully optimized the track maintenance cost in each railway section.

  11. Railway line capacity consumption of different railway signalling systems under scheduled and disturbed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity consumption on a Dutch railway line both under scheduled and disturbed traffic conditions. For the scheduled condition the standard UIC compression method is used, while the computation of capacity consumption under disturbed conditions requires multiple simulation

  12. Multilingualism in the Transleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918): policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Marácz

    2012-01-01

    With the Compromise of 1867, the Hungarian Kingdom received an equal status within the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Hungary be-came a sovereign entity within the Habsburg Monarchy. Next to a common mon-arch from the House of Habsburg who had the title of ‘emperor’ in Austria

  13. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern... exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a... the lease agreement that is expected to be completed prior to the effective date of the...

  14. INDIAN RAILWAYS AND FAMINE 1875-1914: Magic Wheels and Empty Stomachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Sweeney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers interpreted famines in nineteenth century British India as problems of distribution, rather than food production. Railways provided speedier and cheaper transport than road methods employed during that time. They were more reliable than canals, which needed rainfall to facilitate transport. However, they were expensive to construct and maintain, and the British offered various levels of state support to encourage private investors under the façade of laissez faire capitalism. The effectiveness of the largest investment program in the history of the British Empire, in combating appalling famines, was questionable. There was a failure to overcome acute price increases in wheat and rice, and morefundamentally, deindustrialization and poverty in India, all of which colonial railways encouraged.

  15. A framework to support human factors of automation in railway intelligent infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, Nastaran; Wilson, John R; Golightly, David; Sharples, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Technological and organisational advances have increased the potential for remote access and proactive monitoring of the infrastructure in various domains and sectors - water and sewage, oil and gas and transport. Intelligent Infrastructure (II) is an architecture that potentially enables the generation of timely and relevant information about the state of any type of infrastructure asset, providing a basis for reliable decision-making. This paper reports an exploratory study to understand the concepts and human factors associated with II in the railway, largely drawing from structured interviews with key industry decision-makers and attachment to pilot projects. Outputs from the study include a data-processing framework defining the key human factors at different levels of the data structure within a railway II system and a system-level representation. The framework and other study findings will form a basis for human factors contributions to systems design elements such as information interfaces and role specifications.

  16. Study on the Organization Model of Wagon Flows in Railway Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Railway terminal is an important part of railway network. Transport organization of railway terminal is the key of the railway transport organization. Moreover, the organization of transport work is based on the organization of wagon flows in the railway terminal. Because of the great amounts of equipment and a large number of train operations, the study on railway terminal transport organization is mostly focused on a marshalling station in railway terminal or a part of it. Systematic study taking railway terminal as a whole is very few. In this paper, the organization of wagon flows in a railway terminal is analyzed and a wagon flow model in a railway terminal is established. The main principles of organization of local trains are also presented.

  17. The Outsider Within: Béla Tarr and Hungarian National Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Tőke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Béla Tarr is probably the most paradoxical figure in contemporary Hungarian cinema. His artistic trajectory shows a movement from documentary style realism (Family Nest, 1979 towards more modernist cinematic practices (Satan’s Tango, 1994, Werckmeister Harmonies, 2000, and The Man from London, 2007. A major celebrity in the global film culture that prides itself in being transnational, international, and in crossing linguistic and ethnic boundaries, Tarr has consistently found himself on the fringes of the Hungarian cultural and political establishment. In this study Tőke considers Tarr’s films and public persona as catalysts in the debates about what constitutes “Hungarian cinema” in a globalizing world from the 1970s until today.

  18. Porphyrogenitus` borders on Ister and Hungarian conquest period finds in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from De administrando imperio covers Hungarian conquest, right after their arrival to the Carpathian plain and to the territories they settled. In order to describe the area of their inhabitance, author used well known facts and clear geographical marks. Territory defined in that manner encompassed modern Vojvodina, so an opinion was brought out in scientific literature that it was also included in the area of early Hungarian inhabitance. However, it appeares that in those speculations the archaeological data were not adequatelly used, so it is important to give more precise insight into the available archaeological material that can be tied to the earliest presence of Hungarian population in Vojvodina. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Društvo, duhovno-materijalna kultura i komunikacije u praistoriji i ranoj istoriji Balkana i br. 177021: Procesi urbanizacije i razvoja srednjovekovnog društva

  19. Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Költő, András; Gősi-Greguss, Anna C; Varga, Katalin; Bányai, Éva I

    2015-01-01

    Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) are presented. The Hungarian translation of the HGSHS:A was administered under standard conditions to 434 participants (190 males, 244 females) of several professions. In addition to the traditional self-scoring, hypnotic behavior was also recorded by trained observers. Female participants proved to be more hypnotizable than males and so were psychology students and professionals as compared to nonpsychologists. Hypnotizability varied across different group sizes. The normative data-including means, standard deviations, and indicators of reliability-are comparable with previously published results. The authors conclude that measuring observer-scores increases the ecological validity of the scale. The Hungarian version of the HGSHS:A seems to be a reliable and valid measure of hypnotizability.

  20. Selected English-Language Bibliography of Interest for Hungarian Cultural Studies: 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2014-2015, covering the period since the publication in the fall of 2014 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items, which were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included. For a more extensive bibliography of Hungarian Studies from about 2000 to 2010, for which this is a continuing update, see Louise O. Vasvári, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, and Carlo Salzani. “Bibliography for Work in Hungarian Studies as Comparative Central European Studies.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Library (2011:  http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/clcweblibrary/hungarianstudiesbibliography.

  1. Collecting money at a global level. The UN fundraising campaign for the 1956 Hungarian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusztáv D. KECSKÉS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the role that the UN played in providing the financial means for the international reception of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. According to the author’s conclusions, through the coordination of moneyraising efforts, authorised by international law (that is, by the UN General Assembly’s decisions and the professional and trustworthy documentation of humanitarian needs and activities, the institutional network of the UN contributed considerably to the formation and practical implementation of Western governments’ international humanitarian action aimed at solving the crisis of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. This study is based on documents in the UN archives (New York, Geneva, the Swedish National Library (Stockholm, the UNHCR Archives, the Archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, (Geneva and the NATO Archives (Brussels, and in the Diplomatic Archives Center (La Courneuve, Nantes, Diplomatic Archive (Brussels and the Hungarian National Archives (Budapest.

  2. The position of the Hungarian national minority in Vojvodina: Sociological and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Željka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is about sociological and legal analysis of the position of the Hungarian national minority in Vojvodina, with special regard to the period between 2002 and 2007. It is believed that ethnic relations have a significant role in establishing national identity, and that collective rights represent the legitimate effort to preserve the language, writings and culture of those ethnic groups. The position of the Hungarian national minority is the position that is guaranteed by the constitution of the Republic of Serbia in the section regarding the collective rights: the right to the education in their first language, official use of language and writing, media information's in first language, preservation of culture and the right to participate in public activities. The position of Hungarian minority is regarded in two dimensions: the level of legal regulations and the level of actual problems that the members of minority are facing when practicing their rights.

  3. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  4. L2 Romanian Influence in the Acquisition of the English Passive by L1 Speakers of Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankó Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main question to be investigated is to what extent native speakers of Hungarian understand and acquire the English passive voice, as there is no generalized syntactic passive construction in Hungarian. As we will show, native speakers of Hungarian tend to use the predicative verbal adverbial construction when translating English passive sentences, as this construction is the closest syntactic equivalent of the English passive voice. Another question to be investigated is whether L2 Romanian works as a facilitating factor in the process of acquiring the L3 English passive voice. If all our subjects, Hungarian students living in Romania, were Hungarian-Romanian bilinguals, it would be obvious that knowledge of Romanian helps them in acquiring the English passive. However, as it will be shown, the bilingualism hypothesis is disconfirmed. Still, passive knowledge of Romanian influences to some extent the acquisition of the English passive voice.

  5. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  6. Modelling of coal in a railway coach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majzner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Objective of the study was to identify the forces acting on the structural elements of railway wagons. It is part of research conducted under a grant, on the use of composites in the repair and construction of new structural elements of railway wagons.Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of verification of the research is Siemens PLM Software NX 7.5. Motion simulation has been carried out in one module of the software, Motion Simulation. Connections between components have been made using constraints and connections mapping the real relationship between components.Findings: The aim of the study was to identify the forces acting on the door, and establish a database of input for further research.Research limitations/implications: The main limitations of the study were the possibility of mapping all the connections of components, in the same way as in reality. The second limitation was the maximum length of track, depending on the number of possible landmarks in which it was possible the measurement of variables.Originality/value: Results of the analysis of the wagon constructed with the standard steel components are input data to research on the modification of structural components on the basis of fibrous composite The results obtained are an example of application of the methods of computer analysis, on the basic type of testing wagons. Completed study is the first step in a study of movement railway wagon in further stages will be possible to perform the studies in more complex aspects of the movement

  7. Energy efficient solutions for the complete railway system; Energieeffiziente Loesungen fuer das Gesamtsystem Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Rechenberg, K.; Hein, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies for the power supply of electric railway vehicles by stationary and mobile devices allow to operate the complete railway system in an energy efficient manner and therefore reduce the energy consumption considerably. So it is necessary to examine the power supply of the railway network as well as the railway vehicles and their own operational behaviour within the railway network. A complete tramway system was choosen as one example. (orig.)

  8. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  9. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  10. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  11. Verification of pneumatic railway brake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowiak, Tadeusz

    2010-03-01

    The article presents a survey of diverse methods for validation of pneumatic train brake modelling. Various experimental measurements of railway pneumatic brakes were made chiefly on a test stand at Poznań University of Technology; other test stands and some results have been taken from the literature. The measurements, some of them unconventional, were performed on separate pneumatic elements, brake devices, the brake pipe and fragments thereof. Mechanical devices were also included. The experimental measurement results were used for the verification of numerical models and for the determination of parameters. The latter was partially performed using an optimisation method.

  12. Suitability of rubber concrete for railway sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afia S. Hameed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation by replacing 15% by volume fraction of fine aggregate by crumb rubber was conducted to find the fatigue failure load and impact resistance. The design strength of 50 and 55 MPa was achieved. Test result indicated that there was reduction in compressive strength and modulus values. The fatigue failure and impact resistance were high for rubber concrete when compared with ordinary high strength concrete. The impact strength for railway sleeper with crumb rubber replacement showed increase of about 60% when compared to prestressed concrete sleeper.

  13. Abstracts of the “26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Prod Kaposvár, Hungary, May 31, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 100 participants attended the 26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Twenty papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  14. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia KENESEI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels and promotional activities. The results confirm that sophisticated marketing practice leads to higher business performance.

  15. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  16. Railway suicide in Belgium 1998-2009: incidence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Belgium is a country with a high suicide rate (19.1/100,000 in 2004), and railway suicide poses a substantial safety and public health problem. This problem was addressed by the Suicide Prevention Unit of Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure), which collects relevant data and implements a prevention program. To present data on fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior on the Belgian railway network, including monthly and regional distribution and identification of hotspots; and to present the Infrabel suicide prevention program. Analysis of Infrabel data on railway suicide (1998-2009) and comparison with data on suicide in Belgium. A total of 1,092 railway suicides (1998-2009) and 557 suicide attempts (2003-2009) in Belgium (fatality rate of 54%) were studied. Monthly fluctuations were observed, with the majority of suicides occurring in Flanders, followed by Wallonia and Brussels. We identified 34 hotspots accounting for 35% of cases, mostly in Flanders. In 2004 railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium (railway suicide rate of 1.03/100,000). Such a major human and economic loss warrants implementation of prevention measures. Infrabel has initiated a comprehensive suicide prevention program which focuses mainly on safeguarding the suicide hotspots.

  17. Croatian Railways as a Subject in the European Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Bogović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the environment and the tasks that theCroatian railways need to carry out in order to gain importancewithin the European transport market. It deals with the economicvalues that may be expected from the modernised railways.Therefore, the Croatian railways will have to undergotechnical, technological and organisational restructuring. Themarketing concept of meeting the customers' needs and demandshas to be developed. The marketing is meant and,among other things, the selection and definition of those segmentsin which the Croatian railways could do business successfully.These include: passenger traffic - suburban, then interurban(domestic and international in and out and, accordingto the needs of the European railways, transit traffic. Ingoods transport - to identify the needs of big users and define thesize of the offer accordingly.Although the paper could not deal with concrete restructuringtasks (which is the first and foremost task of the CroatianRailways, it indicates the main directions. These include redefiningof the local traffic on railway lines class I!, then the employees,reorganisation and all the other transformations whichwill be carried out in continuity.

  18. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  19. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  20. Level and Determinants of Knowledge of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis among Railway Workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurubaran Ganasegeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Results. Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 41.4 (±10.7, with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%. Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

  1. Prosperity, Security and Politics - OBOR and the Chinese High-Speed Railway Project in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    systems. The Thai military junta has decided to go forward with four high-speed railway lines. Chinese state-owned enterprises will construct the Northeast-South line. The article analyses the economic and political-security drivers behind the land-based part of the new silk road vision as well......Governing elites in Southeast Asia are preoccupied with high-speed railways, which are also a cornerstone in China’s new Silk Road initiative - the “One Belt, One Road.” Chinese political leaders have in recent years travelled around Southeast- and Central Asia to promote Chinese high-speed railway...... as rationales behind the Sino-Thai high-speed rail project. It is argued that there are multiple motives behind the “One-Road-One-Belt” initiative and that the Sino-Thai project is driven by a mixture economic and security concerns on the Chinese side, while it on the Thai side combines the need for economic...

  2. The factorial structure of professionally-applied physical fitness of students of railway specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika Yefremova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the factorial structure of professionally-applied physical fitness of students – future electrical engineers of railway transport. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of references, questioning, anthropometry, testing, functional tests, and methods of mathematical statistics (the factorial analysis with application of the computer program "SPSS 17.0". 50 students (young men of Ukrainian state railway university participated in the research. Results: the ratio of means of physical culture which are expedient to use for the optimization of professionally-applied physical training of future specialists of the railway branch is defined. Conclusions: the factorial analysis allowed to distribute means of physical education as follows: physical exercises which are directed to the increase in physical working capacity and overall physical fitness – about 40%; exercises on the development of power qualities – 25%; exercises on the development of high-speed and power endurance – 15%; means which are allocated for the improvement of functions of attention and kinetic sensitivity – 10%; exercises which are directed to the increase in special working capacity – 10%.

  3. Static and modal numerical analyses for the roof structure of a railway freight refrigerated car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Sepe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analyses by finite element method and experimental tests are used to determine static and dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles. Experimental measurements are very time consuming and expensive, so they cannot be used at all stages of design. Numerical simulations do not have the disadvantages of experimental methods, but it is necessary to verify them by experiments to obtain realistic results. Fullwidth/ full-length, half-width/full-length and half-width/half-length modeling approaches can be used to determine static and vibrational behaviours of railway vehicles depending or not on the symmetry of roof structure and applied load. Different static loading cases defined in standards such as EN 12663, UIC CODE OR 577 and ERRI B12/RP17 have to be considered in FE analyses. Evaluation of stress states, buckling and vibrational behaviours for a roof structure of a railway freight refrigerated car are presented. To highlight the vibrational behaviour of the structure normal mode (free vibration analyses are performed. As a result of the relevant simulations, structural characteristics and structural weaknesses of the design are determined.

  4. THE EARLY BRITISH RAILWAY SYSTEM, THE CASSON COUNTERFACTUAL, AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CENTRAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Odlyzko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available How large is the “first mover disadvantage,” in which a pioneer in deployment of new technologies incurs costs due to the immature state of that technology and to lack of knowledge about its application? And to what extent can those costs be mitigated by central planning? Mark Casson's book, The World's First Railway System, demonstrates that the British rail system on the eve of World War I could have been replaced by a much more efficient one, with reductions of cost and mileage in the 25-35 percent range. Much of that inefficiency can be attributed to the early days of British railways, in the 1830s and 1840s. It was due to incorrect notions about the nature of demand for railway service and about economic growth--notions that were recognized by only a few contemporary observers as incorrect. Since the correct views were rare and contrarian, it is likely (as was claimed by some experts in the early 1850s that central planning in the 1840s would have led to an even less efficient system than the one produced by the decentralized, competitive, and admittedly wasteful historical process.

  5. Routing Trains Through Railway Junctions: A New Set Packing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines meet, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. Here we show...... how the problem can be formulated as a set packing model. To exploit the structure of the problem we present a solution procedure which entails solving the dual of this formulation through the dynamic addition of violated cuts (primal variables). A discussion of the variable (train path) generation...

  6. Analysis of railway subgrade frost heave deformation based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxun Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the connection between the railway subgrade frost heave deformation and temperature variation, five GPS stations' data were used to monitor the deformation on a certain section of railway subgrade in northeast China. GAMIT software is used to process the data, providing daily solution, daytime solution and nighttime solution. Vertical trends of these five stations were analyzed to investigate frost heave effect on railway subgrade deformation. The results show that the temperature difference between daytime and night induces stations, significant vertical displacement, and the temperature difference between seasons causes settlement of station which appears linear trend.

  7. Architecture of the First Railway in the Interwar Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Dabašinskienė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the examples of passenger stations and railway workers living houses of the first wide railroad Kretinga – Telšiai – Kužiai in the independent Lithua­nia (1918 – 1940. It also discusses the importance of the railroad to Samogitia region, Klaipėda region and the whole Lithuania. The clarified material is based on archival sources and documentary publications from the interwar period. In a review of projects of railway passenger stations and railway workers living houses have been seen their standardization wich started in tsarist period. Also these buildings emphasizes the unified image.

  8. Environmental problems of vibrations induced by railway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA He; CAO Yanmei; De Roeck Guido; Degrande Geert

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a general review is made on the problems of vibrations of the ground and nearby buildings induced by railway traffic, and on the researches on this sub- ject in theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and field experiments. The characteristics of ground vibrations induced by railway traffic and their propagation, from the aspects of duration, intensity distribution, vehicle load and speed, are summarized. The vibration influences on the daily life of people, the operation of high-tech devices and the safety of buildings, and the vibration properties of subsoil and buildings adjacent to the underground, ground and elevated railway systems are introduced.

  9. Study on Benefit Evaluation of Heavy-haul Railway Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong; Yan Ping; Qiao Yanhong; Zhou Xiaohua; Xing Cunliang; Chen Qi

    2009-01-01

    Promotion for development of heavy-haul railway transportation will rapidly increase the transport capacity of busy trunk lines,relieve effectively the tense supply/demand relationship of coal-a dominant resource of the domestic energy structure in China,and enhance immensely the growth of bulk goods transport which takes the leading position of the railway freight traffic.The development of heavy-haul railway transportation will help improve the economic and social benefits of the whole society and meanwhile promote the sustainable development of China's national economy.

  10. Synthesis of railway-signaling plans using reachability games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasting, Patrick Frederik Soelmark; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show the feasibility of using functional programming (more specifically F#) in connection with gamebased methods for synthesis of correct-by-construction controllers (also called signaling plans) for railway networks. This is a massively resource-demanding application. A model...... (the control system) controls signals and points and the universal player (the antagonistic environment) controls movement of trains. A winning strategy for the existential player provides a signaling plan that will safely guide trains through the network. The concepts from the railway network model...... that we are able to synthesize signaling plans for real railway networks of substantial size....

  11. Beijing Kowloon Railway, A Shortcut from Beijing to Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    At 2,397 kilometers, the Beijing-Kowloon Railway is the shortest line from China’s capital to Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR. On September 1, 1996, the No. 105 train made its debut at the Beijing West Railway Station and started to click along to the other terminal in Shenzhen. At present, five pairs of trains are running on the railway. Technically, the new line was built to alleviate the bottleneck situation of the rail transportation. In addition, it is hoped that the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone can help spur the economies of the

  12. Auction pricing of network access for North American railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The question of pricing train paths for "open access" railway networks in North America is discussed. An auction process is suggested as necessary to maintain transparency in the contracting process. Multiple random samples of auction pricing for a single track railway line demonstrate that the i...... that the infrastructure entity will receive approximately 15.6% less than the true value of the contracted train paths. This loss of revenue threatens the objective of reducing government subsidy for the railway network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. A new approach to evaluate railways efficiency considering safety measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noroozzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety is one of the main reasons for choosing railway to other transportation modes and improvement of transportation safety has attracted many researchers in recent years. In this paper, we aim to investigate the influence of safety measures on railways performance evaluation, empirically. The proposed model of this paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA to estimate the railways efficiency scores in the presence of safety measure. According to three proposed factors, the most appropriate model is selected to compare its result with output-oriented DEA model. The results of the survey are surprising since inefficient railroads become efficient through adding undesirable outputs in evaluation model.

  14. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  15. Detection of damaged supports under railway track based on frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longqi; Zhang, Yao; Lie, Seng Tjhen

    2017-03-01

    In railway transportation systems, the tracks are usually fastened on sleepers which are supported by the ballast. A lot of research has been conducted to guarantee the safety of railway track because of its importance, and more concern is expressed about monitoring of track itself such as railway level and alignment. The ballast and fasteners which provide strong support to the railway track are important as well whereas the detection of loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast mainly relies on visual inspection. Although it is reliable when the fastener is missing and the damaged ballast is on the surface, it provides less help if the fastener is only loose and the damaged ballast is under the sleepers, which are however frequently observed in practice. This paper proposes an approach based on frequency shift to identify the damaged supports including the loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast. In this study, the rail-sleeper-ballast system is modeled as an Euler beam evenly supported by a series of springs, the stiffness of which are reduced when the fastener is loose or missing and the ballast under the sleepers is damaged. An auxiliary mass is utilized herein and when it is mounted on the beam, the natural frequencies of the whole system will change with respect to the location of the auxiliary mass. The auxiliary mass induced frequency shift is analyzed and it is found the natural frequencies change periodically when the supports are undamaged, whereas the periodicity will be broken due to damaged supports. In fact, the natural frequencies drop clearly when the auxiliary mass moves over the damaged support. A special damage index only using the information of the damaged states is proposed and both numerical and experimental examples are carried out to validate the proposed method.

  16. Possibilities of Railway Development in Lithuania: the Analysis of Regulations for Railway Design in the Aspect of Reduction of Acoustic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Aja Tumavičė; Alfredas Laurinavičius

    2016-01-01

    All over the world railways are of the least-polluting vehicles, and they became increasingly popular. However, the noise emission from railway infrastructure is the most problematic issue, especially at the development planning stage. This article presents analysis of Lithuanian regulations for railway design in the aspect of reduction of acoustic noise. It analyses regulations, which are mandatory for Lithuanian railway designers and builders. In addition, the overview of regulations’provis...

  17. Increasing railway suicide acts after media coverage of a fatal railway accident? An ecological study of 747 suicidal acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunrath, Sabine; Baumert, Jens; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    While coverage of a celebrity suicide in the mass media may trigger copycat suicides, evidence for the effect of media reports of non-prominent suicides is moderate. Diversification of current media may raise further doubts as to whether their influence on suicidal acts is still present. We examined whether widespread media coverage of a railway accident, in which several people were killed while investigating a presumed railway suicide, subsequently increased the number of railway suicides. The daily incidence of railway suicides was derived from the national accident registry on the German railway net. We estimated incidence ratios by Poisson regression, adjusting for relevant confounders (eg, outdoor temperature, unemployment rate), for the 2 months following the accident (predefined index period) and predefined control periods (preceding 2 years of the same period and 1 month before/after the index period). The mean number of railway suicides per day in the index period increased significantly to 2.66 (95% CI 2.19 to 3.13) compared to 1.94 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.10) during both control periods. Fully adjusted Poisson regression showed a 44% daily increase in railway suicides in the index period compared to the control periods (incidence ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.03). A maximum of eight suicides per day was reached about 1 week after the accident. Non-fictional media coverage of a fatal accident appears to affect subsequent railway suicide numbers. Supposedly, media reports drew attention to railways as a means of suicide.

  18. Quality Management in Hungarian Higher Education: Organisational Responses to Governmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…

  19. Demographic Processes in the Southern Part of the Hungarian – Romanian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a demographic comparative study of two neighboring regions along the southern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which serves as a fundament for further analyses concerning the verification of cohesion between the two parts of the border. We have concluded our study with the statement that in spite of its traditionally low population increase, the Romanian Timiş and Arad counties have a more advantageous demographical condition than the neighboring Hungarian Békés and Csongrád counties, which can be described as having a generalized demographical decline. Though in Romania the Banat region for many decades is classified as a crisis-zone from a demographical point of view, it can show off an impressive attractiveness in terms of inner-migration in contrast to its Hungarian neighbors. In contrast with the northern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border, in this region the border strip does not overlap with a socio-economic periphery, because this phenomenon is more scattered in space.

  20. American Policy toward Eastern Bloc Countries Influencing the Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    terror arrests and executions against the Hungarian revolutionaries. In some instances young teens were sentenced with the death penalty to be executed on...in jeopardy. Leaders not wanting to offend their capable subordinates, not feeling sure of their understanding of the problem, focused elsewhere, or

  1. Quality Management in Hungarian Higher Education: Organisational Responses to Governmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…

  2. A Retrospective Appraisal of 15 Years' Proceedings of the Hungarian Research Student Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Tamas; Olah, Mate

    2013-01-01

    In 1996 the Hungarian Research Student Association (HRSA) was founded. Since then more than 6000 young, talented researchers have belonged to the Association. The founders set two principal aims: (1) to support the gifted and the most promising high school students and (2) to establish an active community. The movement has grown through the work…

  3. The Hungarian Patient: Museum Education in Hungary and the Challenges of Democratic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines the changes, developments, activities, and challenges faced by Hungarian museums over the last few decades. It shows that there was life behind the "Iron Curtain," with museums enjoying relative financial stability. While the political and economic changes associated with the transition from a communist to a…

  4. Teaching the Romanian Neighbors Hungarian: Language Ideologies and the Debrecen Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Attila Gyula

    2016-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the hitherto scant literature on learning a historical minority language and on language ideologies in the context of a study abroad program in Hungary, Debrecen. I analyse the language ideologies of the decision makers in Hungary and in the Debrecen Summer School in relation to the teaching of Hungarian to the…

  5. A Comparative Study of Learning Strategies Used by Romanian and Hungarian Preuniversity Students in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingvay, Mónika; Timofte, Roxana S.; Ciascai, Liliana; Predescu, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Development of pupils' deep learning approach is an important goal of education nowadays, considering that a deep learning approach is mediating conceptual understanding and transfer. Different performance at PISA tests of Romanian and Hungarian pupils cause us to commence a study for the analysis of learning approaches employed by these pupils.…

  6. The Relationship of Intercultural Contact and Language Learning Motivation among Hungarian Students of English and German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizer, Kata; Kormos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of a questionnaire survey conducted with 1777 Hungarian primary school children aged between 13 and 14 studying English and German. In our research we investigated the differences in the motivational and intercultural contact measures as well as determinants of motivated behaviour between learners of English and…

  7. Quality management and patient safety: survey results from 102 Hungarian hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makai, P.; Klazinga, N.; Wagner, C.; Boncz, I.; Gulácsi, L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the development of quality management systems in Hungarian hospitals. It also aims to answer the policy question, whether a separate patient safety policy should be created additional to quality policies, on national as well as hospital level. METHOD:

  8. An Optimality Theoretic Account of Hungarian ESL Learners' Acquisition of /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Major, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an Optimality Theoretic account of how Hungarian learners of English acquire /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/. It is hypothesized that as the learners' pronunciation becomes more nativelike, L1 transfer substitutions will diminish; non-transfer substitutions will be especially prevalent in the intermediate stages, and that all learners…

  9. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dénes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

  10. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  11. Quality management and patient safety: survey results from 102 Hungarian hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makai, P.; Klazinga, N.; Wagner, C.; Boncz, I.; Gulácsi, L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the development of quality management systems in Hungarian hospitals. It also aims to answer the policy question, whether a separate patient safety policy should be created additional to quality policies, on national as well as hospital level. METHOD:

  12. Cross-Validation of a PACER Prediction Equation for Assessing Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Finn, Kevin J.; Kaj, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to evaluate the validity of the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run (PACER) test in a sample of Hungarian youth. Method: Approximately 500 participants (aged 10-18 years old) were randomly selected across Hungary to complete both laboratory (maximal treadmill protocol) and field assessments…

  13. Pre-peer review of Hungarian research and innovation system : Horizon 2020 policy support facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Ranga, Liana Marina; Anthony, Bartzokas

    2015-01-01

    This Report provides the outcome of the Pre-Peer Review of the Hungarian research and innovation system, carried out by a panel of experts under the Horizon 2020 Policy Support Facility. The expert panel arrived at a first assessment of strengths and weaknesses including key bottlenecks as well as a

  14. [Bright's disease is mentioned in an official Hungarian medical document in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, István

    2011-10-01

    The World Kidney Day was announced for the fifth time in 2011, that calls attention to chronic renal failure as it attains the title of endemic. Richard Bright (1789-1858), a British doctor was the first to recognize and describe the uremic state and the kidney diseases leading to it. There are many aspects that the readers should remember him about especially in connection with the World Kidney Day. During his European study tour's stage in Hungary, he was not so much interested in the country's medical and health conditions, rather in its economic and cultural life, natural history and geography. He travelled to Hungary on two occasions and recorded his experiences in a personal travel documentation illustrated with his own drawings. He finally established himself in London in 1820 and together with Thomas Addison and Thomas Hodgkin they formed the Guy's Hospital's world-famous "scientist trio". Bright described the nephritis's classical image, nowadays known as Bright's disease for the first time at the age of 38 years in 1827. A presently turned up Hungarian medical certificate from 1870 contains the Bright's disease described by Richard Bright as a written diagnosis. This 140-year-old document also confirms that we can be proud of our predecessors concerning our knowledge of kidney diseases and their application in daily use in Hungary, because in the past they were the ones who used the most advanced knowledge in their practices. One of today's greatest challenges for us is to be able to inform healthy and ill people alike properly about kidney diseases and their prevention or management. Place this in order to stem the epidemic of chronic renal failure and still pay homage to this disease's greatest scientist, Richard Bright.

  15. The Hungarian court system with special emphasis on the principle of the independence of judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heka Laslo L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of ensuring the independence and impartiality of judges is one of the basic principles of justice, and basic principles of state functioning in general. Successful functioning of justice and the realization of this principle is largely linked to the method of selection of judges, which is, nowdays, an important issue in the world's major legal systems. They all aim to find a solution for the selection of judges that could implement reinforcement of the principle of independence of judges and their impartial trial. Regarding this, significant differences are noticeable between countries which apply civil law and ones that judge by the principle of common law, especially bearing in mind that certain political cultures exist in which there are no limits that the court involve even an external factor to the trial verdict. In this thesis we present the Hungarian justice system and methods of selection of the judges, comparing it with the Serbian model, and then presenting solutions in English, American, German and French judiciary, trying to display current prevailing international trends in countries that apply the legal system of Common law, or in those who judge by Civil law. Finally, by the method of comparative analysis, we present our own view on this issue, being aware that the problem of selection of the judges should be cautiously regulated, given the experience of some other countries, which is especially reflected in post-communist countries in which, up to the 1990s, only one-party system existed, characterized by the fact the judges were selected by the communist Party personnel, that in former Yugoslavia used to be called 'socio-politically suitable'. Nowdays in Hungary, Serbia and many other countries, judicial councils represented by judges, prosecutors, lawyers and law professors have a central role in the selection of the judges (in Serbia there are special judge and prosecutor councils. In France, the election of

  16. Experimental validation of wavelet based solution for dynamic response of railway track subjected to a moving train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    New approaches allowing effective analysis of railway structures dynamic behaviour are needed for appropriate modelling and understanding of phenomena associated with train transportation. The literature highlights the fact that nonlinear assumptions are of importance in dynamic analysis of railway tracks. This paper presents wavelet based semi-analytical solution for the infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a nonlinear foundation and subjected to a set of moving forces, being representation of railway track with moving train, along with its preliminary experimental validation. It is shown that this model, although very simplified, with an assumption of viscous damping of foundation, can be considered as a good enough approximation of realistic structures behaviour. The steady-state response of the beam is obtained by applying the Galilean co-ordinate system and the Adomian's decomposition method combined with coiflet based approximation, leading to analytical estimation of transverse displacements. The applied approach, using parameters taken from real measurements carried out on the Polish Railways network for fast train Pendolino EMU-250, shows ability of the proposed method to analyse parametrically dynamic systems associated with transportation. The obtained results are in accordance with measurement data in wide range of physical parameters, which can be treated as a validation of the developed wavelet based approach. The conducted investigation is supplemented by several numerical examples.

  17. Analysis of FCL effect caused by superconducting DC cables for railway systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Taichi; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Tomita, Masaru

    2017-02-01

    DC superconducting cable that is expected for railway system has been developed in the world, since the introduction effects were expected to energy saving. However, behaviour under unsteady states such as a short circuit accident are not entirely clear, and appropriate method of protection has not been established. Therefore, simulation model of the superconducting cable under direct current system was built and analyzed. Analysis result suggests the superconducting cable has the effect of Fault Current Limited (FCL) and critical current rise was effective method for temperature-rise suppression under unsteady states. Trade-off between cable temperature rise and overcurrent was confirmed.

  18. Safety measures at railway level crossings for pedestrians and bicyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Bakker, P.

    2003-01-01

    At railway level crossings only a physical median helps to reduce speed and improve the safety of encounters between motorists and bicyclists when no options are available for separatory slow and fast traffic completely.

  19. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  20. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts——the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models——a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  1. The Geography of "disused" railways: what is happening in Portugal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sarmento

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available GREENWAYS HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. Recently the concept of Greenways has acquired a multifunctional dimension, and is now used by planners as a tool for preserving environmental qualities of the landscape, as well as to structure leisure resources. It has even become a significant part of transport planning in urban areas. This article focuses on the ways in which disused railways can be an integral part of greenway planning. Firstly, the greenway concept and its evolution will be approached. This will be followed by a brief summary of the railway history in Portugal and an analysis of the present situation in the country regarding railways that are not in use any more. Finally, a detailed study of the first cycleway built in Portugal by using the disused railways between Guimarães and Fafe in the Northwest of the country will be presented.

  2. Physiological effects of railway vibration and noise on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Hammar, Oscar; Lindberg, Eva; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    This paper evaluates the relative contribution of vibration and noise from railway on physiological sleep outcomes. Vibration from railway freight often accompanies airborne noise, yet is almost totally absent in the existing literature. In an experimental investigation, 23 participants, each sleeping for six nights in the laboratory, were exposed to 36 simulated railway freight pass-bys per night with vibration alone (aWd,max = 0.0204 ms(-2)), noise alone (LAF,max = 49.8 dB), or both vibration and noise simultaneously. A fourth exposure night involved 52 pass-bys with concurrent vibration and noise. Sleep was measured with polysomnography. Cardiac activity was measured with electrocardiography. The probability of cortical arousals or awakenings was greater following all exposures, including vibration alone, than spontaneous reaction probability (p railway freight on sleep.

  3. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J

    2001-07-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  4. Assessing The Impact Of Railway Restructuring In Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benchmarking method was used to determine the best restructuring model for ... low motivation and large labour force as the most severe problems to overcome. ... between NRC and the best practices and restructured railways as a result of ...

  5. THE EVALUATION OF OUTSOURCING USE ON UKRAINIAN RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Stasiuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of outsourcing possibilities on the railway transport of Ukraine is realized. The kinds of activities, which are promising for transfer through outsourcing to small enterprises, are proposed.

  6. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  7. Dr. Andras Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division, Budapest, Hungary

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) visiting the ALICE data acquisition laboratory with Ervin Denes. Photo 02: Ervin Denes in the ALICE DAQ (data acquisition) laboratory on the occasion of the visit of Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division. Photo 03: Detector Data Link and data generator used for data acquisition system of the ALICE experiment photographed on the occasion of the visit of Dr. András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division.

  8. Playing the Part: Hungarian Boy Scouts and the Performance of Trauma in Interwar Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jobbitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1920, the historic Kingdom of Hungary was dismembered according to the dictates of the Treaty of Trianon. Resulting in the loss of two-thirds of the nation’s pre-World War I territory, and one-third of its prewar population, Trianon has long stood as a symbol for Hungarian suffering and trauma in the twentieth century. Historians of modern Hungary have given much consideration to Trianon, with serious attention being paid to what some have called the Trianon syndrome, or the Trianon trauma. Arguing that interwar Hungarian culture and politics need to be understood in light of the menacing psychological shadow cast by Trianon, a number of historians have suggested that the people of Hungary were traumatized spontaneously and universally by the dismemberment of the nation and the suffering that followed. This paper argues that, though this may indeed have been the case on a raw emotional level, careful consideration needs to be given to the overlapping political and pedagogical functions of the Trianon trauma, especially as this trauma found expression in repeated public “performances” of the Trianon tragedy. Focusing on the revisionist performances of Hungarian boy scouts between the wars, and in particular on the personal papers of the Hungarian geographer and boy scout leader Ferenc Fodor, this paper draws a direct link between trauma and performance in the interwar period, and argues that, though trauma was indeed central to Hungarian cultural politics, it functioned as much as a pedagogical strategy as it did a psychological reality.

  9. An Alternative Route of Legal Integration: The Community's Railways Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of European integration and policy-making is sometimes rather puzzling. On the one hand, it is well documented that with respect to the implementation of European legislation member states tend to do less than they are supposed to do. On the other hand, it is striking that with respect to the implementation of the Council Directive 91/440 on the development of the Community's railways many member states went far beyond the minimum required by the European legislation. We argue that these differing evaluations of implementation success can be traced to different implementation approaches, which may be termed the ‘compliance approach’ and the ‘support-building approach’. While the first is directed at prescribing domestic reforms "from above", the latter aims at triggering European integration within the existing political context at the national level. Here, successful implementation refers to the extent to which European legislation triggers domestic changes by stimulating and strengthening support for European reform ideas at the national level. In this respect, European legislation can influence the domestic arenas in basically three ways: by providing legitimisation for political leadership, concepts for the solution of national problems, and strategic constraints for domestic actors opposing domestic reforms.

  10. An Alternative Route of Legal Integration: The Community's Railways Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lehmkuhl

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of European integration and policy-making is sometimes rather puzzling. On the one hand, it is well documented that with respect to the implementation of European legislation member states tend to do less than they are supposed to do. On the other hand, it is striking that with respect to the implementation of the Council Directive 91/440 on the development of the Community's railways many member states went far beyond the minimum required by the European legislation. We argue that these differing evaluations of implementation success can be traced to different implementation approaches, which may be termed the compliance approach and the support-building approach. While the first is directed at prescribing domestic reforms "from above", the latter aims at triggering European integration within the existing political context at the national level. Here, successful implementation refers to the extent to which European legislation triggers domestic changes by stimulating and strengthening support for European reform ideas at the national level. In this respect, European legislation can influence the domestic arenas in basically three ways: by providing legitimisation for political leadership, concepts for the solution of national problems, and strategic constraints for domestic actors opposing domestic reforms.

  11. Railway traffic scheduling with use of reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of railway traffic is commonly evaluated with train punctuality, where the deviations of actual train arrivals/departures and train arrivals/departures published in the timetable are compared. Minor train delays can be mitigated or even eliminated with running time supplements, while major delays can lead to so-called secondary delays of other trains on the network. Railway lines with high capacity utilization are more likely subject to delays, since a greater n...

  12. An integrated micro-macro approach to robust railway timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bešinović, Nikola; Goverde, Rob M P; Quaglietta, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demand for railway transportation infrastructure managers need improved automatic timetabling tools that provide feasible timetables with enhanced performance in short computation times. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework for timetable design which combines...... robustness using an Integer Linear Programming formulation which includes a measure for delay recovery computed by an integrated delay propagation model in a Monte Carlo setting. The application to an area of the Dutch railway network shows the ability of the approach to automatically compute a feasible...

  13. Community response to railway noise: A review of social surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, U.

    1988-01-01

    The many studies on the effects of railway noise on the neighbourhood differ greatly in their design, acoustic and sociological measurement and in their evaluation methods. As the influence of these factors on the sometimes differing results is not quantifiable, only qualitative results can be summarized and commented on. There are only a few studies with special emphasis on the effects of shunting yards, high-speed trains and urban train systems, and therefore only the results concerning free-flow railway traffic are summarized. The LAeq measured outside was shown in almost all the studies to be the most suitable for predicting general annoyance and most of the disturbance reactions compared with other acoustic data, e.g., peak level, pass-by frequency, etc. It is not possible to deduce from the studies in question a limiting value beyond which railway noise is no longer tolerable. Compared to other areas of interference, it is generally agreed that railway noise is at its most annoying in the area of communication. Sleep interference, on the other hand, was only seldomly mentioned and was not considered to be so serious. In addition to the noise level, non-acoustic factors such as attitude towards the railway, neighbourhood environment, etc., obviously considerably affect the annoyance reaction to railway noise too. The question of habituation to railway noise cannot be conclusively answered from the studies analyzed. At the same LAeq, railway noise gives rise to less annoyance than does road-traffic noise. These differences vary according to whether the reference time is day or night, the noise level range is high or low, and according to which annoyance and disturbance reaction is considered.

  14. Power electronics improving 3-Wire DC railways electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Rull Duran, Joan; Bergas Jané, Joan Gabriel; Galceran Arellano, Samuel; Sumper, Andreas; Coves Moreno, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Urban DC railway substations are growing in size due increasing capacity demand. Several challenges associated with the increase of power demand can be met using power electronics. The proposed system is based on DC-autotransformers and active rectifiers working similarly to those in 3-wire AC railway electrification system. Conventional simulation software (Idom-REPS-DC) has been adapted to the system. A real subway line and the same line with the proposed 3-Wire DC working in the same condi...

  15. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  16. METHOD OF DYNAMIC TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT A RAILWAY CROSSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of dynamic traffic control for complex and dangerous road sections implies a vehicle speed reduction in order to increase the road capacity. The use of speed reduction method on the approach to the railway crossing to improve the road safety and increase the crossing area by installing additional controlled traffic signs to display the speed mode along with time of railway crossing closing for road vehicles.

  17. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention".

  18. 高速铁路地震预警系统现状综述%An overview of earthquake early warning systems for high speed railways and its application to Beijing-Shanghai high speed railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利; 钟红; 林皋

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake is a disastrous hazard regarding the safety and stability of high speed trains. Considering the fact that earthquake forecast is not matured yet, development of earthquake early warning system is a very important countermeasure for earthquake disaster mitigation. Quite a few high speed railways are being or to be built to improve traffic condition in China, but there' s yet no existing on the earthquake early warning system for high speed railways in Chinese mainland. Basic principles of the earthquake early warning system and its application to railways are presented. The state-of-the-art of the earthquake early warning systems for high speed railways around the world is introduced. Main points in development of the earthquake early warning system for high speed railways are discussed , including threshold for early warning, layout of monitoring stations, train operation and structure of the early warning system, with particular attention paid to the Beijing-Shanghai high speed railway. The present review is expected to be of significance to the development of the early warning system for high speed railways in China.%地震是对高速列车安全运营威胁最大的自然灾害.在目前地震预报技术还很不成熟的情况下,发展地震预警技术是当前减轻或避免地震对高速铁路危害的重要措施.文中阐述了地震预警技术的原理及其在铁路方面的应用.对国内外已有的高速铁路地震预警系统的发展和现状进行了介绍.结合国内外的发展现状和京沪高速铁路对地震预警系统的实际需求,对我国高速铁路的地震预警系统进行了探讨.主要针对高速铁路预警系统的报警阈值,监测点的布置,列车控制方式和预警系统的基本组成等关键问题的研究现状进行了总结和探讨.对我国高速铁路地震预警系统的建立具有重要的借鉴意义.

  19. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening.

  20. Yangtze River Delta and Railway Construction in Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Yangtze River Delta is the most developed economy and society as well as one of the most densely populated and industrialized regions in China.It is also one of the most dynamic regions with the biggest potential and competitiveness to radiate and generate impetus to the trade development in the middle and western parts of China and in the world.The implementation of sustainable development strategy in the region urgently needs to improve the transportation structure and to solve the problems of constraints and "bottlenecks ".It is necessary to have the global view and insight and catering to the needs of the future to build outbound major railway corridors with a view to enhance the influential and attractive capacities of the Yangtze River Delta region;achieve the goals of construction of intercity railway lines with high standards to form integrated railway systems of the region;and speed up the construction of major hubs in the key cities 'integrated railway system so as to realize easy connection of various modes of transport and improve the railway construction programs with coordinated development of infrastructure.In the meantime,the advantages of different modes will be brought into play to accelerate the harmonious railway development of the Yangtze River Delta region in an all round way.

  1. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening. PMID:21808497

  2. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar P. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research

  3. Application of unconventional geoelectrical methods to the hydrogeological examination of the Mt. S. Croce rock formations (Umbria, Italy involved in a railway tunnel project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he project of doubling and developing of the railway line Orte-Falconara, committed by the Italian State Railway Company to the COMAVI Consortium (Rome, Italy, envisaged building the Mt. S. Croce tunnel, about 3200 m long between the stations of Narni and Nera Montoro (Umbria, ltaly. During the last phase of the feasibility project, a geophysical research based on geoelectrical prospecting methods was carried out to complement other geognostic investigations with the following goals: a to outline the complex geotectonic model of the rock system, which will be affected by the new railway layout; b to gain information on the hydrogeologic features of the survey area, in relation to the existing geologic situation and the consequent effects on the digging conditions of the tunnel and on the operation conditions of the railway layout. The geophysical work was thus organized according to the following scheme: a execution of dipole electrical sounding pro-files, to depict a series of significant tomographic pseudosections, both across and along the new railway layout; b execution of self-potential measurements, to draw an anomaly map over the whole hydrogeological network system in the survey area. The research provided information which has helped to improve the geological-structural model of the area and disclosed the hydrogelogic network, conforming to the classified field surface manifestations. At present, further detailed field investigations are being carried out, which confirm all the results obtained by the geoelectrical survey.

  4. The effects of railway transportation on the enrichment of heavy metals in the artificial soil on railway cut slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Wang, KeXiu; Ai, Ying Wei; Li, Wei; Gao, Hongying; Fang, Chen

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the artificial soils on the railway cut slopes may have great influence on the revegetation of the cut slopes. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation of heavy metal contamination levels with railway operation time and analyze their possible resources. A total of 100 soil samples from four cut slopes, which were affected by railway transportation for different years, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe). The concentrations of Cd, Pb showed increasing trend with increasing operation time of railways, while such trend was not found in Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe. According to the soil quality standard of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination, while Pb has less, but Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe have none. Moreover, cadmium exhibited remarkably higher levels rather than those reported in other studies. Enrichment factors and ecological index showed that Cd and Pb showed a moderate enrichment and a considerable ecological risk in most of the soil samples. The results of descriptive statistic, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were totally consistent with each other. Their results revealed that Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe had common origins, and they may come from natural resources. While Cd and Pb were significantly influenced by railway transportation, leaked cargos, fuel combustion, the use of lubricate oils and sleeper impregnation oils during railway transportation may be their main resources.

  5. One hundred years of railway disasters and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rebecca; Björnstig, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    Globally, railway transport is increasing steadily. Despite the adoption of diverse safety systems, major railway incidents continue to occur. Higher speeds and increased passenger traffic are factors that influence the risk of mass-casualty incidents and make railway crashes a reality that merits extensive planning and training. Data on railway disasters were obtained from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), which maintains the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). This descriptive study consists of 529 railway disasters (≥10 killed and/or ≥100 non- fatally injured) from 1910 through 2009. The number of railway disasters, people killed, and non-fatally injured, has increased throughout the last hundred years-particularly during the last four decades (1970-2009), when 88% of all disasters occurred. In the mid-20th century, a shift occurred, resulting in more people being non-fatally injured than fatally injured. During 1970-2009, 74% of all railway disasters occurred in Asia, Africa, and South and Central America, combined. The remaining 26% occurred in Europe, North America, and Oceania, combined. Since 1980, railway disasters have increased, especially in Asia and Africa, while Europe has had a decrease in railway disasters. The number killed per disaster (1970-2009) was highest in Africa (n = 55), followed by South and Central America (n = 47), and Asia (n = 44). The rate was lowest in North America (n = 10) and Europe (n = 29). On average, the number of non-fatal injuries per disaster was two to three times the number of fatalities, however, in the African countries (except South Africa) the relation was closer to 1:1, which correlates to the relation found in more developed countries during the mid-20th century. The total losses (non-fatally and fatally injured) per disaster has shown a slight decreasing trend. Despite extensive crash avoidance and injury reduction safety systems, railway crashes occur on all continents

  6. Importance of the Hungarian phytosociological school established at the University of Debrecen in development of current field botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.

  7. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Gworek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Railway transport is a source of pollution to soils and living organisms by e.g. PAHs, PCBs, oil-derived products, pesticides and heavy metals. Soil toxicity evaluation requires chemical analyses, indicating the type and content of particular pollutants, as well as biological analyses, which allow assessing the reaction of organisms to these pollutants. This paper is focused on a multi-aspect evaluation of the degree of toxicity and pollution of soil in selected railway areas from north-eastern Poland by application of numerous biotests and chemical analyses. The soils were sampled on railway tracks from the following railway stations: Białystok Fabryczny, Siemianówka, Hajnówka, Iława Główna and Waliły. The most toxic soils occur on the railway tracks at Białystok Fabryczny and Siemianówka. They had a significant toxic effect on test organisms from various trophic levels. The contents of PAHs, PCBs, heavy metals, oil-derived hydrocarbons and pesticide residues were determined in the examined soils. In all cases the detected pollutants did not exceed the admissible levels. The highest content of oil-derived substances was noted in soils from Białystok Fabryczny and concentrations were moderate in soils from Siemianówka. Although the pollutants determined in soils from railway tracks did not exceed the admissible values, they had a toxic effect on numerous test organisms from different trophic levels. This suggests a synergistic effect of low concentrations (within the admissible levels) of several pollutants together, which resulted in a toxic effect on the organisms. Thus, there is a strong need of not only chemical, but also ecotoxicological analyses during the evaluation of environmental conditions. Based on data obtained from biological and chemical analyses, we concluded that railway transport may pose a hazard to the natural environment to a larger extent that hitherto expected.

  8. Pseudo-realia in the Romanian Translations of Various Hungarian Institutions and in the Hungarian Translations of Romanian Public Administration Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopus Andras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My presentation addresses an issue translators of Romanian–Hungarian legal and economic texts encounter almost day by day. Each field of translation is special in its kind, but translating legal/economic texts requires an especially accurate knowledge of the acts, laws, and concepts of both the source and target language since this is essential for the translated text to be really a quality, professional, and – last but not least – an intelligible one to the target-language audience, i.e. the customers.

  9. Attenuation of ground-borne vibration affecting residents near railway. Lines Deliverable 2.1: Exposure response relationships and factors influencing these relationships (Work Package WP1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Koopman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present deliverable is to describe and assess reported health impacts of vibration among residents living near railway lines, in particular the response to freight trains. To this end, first a state of the art overview is given of the results from all field studies reported so f

  10. From new clones to flowers – innovative business models in the Hungarian wine economy

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    Kismarjai Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ovestocked Hungarian wine sector wineries often need to find entirely new ways that enable them to increase their market share. These opportunities are determined by the current market potentials, the geographic location and of course the wine district itself. In this study I examined some examples of outbreak opportunities for producers in this difficult economic situation. Young winemakers from different Hungarian wine districts unite to open wine bars - these are now present in several towns all over the country. Other winemakers have been experimenting with new clones in less recognized wine districts. A small winery from a historic wine district recommends its wines with flowers in a new shop.

  11. HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTS OF DANUBE FLOOD 2013 BY THE HUNGARIAN HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTING SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CSÍK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The significant lead time resulting from the use of the OLSER system of the Hungarian Hydrological Forecasting Service is of key importance in making timely preparations for flood defence. Due to continuous improvements to the quantitative meteorological forecast models (primarily the generally used ECMWF model and the OLSER system over the past years, we have by now reached a point where the previously separately managed flood peak forecasting and continuous forecasting can no longer be interpreted independently. Continuous forecasting taking into account precipitation forecasts and monitoring spatial changes of the complex physics-based concentration process also offers a level of accuracy suitable to identify peak values. The flood wave of June 2013 along the Hungarian Danube section exceeded the ever observed highest high water levels everywhere (except for gauge Mohács. The forecasts prepared by HHFS played a crucial role both in terms of lead time and the forecasted water levels.

  12. The Representation of the Hungarian Towns in Domenico Zenoi's and Paolo Forlani's Cartographic Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Szalai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-16th century Venice was the European center of cartography. The two most distinguished representatives of the Venetian school of cartography, which included their close collaborators, Natale Bonifacio and Martin Rota Kolunic from Šibenik in Dalmatia, were Domenico Zenoi and Paolo Forlani. The study deals with their cartographic and publishing activity, their relationship and rivalry within the context of the Venetian cartographic production and analyzes in detail their engravings of the Hungarian towns at the time of the Ottoman conquests, including the siege and the fall of the fortress Sziget during the command of Nikola Šubić Zrinyi. The analysis is based on the five extant copies of Zenoi's and Forlani's collections of views, two of which have been unknown until discovered by the author in the Budapest National Library.Keywords: Cartography; Venice; Zenoi; Forlani; Hungarian towns; Ottoman conquests

  13. DISC BROOCHES WITH ANTHROPOMORPHIC DEPICTION GLASS INTAGLIOS IN THE SARMATIAN ENVIRONMENT OF THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Grumeza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A special category of brooches present in the Sarmatian graves of the Carpathian Basin is represented by disc brooches made of silver or bronze plate with central anthropomorphic depiction glass intaglios. They were found in 11 burial assemblages, together with the fashion brought by new ethnic groups arriving towards the end of the 3rd c. AD in the Great Hungarian Plain. Disc brooches with central glass intaglios are rare in Antiquity. They appear exclusively only in the German and Sarmatian Barbaricum (from the South and Central Hungarian Plain. Their bearers were children and women, especially the rich Sarmatian women, during the second half/end of the 3rd c. – early-4th c. AD (stages C2-C3 in the Central European chronology.

  14. Introduction. The formation of the Hungarian Information Society in the last ten years

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    Róbert Sinka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hungary was an example to follow as one of the initiators of the change that ultimately resulted in the elimination of the Soviet dependence, as well as in the democratization of Eastern-Central European countries. The iron curtain pulled down in 1989 opened up the country to the world. The comfortable protection was suddenly replaced by the new challenges of the global market economy and culture. The forming of the Hungarian information society could have brought one of the most radical changes among these. The present paper studies the successes and failures of the development of the Hungarian information society in the last decade on the basis of the research report (MITJ, 2008 prepared by ITTK (Information Society and Trend Research Centre

  15. Impact of high-speed railway accessibility on the location choices of office establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigers, J.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed railways are becoming increasingly common in Europe. In the Netherlands soon the HSL-South will be opened. This high-speed railway line connects the Randstad to Brussels and Paris. A prominent aim of this new railway is to improve international competitiveness of the Netherlands. As a sid

  16. Impact of high-speed railway accessibility on the location choices of office establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigers, J.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed railways are becoming increasingly common in Europe. In the Netherlands soon the HSL-South will be opened. This high-speed railway line connects the Randstad to Brussels and Paris. A prominent aim of this new railway is to improve international competitiveness of the Netherlands. As a sid

  17. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois...) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) over... Kellar Branch. See STB Docket No. AB-1056X, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance of Service...

  18. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This p

  19. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This

  20. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This p