WorldWideScience

Sample records for hungarian penal code

  1. On the history of codification of Hungarian civil law and the new Hungarian civil code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines the basic tendencies in the development of the codification of Hungarian civil law in the period of representative and civil society. The second part deals with the new Hungarian Civil Code (2013/14 its content, methods of regulation and its relation to other civil legislation, temporal validity with the adherence to the idea of validity pro futuro, as well as its tendency to harmonize its norms with the guidelines of the European civil law. In accordance with the idea of completeness, the lawmakers incorporated all of the areas of civil law according to the pandecta system - personal law, corporate law with civil association law, family law, obligations and inheritance. The Code is based on the principle of equality of parties in civil relations, the principle of good faith, fraus legis prohibition. Family law is based on specific principles of protection of marriage, family and children. Contract law is based on the freedom of contract, limited by good customs and morality. Tort law is guided by the principle of prohibiting the harm to others, full compensation of material and imaterial damages. Contractual responsibility is regulated separately, so that the tort rules apply if the specific rules of contractual responsibility donot say otherwise. Other grounds for obligations are also regulated, as well as unjustified enrichment, doing business without order or authority, unilateral expression of intention and securities. The grounds for inheritance are contractual, statutory or based on the will. Freedom of disposition by will is limited by statutory rules regulating the forced share. The system of transfer of property ex lege after the death is adopted. The state is a successor if there are no testamentary, statutory or contractual inheritors.

  2. Penal Code (Ordinance No. 12 of 1983), 1 July 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1984 Penal Code of Montserrat relating to sexual offenses, abortion, offenses relating to marriage, homicide and other offenses against the person, and neglect endangering life or health. Part 8 of the Code holds that a man found guilty of raping a woman is liable to life imprisonment. Rape is deemed to involve unlawful (extramarital) sexual intercourse with a woman without her consent (this is determined if the rape involved force, threats, administration of drugs, or false representation). The Code also defines offenses in cases of incest, child abuse, prostitution, abduction, controlling the actions and finances of a prostitute, and having unlawful sexual intercourse with a mentally defective woman. Part 9 of the Code outlaws abortion unless it is conducted in an approved establishment after two medical practitioners have determined that continuing the pregnancy would risk the life or physical/mental health of the pregnant woman or if a substantial risk exists that the child would have serious abnormalities. Part 10 outlaws bigamy, and part 12 holds that infanticide performed by a mother suffering postpartum imbalances can be prosecuted as manslaughter. This part also outlaws concealment of the body of a newborn, whether that child died before, at, or after birth, and aggravated assault on any child not more than 14 years old. Part 12 makes it an offense to subject any child to neglect endangering its life or health.

  3. Incorporation of punishable offences against the law on protection of the environment into the penal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrenschlager, M.

    1979-01-01

    The government bill on the sixteenth act amending the penal legislation - act on the prevention of environmental offences - is presented, with comments being given on the most important stipulations. Paragraph 328 of the penal code deals with the unauthorized handling of nuclear fuels and represents an almost complete adoption of Paragraph 45 of the Atomic Energy law. The prohibition of the operation of nuclear facilities laid down in Paragraph 45, par. 1, No.4 of the Atomic Energy law, has been incorporated into the factural characteristics of illegal operation of facilities (Paragraph 327, par. 1,3 No. 1 of the penal code). The illegal handling of other radioactive substances has been dealt with in regard to some important cases: specifically for the case of illegal waste disposal (Paragraph 326, par. 1 No. 2, par. 2 of the penal code), and for the case of irregular transport leading to concrete danger or nuisance (Paragraph 330, par. 1 No. 4 of the penal code), as well as for the case of release of ionizing radiation having any such consequences (Paragraph 330, par. 1 No. 2, item c of the penal code). According to Paragraph 324 of the penal code, radioactive contamination of waters is a punishable offence. The rule of qualification of Paragraph 330 par. 1 of the penal code is to be applied to all these facts. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MB [de

  4. Medical Liability in the Light of New Hungarian Civil Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The number of medical malpractice lawsuits filed each year in Hungary has considerably increased since the change of regime. The judicial decisions and practices on determining and awarding wrongful damages recoverable for medical malpractices in the Hungarian civil law have been developing for decades.

  5. Criminal responsibility of psychophats in the light of the brazilian penal code Imputabilidade penal dos psicopatas à luz do Código Penal Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Eloise Schmidt Ferreira Feguri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Justifies the choice of this theme, before the controversy in doctrine and jurisprudence as to what a psychopath is being treated before Article 26 § only the Brazilian Penal Code, and also explain why such barbaric crimes in recidivism. At the beginning of the work, it was demonstrated the concept of crime and the disciplines surrounding the criminal law, followed by the concept of a psychopathic, through history, reporting some types of personality disorders, and when and how did the origin of psychopath and how people who had this disorder were treated in the antiquity. It was then explained what becomes of guilt, how takes its implementation, trought accountability, nonimputability sticking to Article 26 § only the Brazilian Penal Code. Following this came to the institute’s measure of security, through its concept, assumptions and methods, including the application, term and termination of dangerousness being still emphasize on expert opinions. Finally, it was reported that cases involving people who have a type of personality disorder, being described succinctly as they are seen to justice and society. Concluding the study, one comes to the conclusion that such individuals are not they amnestied of the semi-liability provided for in Article 26, § only the Brazilian Penal Code Article 26, § only the Brazilian Penal Code. For what can be seen, with latest research is that the benefit of diminished criminal responsibility, given to those agents who do not have full mental unfair, the fact that some people can stay in jail for long as these recourse to psychiatry may be out of hospitals, if any, within three years, by the grace of the laws that protect them. Thus, endorse, this work, that the arrest or other criminal penalty is more honest, more fair, less socially discriminatory, that the sanction psychiatric.Justifica-se a escolha do presente tema, ante a polêmica na doutrina e na jurisprudência, quanto à forma que um psicopata vem

  6. Cyberprotests and the (penal code Ciberaprotestas y código (penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edición Activismo y Movimientos sociales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the current turmoil of demonstrations and social protests that use Internet social networks as means of dissemination and organization, it seems Westerns governments are testing or trying to develop new measures of social control via modification of their legal codes. This article explores the situation of Spain in this respect, through four short interviews with communication and new media professionals: Elvira Huelbes (Journalist at Cuarto Poder, Jaime Pastor (Political Sciencies Professor in UNED, Javier de la Cueva (Lawyer specialized in ICTand Miguel Romero (Editor of Viento Sur.Las amplias y aceleradas transformaciones sociales y tecnológicas sucedidas de las últimas décadas están produciendo en la coyuntura de crisis importantes reacomodos globales en los sistemas productivos que empiezan a tener efectos políticos en la institucionalidad democrática configurada desde la posguerra europea. Parece emerger un ciclo de contestación con un sensible aumento de las movilizaciones en un número crecientes de países, en el que las redes sociales telemáticas contribuyen a un aumento de la capacidad de difusión y coordinación de unos movimientos sociales que, con su trabajo en red diversifican, repertorios de protestas y propuestas de alcance transnacional.

  7. Statement of Problem: Dangerous Desires in Orwell's 1984 and the Present Spanish Penal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our construct of a dangerous subject has changed little over the past century. Dangerous subjects in Oceania, a region created by Orwell in his novel 1984 in a constant state of war, consciously or unconsciously manifest too much autonomy. Self-autonomy and agency breach established moral codes of conduct and manifest an inability to self-govern and conform i.e. discipline. What is deemed dangerous is constructed by Ingsoc, Oceania’s prevailing political philosophy; however, if considered of value to the party, time is invested and mandatory treatment is imposed to bring them into line with normative conduct. This treatment consists in stripping them of their identity and desires, which is achieved through them being rendered physically and psychologically innocuous. In the same vein, two new dangerous collectives were designated by the Spanish legislature in a reform introduced to the Penal Code in June 2010, the terrorist and sex offender. On this occasion, it is their efforts to resist this normalization onslaught that renders them dangerous. Unable to incarcerate indeterminately or execute both collectives, a new post-custodial security measure is deployed to ensure that both collectives remain socially and politically isolated. This article compares the dangerous symptomatology depicted by Orwell in 1984 with the dangerous offender constructed by the Spanish legislature in OL 5/2010, the problematization of their habits and behaviours as well as the alleged cure offered to these dangerous subjects. For Ingsoc and the Spanish legislature, the imminent danger is a threat to social and public order. Nuestra construcción de un sujeto peligroso ha cambiado poco durante el siglo pasado. Sujetos peligrosos en Oceanía, una región creada por Orwell en su novela 1984 que está en un constante estado de guerra, manifiestan demasiada autonomía de forma consciente o inconsciente. La anulación de la propia autonomía y la voluntad establecieron c

  8. Decree amending and adding various provisions to the Penal Code for the Federal District with respect to local jurisdiction and to the Penal Code for the whole Republic with respect to federal jurisdiction, 29 December 1988. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Mexico's decree amending and adding various provisions to the penal code for the federal district, with respect to local jurisdiction, and to the penal code for the whole republic, with respect to federal jurisdiction, December 29, 1988, among other things, amends the penal code to strengthen provisions relating to sex crimes. Among the provisions are the following: anyone procuring or facilitating the corruption of a minor (under 18) or a person lacking capacity, by means of sexual acts, or who induces him to engage in begging, drunkenness, drug addiction, or some other vice; to form part of an unlawful association; or to commit whatever crimes will be imprisoned for 3-8 years and subjected to a fine. The sentence shall be enhanced if the minor or incapacitated person forms a habit due to repeated acts of corruption. Whoever encourages or facilitates a person's engaging in prostitution or obtains or delivers a person for the purpose of prostitution will be imprisoned for 2-9 years and fined. Pandering will be punished with imprisonment for 2-9 years and a fine. Whoever, without consent and without the purpose of achieving intercourse, performs on her a sexual act with lascivious intent, or forces her to perform it, will be sentenced to "15 days to 1 year's or to 10-40 days' community service work." If physical or moral violence is used, the penalty will be 2-7 years imprisonment. Performing the above act on a person under age 12 or on someone unable to resist increases the punishment. Whoever uses physical or moral violence to have intercourse with a person of whatever sex shall be imprisoned 8-14 years; using an object other than a penis either vaginally or anally on either a male or a female will result in imprisonment of 1-5 years. If the victim is under age 12, unable to resist, or if 2 or more persons commit the crime, an enhanced punishment will result.

  9. A premodern legacy: the "easy" criminalization of homosexual acts between women in the Finnish Penal Code of 1889.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, J

    1998-01-01

    Homosexual acts between women were criminalized in Finland in the 1889 Penal Code which also criminalized men's homosexual acts for the first time explicitly in Finnish legislation. The inclusion of women in the Penal Code took place without much ado. In the article it is argued that the uncomplicated juxtaposing of men and women was due to the legacy of a cultural pattern where man and woman, as categories, were not in an all-pervasive polarity to each other, for example, in sexual subjectivity. A cultural pattern of low gender polarization was typical of preindustrial rural culture, and it can help us apprehend also certain other features in contemporary Finnish social and political life, for example, women obtaining a general franchise and eligibility for the parliament first in the world, in 1906. A modern image of "public man" and "private woman" was only making its way in Finnish society; hence, there was not much anxiety at women's entry in politics, or, for that matter, at their potential for (homo)sexual subjectivity becoming recognized publicly in criminal law.

  10. The Sections Relating to Death Penalty in Pakistan Penal Code as Compared with Shari'a (Islamic Law (A Comparative Study (Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abzahir Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Law plays a pivotal role in the establishment of any peaceful society.islam, being proactive, devised important rules about 1400 years back for the safety of Deen, life, wealth, wisdom and Generation. Qatal (murder is a crime of taking soul of a humanbeing, about which Islam has announced Qisas i.e to do with assissinater what he has done it to killed human being. In the same manner Pakistan penal Code has gathered rules about crimes steped out in Pakistan. So Pakistan penal code, under several sections has the same punishment. This artcle throws light on Pakistan penal code sections about death Senctance in perspective of Islamic imperium, order and explanation.

  11. Environmental protection and penal law in Greece - a comparison with the German penal code on environmental matters. Der strafrechtliche Umweltschutz in Griechenland unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Deutschen Umweltstrafrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanidis, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chapter outlines the ecological situation of Greece, while the second chapter presents the legal foundations of environmental protection in Greece. Secondary laws are mentioned, as these are generally the laws in which penal liabilities are stated. The present environmental protection regulations are found to be unsatisfactory and unfit for preventing environmental damage. A new legislative structure is proposed on the basis of German environmental protection standards. (orig./HSCH).

  12. RECEPTING THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPREMACY OF CONSTITUTION ON THE NEW PENAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supremacy of Constitution has as main consequence the compliance of entire law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing of the observance of this principle is essential for the rule of law, is primarily an attribute of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislator to receive by texts adopted, within its content and form, the constitutional norms. Entering into force of the new criminal codes generated a significant jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court on the verification of constitutionality of some regulations in the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code. Through this study we intend to analyze the following key issues: a how were the constitutional principles and values embodied in some criminal and criminal procedural norms of the new codes; b the effects of Constitutional Court decisions in the process of constitutionalizing of the criminal law; c applying into judicial activities of the Constitutional Court decisions, particularly those through which the new Criminal Code regulations were found unconstitutional.

  13. Aspects of nuclear penal liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Cruz, A.S.C. da

    1986-01-01

    Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author) [pt

  14. LA RESPONSABILIDAD DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DERIVADA DEL INCUMPLIMIENTO DE LAS OBLIGACIONES CONTABLES. INFLUENCIA DE LA REFORMA PENAL Y LA NUEVA REGULACIÓN CONTABLE / THE CRIMINAL RESPONSABILITY OF THE COOPERATIVES ARISING FROM NOT COMPLYING WITH THE ACCOUNTING OBLIGATIONS. THE REPERCUSSION OF THE REFORM OF THE PENAL CODE AND THE NEW ACCOUNTING REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Begoña VILLARROYA LEQUERICAONANDIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo perseguido con la realización de este trabajo es conocer la responsabilidad penal derivada del incumplimiento de las obligaciones contables por parte de los órganos sociales de las cooperativas, observando la incidencia de la reforma del Código Penal en la responsabilidad. Para ello, se comienza haciendo una breve descripción de las obligaciones contables, no solo el deber de llevanza de la contabilidad, libros obligatorios,… sino también las obligaciones específicas de las cooperativas recientemente reguladas en la Orden de 21 de diciembre de 2010 sobre los aspectos contables de las sociedades cooperativas (BOE de 29 de diciembre, donde nos encontramos con numerosos cambios en los que parte de las aportaciones de los socios pasarán a calificarse como pasivo. A continuación se analizan los distintos artículos del Código Penal en los que la contabilidad tuviera relevancia, incidiendo en como podría verse afectada la responsabilidad de la empresa con la reciente reforma. / The aim of this work is to know the criminal responsibility for social organs arising from not complying with the accounting obligations and the repercussion of the reform of the Penal Code in the treatment of responsibility. The paper starts with a brief description of the accounting obligations, not only formal but also material obligations, and the specific rules for the valuation of cooperatives that have recently been regulated in the Order of December 21, 2010 (BOE December, 29 of the countable aspects of cooperative companies will be analyzed in this paper. In it we will find numerous changes in whicht parts of the contributions of the partners will be classified as debts.. Finally, this work analyzes various articles of the Criminal Code in which the accounting is most important, highlighting the possibility of responsibility of the companies after the new reform.

  15. Environmental protection - Penal Law. 2nd ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sack, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The 18th Amendment of the Penal Law - Law on the Abatement of Environmental Delinquency - (18. StrAendG) has now been passed. It has been promulgated on March 28, 1980 and has come into force on July 1, 1980. Through this amendment, a large number of the provisions of the environmental law regarding sanctions has been incorporated into the Penal Code. Persons concerned with environmental protection and pollution control will also in future need such a textbook with comments as a guide to the most important provisions on sanctions and fixed penalties. The 18th Amendment of the Penal Code does not cover all the provisions on sanctions to be applied in the field of environmental protection, a number of regulations still remains part of other, special laws. The same applies to the provisions on penalties which are laid down in a variety of individual laws and regulations, as a comprehensive code of environmental laws still remains to be established. This first part of the textbook in loose-leaf form deals mainly with the new provisions of sections 311d, 311e, 324, and 325. The other facts of the 18th Amendment will be discussed in the second part. As the regulations have, for the most part, not been completly revised or newly inserted, parts 1/3 of the first edition of this textbook can still be used as a help in analysing the existing provisions. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Environmental protection - Penal Law. Umweltschutz-Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sack, H J

    1980-01-01

    The 18th Amendment of the Penal Law - Law on the Abatement of Environmental Delinquency - (18. StrAendG) has now been passed. It has been promulgated on March 28, 1980 and has come into force on July 1, 1980. Through this amendment, a large number of the provisions of the environmental law regarding sanctions has been incorporated into the Penal Code. Persons concerned with environmental protection and pollution control will also in future need such a textbook with comments as a guide to the most important provisions on sanctions and fixed penalties. The 18th Amendment of the Penal Code does not cover all the provisions on sanctions to be applied in the field of environmental protection, a number of regulations still remains part of other, special laws. The same applies to the provisions on penalties which are laid down in a variety of individual laws and regulations, as a comprehensive code of environmental laws still remains to be established. This first part of the textbook in loose-leaf form deals mainly with the new provisions of sections 311d, 311e, 324, and 325. The other facts of the 18th Amendment will be discussed in the second part. As the regulations have, for the most part, not been completly revised or newly inserted, parts 1/3 of the first edition of this textbook can still be used as a help in analysing the existing provisions.

  17. Formulation of Policy for Cyber Crime in Criminal Law Revision Concept of Bill Book of Criminal Law (A New Penal Code)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soponyono, Eko; Deva Bernadhi, Brav

    2017-04-01

    Development of national legal systems is aimed to establish the public welfare and the protection of the public. Many attempts has been carried out to renew material criminal law and those efforts results in the formulation of the concept of the draft Law Book of the Law of Criminal Law in the form of concept criminal code draft. The basic ideas in drafting rules and regulation based on the values inside the idology of Pancasila are balance among various norm and rules in society. The design concept of the New Criminal Code Act is anticipatory and proactive to formulate provisions on Crime in Cyberspace and Crime on Information and Electronic Transactions. Several issues compiled in this paper are whether the policy in formulation of cyber crime is embodied in the provisions of the current legislation and what the policies formulation of cyber crime is in the concept of the bill book of law - criminal law recently?.

  18. Emotional Intelligence of Hungarian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracsi, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The research focused on the personal and social competencies of Hungarian teachers as unexplored areas. The participants in the survey were 707 Hungarian teachers from elementary and secondary schools. In view of the expectations of the European Union related to new teacher roles, the following research question was formulated to guide the study:…

  19. Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rákosi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian investigates the argument structure and the syntax of appeal to- and important-type predicates in Hungarian. Couched in terms of Reinhart’s (2000, 2002) Theta System, the thesis presents arguments for the need to resort to the lexicon in setting up

  20. Strategic Foresight Process - Improvements for the Hungarian Ministry of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    data by modeling and econometric techniques including trend curves and trend extrapolations, among others; the kind of extrapolation of past data that...strategic management, Hungary, Hungarian Ministry of Defense, migration, Russia 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 79 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY ...CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20

  1. Making Abortion Safer in Rwanda: Operationalization of the Penal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penal code was revised in Rwanda in 2012 allowing legal termination of pregnancy resulting from rape, incest, forced marriage, or on medical grounds. An evaluation was conducted to assess women's access to abortion services as part of an ongoing program to operationalize the new exemptions for legal abortion.

  2. Building and toning: An analysis of the institutionalization of mediation in penal matters in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellegi Borbála

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1 January 2007, victims of crimes and offenders have been offered the chance to have recourse to mediation in Hungary. This paper will first give a short overview of the current situation of mediation in penal matters in Hungary, then it will discuss some general phenomena and dilemmas concerning the general introduction of mediation. After that, I will present a SWOT analysis1 of the current Hungarian mediation system in penal matters. The main goal of this article is to set up certain criteria for the further development of the restorative approach. The lessons we have learnt, the strengths and opportunities of the system and the identification of weaknesses might prove useful for other countries when they choose to introduce mediation, and in relation to the protection of victims in particular.

  3. Radiology education in Hungarian schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    Basic concepts of nuclear physics are not more abstract and more difficult than those of electricity. For the orientation of the citizens of the 21st century, the Hungarian school curriculum has made them compulsory for all teenagers. According to the teachers' experience, the students find nuclear issues more relevant and more interesting than the topics inherited from the schoolbooks of earlier centuries. (author)

  4. Environmental penal law - sword of Damocles above public officials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehren, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    An office-holder is subject to punishableness according to art. 324 seq. Penal Code under the same conditions as a citizen. If the office-holder does not intervene in case of environmental delicts, the omission of a required measure is concerned. The constitutional supplement of art. 20 Fundamental Law will have for consequence a further aggravation of the punishableness of office-holders. (CW) [de

  5. El consentimiento en materia penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Iván Machado Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se plantea un estudio de las diferentes posturas dogmáticas que se han suscitado en la doctrina jurídico-penal en torno a la relevancia del instituto del consentimiento, como su regulación, recorriendo las legislaciones penales española, alemana, italiana y colombiana. Así mismo, se toman en consideración las recientes posturas, en donde se entiende el consentimiento como un supuesto de autopuesta en peligro, o como uno de heteropuesta en peligro de la víctima. Se propone un entendimiento de la figura desde la óptica de la teoría de la imputación objetiva, y para ello se incluye el consentimiento como causa de ausencia de la imputación objetiva.

  6. La legitimidad del derecho penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bernate-Ochoa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante sobre la legitimidad del derecho penal se ha convertido en un asunto medular dentro de los estudios contemporáneos sobre la materia, dado que hoy en día se reconoce que a partir de la solución a este interrogante teórico se puede asumir la tarea de construir un sistema. El panorama contemporáneo nos ofrece dos soluciones al respecto: por una parte, se sostiene que la legitimación del derecho penal emana de la Constitución, y se prescinde de una construcción sistémica del delito en aras de la obtención de consecuencias acordes con lo planteado en la Carta Política. Por otra, desde una propuesta -de corte normativista- se entiende que la legitimación del derecho penal debe encontrarse en la sociedad, y a partir del entendimiento de ésta se encuentra la necesidad de aquél, lo cual ejerce una influencia en la construcción del sistema del delito.

  7. The Steins and the Hungarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barki, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The traveling exhibition entitled "The Steins Collect" (2011-12 again drew attention – and on this occasion in a manner perhaps more vivid than any exhibition to date – to the importance of the systematically canon-shaping work that took place in two tiny Parisian ateliers (one in the Rue de Fleurus, the other in the Rue de Madame in terms of the new painterly movements that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century. Leo, Gertrude, and Michael, three siblings from the Stein family, a family of Jewish origin from San Francisco, along with Michael's wife Sarah, not only built within the space of a few years the most important contemporary art collection in Paris, but through their lively salons came to be the most influential shapers and propagators of universal modernism, making their influence felt to this day on assessments of avant-garde art. In the course of preparations for the exhibition and the publication of the accompanying catalogue, both of which provide a comprehensive survey of the Steins' activity, light was cast on the family's Hungarian connections as well. Consequently, one painting by the Hungarian Vilmos Pelrott-Csaba was included at the American venues (San Francisco and New York of the exhibition, and a presentation on the family's ties to Hungary was held at the scholarly conference organized in connection with the exhibition. Despite the fact that several essays have been published on this subject, the written sources have not been collected – neither those dealing with the large number of Hungarians present at the Steins' Saturday evening gatherings, nor those covering the Hungarian pupils at the Académie Matisse, which was closely aligned with the Steins. This essay is a revised version of the presentation held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, supplemented with additional source-material.

  8. Radiology education in Hungarian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Boetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    Basic concepts of nuclear physics are not more abstract and more difficult than those of electricity. For the orientation of the citizens of the 21st century, the Hungarian school curriculum has made them compulsory for all teenagers. According to the teachers' experience, the students find nuclear issues more relevant and more interesting than the topics inherited from the schoolbooks of earlier centuries. (author)

  9. Analysis gives the penal treatment in Cuba to the tied infractions to the use and conservation gives radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Gonzalez, F.; Perez Velazquez, R.S.; Fornet, R.O.; Reyes Fajardo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work refers the realized analysis to the Law 62 the Cuban penal code that with establishing to the treatment of the infractions referred standard's to the uses and conservation the radioactive substances and other ionizing radiations sources

  10. Refractory reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Ajit Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological penalization with atropine has been shown to be equally effective as conventional occlusion therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Reverse amblyopia of the sound eye with atropine penalization has been reported before, but is more common in cases where the effect is augmented with optical penalization and is mostly reversible. We report a case of reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization, in a 4-year-old girl, which was refractory to treatment. This report highlights the need for strict monitoring of the vision in the sound eye and regular follow-up in children undergoing amblyopia treatment.

  11. The development of the penal system in Serbian criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the penal system in Serbia is reflected in significant changes within the criminal legislative solutions. The most important legal document of the medieval Serbia, 'Dušan's Code' was characterized by harsh corporal and death punishments taken from the Byzantine law. During the Ottoman period 'Dušan's Code' was no longer in use, and with the beginning of the First Serbian Uprising, the adoption of individual legislations began. The Criminal Code of the Principality of Serbia, adopted in 1860, introduced a novelty of major and minor penalties, including, most importantly, several types of detention. The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was adopted in 1929 and it predicted different types of sanctions other than fines. The main feature of the Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was permanent abolition of the corporal punishment. After the Second World War, the newly formed government adopted new criminal codes and new forms of punishment, which remained unchanged from the Novel in 1959 up until the dissolution of the SFRY. Contemporary criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by the abolition of the death penalty, seizure of property and the introduction of new penalties, which should, instead of short prison sentences, serve as an alternative. Throughout its statehood, from the Middle Ages up until today, Serbia has always had a continuity of the penal system development parallel with its development, primarily in Europe.

  12. Seguridad ciudadana y respuesta penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Scapusio Minvielle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de seguridad ciudadana será empleado en esta comunicación en su sentido restringido, vinculado al sentimiento de confianza de la población de no verse expuesta a hechos de violencia física, tengan origen éstos en actos individuales o sociales.  (...Contenido: Diferentes expresiones de la seguridad ciudadana. La respuesta penal. Evaluación global del problema. El desafío dogmático. Conclusiones

  13. 4. Congress of the Hungarian Radiotherapy Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Clinical experiences with radiotherapeutic treatment of patients with malignant tumors at several Hungarian hospitals and technical aspects of irradiation devices and irradiation procedures has been reported in the 50 lectures given at the congress. Abstracts of the lectures are published in Hungarian or English or German. (N.T.)

  14. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  15. Genetic Research and Hungarian "Deep Ancestry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Dreisziger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades saw the birth of the new science of genetics that can be used not only for medical purposes but also for the study of the past. Geneticists were quick to begin applying this science to the examination of Hungarian history, especially the subject of Hungarian origins. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with some of these studies. One study this paper will examine is itself a review of the scientific literature of early genetic studies on Hungarian origins. Other studies evaluated in this paper will be the English-language scientific publications of a team of Hungarian geneticists who over the last several years have studied the genetic inter-relatedness of 10th century and present-day Hungarian populations in the Middle Danube Valley of Central Europe. The paper comes to the conclusion that while very early genetic inquiries into Hungarian origins were often fault-ridden and are of little use now, more recent studies suggest that the currently held explanations of Hungarian ethnogenesis — especially the story of the so-called Hungarian conquest of the late 9th century — might very well be subjected to a fundamental re-assessment.

  16. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time...

  17. Proyecto de reforma del Proceso Penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Scapusio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El Anteproyecto de Código de Proceso PenalExpositora: Beatriz ScapusioLa Imputabilidad Aportes dogmáticos para un tema clave de la responsablidad penalExpositor: Dardo Preza RestucciaEstructuras procesales en el proceso de conocimiento y en el proceso de ejecuciónExpositora: Raquel Landeira

  18. [Penal institutions in Porto Azzuro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccotti, R

    1976-01-01

    Prior to describing the environmental and human situation of the Porto Azzurro penal Institutions, the Author devotes a chapter to the historical part and gives an outline of the most important events that, in 1600 or thereabouts, led to the construction of the Fort S. Giacoma (where the penitentiary is presently sited), which, after a number of vicissitudes and transfers of title, was finally destined for use, in 1900, as a prison establishment. The subsequent and, in particular, the recent building re-structurations, have radically changed the penitentiary in order to make it more in line with the functions required by the present prison policy. After describing the establishment's setup, which includes many institutes, the Author passes on to consider the problems of personnel and, in particular, of the military staff. In the central chapter on intramural life, he makes an in-depth review of the methods and means of treatment, some of which are proper of this particular environment. In illustrating such convicts' activities, as working, leisure time, education, relationship with the extramural world, the Author lays stress on the always present objective: that directed at helping convicts re-enter social life. In conjunction with health services and religious services, the Author deals at length with the delicate moment of the "audience", viewed as a therapeutic means indispensiable for establishing a valid re-educational contribution. The discipline and discharges conclude the description of the Porto Azzurro penal Institutions, whose environment and various treatment methods in use before the implementation of the new penitentiary System, are dealt with in detail by the Author.

  19. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  20. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  1. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.

  2. Brief retrospection on Hungarian school atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinghammer, István; Jesús Reyes Nuñez, José

    2018-05-01

    The first part of this article is dedicated to the history of Hungarian school atlases to the end of the 1st World War. Although the first maps included in a Hungarian textbook were probably made in 1751, the publication of atlases for schools is dated almost 50 years later, when professor Ézsáiás Budai created his "New School Atlas for elementary pupils" in 1800. This was followed by a long period of 90 years, when the school atlases were mostly translations and adaptations of foreign atlases, the majority of which were made in German-speaking countries. In those years, a school atlas made by a Hungarian astronomer, Antal Vállas, should be highlighted as a prominent independent piece of work. In 1890, a talented cartographer, Manó Kogutowicz founded the Hungarian Geographical Institute, which was the institution responsible for producing school atlases for the different types of schools in Hungary. The professional quality of the school atlases published by his institute was also recognized beyond the Hungarian borders by prizes won in international exhibitions. Kogutowicz laid the foundations of the current Hungarian school cartography: this statement is confirmed in the second part of this article, when three of his school atlases are presented in more detail to give examples of how the pupils were introduced to the basic cartographic and astronomic concepts as well as how different innovative solutions were used on the maps.

  3. Race Making in a Penal Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a ground-level investigation into the lives of penal inmates, linking the literature on race making and penal management to provide an understanding of racial formation processes in a modern penal institution. Drawing on 135 days of ethnographic data collected as an inmate in a Southern California county jail system, the author argues that inmates are subjected to two mutually constitutive racial projects--one institutional and the other microinteractional. Operating in symbiosis within a narrative of risk management, these racial projects increase (rather than decrease) incidents of intraracial violence and the potential for interracial violence. These findings have implications for understanding the process of racialization and evaluating the effectiveness of penal management strategies.

  4. On Solving Lq-Penalized Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Zhou Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lq-penalized regression arises in multidimensional statistical modelling where all or part of the regression coefficients are penalized to achieve both accuracy and parsimony of statistical models. There is often substantial computational difficulty except for the quadratic penalty case. The difficulty is partly due to the nonsmoothness of the objective function inherited from the use of the absolute value. We propose a new solution method for the general Lq-penalized regression problem based on space transformation and thus efficient optimization algorithms. The new method has immediate applications in statistics, notably in penalized spline smoothing problems. In particular, the LASSO problem is shown to be polynomial time solvable. Numerical studies show promise of our approach.

  5. 從網路犯罪公約談我國妨害電腦使用罪章的修訂 Amending Chapter 36 of the Penal Code of Taiwan on the Basis of the Study on the Cybercrime Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    廖宗聖 Tsung-Sheng Liao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 電腦犯罪已成為當代新興的犯罪類型,各國無不積極面對此一挑戰。我國在2003 年新增刑法第36 章妨害電腦使用罪章,除為了解決電磁紀錄與動產、文書存在不同的屬性外,也希望藉由該章的制定,能對其他影響電腦系統安全、侵害電腦資料完整、保密及可使用的行為加以規範。不過制定至今,該罪章產生不少解釋上或適用上的困難,為解決種種相關的問題與爭議,本文在參考歐洲理事會網路犯罪公約的規範後(第1 篇第1 章第2 條、第4 條、第5 條及第6 條),嘗試對妨害電腦使用罪章提出相關修訂建議(第358 條、第359 第、第360 條及第360 條第1 項、第2 項),期能供立法者於未來修訂該罪章時的參考。 Computer crimes have become a new model of crimes and a new challenge for most countries over the world. In 2003, Taiwan enacted Chapter 36 of the Penal Code to deal with computer crimes. Although the new chapter avoided some application problems caused by treating electro-magnetic records as chattel and documents, the change of coping with computer crimes still raises other new problems. After exploring, this article argues that Taiwan could resolve those new problems by amending Chapter 36 of the Penal Code based on the comparison study of the Cybercrime Convention.

  6. THE SZEKLERS AND HUNGARIANS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Szeklers and Hungarians from Romania. This study regards, as its main topic, the possibility of establishing at present, a geodemographical entity on Romania’s territory, since certain representatives of the Hungarian ethnical minority in our country, and with a particular insistence of those in the vicinity of the western border, always remember to bring into view the problem of establishing an autonomy, common to a Székely Land, located in the central area of our country, which would include Mureş, Harghita and Covasna counties. Without carrying out a detailed account of this situation, it needs to be mentioned, just as it will emerge of the following presentation, that such an approach has neither the most reduced geodemographical support, since the Szeklers, after being assimilated by the Hungarian ethnic group, are no longer present at the census of 20 October 2011. By taking into account the above mentioned aspects, in order to be able to respond to the insistent requests for autonomy in Transylvania, we proceeded to highlight, through a fairly detailed approach of the Hungarian ethnical minority, obviously in point of the number of inhabitants and of their distribution on Romania’s territory, resulting of this the fact that the number of Hungarians is of 1,227,623 people, value which related to those 20,121,641 inhabitants of Romania, means 6.10%. The total number of mentioned Hungarians is characterized by a pronounced concentration on Romania’s territory, standing out by creating a corridor with a diagonal aspect, on the northwestsoutheast direction, consisting of seven counties, the first four (Satu Mare, Bihor, Sălaj and Cluj being registered with 2.01% (404,561 inhabitants of those 6.10% Hungarians, the following three (Mureş, Harghita and Covasna accounting for 3.03% (609,033 inhabitants, and hence in the corridor are present 5.04% (1,013,594 Hungarians of 6.10% at the level of the entire country. The above mentioned

  7. A Tutela Penal dos Direitos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Correa Borges

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A proteção penal dos direitos humanos tem dois aspectos decorrentes do garantismo penal: 1 limite para a persecução penal; 2 objetividade jurídica das normas incriminadoras. O conceito de direitos humanos para fins de tutela penal prescinde da sua classificação geracional, mas determina o reconhecimento de sua historicidade e, principalmente, a sua construção a partir das mobilizações e movimentos sociais. A vulnerabilidade dos grupos humanos que são difusa e sistematicamente discriminados ou violados deve ser o critério para a definição do objeto jurídico da norma incriminadora, para manter coerência e viabilizar a aplicação do princípio da complementariedade entre a repressão interna e a persecução internacional, compatibilizando o Direito Penal interno e o Internacional.

  8. Receptiveness to Flexible Employment at Hungarian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Essősy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, only companies that are adaptable and flexible in their structure and processes can survive. The basis for a motivated company aiming for peak performance is organisational innovation. Hungary is one of the less innovative countries in Europe. Only organisations that can integrate new solutions smoothly into their everyday operations will remain truly competitive. The Government of Hungary, in its Partnership Agreement with the European Union, set out the goals for improving and supporting the adaptability of enterprises, the promotion of flexible and family-friendly workplace practices and services, and the employment of women with young children. The aim of this study is to demonstrate, through a Hungarian example, the receptiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises to flexible forms of employment. The effect of flexible employment on economic adaptability and competitiveness through workforce efficiency and retention is examined. Its aim is the raise the awareness of options to increase employment among Hungarian SME managers.

  9. Penalized variable selection in competing risks regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhixuan; Parikh, Chirag R; Zhou, Bingqing

    2017-07-01

    Penalized variable selection methods have been extensively studied for standard time-to-event data. Such methods cannot be directly applied when subjects are at risk of multiple mutually exclusive events, known as competing risks. The proportional subdistribution hazard (PSH) model proposed by Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496-509, 1999) has become a popular semi-parametric model for time-to-event data with competing risks. It allows for direct assessment of covariate effects on the cumulative incidence function. In this paper, we propose a general penalized variable selection strategy that simultaneously handles variable selection and parameter estimation in the PSH model. We rigorously establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed penalized estimators and modify the coordinate descent algorithm for implementation. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. Data from deceased donor kidney transplants from the United Network of Organ Sharing illustrate the utility of the proposed method.

  10. Poverty Control and the Penal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Kilduff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To reflect on the criminalization and penalization of poverty, this article analyzes the neoconservative turn in criminal policy, as an expression of recent changes under contemporary capitalism. In a context characterized by a regression in social policies, the paper discusses the expansion of the penal system as a strategy used by capitalist States to contain and administer in a criminalizing form the growing and increasingly complex manifestations of the “social question” linked to an objective situation of massive and structural unemployment. To conclude the debate, it presents some elements to reflect on the historic function of bourgeois penal law and to analyze its fundamental role in current imperialist strategy.

  11. Linguistic layers of Old Hungarian hydronyms

    OpenAIRE

    Győrffy, Erzsébet

    2014-01-01

    When analysing the etymological layers of Hungarian river names, it becomes soon clear that loan names make up a much larger group than in the group of settlement names, for instance. This fact can be due to the phenomenon that in the case of hydronyms, name-giving and name-usage is driven mainly by communicative needs, while other (e. g. socio-cultural or political) factors only rarely influence name-giving. In my paper, it was my aim to provide an etymological typology of Hungarian hydronym...

  12. POPULISM AS A DISCOURSE OF HUNGARIAN ELITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bozóki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 19th century populist movements emerged as significant actors of the Hungarian politics. The attempts to assess populism appeared to be as ambiguous, as the attempts by politicians and pundits to describe it. The study of its development demonstrates that it is not linked to the traditional division between left and right, but represents dissatisfaction with the established elites in the society. The article considers changing nature of Hungarian populism on different stages of national history. Specific attention is devoted to the content and value of populist policies in the current Hungary.

  13. EN BUSCA DE OTRO DERECHO PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Andrea Vallejo Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende describir algunos de los problemas contemporáneos del derecho penal en Colombia, así como las orientaciones que han asumido las líneas de investigación de los grupos de las universidades Eafit, de Antioquia y de Medellín en la búsqueda de soluciones a estos problemas, y la propuesta que se tiene a partir de la fundamentación de línea de investigación en Derecho Penal en la Institución Universitaria de Envigado.

  14. La Corte Penal Internacional: abriendo caminos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Etcheberry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de las decisiones de la Corte Penal Internacional en el Caso Lubanga y la solicitud del Fiscal de detener al Presidente en ejercicio de Sudán, los autores analizan los desafíos y perspectivas del trabajo de la Corte Penal Internacional, particularmente en lo relativo a cómo se ha configurado su labor después de una etapa inicial dedicada a esclarecer su rol y constitución.

  15. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  16. Hungarian Competition Law & Policy: The Watermelon Omen

    OpenAIRE

    Pal Szilagyi

    2012-01-01

    If we look at recent developments from a wider perspective, we can see some radical changes in the attitudes of the Hungarian legislature and the society. Pál Szilágyi (Péter Pázmány Catholic University )

  17. Reflection on penal policy in nuclear matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document expresses ethical reflexions as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. The potential diversion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy results in the necessity of a criminal policy which would control the nuclear regulations. For each potential nuclear infringement, systems of laws are established either to prevent damages or to penalize them. (TEC)

  18. Penal Policies In Bulgaria And Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mihaiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary european studies underline the necessity of adoption of an european model, in order to assure the compliance with the fundamental rights and liberties of people deprived of liberty. But the visions of the model favour one of the two opposite tendencies, which are invariable present in theoretical debates and penal politics

  19. Mapping the Conditions of Penal Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the conditions of penal optimism behind suggestions that the penal expansionism of the last three decades may be at a ‘turning point’. The article proceeds by outlining David Green’s suggested catalysts of penal reform and considers how applicable they are in the Australian context. Green’s suggested catalysts are: the cycles and saturation thesis; shifts in the dominant conception of the offender; the GFC and budgetary constraints; the drop in crime; the emergence of the prisoner re-entry movement; apparent shifts in public opinion; the influence of evangelical Christian ideas and the Right on Crime initiative. The article then considers a number of other possible catalysts or forces: the role of trade unions; the role of courts; the emergence of recidivism as a political issue; the influence of ’evidence based’/’what works’’ discourse; and the emergence of justice reinvestment (JR. The article concludes with some comments about the capacity of criminology and criminologists to contribute to penal reductionism, offering an optimistic assessment for the prospects of a reflexive criminology that engages in and engenders a wider politics around criminal justice issues.

  20. An Iterative Brinkman penalization for particle vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Leonard, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in vortex particle methods. This is achieved by implementing a penalization of the velocity field using iteration of the penalized vorticity. We show that using the conventional Brinkman...... condition. These are: the impulsively started flow past a cylinder, the impulsively started flow normal to a flat plate, and the uniformly accelerated flow normal to a flat plate. The iterative penalization algorithm is shown to give significantly improved results compared to the conventional penalization...

  1. The Hungarian environmental private law under the influence of jus publicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julesz Máté

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental public law and environmental private law is of a growing significance. Not only environmental criminal law has an effect on environmental private law, but, since the beginning of the new legal, economic and political era in 1989, private law elements are also to be found in the environmental administrative law. The reciprocity between environmental private and administrative law is clear-cut. Private law institutions, like injunction or deposit, are upheld in environmental administrative contracts. The effect of an administrative ruling has legal consequences in the relationship between, e.g., neighbors: there are cases in which a noisy neighbor can be brought before the public administration. The objective liability in the field of environmental private law is accepted by the courts and by the citizens. The level of objectivity may, though, vary from country to country. In the practice of the Hungarian environmental private law, after 3 years, the objective liability is subrogated by a subjective liability, this latter one making exculpation easier. The res ipsa loquitur liability in space law is not an absolute liability, though it establishes a praesumptio juris that the environmental damage caused by a space object (e.g. a satellite is to be covered by the state which has sent the satellite into space. The presumption is, though not easily, rebuttable. In the Hungarian case law, objective environmental liability has been applied sub judice since the novella of the Civil Code in 1977. This novella made environmental private law a part of environmental law. The novella of the Civil Code was preceded by the Act on Environmental Protection of1976. The importance of economics in environmental private law has only recently been accepted by the Hungarian legal science. The role of the Coase theory is indisputable. The environmental private law is quite a new phenomenon in the Hungarian legal science, however

  2. CMS penalizes 758 hospitals for safety incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS is penalizing 758 hospitals with higher rates of patient safety incidents, and more than half of those were also fined last year, as reported by Kaiser Health News (1. Among the hospitals being financially punished are some well-known institutions, including Yale New Haven Hospital, Medstar Washington Hospital Center in DC, Grady Memorial Hospital, Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Indiana University Health, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Tufts Medical Center, University of North Carolina Hospital, the Cleveland Clinic, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Parkland Health and Hospital, and the University of Virginia Medical Center (Complete List of Hospitals Penalized 2016. In the Southwest the list includes Banner University Medical Center in Tucson, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Stanford Health Care, Denver Health Medical Center and the University of New Mexico Medical Center (for list of Southwest hospitals see Appendix 1. In total, CMS ...

  3. Educating Hungarian medical librarians in special literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantsits, G

    1974-01-01

    In Hungary the completion of a thirty-month course is required of those who wish to qualify as medium-level librarians. Medical librarians are given a special course which differs from the general course in that it covers the subjects of medical terminology and information in special literature. The latter subject is accorded the highest number of teaching hours, since the subject matter is vast and since, in addition to theory, much time must be spent on exercises and the presentation of reference books. The students become familiar with the main Hungarian and foreign information systems in the medical and related fields and with special bibliographies, encyclopedias, handbooks, and dictionaries. We take special care to familiarize students with the abstracting journals and indices. For several semesters they have homework and lesson exercises in the use of the Hungarian Medical Bibliography and Index Medicus.

  4. Kebijakan Penal Mengenai Kriminalisasi Di Bidang Keuangan

    OpenAIRE

    Luthan, Salman

    2009-01-01

    Research of penal policy on criminalization in financial affairs discusses two main problems: regulating policy on criminal offences, and regulating policy on criminal sanction for financial offences. The regulating policy on criminal offences shows an increase of various conducts that have been criminalized by legislator as a consequence of social change, economic and trade globalization, as well as technological development. Justification of criminalization base on liberal individualiatic t...

  5. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  6. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.; Carroll, R.J.; Wand, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  7. Penalized feature selection and classification in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    In bioinformatics studies, supervised classification with high-dimensional input variables is frequently encountered. Examples routinely arise in genomic, epigenetic and proteomic studies. Feature selection can be employed along with classifier construction to avoid over-fitting, to generate more reliable classifier and to provide more insights into the underlying causal relationships. In this article, we provide a review of several recently developed penalized feature selection and classific...

  8. The deficit mechanism of the Hungarian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    The management of the Hungarian municipal sector has received special attention since the crisis in 2008 and interest in the sector increased further due to the changes in legislation in 2011. A great number of economy experts and speakers on behalf of the government or the municipalities provided further details on prevailing issues in the municipal sector, however, their assessment of the severity of these issues varied greatly. By describing the logical framework of the deficit mechanism t...

  9. Hungarian participation in the intercosmos program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencz, Cs.

    1981-01-01

    Hungarian specialists have been interested in all fields of space research from the beginning. They also participate in the program in accordance with the scientific and technical state-of-the-art and financial possibilities of Hungary. The author summarizes the most important results of more than twenty years achieved in the field of cosmic physics, cosmic meteorology, space telecommunication, medical biology and the research of energy resources. (author)

  10. TOWARDS LOCATING THE NIGERIAN SHARI'AH PENAL CODES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alfa

    more of the following rests on the shoulder of the murderer: 16 i. He has committed a grave sin as implied in the verse. ُوَنَعَلَو ِوْيَلَع َُّللَّا َبِضَغَو اَهيِف اًدِلاَخ ُمَّنَهَج ُهُؤاَزَجَف ...

  11. Research on Relative Age in Hungarian Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Nikoletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400. The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

  12. The Hungarian youth's knowledge and attitude in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petoefi, G.; Legradi, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)

  13. Da necessidade de um tipo penal intermediário no crime de estupro em face da desproporcionalidade da pena

    OpenAIRE

    Tanferri, Andressa Silveira; Universidade Norte do Paraná; Cachapuz, Rozane da Rosa; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2015-01-01

    The article critically talks about the disproportionality of the minimum penalty on the crime of rape, which is in the art. 213 of the Brazilian Penal Code, when this applied to conduct that cause less damage to the well of the victim. The theme includes the need of creating a criminal type that fill the legal gap and be feasible to penalize the less serious conduct, without this violates the fundamental principles inherent to both, the author and the victim of the crime. This study exposes, ...

  14. Hungarian University Students' Misunderstandings in Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanyi, Tamas; Toth, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    The misunderstandings related to thermodynamics (including chemical equilibrium) and chemical kinetics of first and second year Hungarian students of chemistry, environmental science, biology and pharmacy were investigated. We demonstrated that Hungarian university students have similar misunderstandings in physical chemistry to those reported in…

  15. Quantitative Investigations in Hungarian Phonotactics and Syllable Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates statistical properties of segment collocation and syllable geometry of the Hungarian language. A corpus and dictionary based approach to studying language phonologies is outlined. In order to conduct research on Hungarian, a phonological lexicon was created by compiling existing dictionaries and corpora and using a…

  16. TAXONOMY AND STRUCTURE OF HUNGARIAN PERSONALITY-TRAITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SZIRMAK, Z; DERAAD, B

    This study reports on the application of the principles of the lexical approach to a non-Indo-European language, namely Hungarian. This language is a Uralic island surrounded on all sides by Indo-European languages. In addition, the Hungarians are, in terms of cultural features, Europeans. These

  17. Check list of the Hungarian Salticidae with biogeographical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szüts, Tamás

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated check list of the Hungarian jumping spider fauna is presented. 70 species are recorded from Hungary so far. Four species are new to the Hungarian fauna: Hasarius adansoni, Neon valentulus, Sitticus caricis, Synageles subcingulatus. With 12 original drawings.

  18. SANCTIONING DUPLICATION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND PENAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cabrera Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first approach from the point of view of jurisprudence, to the recurring problem of concurrency sanctions in cases where further intervention of the courts has become necessary for administrative action. In this regard, the main judgments of both the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court is, that have shaped the decisions that must be applied from the administrative level, in particular by educational inspectors, when it is foreseeable that it can produce a duplication of disciplinary procedures in the two areas, penal and administrative.

  19. Food irradiation and Hungarian experiences with it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Kiss, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Among the different types of food irradiation techniques using ionizing radiations the methods serving - in a direct or indirect way - the purposes of health protection are reviewed. Based on foreign and Hungarian examples radurization of vegetables (potatoes, onions, garlics) by low irradiation doses, radiosterilization of corn, tropic and subtropic fruits, radicidation of dry additivies (spice, medicinal herb) and foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, poultry, egg, fish, shrimp, etc.) are discussed. The general situation of food irradiation in Hungary inlcuding licensing procedures is evaluated. (V.N.) 32 refs.; 3 figs.

  20. Thermoluminescence dating of some Hungarian medieval churches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, I.; Bajnoczy, G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dating of three Hungarian historic churches was performed using the quarz inclusion technique and sup(60)Co gamma irradiation. Quarz grains obtained from the bricks were irradiated and the radiation doses were measured by CaSOsub(4):Dy TL dosemeters. Glow curves of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were also measured. From the results it was concluded that the ages of two churches were 10 and 30 percent less, respectively, than the ages estimated earlier. The age of the third church proved to be correct. (R.P.)

  1. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  2. To What Extent are Domestic Penal Laws Retroactive for Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    Hard or soft law most countries have at least a piece of statutory enactment, which provides for the non-retroactivity of penal law. Non retroactivity of penal laws also forms part of fundamental rights of the citizens in the Constitution, the supreme law of the country of the Republic of Mauritius which provide in its section 10(4).

  3. CHALLENGES OF HUNGARIAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarians in Ukraine have a well organized educational system that covers institutions from the kindergarten to the university. At first glance it may look like that the maintenance of the Transcarpathian Hungarians in Ukraine is guaranteed, however,we have to see that minority education (which is one of the key-issue of the maintenance of the community is threatened by several factors. In the given paper I will take under investigation only two of these factors. On the one hand the Ukrainian state language policy would like to strengthen the position of the state language even at the expense of other languages and education is used as a means of achieving these aims. On the other hand, while education is one of the effective and powerful means of achieving social goals of the minority and choosing the language of instruction is a crucial part of language education policy, minority universities neglect serious language planning activity. It is high time for every institute to work out an individual university language policy taking into account their own aims and personal conditions.

  4. Ottoman-Hungarian Conflict through Venetian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeynep YELÇE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The new phase in Ottoman-Hungarian relations starting with the ascension of Süleyman I and the following period of conflict have been thoroughly examined by scholars; causes and effects have been analyzed; and the process has been evaluated in a wide array of perspectives ranging from evaluations as a process of glorious conquest to a process of tragic enslavement. This paper moves away from such grand narratives to explore the way the process was perceived by contemporaries as they lived through the conflict. As such, this paper focuses on the letters of Lorenzo Orio, the Venetian ambassador in Buda between 1519-1523. From his arrival in Buda on June 5, 1519, to his presentation of his report to the Pregadi on December 22, 1523; Orio has been a close witness of the relations and conflicts between the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and the Hungarians. The information offered by Orio in these tumultuous times, as he tried to present a neutral stance for Venice, has not only added to the soft power of Venice but presents us the experience and perception of an era. In other words, it opens a window to the rumors, gossip, fears, and hopes in the daily lives of the contemporaries.

  5. La Reforma del Código Penal en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Asunción Moreno Castillo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available La redacción de un nuevo Código Penal podría calificarse de urgente necesidad si tenemos en cuenta que nuestras normas penales no se adecuan a las exigencias jurídicas, sociales y políticas de un Estado Social Democrático y de Derecho, pues el Código Penal vigente (1974 no es más que un texto parchado por todas partes, e incluso en alguna ocasión doblemente parchado, que no aguanta más remiendos. De ahí la necesidad de la redacción y aprobación de un texto penal que obedezca a las nuevas tendencias político criminales y postulados del Derecho penal moderno.

  6. Hungarian system for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsi, Laszlo; Szabo, Laszlo; Ronaky, Jozsef

    2000-01-01

    The Hungarian Government had established in 1989 on the basis of national and international experience the National System for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness (NSNEP). Its guidance is ad-ministered by the Governmental Commission for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness (GCNEP). The work of the Governmental Commission is designated to be assisted by the Secretariat, the Operational Staff and by the Technical Scientific Council. The leading and guiding duties of the relevant ministries and national agencies are performed by the Sectional Organisations for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness (SONEP), together with those of the Metropolitan Agencies and of the county agencies by the Metropolitan Local Committee (MLCNEP) and by County Local Committees. The chairman of the Governmental Commission is the Minister of the Interior whose authority covers the guidance of the NSNEP's activities. The Secretariat of the Governmental Commission (SGC) co-ordinates the activities of the bodies of the Governmental Commission, the sectional organisations, the local committees for nuclear emergency preparedness and those of the other bodies responsible for implementing action. The Emergency Information Centre (EIC) of GCNEP as the central body of the National Radiation Monitoring, Warning and Surveillance System provides the information needed for preparing decisions at Governmental Commission level. The technical-scientific establishment of the governmental decisions in preparation for nuclear emergency situations and the elimination of their consequences are tasks of the Technical-Scientific Council. The Centre for Emergency Response, Training and Analysis (CERTA) of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) may be treated as a body of the Governmental Commission as well. The National Radiation Monitoring, Warning and Surveillance System (NRMWSS) is integral part of the NSNEP. The NRMWSS consists of the elements operated by the ministries and the operation of nation-wide measuring network in

  7. Internet map of the Hungarian nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenyei, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The increasing role of Internet in the dissemination of information cannot be questioned. The organisations dealing with public information have to face with this challenge. New methods and ways are needed in order to effectively use this opportunity. An effective communication requires certain knowledge on the characteristics of the target group. The present situation on the Internet use in Hungary has been studied by a number of public opinion polls. In Europe Hungary is the eleventh in the row concerning the population percentage of Internet users. At the same time it is hard to define the exact number as it is continuously increasing. From the public opinion polls it can be seen that about 49 % of active Internet users, about 37 percent seek for information on the Internet. The organisations playing role in nuclear field includes nuclear facilities, research institutes, regulatory bodies as well as civil associations. Almost all of them realised the importance of the appearance on the Internet and have their web site. Among the web-sites of the Hungarian nuclear facilities the new home page of the Paks NPP (www.npp.hu) is especially well designed and worth to visit. The Atomic Energy Research Institute operates the 10 MW Budapest Research Reactor. The main features of the reactor can be found on the web site of the institute (www.kfki.hu/~aekihp/). Information about the research possibilities of the training reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Technical University of Budapest is provided on the web site (www.reak.bme.hu). The web site of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (www.haea.gov.hu) has been renewed recently. Certainly, the list of the web sites of the Hungarian organisations active in nuclear field cannot be complete as it is a continuously evolving area. Nevertheless one can see that the players realised the importance of the challenge given by the Internet. While considerable effort is needed to maintain and refresh the web site

  8. Castigo penal, injusticia social y autoridad moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rivera López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La pregunta que exploro en este trabajo es si la injusticia social puede socavar la autoridad moral de la sociedad (y los tribunales para castigar al que delinque. La respuesta a esta pregunta depende esencialmente de cuál sea la teoría justificatoria del castigo penal de la que se parte. Analizo diversas teorías de la pena, entre ellas la teoría consensual de Carlos Nino. Mi objetivo es explorar de qué modo las diferentes teorías de la pena enfrentan el desafío que plantea la pregunta y extraer algunas conclusiones tentativas de ese recorrido.

  9. El concepto de terrorismo en derecho internacional penal

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Tomàs, Clàudia

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en el estudio de la incidencia del concepto de terrorismo en la represión efectiva del delito de terrorismo en el marco del derecho internacional. Por ello, ha sido necesario dividir el trabajo en una primera parte sobre el estudio de la definición del terrorismo en derecho penal internacional y una segunda parte sobre su estudio en derecho internacional penal, específicamente en el contexto de la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI). En la primera parte analizaremos las def...

  10. Estimating wage equations for Hungarian higher-education graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Galasi, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the wage determination of Hungarian highereducation graduates with using two samples of Hungarian careerbeginners, applying IV techniques and the multiple indicator solution so as to diminish potential estimation biases due to endogeneity of independent variables (especially the education variable) and the simultaneity of wages and working time. The results show that university education yields considerable wage premium as compared to college education, and that the ret...

  11. Innovation and Internationalization of Hungarian SMEs in the IT Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csonka László

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to look at the extent and type of internationalization among Hungarian information technology (IT small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the possible relationship between the degree of innovativeness and the internationalization of these companies. Information technologies play an important role in the Hungarian economy: this sector is one of the most R&D intensive industries in which many SMEs are active.

  12. Twenty years of isotope applications in the Hungarian aluminium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1982-01-01

    After a short review of the isotope techniques applied in the Hungarian aluminium industry some special applications and their results are briefly outlined. Industrial and laboratory scale trace constituent determinations, isotope and activation analytical methods and the application of sealed radiation sources are discussed. It has been shown that the related R+D activity followed closely the development trends of the aluminium industry. The references given is a comprehensive bibliography of Hungarian publications in this field. (author)

  13. The New Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian Idioms and Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárdosi Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly surveying the research carried out in Hungary on the origin of sayings, proverbs and adages, this paper introduces and exemplifies the way the new Hungarian phraseological etymological dictionary has been compiled. It subsequently presents excerpts from the dictionary that will expound on the origin of 1800 set phrases and statistically analyses the linguistic, cultural-historical, historical, literary, ethnographic and intercultural background of the Hungarian set phrases included in the dictionary.

  14. artículo 9 del Código Penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Felipe Sánchez Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo 9 del Código Penal colombiano define, como norma rectora del sistema penal, la conducta punible. Este texto, cuestionando la recepción acrítica de doctrinas extranjeras al ordenamiento jurídico (y también códi - gos, normas, etc., expone algunos de los puntos más trascendentales de la teoría del delito, entre ellos, el concepto de conducta, desvalor de acción y re - sultado, relación de causalidad e imputación, ubicación sistemática del dolo y el tratamiento penal de los imputables a través de las interpretaciones de la doctrina penal colombiana.

  15. On the decennium of penal order procedure in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author defines the notion and explains the penal order procedure and its general characteristics. It is one of the special simplified criminal proceedings, which has got special basis and special structure. This procedural form is ultimately aimed at the rationalization of the criminal procedure. It is achieved by avoiding the main hearing in the trial proceeding. The author presents the evolution of the penal order in Serbia from 2001 to 2011. He points to some legal innovations in this field during that decennium. He compares old and new legal provisions about penal order and finds some differences. There is a constant tendency to expanding the area of criminal offences which can be judged in this procedural form. New legal provisions are, in general, better than previous. However, the practice has shown that application of penal order is too small. The previous practice does not live up to expectations of theory and legislator.

  16. La prolusione di rocco e le dottrine del processo penale

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Orlandi

    2015-01-01

    L’articolo analizza le conseguenze del pensiero giuridico di Arturo Rocco, dal 1910 nella dottrina di procedura penale, ossia, il metodo tecnico-giuridico (esegesi, sistematica e critica). La dogmatica di procedura pena- le inizia con la monografia di Giovanni Conso, nel 1955. L’insoddisfazione con il tecnicismo giuridico e con la mancanza di maturità scientifica si è manifestata con Carnelutti nel 1946 (Cerenterola), sottolineando le peculiarità strutturali del procedimento penale. In questa...

  17. Juridical-penal aspects of the cesium-137 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Carolina Chaves

    1997-01-01

    The study of the juridical-penal aspects of the Cesium-137 accident, has, as a base, the police inquiry and the penal lawsuit concerning to the episode. Due to the lack of a law which typified activities related with radioisotope material as crime, the responsible were sentenced according to the penalties of body injury crime and homicide. Among the 10 investigated people, only 5 were condemned by the Judiciary and only 4 serve the sentence. (author)

  18. An attempt to categorize Hungarian community currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Szemerédi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of complementary currencies in the 1980s there have been numerous attempts to classify them, despite that the terms local currency, community currency and many others describing place-based monetary tools are not considered similarly by scholars. The local currencies take many forms, and local governments play different roles in their emergence and development. In Hungary there has been an increasing attention and discussion around the idea of implementing these alternative monetary tools. There is a growing number of working complementary currencies in Hungary, but academic research focuses mostly on whether these can contribute to the local development and what kind of effects they have. The aim of this paper is to present a possible categorization of Hungarian complementary currencies based on the role local governments played in their implementation. I evaluate whether these community currencies are effective at first, and attempt to categorize them based on their purpose, association form and their relationships with local governments, with the purpose of increasing awareness for these initiatives in the process of policy-making.

  19. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  20. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino (México

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y comprensión del nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales de Veracruz resulta ineludible, en virtud de las nítidas diferencias existentes entre las figuras jurídicas que contiene el actual ordenamiento, en comparación con el anterior. Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión. El contenido esquemático y sustancial del código, la visión y recepción que del mismo tienen los operadores jurídicos y la sociedad en general, son aspectos que cubre el presente documento. The study and understanding of the new Code of Criminal Procedure of Veracruz is unavoidable, by reason of the sharp differences between the legal concepts that contains the actual order, compared with the previous. Needs to be systematized, describe and analyze the structure of the adversarial criminal system, in order to be able to evaluate and, if necessary, propose improvements to the system in question. The schematic and substantial content of the code, viewing and welcome that the same have the legal practitioners and society in general, are aspects covered by herein.

  1. Rama in the royal title of the Hungarian kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Tibor D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The region (župa of Rama was enlisted in the official title of the Hungarian kings around 1138, as it is known from an official document. The exact answer to the question under which circumstances it happened has never been reached. It is most probable that Rama was not just other name for Bosnia as it was proposed in historiography, neither was a part of Bosnia conquered by military action of the Hungarian king around 1135. Having in mind that Rama was a part of the principality of Raška during the Early Middle Ages, it is quite possible that Rama became part of the official title of the Hungarian kings through some direct connections between ruling families of Hungary and Raška. The most probable answer could be reached through the examination of these relations. Namely, a daughter of Raška's župan, Uroš I, Helena, was married to the Hungarian crown prince Bela in 1129, when Rama was, most probably, part of Helena's dowry. When the crown prince became king of Hungary in 1131, Rama was included in his royal title. Later on during the Middle Ages Rama became part of Bosnia giving ground to the Hungarian kings to claim whole Bosnia as their heritage. .

  2. DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES OF THE HUNGARIAN-UKRAINIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasztor Szabolcs

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the all pervasive globalisation trends previous state borders have become more permeable and subject to change. As borders disappear previously separated borderlands can unite and form a spatial unit where more increased economic interactions could integrate both sides to the global economy.The European continent is such a case which previously had been puctuated by strong state borders. Today the continent sees the physical and intellectual disappearance of borders. Regional integrations – like the European Union – spur this process and helps the integration of borderland inside and outside of the common market. The creation of a common market was a huge success and still a great deal of benefits are anticipated from the fulfillment. We are not taken by surprise when we see a massive increase in the number of border related studies and researchers. This field is very popular today. However the difference between Western and Eastern Europe is huge because eastern state borders are still strong or they link peripheral regions. There - under the communist times- border crossings were restricted and trade links were quite poor. No wonder that the tendencies of the past are still determining. This paper focuses on of one the most peripheral external borderland of the Schengen zone: the Hungarian-Ukrainian borderland. Expectations are running high and the disappearance of the border is a long-awaited hope. First I take into consideration the relevant economic theory in connection with more intense borderland dynamics. In the literature the trade theory, new economic geography and the traditional location theory approach this question. The approaches do not give coherent and clear-cut answers so I have to turn my attention to different empirical approaches. These show huge heterogeneity depending on the nature and character of the borderlands. In the mentioned case, settlement-level data are not fully available so I conduct a

  3. Hollywood on the Danube: Hungarian Filmmakers in a Transnational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Portuges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exile, emigration and displacement have marked the trajectories of Hungarian filmmakers over the past century. Michael Curtiz, the Korda brothers—Alexander, Vincent and Zoltán—André de Toth, Emeric Pressburger, Vilmos Zsigmond, Miklós Rózsa, Peter Lorre, Géza von Radvány and other talented artists have crossed borders, cultures and languages, creating such classics as Casablanca, Somewhere in Europe, The Red Shoes and The Lost One. The legendary sign posted in Hollywood studios read: "It is not enough to be Hungarian, you have to have talent, too!" Accompanied by film extracts, rare footage, personal interviews, archive photographs, and documentary materials, my presentation explores the transnational odysseys of these Hungarian directors, producers, cinematographers, composers, actors and screenwriters whose artistic contributions became an indispensable part of international cinema, suggesting that the challenges of emigration may also offer opportunities for critique, self-examination and artistic creativity.

  4. [Motivations for foreign employment and carrier change among Hungarian physiotherapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónusz, Róbert; Kovács, Dalma; Raposa, László Bence; Hock, Márta; Decsi, Tamás; Kránicz, János; Endrei, Dóra

    2016-02-28

    An increasing motivation can be experienced among professional workers within the Hungarian healthcare system towards foreign employment or career change. The aim of the authors was to assess Hungarian physiotherapists' migration and career changing behaviour and to understand the underlying factors. A national survey in Hungary from April to August, 2014 was performed. Only physiotherapists who practice in Hungary were included (n = 215). The results suggest that age (pappreciation experienced in the workplace (pappreciated, are 55 times more likely to search for employment outside the country's borders [OR = 55.28 CI (95%) = 18.85 to 161.12]. The most common causes for that are unfavourable financial (pappreciation of the profession within the Hungarian healthcare system.

  5. Development of the security system of the new Hungarian banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfi, Sandor

    2000-04-01

    The more than 75 year old Hungarian Banknote Printing Corporation is an enterprise with a rich history. It is located in the very center of the capital, only some blocks away form the Parliament. Most people on this side of the Atlantic may not even have heard about the Hungarian currency, the Forint. Some may remember that after the WWII it was Hungary, where the severest hyperinflation in the world took place. As we come from a manufacturing company , we can give you information about deliberation and experiences of application of optically variable features on banknotes and some observations made in the past two years since the new Hungarian bank note series is ins circulation.

  6. A New Adaptive Hungarian Mating Scheme in Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanju Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In genetic algorithms, selection or mating scheme is one of the important operations. In this paper, we suggest an adaptive mating scheme using previously suggested Hungarian mating schemes. Hungarian mating schemes consist of maximizing the sum of mating distances, minimizing the sum, and random matching. We propose an algorithm to elect one of these Hungarian mating schemes. Every mated pair of solutions has to vote for the next generation mating scheme. The distance between parents and the distance between parent and offspring are considered when they vote. Well-known combinatorial optimization problems, the traveling salesperson problem, and the graph bisection problem are used for the test bed of our method. Our adaptive strategy showed better results than not only pure and previous hybrid schemes but also existing distance-based mating schemes.

  7. The interdependencies of bilingual behaviour. Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic profile of Hungarian-Romanian bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika-Mária Tódor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the specific features of a school population in Romania for whom Romanian is a non-native language, their mother tongue being Hungarian. The first part of the study offers a description of the main characteristics of the verbal behaviour of this bilingual population. The first subheading will discuss, on the one hand, the linguistic profile of the subjects (linguistic interference, linguistic pseudo-creativity etc. and, on the other hand, it will present the main aspects of the socio-affective dimension of verbal behaviour (such as communicational anguish, displacement of communicational intention, linguistic code switching etc.. Practically, these features can be followed in the case of other bi(multilingual speakers as well. The second part of the paper presents certain lexical and semantic interference and vocabulary activating habits in the case of bilingual persons, relating them to the linguistic context and the linguistic landscape.The formulated data and observations represent a synthesis of empirical research carried out between 2000–2013 through different methods, such as: observation, case studies (within the context of the data referring to the profile of language behaviour, structured interviews and questionnaires (employed in the study of the linguistic landscape. The main aim of this study is to offer a socio- and psycholinguistic profile of Hungarian-Romanian bilingualism set in a holistic context.

  8. Named Entity Recognition in a Hungarian NL Based QA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkl, Domonkos; Szidarovszky, P. Ferenc; Kardkovacs, Zsolt T.; Magyar, Gábor

    In WoW project our purpose is to create a complex search interface with the following features: search in the deep web content of contracted partners' databases, processing Hungarian natural language (NL) questions and transforming them to SQL queries for database access, image search supported by a visual thesaurus that describes in a structural form the visual content of images (also in Hungarian). This paper primarily focuses on a particular problem of question processing task: the entity recognition. Before going into details we give a short overview of the project's aims.

  9. Hungarian activity in cosmic physics in the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Ferenc.

    1987-01-01

    The Hungarian activity in cosmic physics is reviewed. Hungary is participant of the Interkosmos collaboration and participates in research programs to study the Earth's magnetosphere, interplanetary space, solar activity, planets of the Solar system, comets (e.g. Vega project to study Halley's comet). Cosmic geodesy is also cultivated in Hungary. A broadening field of the Hungarian cosmic physical activity is the design and construction of measuring intstruments used on board of probes and those of other space probe components, e.g. power supplies, telemetric and telecommunication systems. A brief summary of recent and future projects is also presented. (D.Gy.)

  10. The Hungarian youth's knowledge and attitude in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petofi, G.; Legradi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)

  11. EL TERRORISMO EN EL CÓDIGO PENAL COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Torres Vásquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se intenta de manera general abordar el terrorismo desde el punto de vista puramente legal, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. En Colombia es necesario y en ello radica este aporte, generar discusión jurídica respecto a la implementación de los delitos de terrorismo. Aquí se pretende puntualizar los tipos penales nuestros y se estudian algunos aspectos imbricados en los mismos, sin que ello sea un aspecto formal y dogmático, sino que alcontrario, es un análisis a la luz de las actuales interpretaciones sobre el terrorismo, lo cual no obsta para hacer algunos muy breves comentarios al respecto. Los elementos constitutivos de los bienes jurídicos Seguridad Pública y Derecho internacional Humanitario son analizados junto a los ingredientes normativos de los dos tipos penales estipulados en nuestro código penal.

  12. Responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídicas

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Castro, Claudia Marcela

    2013-01-01

    La responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídicas es un tema que adquiere cada vez mayor relevancia en una sociedad que sufre constantes cambios, y en la que se perfeccionan cada vez más las formas de cometer delitos. En el presente trabajo se realiza el estudio sobre la evolución de la figura de la responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídicas, abarcando desde el derecho romano hasta nuestros días. En el desarrollo del mismo, se expone el recorrido a través de las diferentes alternativas ...

  13. Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation for univariate normal mixture distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, A.; Idier, J.

    2001-01-01

    Due to singularities of the likelihood function, the maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of the parameters of normal mixture models is an acknowledged ill posed optimization problem. Ill posedness is solved by penalizing the likelihood function. In the Bayesian framework, it amounts to incorporating an inverted gamma prior in the likelihood function. A penalized version of the EM algorithm is derived, which is still explicit and which intrinsically assures that the estimates are not singular. Numerical evidence of the latter property is put forward with a test

  14. Funciones del Fiscal en el Sistema Procesal Penal Acusatorio Ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Oscar Medardo

    2006-01-01

    El art.219 de la Constitución Política vigente, define el nuevo marco legal, para el ejercicio de la acción penal de instancia pública, del Ministerio Público, en concordancia con el Nuevo Código de Procedimiento Penal y la Ley Orgánica del Ministerio Público, instrumentos jurídicos que han permitido el cambio del sistema conocido como inquisitivo , caracterizado por la concentración de funciones en el juez, para dar paso al sistema acusatorio oral que se ha dicho es mas humano, democrático y...

  15. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  16. MEDIASI PENAL SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENYELESAIAN PERKARA PENCURIAN RINGAN (STUDI DI POLRES MALANG KOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hasudungan Hutajulu

    2016-02-01

      Key words: penal mediation, minor theft case, an alternative penal settlement   Abstrak Penelitian mengenai pelaksanaan mediasi penal pada tindak pidana pencurian ringan oleh Polres Malang Kota bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis digunakannya mediasi penal serta menganalisis pelaksanaan mediasi penal sebagai alternatif penyelesaian perkara. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah yuridis sosiologis atau jenis penelitian hukum sosiologis atau penelitian lapangan. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh antara lain: Polres Malang Kota melakukan mediasi penal dengan alasan agar tercipta rasa keadilan terhadap para saksi sehingga masyarakat puas atas pelayanan yang dilakukan penyidik. Selain itu, langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam penerapan mediasi penal ini adalah mempertemukan para pihak, penyidik menyaksikan pengembalian barang yang dicuri oleh pelaku, membantu membuat surat kesepakatan bersama, menerima surat pencabutan perkara serta melakukan gelar perkara.   Kata kunci: mediasi penal, pencurian ringan, alternatif penyelesaian perkara

  17. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  18. Sobre la internacionalización de la justicia penal o el derecho penal como instrumento de guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Zapata, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Hablar de Derecho Penal es, sin lugar a dudas, una labor compleja en la medida en que, como suele ser habitual en el ámbito jurídico, no resulta sencillo delimitar su horizonte de proyección. Dado que la ciencia jurídica se expresa por medio de convenciones lingüísticas, de ella pueden predicarse las mismas falencias y dificultades de que adolecen los términos y las palabras, razón suficiente para advertir que, si se quiere abordar un problema esencial del Derecho Penal en cualquier espacio a...

  19. The stigmatization of obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Prejudice against obese people has been widely confirmed in scientific papers. Therefore, recent studies have increasingly focused on investigating the individual and cultural factors related to attitudes towards obesity. Since there have been no comparative studies involving Gypsy people, our present research aimed at exploring the possible discrepancies in children's attitudes towards obese children between Gypsy and Hungarian cultures. Our survey included 247 children aged 9-16 (108 boys and 139 girls), of which 136 considered themselves Hungarian (55.1 %), while 111 children (44.9 %) claimed themselves as Gypsy. The subjects were asked to rank six male and six female figure drawings according to their preference. Each sequence of figure drawings included a healthy child, an obese child, and four drawings depicted children with disabilities. According to our results, the drawings portraying the healthy child figure were rated most preferable and those portraying the obese child figure the least preferable amongst the subjects regardless of gender and origin. However, the obese girl figures and boy figures were rated significantly more positively by Gypsy children than Hungarian children. Our results suggest that there is a difference in attitude towards obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children. Therefore, it is worthwhile to further explore this phenomenon.

  20. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  1. Chemical composition and utilization of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, B

    1968-01-01

    A review on the composition of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor and on its possible utilization, e.g., for the manufacturing of vanillin, yeast protein, or ethanol, as well as its direct utilization as a plasticizer for cement, additive for insecticides, or in adhesives.

  2. Behaviour Profile of Hungarian Adolescent Outpatients with a Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, Elek; Csorba, Janos; Suli, Agota; Grosz, Zsofia

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour dimensions of 244 Hungarian adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a dual diagnosis (intellectual disability and psychiatric diagnosis) were examined by means of the adapted version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001). Four IQ subgroups were created: borderline, mild, moderate…

  3. Problems of a Declining Hungarian Birth Rate: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Szántó

    2015-01-01

    about 0.15 – 0.20 percent per year, and currently fertility in Hungary is one of the lowest in Europe. The Hungarian age structure will become increasingly problematic as the fertile age group of the population continues to shrink.

  4. Hungarian national nuclear material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendvai, O.

    1985-01-01

    The Hungarian system for nuclear materials control and accounting is briefly described. Sections include a historical overview, a description of nuclear activities and an outline of the organizational structure of the materials management system. Subsequent sections discuss accounting, verification and international relations

  5. Long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvo Dajčman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the fractal structure of the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns. The presence of long memory components in asset returns provides evidence against the weak-form of stock market efficiency. The starting working hypothesis that there is no long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns is tested by applying the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS (1992 test, Lo’s (1991 modified rescaled range (R/S test, and the wavelet ordinary least squares (WOLS estimator of Jensen (1999. The research showed that the WOLS estimator may lead to different conclusions regarding long memory presence in the stock returns from the KPSS and unit root tests or Lo’s R/S test. Furthermore, it proved that the fractal structure of individual stock returns may be masked in aggregated stock market returns (i.e. in returns of stock index. The main finding of the paper is that both the Croatian stock index Crobex and individual stocks in this index exhibit long memory. Long memory is identified for some stocks in the Hungarian stock market as well, but not for the stock market index BUX. Based on the results of the long memory tests, it can be concluded that while the Hungarian stock market is weakform efficient, the Croatian stock market is not.

  6. Translating Shakespeare for the Hungarian Stage: Contemporary Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Szele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents trends in today’s Shakespeare translation in Hungary based on interviews with Hungarian translators and scholars. Instead of a collection of names and dates of translators and translations, it focuses on the organic development of Hungarian Shakespeare translation, which has been going on for more than two hundred years, and tries to fit new developments into the tradition of translating Shakespeare in a theoretical framework. “Hungarian Shakespeare,” now seen as a broad collection of Hungarian translations and adaptations, lives on, is kept alive in theaters, but it is undergoing a process of simplification. It was very hard work to do away with the forced prudishness and mannerism of the nineteenth century Shakespeare translations. After World War II, during the dominance of Communist culture, it was not allowed for several translations of Shakespeare to co-exist, so a politically appointed committee was set up to decide which one fit into the official canon. Only the selected texts could be printed and used in performances. After the political changes in Hungary in 1989, there was an upsurge of interest in Shakespeare, and since the 1990s there has been an unprecedented plurality of Shakespeare translations. I aim to examine the processes that led to the development of today’s easy-to-understand and naturalistic translations, and to the abandonment of century-old classical ones.

  7. US-Hungarian Relations Ten Years After 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Glant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 1966, the tenth anniversary of the 1956 Revolution, was a key year in US–Hungarian relations. Diplomatic relations were raised from the lowest to the highest level, but suspicion and tension remained. Neither side knew what to expect from the other on account of the anniversary, the Vietnam War, economic and cultural negotiations, and the fate of Cardinal Mindszenty. A traditional diplomatic historical approach is supplemented here with cultural materials to present the full scale of contacts ranging from high political issues to the visit of Hollywood movie star Kirk Douglas in Budapest. First Secretary of the Legation for Press and Cultural Affairs Edward Alexander receives special attention, because he played a crucial role in the events of 1966. As press secretary, he helped calm Hungarian fears over what American journalists might report about the anniversary, while as cultural affairs officer he worked on documenting and expanding American cultural presence in Hungary. In the latter capacity, he opened the USIA Library at the Legation, fraternized with blacklisted painters of the Zuglói Kör [‘Zugló Circle’], monitored the Hungarian stage production of My Fair Lady, and reported on the publication of American literature in Hungarian.

  8. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  9. Euthanasia in the Broader Framework of Dutch Penal Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have regarded euthanasia in the broader framework of Dutch penal policies. They present euthanasia as a typical example of the pragmatic - rather than dogmatic - way the Dutch try to tackle difficult moral problems in connection with the criminal justice system. Definitions, statutory

  10. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  11. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  12. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sums of bonds. 24.148 Section 24.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Vinegar Plant Bond, TTB F 5510.2 Not less than the tax on all wine on hand, in transit, or unaccounted for...

  13. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  14. Advanced colorectal neoplasia risk stratification by penalized logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunzhi; Yu, Menggang; Wang, Sijian; Chappell, Richard; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. To facilitate the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening, there is a need to stratify risk for colorectal cancer among the 90% of US residents who are considered "average risk." In this article, we investigate such risk stratification rules for advanced colorectal neoplasia (colorectal cancer and advanced, precancerous polyps). We use a recently completed large cohort study of subjects who underwent a first screening colonoscopy. Logistic regression models have been used in the literature to estimate the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia based on quantifiable risk factors. However, logistic regression may be prone to overfitting and instability in variable selection. Since most of the risk factors in our study have several categories, it was tempting to collapse these categories into fewer risk groups. We propose a penalized logistic regression method that automatically and simultaneously selects variables, groups categories, and estimates their coefficients by penalizing the [Formula: see text]-norm of both the coefficients and their differences. Hence, it encourages sparsity in the categories, i.e. grouping of the categories, and sparsity in the variables, i.e. variable selection. We apply the penalized logistic regression method to our data. The important variables are selected, with close categories simultaneously grouped, by penalized regression models with and without the interactions terms. The models are validated with 10-fold cross-validation. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the penalized regression models dominate the receiver operating characteristic curve of naive logistic regressions, indicating a superior discriminative performance. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DO DIREITO PENAL DO INIMIGO DE GÜNTHER JAKOBS

    OpenAIRE

    Pilati, Rachel Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar criticamente o Direito Penal do inimigo, verificando sua compatibilidade com o Estado Democrático de Direito e o princípio penal do fato. A primeira parte traz um panorama da política criminal atual no Brasil, situa a teoria do Direito Penal do inimigo nesse contexto, e explica a teoria de Jakobs. No segundo tópico, a teoria de Jakobs é analisada criticamente.Palavras-chave: Direito Penal. Inimigo. Jakobs. Estado Democrático de Direito. Princípio Penal d...

  16. Justicia penal en el Estado arbitrario. La reforma procesal penal durante el nacionalsocialismo, de Javier Llobet Rodríguez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Bernal Sarmiento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La obra del profesor Dr. Javier Llobet Rodríguez, catedrático de la Universidad de Costa Rica y abogado litigante, se inserta en una corriente de trabajos surgidos en los últimos diez años en Alemania, España y Latinoamérica relacionados con la identificación del papel que pudieron haber cumplido el derecho penal y la criminología, lo mismo que sus académicos y operadores judiciales, en el proceso de justificación, legitimación formal y aplicación práctica de la barbarie del régimen nacional socialista que lideró Adolf Hitler. En línea de continuidad con sus trabajos de investigación sobre la presunción de inocencia, la detención preventiva y las garantías procesales, Llobet nos propone en Justicia penal en el Estado arbitrario, la reforma procesal penal durante el nacionalsocialismo, analizar la importancia de las garantías del debido proceso estudiando para ello su antítesis, ejemplificada en la actuación meramente policial y la reforma procesal penal que se llevo a cabo durante el nacionalsocialismo   

  17. Environmental penal law. Legal foundations, aspects of administrative law, practical applications. Umweltstrafrecht. Gesetzliche Grundlagen, verwaltungsrechtliche Zusammenhaenge und praktische Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinberg, V. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Auslaendisches und Internationales Strafrecht, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany, F.R.)); Moehrenschlager, M. (Bundesministerium der Justiz, Bonn (Germany, F.R.)); Link, W. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    The book intends to present the complexity of the penal code pertaining to environmental protection including the law on environmental offences in a way which makes the subject understandable for the reader. It is therefore not limited to the criminal law proper but looks at the administrative background and aspect of legal proceedings under these laws. Each area is dealt with by specialists from science and practice. The book is adressed to the experts in judiciary administration, industry, science and the interested layman. (orig.).

  18. CORPORATION CRIME LIABILITY OF PERSPECTIVE PENAL REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Siku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.

  19. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshkumar P. Joshi; Hugh D. Sherman; John R. Schermerhorn, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likel...

  20. Hungarian experience in using the IAEA planning methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacsko, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. has been using the IAEA planning methodologies since 1985 when it acquired the WASP model. Since then this model has been applied on a regular basis to determine the least cost expansion plan of the power generating system of the country. This report describes this experience as well as the application of the WASP model for other types of studies. (author)

  1. Delineating the genetic heterogeneity of OCA in Hungarian patients

    OpenAIRE

    F?bos, Be?ta; Farkas, Katalin; T?th, Lola; Sul?k, Adrienn; Tripolszki, Korn?lia; Tihanyi, Mariann; N?meth, R?ka; Vas, Krisztina; Csoma, Zsanett; Kem?ny, Lajos; Sz?ll, M?rta; Nagy, Nikoletta

    2017-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogenic group of pigmentation abnormalities characterized by variable hair, skin, and ocular hypopigmentation. Six known genes and a locus on human chromosome 4q24 have been implicated in the etiology of isolated OCA forms (OCA 1?7). Methods The most frequent OCA types among Caucasians are OCA1, OCA2, and OCA4. We aimed to investigate genes responsible for the development of these OCA forms in Hungarian OCA patients ...

  2. Hungarian experience in using the IAEA planning methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacsko, M [Hungarian Power Companis Ltd, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-09-01

    The Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. has been using the IAEA planning methodologies since 1985 when it acquired the WASP model. Since then this model has been applied on a regular basis to determine the least cost expansion plan of the power generating system of the country. This report describes this experience as well as the application of the WASP model for other types of studies. (author).

  3. Hungarian-Vietnamese Nuclear Energy Train the Trainers Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aszódi, Attila; Boros, Ildikó; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Kiss, István

    2014-01-01

    HUVINETT 2012-2013: Hungarian-Vietnamese Nuclear Energy „Train the Trainers” Course: HUVINETT Courses at Paks NPP - • 3 weeks of practice oriented training; • Practical application of nuclear theory and knowledge; • Plant technology; • Importance of nuclear safety; • Behavioral standards and required attitude in a nuclear power plant; • Practice in real working environment: – Maintenance Performance Improvement Center; – Simulator; – Labs and workshops of the plant

  4. Bayesian Analysis for Penalized Spline Regression Using WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian M. Crainiceanu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Penalized splines can be viewed as BLUPs in a mixed model framework, which allows the use of mixed model software for smoothing. Thus, software originally developed for Bayesian analysis of mixed models can be used for penalized spline regression. Bayesian inference for nonparametric models enjoys the flexibility of nonparametric models and the exact inference provided by the Bayesian inferential machinery. This paper provides a simple, yet comprehensive, set of programs for the implementation of nonparametric Bayesian analysis in WinBUGS. Good mixing properties of the MCMC chains are obtained by using low-rank thin-plate splines, while simulation times per iteration are reduced employing WinBUGS specific computational tricks.

  5. Penal managerialism from within: implications for theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheliotis, Leonidas K

    2006-01-01

    Unlike the bulk of penological scholarship dealing with managerialist reforms, this article calls for greater theoretical and research attention to the often pernicious impact of managerialism on criminal justice professionals. Much in an ideal-typical fashion, light is shed on: the reasons why contemporary penal bureaucracies endeavor systematically to strip criminal justice work of its inherently affective nature; the structural forces that ensure control over officials; the processes by which those forces come into effect; and the human consequences of submission to totalitarian bureaucratic milieus. It is suggested that the heavy preoccupation of present-day penality with the predictability and calculability of outcomes entails the atomization of professionals and the dehumanization of their work. This is achieved through a kaleidoscope of direct and indirect mechanisms that naturalize and/or legitimate acquiescence.

  6. Between the Word of the Law and Practice: a Case of the Hungarian Speakers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Marija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper initially presents the Serbian legislative framework relevant to the use of minority languages. The ethnolinguistic vitality of the Hungarian-speaking population in Serbia is then analysed, particularly in the Serbian province of Vojvodina. The paper then focuses upon the sociolinguistic survey of Hungarian language use in Belgrade. The emphasis is placed upon the survey responses related to the awareness of language rights among the Hungarian speakers.

  7. What do the Hungarian young people think about the nuclear?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmandi, T.; Aszodi, A.; Boros, I.; Hanti, A.; Legradi, G.; Petofi, G. [Budapest University of Technology and Economys, Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest (Hungary)

    2001-07-01

    During the last few years new challenges and opportunities appeared on the nuclear agenda, like the improvement of the economic competitiveness, enhancing radiation and waste safety, strengthening of the role of the public acceptance. It seems that the future of the nuclear industry depends on several things. On the one hand the scientific and technical development in the last decades worked up sufficient nuclear safety and radiation protection, and nuclear methods are widely used in the industry, agriculture and medical systems, as well. On the other hand there are some other interesting questions, like Human Relations and the public acceptance of the nuclear energy still lying ahead of us. The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1998 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to answer the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this paper our experience what we have drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth is summarised. (author)

  8. What do the Hungarian young people think about the nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Aszodi, A.; Boros, I.; Hanti, A.; Legradi, G.; Petofi, G.

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years new challenges and opportunities appeared on the nuclear agenda, like the improvement of the economic competitiveness, enhancing radiation and waste safety, strengthening of the role of the public acceptance. It seems that the future of the nuclear industry depends on several things. On the one hand the scientific and technical development in the last decades worked up sufficient nuclear safety and radiation protection, and nuclear methods are widely used in the industry, agriculture and medical systems, as well. On the other hand there are some other interesting questions, like Human Relations and the public acceptance of the nuclear energy still lying ahead of us. The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1998 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to answer the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this paper our experience what we have drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth is summarised. (author)

  9. The Notion of the Foreign in Hungarian and Bulgarian Phraseologisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesnichkova Lilyana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation between the native and the foreign is a problem that focuses research efforts on a number of humanities, e.g. cultural studies, anthropology, linguistics, ethnography, etc. The following report analyses the notion of the foreign, the other, the different, reflected in the phraseological wealth of the Hungarian and Bulgarian languages. The reviewed phrasemes concentrate the shock upon collision with the different or evaluation of the experience gained in the continuous communication with the other. The foreign is usually individualized by outlining and exaggerating some of its characteristics using parallels, oppositions, and metaphors. The negative attitudes and judgments prevail over the others: the fear of the collective “I” losing its own identity creates a negative attitude towards the foreign, distorted, or wrong notion of the other and the different. Many of the idioms reflect interethnic relations from times long gone, and so they are no longer a significant part of the active vocabulary of Hungarians and Bulgarians. Their analysis, however, is of great interest as they preserve the collective memory of the Hungarian and Bulgarian cultural communities and reveal their traditional notions and knowledge.

  10. [Validation of Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI) with school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibi, Sándor; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Szabo, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of smartphones generates new habits and behaviors among the users, including schoolchildren. Advance technology-based applications, capturing interest and attention, influence cognitive focus and time spent with the device. Examination of these factors points toward the risk of addiction, as well as the deprivations sensations associated with the latter, that call for scholastic attention. The aim of this study was to validate a Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI), to gauge the deprivation feelings and their severity in schoolchildren when they cannot access their device. A 9-item, 7-point, agree-disagree inventory was developed on the basis of an earlier exercise deprivation scale (Robbins and Joseph, 1985). The inventory was completed by 258 Hungarian schoolchildren (mean age=12.4 ± SD = 1.71 years). The participants also completed the Hungarian version of the Brief Addiction to Smartphone Scale (BASS). An exploratory factor analysis of the HSDI yielded a single factor that accounted for 55.84 % of the variance. The internal consistency of the inventory was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Content validity of the HSDI was checked by comparing the scores of those scoring above and below the median on the BASS that yielded statistically significant differences (p smartphone access in schoolchildren.

  11. The Greek charter of the Hungarian King Stephen I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkovski Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Hungarian Christian ruler, King Stephen I (997-1038 issued several charters that have survived to this day. One of them is the charter issued on behalf of the nuns from the Monastery of the Holy Theotokos in Veszprémvölgy. The charter was written in the Greek language, and has been the subject of many studies. The original has not been preserved; what remains is a copy from the time of King Coloman, dated to 1109. The charter has not been published in a critical edition in any language other than Hungarian and even though it has been examined by numerous Hungarian scholars, many questions remain open. The aim of the author is to provide a critical edition and an English translation of the charter, but also to clarify some remaining doubts about the charter and its contents. Furthermore, some comparisons will be made with the Byzantine charters issued at the beginning of the 11th and during the 12th century.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  13. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  14. A Penalization-Gradient Algorithm for Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Moudafi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the study of a penalization-gradient algorithm for solving variational inequalities, namely, find x̅∈C such that 〈Ax̅,y-x̅〉≥0 for all y∈C, where A:H→H is a single-valued operator, C is a closed convex set of a real Hilbert space H. Given Ψ:H→R  ∪  {+∞} which acts as a penalization function with respect to the constraint x̅∈C, and a penalization parameter βk, we consider an algorithm which alternates a proximal step with respect to ∂Ψ and a gradient step with respect to A and reads as xk=(I+λkβk∂Ψ-1(xk-1-λkAxk-1. Under mild hypotheses, we obtain weak convergence for an inverse strongly monotone operator and strong convergence for a Lipschitz continuous and strongly monotone operator. Applications to hierarchical minimization and fixed-point problems are also given and the multivalued case is reached by replacing the multivalued operator by its Yosida approximate which is always Lipschitz continuous.

  15. La justicia del menor: edades penales, realidades y expectativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix PANTOJA GARCIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La ley orgánica 4/92, reguladora de la competencia y el procedimiento de los Juzgados de Menores, otorga al Ministerio Fiscal una serie de competencias que, sin duda alguna, pueden calificarse como de protección de menores. Si bien la ley orgánica referida llene como objetivo establecer un procedimiento para aquellos menores de 16 años y mayores de 12 que han infringido las leyes penales (Código Penal y Leyes Penales especiales y, en consecuencia, expresa el reproche social de sus conductas, no cabe duda de que la pretensión procesal que se desprende de una interpretación sistemática de la Ley es evidentemente educativa, por lo que la responsabilidad atribuida al Fiscal, en cuanto que postula ante el Juzgado la imposición de una medida, es necesariamente protectora. El anteproyecto de Ley de Justicia Juvenil avanza en el camino indicado, y así se manifiesta claramente en su Exposición de Motivos; se trata de “una ley sancionadora de naturaleza primordialmente educativa y no propiamente penal”.

  16. Penal reform in Africa: The case of prison chaplaincy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Penal reform is a challenge across the world. In Africa, those who are incarcerated are especially vulnerable and often deprived of basic human rights. Prison conditions are generally dire, resources are limited, and at times undue force is used to control inmates. The public attitude towards offenders is also not encouraging. Reform efforts include finding alternative ways of sentencing such as community service, making use of halfway houses and reducing sentences. These efforts have not yet yielded the desired results. The four principles of retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation guide penal practice in Africa. Retribution and rehabilitation stand in tension. Deterrence and incapacitation aim at forcing inmates to conform to the social order. The article argues that prison chaplaincy can make a valuable contribution to restoring the dignity and humanity of those who are incarcerated. Chaplaincy can contribute to improving attitudes and practices in the penal system and society. In addition to the social objective of rehabilitation, prison ministry can, on a spiritual level, also facilitate repentance, forgiveness and reconciliation. The aim is the holistic restoration of human beings.

  17. A penalized framework for distributed lag non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Scheipl, Fabian; Armstrong, Ben; Kenward, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) are a modelling tool for describing potentially non-linear and delayed dependencies. Here, we illustrate an extension of the DLNM framework through the use of penalized splines within generalized additive models (GAM). This extension offers built-in model selection procedures and the possibility of accommodating assumptions on the shape of the lag structure through specific penalties. In addition, this framework includes, as special cases, simpler models previously proposed for linear relationships (DLMs). Alternative versions of penalized DLNMs are compared with each other and with the standard unpenalized version in a simulation study. Results show that this penalized extension to the DLNM class provides greater flexibility and improved inferential properties. The framework exploits recent theoretical developments of GAMs and is implemented using efficient routines within freely available software. Real-data applications are illustrated through two reproducible examples in time series and survival analysis. © 2017 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  18. La prolusione di rocco e le dottrine del processo penale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Orlandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo analizza le conseguenze del pensiero giuridico di Arturo Rocco, dal 1910 nella dottrina di procedura penale, ossia, il metodo tecnico-giuridico (esegesi, sistematica e critica. La dogmatica di procedura pena- le inizia con la monografia di Giovanni Conso, nel 1955. L’insoddisfazione con il tecnicismo giuridico e con la mancanza di maturità scientifica si è manifestata con Carnelutti nel 1946 (Cerenterola, sottolineando le peculiarità strutturali del procedimento penale. In questa prospettiva, il testo sottolinea la conferenza di Franco Cordero nel 1964 (Lecce, così come le lezioni da James Goldschmidt. Inoltre, negli anni sessanta, divennero importanti diritti fondamentali, di fronte alla Costituzione democratica, con un nuovo orientamento dottrinale. Il diritto processuale penale è stato considerato come diritto costituzionale applicato. Si segnalano gli insegnamenti di Amodio, Amato, Chiavario, Ferrua, Grevi, Iluminati, Massa e Nobili. Successivamente, l’articolo mette in evidenza il CPP del 1988, l’internazionalizzazione dei sistemi giuridici, l’importanza del diritto comparato e dei diritti fondamentali. Si conclude con il nuovo ordine mondiale dei diplomi internazionali e tribunali sovranazionali, con nuove esigenze, oltre il tecnicismo giuridico.

  19. STRONG ORACLE OPTIMALITY OF FOLDED CONCAVE PENALIZED ESTIMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Xue, Lingzhou; Zou, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Folded concave penalization methods have been shown to enjoy the strong oracle property for high-dimensional sparse estimation. However, a folded concave penalization problem usually has multiple local solutions and the oracle property is established only for one of the unknown local solutions. A challenging fundamental issue still remains that it is not clear whether the local optimum computed by a given optimization algorithm possesses those nice theoretical properties. To close this important theoretical gap in over a decade, we provide a unified theory to show explicitly how to obtain the oracle solution via the local linear approximation algorithm. For a folded concave penalized estimation problem, we show that as long as the problem is localizable and the oracle estimator is well behaved, we can obtain the oracle estimator by using the one-step local linear approximation. In addition, once the oracle estimator is obtained, the local linear approximation algorithm converges, namely it produces the same estimator in the next iteration. The general theory is demonstrated by using four classical sparse estimation problems, i.e., sparse linear regression, sparse logistic regression, sparse precision matrix estimation and sparse quantile regression.

  20. Sociolinguistic and Contact-induced Variation in Hungarian Language Use in Subcarpathia, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Csernicskó

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to showing regional and social variation, the language use of the minority Hungarians of Subcarpathia, Ukraine, also presents a reflection of the region’s complex linguistic history and its effects from contact with Russian and Ukrainian. On the basis of quantitative empirical findings, this study shows Subcarpathian Hungarians to be a sociolinguistically stratified group of speakers whose Hungarian language use varies in a systematic manner according to sex, age, level of education, and place of residence. The paper also outlines some of the main differences in the language use of Hungarians in Subcarpathia and Hungary which are manifested in statistically significant ways.

  1. Los delitos sexuales: la ley y la práctica judicial en la Provincia de Buenos Aires durante el período de codifcación del derecho penal argentino (1877-1892.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Sedeillan.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After the passage of the frst penal code in the Province of Buenos Aires in 1877, judges interpreted it in such a way so that the victims of rape and statutory rape had to press charges rather than the state directly seeking justice. This regulation of judicial procedure led to profound transformations in legal practice, operating more as an obstacle than a beneft to the protection of victim’s right by limiting their ability to take part in the legal proceedings as plaintiffs, which made it impossible to punish the accused. The reigning norm in the national Penal Code was reformed in order to reconcile the law with the social reality of the victims and make it possible to effectively protect the rights of those who fled the lawsuit with the state. We confine this work to the period from 1877-1892 in order to analyze the application and interpretation of the provincial penal code and the changes introduced with the sanction of the national Penal Code in the judicial branch.

  2. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  3. The application of heptadecanoic acid (HDA) labelled with Hungarian-made 123I with a Hungarian method in human diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Pszota, Agnes; Koernyei, Jozsef; Lakatos, Mihaly; Mahunka, Imre; Mikecz, Pal

    1988-01-01

    In 15 examinations made in ergometric load and 2 in quiet state the regional distributions of the uptake of 123 I-HDA and that of 201 Tl coincided. HDA kinetics was also analyzed by computerized circumferential profile programme and it was demonstrated that the results of the examinations made previously with foreign-made preparate are comparable with those of the Hungarian one. (author) 13 refs.; 7 figs

  4. Garantismo penal para quem? O discurso penal liberal drente à sua desconstrução pela criminologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Helena D`Arbo Alves de Freitas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2017v38n75p129 O presente artigo versa sobre a efetividade das garantias individuais e o reflexo dessa problemática no acesso à justiça penal brasileira. Apesar de o discurso idealista-garantista apresentar os instrumentos possíveis para defesa dos acusados e para isonomia de tratamento aos sujeitos do processo, a realidade processual indica que esse discurso é meramente retórico e limitado ao plano teórico-abstrato, com dificuldades de se concretizar no plano prático-reformista. O trabalho é bibliográfico e desenvolve conceitos relativos à seletividade e as formas de controle do poder punitivo. Para abordagem do tema, partiu-se da perspectiva crítica do garantismo penal proposto por Luigi Ferrajoli.

  5. UNELE PROBLEME ALE DREPTULUI PENAL AL AFACERILOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tanase

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La principale objection qu’on apporte au droit pénal des affaires consiste à nier son existencecomme branche de droit. On conteste son domaine d’application et ses institutions spécifiques. Dans lalittérature de spécialité européenne et autochtone il y a relativement peu de travaux dédiés à ce domaine. Enéchange, les spécialistes admettent l’existence d’une criminalité des affaires.La matière du droit pénal des affaires se retrouve dans des lois spéciales, par conséquent, la sousbranchede droit en question a une structure originale qui ne suit pas le modèle des codes pénaux classiques.Malgré les dimensions du phénomène criminel des milieux des affaires (dimensions assez étendues, savisibilité dans le paysage des branches de droit et des sciences pénales est réduite. Les choses se présententcomme telles pour des causes diverses, complexes et profondes.En dépit de ses inconvénients, l’existence du droit pénal des affaires est une réalité incontestable. C’estla multitude des normes légales d’incrimination des faits commis dans le domaine des affaires et lapréoccupation de certaines instances européennes et internationales qui l’attestent.

  6. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  7. Experience of Hungarian model project: 'Strengthening training for operational safety at Paks NPP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1998-01-01

    Training of Operational Safety at Paks NPP is described including all the features of the project including namely: description of Paks NPP, its properties and performances; reasons for establishing Hungarian Model Project, its main goals, mentioning Hungarian and IAEA experts involved in the Project, its organization, operation, budget, current status together with its short term and long term impact

  8. Aggressive Neighborhood Watch or Unconventional Threat? The Hungarian Extreme Right-Wing Self-Defense Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    paramilitary force, for instance the Hungarian Guard.33 The Guard was formed in 2007 through an ‘oath of allegiance’ taken by men and women wearing black...gyorgy-gyulat.html. 35 9. 10/07/2012 Disruption of the Hungarian National Front.90 Gyula Thurmer, leader of the (Communist) Labour Party and the

  9. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  10. The new system of the talent development program in Hungarian soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csáki István

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: due to a series of failures and the drastic reduction in the quality of Hungarian soccer, greater emphasis should be put on coaches’ professional development and talent development programs. The aim of this study was to present the newly established Hungarian Soccer Development Program that focuses on the development of youth talent.

  11. LA CARGA DINÁMICA PROBATORIA Y SU REPERCUSIÓN EN EL PROCESO PENAL DESDE LAS REGLAS DE MALLORCA Y LA TEORÍA DEL GARANTISMO PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Betancourt Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende hacer algunos cuestionamientos en torno a la implementación de la teoría de la carga dinámica de la prueba en la actuación penal, a partir de los elementos brindados por las Reglas de Mallorca y la teoría del garantismo penal, defendida por el profesor Luigi Ferrajoli en Italia, y en Argentina por el profesor Adolfo Alvarado Velloso, desde la perspectiva de una sistemática procesal penal, reconocedora de garantías universales como el debido proceso.

  12. LA CARGA DINÁMICA PROBATORIA Y SU REPERCUSIÓN EN EL PROCESO PENAL DESDE LAS REGLAS DE MALLORCA Y LA TEORÍA DEL GARANTISMO PENAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Betancourt Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende hacer algunos cuestionamientos en torno a la implementación de la teoría de la carga dinámica de la prueba en la actuación penal, a partir de los elementos brindados por las Reglas de Mallorca y la teoría del garantismo penal, defendida por el profesor Luigi Ferrajoli en Italia, y en Argentina por el profesor Adolfo Alvarado Velloso, desde la perspectiva de una sistemática procesal penal, reconocedora de garantías universales como el debido proceso.

  13. Computerization of Hungarian reforestation manual with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimber, Kornél; Gálos, Borbála; Mátyás, Csaba; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Hungarian forests are highly sensitive to the changing climate, especially to the available precipitation amount. Over the past two decades several drought damages were observed for tree species which are in the lower xeric limit of their distribution. From year to year these affected forest stands become more difficult to reforest with the same native species because these are not able to adapt to the increasing probability of droughts. The climate related parameter set of the Hungarian forest stand database needs updates. Air humidity that was formerly used to define the forest climate zones is not measured anymore and its value based on climate model outputs is highly uncertain. The aim was to develop a novel computerized and objective method to describe the species-specific climate conditions that is essential for survival, growth and optimal production of the forest ecosystems. The method is expected to project the species spatial distribution until 2100 on the basis of regional climate model simulations. Until now, Hungarian forest managers have been using a carefully edited spreadsheet for reforestation purposes. Applying binding regulations this spreadsheet prescribes the stand-forming and admixed tree species and their expected growth rate for each forest site types. We are going to present a new machine learning based method to replace the former spreadsheet. We took into great consideration of various methods, such as maximum likelihood, Bayesian networks, Fuzzy logic. The method calculates distributions, setups classification, which can be validated and modified by experts if necessary. Projected climate change conditions makes necessary to include into this system an additional climate zone that does not exist in our region now, as well as new options for potential tree species. In addition to or instead of the existing ones, the influence of further limiting parameters (climatic extremes, soil water retention) are also investigated. Results will be

  14. Delineating the genetic heterogeneity of OCA in Hungarian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábos, Beáta; Farkas, Katalin; Tóth, Lola; Sulák, Adrienn; Tripolszki, Kornélia; Tihanyi, Mariann; Németh, Réka; Vas, Krisztina; Csoma, Zsanett; Kemény, Lajos; Széll, Márta; Nagy, Nikoletta

    2017-06-19

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogenic group of pigmentation abnormalities characterized by variable hair, skin, and ocular hypopigmentation. Six known genes and a locus on human chromosome 4q24 have been implicated in the etiology of isolated OCA forms (OCA 1-7). The most frequent OCA types among Caucasians are OCA1, OCA2, and OCA4. We aimed to investigate genes responsible for the development of these OCA forms in Hungarian OCA patients (n = 13). Mutation screening and polymorphism analysis were performed by direct sequencing on TYR, OCA2, SLC45A2 genes. Although the clinical features of the investigated Hungarian OCA patients were identical, the molecular genetic data suggested OCA1 subtype in eight cases and OCA4 subtype in two cases. The molecular diagnosis was not clearly identifiable in three cases. In four patients, two different heterozygous known pathogenic or predicted to be pathogenic mutations were present. Seven patients had only one pathogenic mutation, which was associated with non-pathogenic variants in six cases. In two patients no pathogenic mutation was identified. Our results suggest that the concomitant screening of the non-pathogenic variants-which alone do not cause the development of OCA, but might have clinical significance in association with a pathogenic variant-is important. Our results also show significant variation in the disease spectrum compared to other populations. These data also confirm that the concomitant analysis of OCA genes is critical, providing new insights to the phenotypic diversity of OCA and expanding the mutation spectrum of OCA genes in Hungarian patients.

  15. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION IN HUNGARIAN DAIRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozsa Andrea

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary sample for the analysis is framed on the basis of three criteria: amount of the subscribed capital, sales revenues and product structure. Those companies are regarded as competitors that have subscribed capitals in excess of HUF 250 million, consistently high levels of sales revenues and diversified product structures. The preliminary sample consists of 7 companies. In 2012, their total sales revenues were as high as about 50% of the overall amount of sales revenues in the sector. Three of the 7 companies are possessed by foreign owners in full or part, whereas 4 of them belong to Hungarian owners. In 2012, Hungarian-owned companies covered more than one-third of the combined sales revenues of the 7 leading companies. Hence, the competitive positions of these 4 companies based on their financial positions are examined. These calculations have relied on the annual reports for the period of 2008–2012 (balance sheets, income statements, cash flow statements. The research has implemented a comprehensive and comparative financial analysis. The main question is what the key financial characteristics of the Hungarian-owned companies are. Financial indicators are calculated and their time-series analysis is accomplished to describe the sample companies’ capital structures, liquidity and profitability. Using comparative analysis of the applied financial ratios the study determines (1 which company has the most advantageous financial conditions for the successful operation; (2 which companies have disadvantageous financial situation; and (3 which companies are in potential financial distress situation. Potential bankruptcy positions are examined by the applications of Altman and Springate models.

  16. Energy conservation and energy prices: the Hungarian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, L.

    1997-01-01

    The main sources of emissions into the outdoor air are from the energy sector (e.g. power plants), industry, the transport sector and the residential sector (buildings). The danger from most of these emissions is the fact that heat plants and boilers of residential buildings in particular, are usually in the areas where people live and work and therefore their emissions may have a direct effect on health. The best way to improve this situation - to diminish emissions and to improve air quality - is to increase the efficiency of both energy production and use. This also has important consequences for the economic use of the national energy carrier stock and diminishes the need to import energy which increases the competitiveness of goods produced. The Hungarian government has set out an Energy Saving Programme to address, among other things the fact that the Hungarian average energy consumption per capita is less than the EU average but the energy intensity (the necessary energy to produce 1 USD GDP) is 3.5-4.0 times higher than the EU average. It has been shown that the best way to save energy is to invest in energy-conscious behaviour and training. Recent studies in public and residential buildings have shown that there is a potential for high energy saving in Hungarian buildings which is independent from the building technology used. Also, the pay-back times of investment in the building envelope are significantly higher than the pay-back times of investment in heating-ventilating or control systems, while the energy saved was of the same magnitude. (author) 5 figs., 5 tabs., 6 refs

  17. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust: Part 2: Under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Julia; Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    At least 564,500 Hungarian Jews perished during the Holocaust, including many physicians. Exactly how many Jewish dermatologists were killed is not known. We have identified 62 Hungarian Jewish dermatologists from this period: 19 of these dermatologists died in concentration camps or were shot in Hungary, 3 committed suicide, and 1 died shortly after the Holocaust, exhausted by the War. Fortunately, many Hungarian Jewish dermatologists survived the Holocaust. Some had fled Europe before the Nazi takeover, as was described in Part 1 of this contribution. Two Holocaust survivors, Ferenc Földvári and Ödön Rajka, became presidents of the Hungarian Dermatologic Society and helped rebuild the profession of dermatology in Hungary after the War. This contribution provides one of the first accounts of the fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust and serves as a remembrance of their suffering and ordeal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Pre-travel advice and patient education of Hungarian travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Ingrid; Felkai, Péter

    2018-03-01

    According to international surveys, over half of the travellers face some kind of health issue when travelling. The overwhelming majority of travel-related illnesses can be prevented with pre-travel medical consultations, but the syllabus and content of the consultation have to match the travel habits and culture of the given society. This publication explores the specificities and travel habits of Hungarian travellers. One hundred participants of a travel exhibition completed a survey about their international travel. As the survey was not representative, the data could only be processed through simple statistical methods. However, since the exhibition was presumably attended by those wishing to travel, the conclusions drawn from the results are worth publishing, since no similar survey in Hungary has been published before. Based on the suitable classification of age groups in travel medicine, 11% of the participants were adolescents / young adults (aged 15-24), 81% adults (25-59) and 8% elderly (60-74). Twenty-eight percent of the participants travel multiple times a year, 40% yearly and 32% of them less frequently; 16% of the adults, 8% of the adolescents and 4% of the elderly age group travel multiple times a year. The travel destinations of Hungarian travellers have remained practically unchanged since a study was conducted 13 years ago: the vast majority (95%) travelled within Europe, 2% to the United States, and 11% of them elsewhere. Since Hungarians do not travel to endemic areas, only 5% consulted their general practitioners (GPs) prior to travelling, and 29% did when they had to be vaccinated. Forty-two percent of those wishing to travel never consult their GPs, even though 29% of them are aware of some chronic illness. Instead, 51% gather their health information from the internet and only 6% from their doctors. By the contradiction between the poor health status of the majority of Hungarian travellers and the negligence of seeking pre-travel advice

  19. New species in the Hungarian avifauna in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadarics Tibor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species appeared in the Hungarian avifauna in 2014: the Spanish Sparrow and the Blyth’s Reed Warbler. One pair of Spanish Sparrow was breeding in Bácsborsód between June 13th and July 31st in the side of a stork nest. The Blyth’s Reed Warbler was trapped and ringed near Tömörd on August 15th. With the observations of these species the number of bird species that have ever been proven to occur in Hungary has risen to 411.

  20. Nucleotide sequence of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA1.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Brault, V; Dunez, J

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the RNA1 of hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic virus, a nepovirus very closely related to tomato black ring virus, has been determined from cDNA clones. It is 7212 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly(A) tail and contains a large open reading frame extending from nucleotides 216 to 6971. The presumably encoded polyprotein is 2252 amino acids in length with a molecular weight of 250 kDa. The primary structure of the polyprotein was compared with that o...

  1. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  2. Arte y derecho penal: El caso Han Van Meegeren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Medina Moyano

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available La temática que abarcan las palabras que sirven de título a estas notas, es ciertamente de inasible amplitud, ya por lo proteíco de la conducta humana, de quienes se colocan al margen de la ley, ora por la riqueza inconmensurable del fenómeno estético. Cabría, pues, en primer término, plantear como hipótesis de trabajo, los muy diversos enfoques desde los cuales sería dable la investigación de las relaciones entre el Arte y el Derecho Penal.

  3. Debido proceso, sistemas y reforma del proceso penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Armenta Deu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone examinar los modelos de procesos penales de los movimientos de reforma que se establecieron en las últimas décadas del siglo XX, en los países iberoamericanos. Para ello, primero se enfatiza las características históricas de cada sistema, poniendo de relieve la importancia de no confundir el acusatorio con el adversarial, rechazando la coincidencia entre los sistemas actuales y mixto inquisitivo histórico. Apoya la importancia de la igualdad de armas y e del contradictoria en la búsqueda de un equilibrio entre los modelos de procedimiento.

  4. Comparing implementations of penalized weighted least-squares sinogram restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forthmann, Peter; Koehler, Thomas; Defrise, Michel; La Riviere, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A CT scanner measures the energy that is deposited in each channel of a detector array by x rays that have been partially absorbed on their way through the object. The measurement process is complex and quantitative measurements are always and inevitably associated with errors, so CT data must be preprocessed prior to reconstruction. In recent years, the authors have formulated CT sinogram preprocessing as a statistical restoration problem in which the goal is to obtain the best estimate of the line integrals needed for reconstruction from the set of noisy, degraded measurements. The authors have explored both penalized Poisson likelihood (PL) and penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) objective functions. At low doses, the authors found that the PL approach outperforms PWLS in terms of resolution-noise tradeoffs, but at standard doses they perform similarly. The PWLS objective function, being quadratic, is more amenable to computational acceleration than the PL objective. In this work, the authors develop and compare two different methods for implementing PWLS sinogram restoration with the hope of improving computational performance relative to PL in the standard-dose regime. Sinogram restoration is still significant in the standard-dose regime since it can still outperform standard approaches and it allows for correction of effects that are not usually modeled in standard CT preprocessing. Methods: The authors have explored and compared two implementation strategies for PWLS sinogram restoration: (1) A direct matrix-inversion strategy based on the closed-form solution to the PWLS optimization problem and (2) an iterative approach based on the conjugate-gradient algorithm. Obtaining optimal performance from each strategy required modifying the naive off-the-shelf implementations of the algorithms to exploit the particular symmetry and sparseness of the sinogram-restoration problem. For the closed-form approach, the authors subdivided the large matrix

  5. Imprudencia inconsciente y derecho penal de la culpabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Guanais de Aguiar Filho, Oliveiros

    2016-01-01

    La discusión sobre la compatibilidad entre la imprudencia inconsciente y el principio de culpabilidad ha llamado la atención de la dogmática penal hace más de dos siglos. La primera parte de este trabajo presenta esta polémica histórica de forma crítica desde Feuerbach y sus contemporáneos hasta el finalismo. En la segunda parte del trabajo se tienen en cuenta las críticas a la imprudencia inconsciente y se analizan los fundamentos de esta modalidad de imputación bajo la perspectiva de la teo...

  6. Building Up an On-Line Plant Information System for the Emergency Response Center of the Hungarian Nuclear Safety Directorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, Janos; Major, Csaba; Horvath, Csaba; Hozer, Zoltan; Adorjan, Ferenc; Lux, Ivan; Horvath, Kristof

    2002-01-01

    The main design features, services, and human-machine interface characteristics are described of the CERTA VITA on-line plant information system developed and installed by KFKI AEKI at the Nuclear Safety Directorate (NSD) of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) in cooperation with experts from the NSD. The Center for Emergency Response, Training, and Analysis (CERTA) located at the headquarters of NSD, Budapest, Hungary, was established in 1997. The center supports the NSD installation, radiological monitoring, and advisory team in case of nuclear emergencies, with appropriate hardware and software for communication, diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction. The vital information transfer and analysis (VITA) system represents an important part of the CERTA, as it provides for the continuous remote inspection of the four VVER-440/V213 units of the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant (NPP). The on-line information system maintains a continuous data link with the NPP through a managed leased line that connects CERTA to a gateway computer located at the Paks NPP. The present scope of the system is a result of a 4-yr development project: In addition to the basic safety parameter display functions, the VITA system now includes an on-line break parameter estimation module, an extensive training package based on simulated transients, and on-line data transfer capabilities to feed accident diagnosis/analysis codes

  7. Mortality of persons deprived of liberty in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to determine the scope, dynamics, and structure of deaths of persons deprived of their liberty who resided in the penal system due to custody, security measures, serving a prison sentence or an alternative sanction, with regard to their demographic, criminological, penal, and psychological characteristics. Article 111, paragraph b of the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (1990 determines that deprivation of liberty refers to any kind of detention, imprisonment, i.e. placement in a public or private institution which the imprisoned person cannot leave, by order of judicial, administrative or other public authority. The data used included information on persons deprived of their liberty who died in the territory of the Republic of Serbia in the period from 2008 to 2012. The data was obtained from The Directorate for Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia. In the past, researches mainly focused on violence in prisons, death penalty, prison riots, auto-aggressive behavior, i.e. certain forms of mortality such as a suicide. This paper aims to point out the characteristics of deaths which occur while persons deprived of their liberty are under the authority of judicial institutions, both before and after passing a criminal sanction.

  8. Integrative Analysis of Cancer Diagnosis Studies with Composite Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Summary In cancer diagnosis studies, high-throughput gene profiling has been extensively conducted, searching for genes whose expressions may serve as markers. Data generated from such studies have the “large d, small n” feature, with the number of genes profiled much larger than the sample size. Penalization has been extensively adopted for simultaneous estimation and marker selection. Because of small sample sizes, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets can be unsatisfactory. A cost-effective remedy is to conduct integrative analysis of multiple heterogeneous datasets. In this article, we investigate composite penalization methods for estimation and marker selection in integrative analysis. The proposed methods use the minimax concave penalty (MCP) as the outer penalty. Under the homogeneity model, the ridge penalty is adopted as the inner penalty. Under the heterogeneity model, the Lasso penalty and MCP are adopted as the inner penalty. Effective computational algorithms based on coordinate descent are developed. Numerical studies, including simulation and analysis of practical cancer datasets, show satisfactory performance of the proposed methods. PMID:24578589

  9. The penal aspect of the essence of the legal institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Миколайович Кревсун

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Law, like any social phenomenon, can be the object of cognition only if legal norms that is its components, will come into connection with other legal norms, not only to form separate elements of the law. Without a comprehensive study of the interaction between legal norms, their role in the regulation of social relations will be impossible to develop effective legal measures of influence on various spheres of public life. Unfortunately, proper attention to this issue in Ukraine is not given. Examined, in fact, a certain set of interconnected rules of law, but each of them, representing this population, is investigated separately, without necessary connection with other laws. However, as presented in the legal literature, the research results confirmed the existence in law of such legal norms, which are involved in the regulation of certain social relations, being in its totality as an integrated whole. Such laws called legal institutions. Legal institutions, subinstitutes and interdisciplinary subinstitutes of penal law, both from the point of view of legal terminology and from the point of view of defining the content, in domestic science remains thoroughly unexplored and only mentioned in some scientific works of foreign authors. The term “legal institution” is used by scholars more as a term authoritative sound. In this article, we first provide a definition of the legal Institute, subinstitute and cross-subinstitute of penal law, interpret the normative contents of the allocated inherent characteristics, focusing on the absence in domestic science studies on this issue.

  10. Os indesejáveis no Direito Penal moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Graziela Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho propõe a fazer uma breve aborfagem da obra "O inimigo no Direito Penal", de Eugênio Raul Zafforni, um dos maiores penalistas da América Latina. Neste obra, o autor ressalta que o poder punitivo sempre classificou e reconheceu um hostis, um estranho ou indesejável, sobre o qual se aplicou um tratamento discriminatório, neutralizante e eliminatório, negando-lhe a sua condição de pessoa e considerando-o em função da sua condição de coisa ou ente perigoso. E mais, tanto as leis quanto a doutrina legitimam esse tratamento, baseadas em saberes pretensamente empíricos sobre a conduta humana. Tal doutrina-penal contradiz os princípios constitucionais do Estado de Direito e mais se aproxima do modelo de Estado absoluto.

  11. A Penalization Approach for Tomographic Reconstruction of Binary Axially Symmetric Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, R.; Bergounioux, M.; Trelat, E.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a variational method for tomographic reconstruction of blurred and noised binary images based on a penalization process of a minimization problem settled in the space of bounded variation functions. We prove existence and/or uniqueness results and derive a penalized optimality system. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the relevance of the approach

  12. A penalization approach to linear programming duality with application to capacity constrained transport

    OpenAIRE

    Korman, Jonathan; McCann, Robert J.; Seis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to linear programming duality is proposed which relies on quadratic penalization, so that the relation between solutions to the penalized primal and dual problems becomes affine. This yields a new proof of Levin's duality theorem for capacity-constrained optimal transport as an infinite-dimensional application.

  13. Penal stress and its manifestations in the convicts, suspects and accused persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova D.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to penal stress and its manifestations at the convicts, suspects and accused persons. This topic has been poorly studied. It is necessary to identify the groups of people especially most in need of prevention and correction of stress state and to define the target effects. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concepts of biological and psychological stress. Our theoretical work is mainly devoted to phenomenon of penal stress and factors affecting its formation. We suggested the definition of penal stress concept on the basis of the analyzed literature. The sample included 69 male persons (31 from predetention center, 38 from penal colony, aged 19 to 47 years old. Experimental psychological method of research was mainly used. In the practical part of the paper presents data on the prevalence of the penal stress in predetention centers and penal colonies. In addition, we have studied the relationship of penal stress with punishment stage, the crime characteristics of subjects, individual psychological characteristics, current state. The study allows us to reveal the groups of people in need of the prevention and correction of the penal stress state. We identified some target corrective action also.

  14. Role of Orvosi Hetilap in the development of Hungarian gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the contribution of Orvosi Hetilap (Hungarian Medical Journal) to the field of gastroenterology. METHODS: All issues of the journal between 1857 and 2008 and identified original articles and reviews dealing with gastroenterology were reviewed. The rate of publications, the thematic distribution and foreign sources of knowledge were assessed. The dates that major achievements in gastroenterology were introduced in Hungary were compared to those dates in Western medicine. RESULTS: A total of 4799 original/research articles on gastroenterology were published, which represents 11.1% of the total publications. Thematic rankings showed that liver and biliary diseases represented 20.36% of the total, followed by gastric diseases (9.35%) and surgery (8.77%). A total of 268 foreign journals were reviewed: 50.9% were German, 30.4% English, 12.1% French and only 6.6% were in other languages. The major achievements of gastroenterology were introduced with varying delays compared to Western countries. CONCLUSION: Orvosi Hetilap has made a large contribution to the development of Hungarian gastroenterology. The high proportion of gastroenterology studies underlines the importance of digestive diseases in public health. PMID:20458774

  15. Hungarian Accounting Regulations: Exposed to the Cross-Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight two factors influencing Hungarian accounting regulations: the legislation of accounting in the last 25 years and the most important features of the taxation system. Both of them can influence the main requirement of the Hungarian Act on Accounting, the true and fair view. The research methods are based on a synthesis of the national and international literature. The authors examine the regulation system embedded in the legal and economic environment. The paper shows the accounting legislation in Hungary after the changing of the regime, its asymmetry, the attitude of the legislators and the current situation. The analysis of the tax system is connected to the provisions of accounting, highlighting the problems of the tax administration, the relation between corporate tax and the resultsof accounting and the intention to simplify it. The main conclusion is to make the system more flexible, in line with the legal and fiscal institutions, to fulfil its important requirements.

  16. [What worries Hungarian men? Characteristics of masculine gender role stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susánszky, Anna; Susánszky, Eva; Kopp, Mária

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women's dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological wellbeing, and frequency of smoking. Modernization of gender roles represents only a small--if any--stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.

  17. WEAKNESSES OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRADITIONAL HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of the management of traditional higher education institutionsemerged in Hungary following the change of the political system in 1990,however, an appropriate answer has not been found to date. The first step inthe management of reform is identification of the issues that need to beresolved through the implementation of changes.The present research has been aimed at identifying the present weaknessesof the inner management system of traditional Hungarian universities, thusfind a solid starting point for reforming it. I conducted in-depth interviews inthe course of research, with 10 top university managers who represent 9institutions, thus the majority of traditional Hungarian universities. Such aresearch has not been made at least for the last decade.In my paper first I present the current legal framework of the system ofuniversity management. Then I give an assessment of it on the basis of theinterviews, analysing the deficiencies, the external and internal obstacles toefficient management I conclude that the present leaders of theuniversities can exactly identify those deficiencies of the system and therelated external and internal circumstances that lead to disturbed operationand low efficiency. The results obtained through the interviews suggest that areform of the internal management should rearrange intra-university powerrelations and harmonize scopes of responsibility and competence. A shifttoward a stronger central, rectoral and a more limited faculty- and bodyrelatedmanagement appears necessary.

  18. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  19. Lexical Borrowing in the Speech of First-Generation Hungarian Immigrants in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Hatoss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports findings of a sociolinguistic project which investigated language contact phenomena in the speech of first-generation Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The research aimed to identify and analyze English lexical items borrowed into the spoken Hungarian of first-generation Hungarian–English bilinguals. This research had a mixed methods approach including a quantitative element (count of lexical manifestations by categories such as part of speech and a qualitative element in which the various lexical manifestations have been subjected to a linguistic analysis. The Hungarian National Corpus was used as a reference guide to determine the status of these phenomena in the lexicon of Standard Hungarian. The data were collected through semi-structured sociolinguistic interviews with 22 Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The findings demonstrate that (a first-generation Hungarians are highly creative language users and integrate a large number of English lexical items into their speech. Most lexical borrowings belong to the derivational blends with the highest proportion of the nominal group. Lexical borrowings from English are morphologically integrated with Hungarian-derivational suffixes and inflectional case markings. This research provides original empirical data to better understand the various inter-language lexical manifestations in Hungarian–English bilingual contexts. The study adds to the relatively small body of research on Hungarian–English bilingualism in diasporic context and contributes to understanding lexical borrowing from a contact linguistic perspective.

  20. Localismo e non-neutralità culturale del diritto penale ‘sotto tensione’ per effetto dell’immigrazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Basile

    2011-05-01

    penale: “il diritto penale è fortemente impregnato di cultura”. - 3. Conclusioni: le implicazioni di ‘localismo’ e ‘non-neutralità culturale’ del diritto penale in ordine al fenomeno dei reati ‘culturalmente motivati’ commessi dagli immigrati.

  1. Translating Welsh Drama Into Hungarian Through English: A Contextual Introduction to Sêra Moore Williams’ Crash in Hungarian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Minier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a predominantly contextual introduction to my translation of a contemporary Welsh play by Sêra Moore Williams, Crash (2004, into Hungarian. Williams' three-person drama for young people was written originally in the author's native language, Welsh, and translated into English by the playwright herself. In my translation process of the play from English to Hungarian the intermediary role played by English raises ethical concerns from a postcolonial perspective, while in a pragmatic sense it is almost a necessity to rely on it when communicating Welsh-language cultural production to the broader international public, including to other minor languages. The article will place the drama in its generic context, introducing the play as a Theater in Education piece, as Williams' work has been inspirational in the development of tantermi színház [classroom theater] in Hungary since the early 2000s. As a specific case study within the case study, the additional discussion of the translation of Williams' polysemic title will provide an insight into the role such a significant paratext plays in uprooting a dramatic text from one culture to another.

  2. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolnay Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  3. Examination of influential observations in penalized spline regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkan, Semra

    2013-10-01

    In parametric or nonparametric regression models, the results of regression analysis are affected by some anomalous observations in the data set. Thus, detection of these observations is one of the major steps in regression analysis. These observations are precisely detected by well-known influence measures. Pena's statistic is one of them. In this study, Pena's approach is formulated for penalized spline regression in terms of ordinary residuals and leverages. The real data and artificial data are used to see illustrate the effectiveness of Pena's statistic as to Cook's distance on detecting influential observations. The results of the study clearly reveal that the proposed measure is superior to Cook's Distance to detect these observations in large data set.

  4. Muscle dysmorphia in Hungarian non-competitive male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, B; Túry, F

    2012-03-01

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) has been described as a male body image disorder, characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscle size. The aim of the study was to examine the MD features, eating disorder characteristics and body attitudes in non-competitive male bodybuilders in a Hungarian sample. Sixty male bodybuilders and 60 undergraduate university students completed the self-report questionnaires of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory. MD was associated with current bodybuilding activity, higher ideal body weight and eating disorder characteristics. Moreover, current selfreported steroid users displayed higher tendency for MD symptoms than self-reported steroid non-users. Results emphasize the relationship between MD symptoms, eating disorder characteristics and steroid use. MD and body image related concerns among men could be a wide-spread phenomena also in the Central-Eastern European region.

  5. Factors affecting quality of life in Hungarian adults with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kováts, Daniella; Császár, Noémi; Haller, József

    2017-01-01

    perception (Illness Perception Questionnaire, IPQ) was also studied. RESULTS: The four measures correlated highly significantly. In addition, the predictive power of factors was comparable with the four inventories as evaluated by Multiple Regression. Factors explained 52%, 41%, 63% and 46% in the variance......PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of 19 factors on life quality in Hungarian patients with epilepsy. Wellbeing was evaluated by several inventories to investigate the impact of factors in more detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 170 patients. Wellbeing was evaluated...... as influencing life quality. This appears to be the first study that analyses the factors that influence illness perception in epilepsy patients, and suggests that the IPQ may become a valuable tool in epilepsy research....

  6. Croatian-Hungarian cooperation on the Danube river radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.; Vancsura, P.

    2003-01-01

    Danube river radioactivity measurements on the border profile Mohac-Batina have been performed since the beginning of 1978 with varying frequency of sampling. Thus, in the period before nuclear power plant Paks started to work joint croatian-hungarian sampling at the border profile was taking place four times a year; the obtained results of measured radioactivity levels were used to assess radioactivity background data. From the start of nuclear power plant Paks running until Chernobyl reactor accident (April 1986) sampling was performed six times a year. After the Chernobyl accident, samples have been taken every month. Since decreased Chernobyl reactor accident influence was estimated until present samples have been taken six times a year. On the Danube river border profile the concentration activity of gamma radionuclides has been determined in water samples (filtered water and suspended matter), and in fish, sediment and Danube river algae samples. (authors)

  7. Nucleotide sequence of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Brault, V; Dunez, J

    1989-10-11

    The nucleotide sequence of the RNA1 of hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic virus, a nepovirus very closely related to tomato black ring virus, has been determined from cDNA clones. It is 7212 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly(A) tail and contains a large open reading frame extending from nucleotides 216 to 6971. The presumably encoded polyprotein is 2252 amino acids in length with a molecular weight of 250 kDa. The primary structure of the polyprotein was compared with that of other viral polyproteins, revealing the same general genetic organization as that of other picorna-like viruses (comoviruses, potyviruses and picornaviruses), except that an additional protein is suspected to occupy the N-terminus of the polyprotein.

  8. [The first physician MP of the Hungarian Parliament, Vince Zomborcsevics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnyei, Sándor

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Vince Zomborcsevics (1810-1890) was the first practising physician elected--in 1847 for the town Szabadka--as MP of the Hungarian Parliament. He spoke up twice at parliamentary sessions: first for enlarging the weight of towns in the Parliament (and thereby that of the bourgeoisie), while second time for radical changes to be made in serfs' circumstances. Both prior and following his parliamentary activity he worked as a medical officer, later he pursued private practice. In the 1840-ies he joined the contemporary national professional and cultural movements, from the 50-ies however he worked only for his local community. Later he retired from public life entirely. He left his remarkable book-collection to the local secondary school.

  9. [Bone metabolism in adults with phenylketonuria - Hungarian data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András Gellért; Sumánszki, Csaba; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria have lower bone mineral density compared to healthy people, however, the ethiology of these alterations is not clear. Hungarian data were missing in this topic. The main aim of our study was to survey the correlation between metabolic control and change of bone mineral density in early treated Hungarian adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this monocentric study bone mineral density of 59 adult PKU patients have been repeatedly measured in a 4-year interval using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Two subgroups have been established based on average blood phenylalanine levels. The correlation between the change in bone mineral density and average phenylalanine, tyrosine concentrations have been determined while initial bone mineral density and change have also been examined in the subgroups. Mean phenylalanine concentration was 614 (182-1222) micromol/L, whereas mean tyrosine concentration was 49 (24-99) micromol/L and the calculated ratio was 16 (4,5-35). Three patients have had severely decreased bone mineral density in either localisation while 22 have had mild decrease. Low bone mineral density compared to cronological age has been found by 9 patient. The mean change was +0.0380 (-0.1550-0.7800) g/cm 2 in femur, and +0.0120 (-0.57300-0.3130) g/cm 2 in the lumbar spine. There was a correlation in the change in Z-score neither with mean phenylalanine nor with tyrosine concentration. Bone mineral density was not changed and hardly influenced by the metabolic control in early-treated young adult phenylketonuria patients in a few years interval. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1868-1872.

  10. Verification of different forecasts of Hungarian Meteorological Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, B.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper I show the results of the forecasts made by the Hungarian Meteorological Service. I focus on the general short- and medium-range forecasts, which contains cloudiness, precipitation, wind speed and temperature for six regions of Hungary. I would like to show the results of some special forecasts as well, such as precipitation predictions which are made for the catchment area of Danube and Tisza rivers, and daily mean temperature predictions used by Hungarian energy companies. The product received by the user is made by the general forecaster, but these predictions are based on the ALADIN and ECMWF outputs. Because of these, the product of the forecaster and the models were also verified. Method like this is able to show us, which weather elements are more difficult to forecast or which regions have higher errors. During the verification procedure the basic errors (mean error, mean absolute error) are calculated. Precipitation amount is classified into five categories, and scores like POD, TS, PC,…etc. were defined by contingency table determined by these categories. The procedure runs fully automatically, all the things forecasters have to do is to print the daily result each morning. Beside the daily result, verification is also made for longer periods like week, month or year. Analyzing the results of longer periods we can say that the best predictions are made for the first few days, and precipitation forecasts are less good for mountainous areas, even, the scores of the forecasters sometimes are higher than the errors of the models. Since forecaster receive results next day, it can helps him/her to reduce mistakes and learn the weakness of the models. This paper contains the verification scores, their trends, the method by which these scores are calculated, and some case studies on worse forecasts.

  11. THE SHEEPSKIN EFFECT IN THE HUNGARIAN LABOUR MARKET 2010-2012: ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM THE HUNGARIAN GRADUATE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Andras Istvan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sheepskin effect is a wage increase connected to the attainment of a degree (or credential in addition to the wage gap connected to the completion of a schooling level (school years, exams passed etc.. This effect is often referred to as a phenomenon supporting the signaling (or screening hypothesis against human capital theory in the so called ‘signaling vs. human capital debate’ over the economic role of education. Many empirical studies in many countries have tested (mostly successfully this hypothesis during the last decades, but it has never been tested in Hungary. Therefore the main goal of the current study is to identify and measure the sheepskin effect in Hungarian higher education based on the country-wide, representative databases of the Hungarian Graduate Career Tracking System (HGCTS. The 2 databases used in the analysis are two HGCTS surveys from the years 2011 and 2012. The first part of the article is a literature review that summarises the results of the existing empirical sheepskin research and highlights their connections to the signaling vs. human capital debate. In the second part, empirical research is carried out based on the HGCTS data. This research has two phases. In the first phase subjective data are analysed (according to the perceived negative effect of not obtaining the degree in time, while in the second, mean differences are tested between net hourly wages of responder groups (1 who have the educational credential and (2 do not have it (even though they have finished all courses and passed all exams at the given educational level. The statistical analysis identified significant wage gaps between graduated responders and those who had not graduated but had passed the state exam (and so had finished all the exams in higher education before graduating on nearly all levels and in both samples (the only exemption was the post-Bologna master level in the 2011 sample. We can conclude that the existence of the

  12. Some spiders (Araneae new to the Hungarian fauna, including three genera and one famil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of new species of spiders to Hungary: Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck, 1758, Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876, Oecobius maculatus Simon, 1870 and Pandava laminata (Thorell, 1878. We also report Clubiona neglecta O. P.-Cambridge, 1862 (previously only mentioned in a table in a Hungarian-language dissertation. The genus Acantholycosa (Dahl, 1908 was hitherto unknown in Hungary, yet expected to occur. The family Oecobiidae Blackwall, 1862 is new to the Hungarian fauna. The Southeast-Asian neozoon Pandava laminata is also recorded as new to Hungary. All further species found to be new to the Hungarian fauna or described in Hungary after the most recent publication of a Hungarian spider checklist are briefly mentioned.

  13. Sistema de atribución de responsabilidad penal a las personas jurídicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Arias, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis aborda el análisis del modelo de atribución de responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídica en el ordenamiento jurídico español, establecido mediante LO 5/2010 de Reforma del Código Penal. Además de unas breves notas sobre la evolución legislativa, histórica y de derecho comparado, se estudian los problemas mas relevantes de la responsabilidad penal corporativa, como la incapacidad de acción y culpabilidad de la persona jurídica, aspectos diferenciadores entre el derecho a...

  14. Estimation of Covariance Matrix on Bi-Response Longitudinal Data Analysis with Penalized Spline Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamiyati, A.; Fatmawati; Chamidah, N.

    2018-03-01

    The correlation assumption of the longitudinal data with bi-response occurs on the measurement between the subjects of observation and the response. It causes the auto-correlation of error, and this can be overcome by using a covariance matrix. In this article, we estimate the covariance matrix based on the penalized spline regression model. Penalized spline involves knot points and smoothing parameters simultaneously in controlling the smoothness of the curve. Based on our simulation study, the estimated regression model of the weighted penalized spline with covariance matrix gives a smaller error value compared to the error of the model without covariance matrix.

  15. Las negociaciones en el proceso penal: del procedimiento inquisitivo a la prisionización masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montañez Ruiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación plantea la problemática de la prisionización masiva que generan las negociaciones en el sistema procesal penal de tendencia acusatoria, con marcada influencia norteamericana; aquí se sostiene que ese mecanismo, mediante el cual la Fiscalía busca la declaratoria masiva de culpabilidad de los imputados en plan de descongestionar el sistema represivo penal, tiene las caraterísticas más inquisitivas de un sistema de enjuiciamiento penal.

  16. Domestic violence and Special Criminal Courts: analysis from the legal feminism and penal criticism perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Carmen Hein de; Carvalho, Salo de

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende demonstrar a possibilidade de análise crítica da Lei 9.099/95 a partir de dois discursos considerados marginais no campo do direito penal: o feminismo jurídico e o garantismo penal. Considerando a vítima no momento do crime e o autor do fato durante o processo penal, esses discursos interagem, procurando construir um diálogo para demonstrar a ineficácia da lei em ambas as perspectivas.This article aims at demonstrating the possibility of criticism about the criminal law (...

  17. Direito penal na era global: garantismo positivo ajustado ao garantismo negativo

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Thiago Quintas

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação faz análise da complexa sociedade do pós-industrial, hedonista, de massa e relações objetivas, denominada sociedade de risco, e qual deve ser a postura do direito penal diante dos novos interesses, difusos e coletivos, de um mundo globalizado. O direito penal deve estar preparado para lidar com esta nova realidade, o que significa a adoção de uma nova dogmática jurídica-penal na proteção dos bens meta-individuais (direitos humanos de 3ª dimensão), porém conformada com o...

  18. Cooperación internacional en materia penal en el MERCOSUR: el cibercrimen

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Deluca; Enrique Del Carril

    2017-01-01

    En el Mercosur no existe un derecho penal común, no obstante observarse una creciente corriente orientada a la adopción de normas generales de política criminal tendiente a combatir diversos actos delictivos. Ello se cristaliza en la creación de normas de cooperación internacional en materia penal, con el objeto de lograr la asimilación y adecuación “macro” de las legislaciones penales de los Estados Parte. Es justo reconocer que en este trabajo no se pretende elaborar un corpus iuris por ...

  19. Prime note sulla tutela penale dei culti nei Paesi dell’Est Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimbalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Testo della relazione tenuta al Convegno “La Carta e la Corte” (Ferrara, 27 ottobre 2007 destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti. SOMMARIO: 1. Alcune considerazioni preliminari sullo status delle Confessioni religiose nei paesi dell’Est Europa - 2. I nuovi orientamenti del diritto penale nell’Est Europa - 3. Le norme statali in materia di tutela penale dei culti e del sentimento religioso. 3. Le norme penali relative ai culti e a al sentimento religioso prima del 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 4. Tipologie e tecniche legislative di tutela penale dei culti dopo il 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 5. Alcune sommarie considerazioni.

  20. Cultura Política republicana e o Código Penal de 1890 * Cultura Política republicana y el Código Penal de 1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO HENRIQUE MIOTTO DONADELI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo buscar estabelecer o conceito de Cultura Política, para compreender a dinâmica da Cultura Política Republicana que se instaurou no Brasil no final do século XIX, como meio de analisar as novas tendências penais da Primeira República (1889-1930, que se codificam no Código Penal de 1890. Ao analisar as condições e contradições desse diploma penal, o artigo convida a fazer uma reflexão sobre a sociedade da época, mostrando que a lei penal é o resultado dos interesses e conflitos que permeia a implantação e consolidação de uma cultural política republicana. A tese central do artigo é mostrar que a elite republicana aproveitou das concepções penais para implantar e justificar mecanismos de repressão e de controle do crime, como uma das formas de dominação e manutenção de poder.Palavras-chave: Cultura Política; República Velha; Direito Penal.Resumen: En este trabajo se busca establecer el concepto de cultura política, para entender la dinámica de la cultura política republicana en Brasil que surgieron a finales del siglo XIX, como una forma de analizar las nuevas tendencias criminales de la Primera República (1889-1930, que están codificadas en el Código Penal de 1890. Al analizar las condiciones y contradicciones de esta ley penal, el artículo llama a una reflexión sobre la sociedad de la época, lo que demuestra que el derecho penal es el resultado de intereses y conflictos que se respira en la implementación y consolidación de una cultura política republicana. La tesis central del artículo es mostrar que la élite republicana aprovechó concepciones penales para implementar y justificar los mecanismos de represión y control de la delincuencia, como una forma de dominación y mantenimiento del poder.Palabras clave: Cultura Política; República Vieja; Derecho Penal.

  1. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO Documented proof in the new Mexican criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavente Chorres Hesbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su voluntad.This study analyzes the cases of the documented proof in those codes regulated the Mexican states that have appropriate criminal proceedings prone to adversarial system. In that sense, it is understood by those measures documented evidence, primarily statements made during the investigation stage that the law gives the probative value could not attend the court hearing to test the trial for reasons beyond their control.

  2. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    József Varga; Imre Nagy; László Szirtes; János Pórszász

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR) recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany). The w...

  3. The Representation of Jews in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Hungarian Proverb Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs are concise formulations of folk wisdom and as such, when seen in masses, they may well express the spirit of their time and place. In Hungarian proverbial lore Jews figure prominently in nineteenth-century proverb collections but fade out of such collections as of the mid-twentieth century. In the nineteenth-century proverb collections Jews are invariably portrayed as faithless, dishonest, greedy, physically weak and unattractive. Largely, this portrayal as well as the dynamics of the earlier presence of Jews versus their later disappearance from Hungarian proverb collections match the shared history of Hungarians and Hungarian Jews since the 1867 Emancipation of the country's Jews and possibly even earlier, through their growing integration in significant arenas of their host society, up to their persecution and annihilation in the Holocaust, and later their decade long forced merging into the general Hungarian society under communism. This article traces the occurrence and disappearance of Jews in Hungarian proverb collections throughout the last two centuries and analyzes the language, content and messages of the proverbs about Jews in these collections.

  4. Lessons from Objects: Designing a Modern Hungarian Childhood 1890-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Winick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Art and architecture assisted Hungary’s delivery into modern Europe, and many Hungarian designs of the early twentieth century invoked the child rather than the adult as the ideal citizen. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Hungarian designers, design reformers and the Ministry of Culture and Education expressed national identity through design, emphasizing objects and spaces for children as a key element in defining a national culture. This research unfolds a vital dimension of Hungarian culture by examining a selection of objects and spaces—nursery designs, children’s clothing, school architecture, the Budapest Zoo and book illustrations—made for Hungary’s children during different periods of the last century. Working in partnership with the Iparművészeti Múzeum—the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest—as well as several public and private collections across Hungary, I researched a number of important children’s designs that helped to shape the lives and experiences of twentieth century Hungarian children.  Central to my research is how social and political forces shaped designs and how these designs helped children identify as Hungarian citizens. Looking at five material case studies, I hope to demonstrate the ways in which designers negotiated issues of Hungarian identity, tradition, and modernity.

  5. Towards locating the Nigerian Shari'ah Penal Codes' provisions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, relatives of the murdered are at liberty to waive this and accept compensation money (diyah) or pardon the culprit absolutely. These provisions of the Sharī'ah were not in force in Nigeria until1999 when Zamfara State adopted Sharī'ah as its legal system and eleven other states later followed suit. With the creation ...

  6. [Use of the islamic penal code and its effects on the prevention of delinquency (field research)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, F A; El-Saati, H

    1976-01-01

    The Authors maintain that modern countries, despite their economic and social development, have not been able to find a efficient way to combat crime. In fact, the improvement of the material conditions of human and social life is accompanied by a regression in moral conditions and an increase in crime. But Saudi-Arabia has established a system which has proved itself extremely efficient, both for the improvement of the moral condition of the community, and for the limitation of crime to a minimal level. A comparison of statistical data, in fact, shows that the level of criminality in Saudi-Arabia is lower than that of any other country in the world. This is due to the wisdom and farsightedness of King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, who, to reorganize the Saudi-Arabian people and establish his sovereignty, adopted the divine law of the Koran, the Sharia, as the only law applicable to control all individual and social relationships and to combat crime. By means of research conducted on the basis of statistical analyses and of interviews with experts chosen amongst the more elderly citizens, the Authors lend proof to their statements. In particular, the subjects interviewed have provided information based on memories of their own personal experience, which has been used to make a comparison between the situation as it was before the establishment of the sovereignty (for which no statistic data are available) and as it is now.

  7. On the administrative law accessoriness of art. 327 of the Penal Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolde, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The essay deals with the binding of criminal law on valid permissions given by authorities. Criminal courts are bound on the content of valid administrative acts, even when those are against the law but not invalid. By not considering administrative permissions, criminal courts ignore the binding force of official acts. They infringe the prohibition not to diverge from a valid act even when the addresse of the act knows that it is against the law. (KW) [de

  8. La protección penal del medio ambiente. Análisis del art. 338 del Código Penal colombiano sobre minería ilegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Felipe Sánchez Zapata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la criminalidad medio-ambiental comprende todo un elenco de problemas jurídico-penales de muy difícil solución. Basta acudir a las dificultades que sobresalen al momento de definir el bien jurídico protegido, el desvalor de acción y resultado, las leyes penales en blanco, la relación de causalidad, etc. Un acercamiento, aunque sea superficial, a las dificultades ínsitas de estas categorías revela el uso que se está dando, en nuestro contexto, a la retórica apuesta del legislador por proteger concretos objetos materiales como los yacimientos mineros, las aguas y el material de arrastre. El texto, desde una perspectiva penal, expone la realidad de la  minería ilegal en Colombia y las formas institucionales de reacción contra ella.

  9. A biclustering algorithm for binary matrices based on penalized Bernoulli likelihood

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new biclustering method for binary data matrices using the maximum penalized Bernoulli likelihood estimation. Our method applies a multi-layer model defined on the logits of the success probabilities, where each layer represents a

  10. A eutanásia na visão do garantismo penal

    OpenAIRE

    Reicher, Regina Maria

    2005-01-01

    Num cotejo entre a eutanásia e o garantismo de Luigi Ferrajoli, quanto à proibição penal, os princípios da lesividade e necessidade, e o direito penal mínimo, este estudo faz uma projeção sobre as principais conseqüências desse comportamento em matéria penal, notadamente quanto à sua repercussão sobre o princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana, que é corolário lógico do Estado Democrático de Direito. Não se justifica, no modelo de direito penal mínimo propugnado pelo garantismo, a penalizaç...

  11. OBSERVAŢII REFERITOARE LA AMENDAMENTELE OPERATE ÎN CODUL PENAL PRIN LEGEA NR.60/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie STATI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obiectul prezentului studiu îl constituie modificările şi completările operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. Acestea vizează: persoana juridică în calitate de subiect al infracţiunii; confiscarea specială; spălarea banilor; actul terorist; finanţarea terorismului; abuzul de putere sau abuzul de serviciu. În procesul analizei, sunt examinate proiectul care se află la baza Legii nr.60/2016, Nota informativă la acest proiect şi alte asemenea acte preparatorii. De asemenea, se face referire la Convenţia privind spălarea, descoperirea, sechestrarea şi confiscarea produselor infracţiunii şi finan­ţarea terorismului, adoptată la Varşovia la 16.05.2005, precum şi la raportul explicativ la această Convenţie. Scopul prezentului studiu constă în stabilirea efectelor pozitive şi a celor negative ale adoptării modificărilor şi completărilor operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. În rezultatul investigaţiei efectuate se ajunge la concluzia că nu toate amendamentele operate prin legea amintită au tangenţă cu domeniile ce ţin de prevenirea şi combaterea spălării banilor şi a finanţării terorismului. Nu toate aceste amendamente pot asigura armonizarea legislaţiei naţionale penale cu stan­dardele stabilite de Curtea Europeană pentru Drepturile Omului. Unele din aceste amendamente sunt îndoielnice sub aspectul calităţii lor tehnico-legislative şi/sau în ce priveşte aportul lor în planul eficientizării apărării ordinii de drept. Impresia de ansamblu este că nu preocuparea pentru interesul social a constituit scopul principal al adoptării Legii nr.60/2016.SOME REMARKS ON THE AMENDMENTS OPERATED TO THE PENAL CODE BY LAW No.60/2016The object of this study is formed by the modifications and additions operated to the Penal Code by Law No.60/2016. The content of the respective initiatives addresses the following elements: the legal person as the subject of the offence; special confiscation

  12. Responsabilidades en Prevención de riesgos laborales; Especial referencia a la responsabilidad penal

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    En este proyecto fin de grado se abordan las responsabilidades empresariales de prevención de riesgos laborales; civiles, administrativos, penales y recargo de prestaciones por incumplimiento de la normativa de prevención de riesgos laborales, con referencias jurisprudenciales y normativa vigente. Se hace especial referencia a la responsabilidad penal detallando los distintos tipos de delito; de peligro y de resultado, con sus distintas modalidades dolosa e imprudente, en su...

  13. Transfrontier environmental protection and German penal law. Grenzueberschreitende Umweltbelastungen und deutsches Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, H.W.

    1988-01-22

    The author investigates the problem of how far German penal law is valid in case of transfrontier environmental pollution. He distinguishes between cases in which the interests of Germany and the neighbour state are congruent, and cases in which they are not congruent. According to the author, German law should be applied in cases where the other country has no environmental penal legislation, and where the emissions exceed the limits set by German and foreign law. (orig./HSCH).

  14. Prácticas de control socio-penal dispositivo psi pericial y adolescentes mujeres en el Sistema Penal Juvenil Uruguayo /

    OpenAIRE

    López Gallego, Laura

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral "Prácticas de Control Socio-Penal. Dispositivo Psi Pericial y Adolescentes Mujeres en el Sistema Penal Juvenil Uruguayo" se sitúa en una perspectiva analítica que articula postulados de la Psicología Social Crítica y las Epistemologías Feministas, junto con aportes criminológicos provenientes de la Criminología Crítica y la Criminología Feminista. Los itinerarios de investigación producidos en esta tesis doctoral se descomponen en dos proyectos de investigación. Uno...

  15. Justicia penal y medios de comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Iván Gustavo Lello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantearse como objeto de estudio la difusión por la prensa de procesos judiciales penales implica asumir un punto de vista multidisciplinario y multilateral. En un sistema democrático, solo en el cual es posible problematizar acerca de esta cuestión, el principio es la división de poderes y la publicidad de los actos de gobierno. En él, además, la prensa tiene una función tradicionalmente definida en la historia constitucional recogida por la tradición argentina y latinoamericana en general. Pero el espacio real de la comunicación a través de los medios de este tipo de hechos está enmarcada por tratados internacionales, la constitución y leyes positivas, e incluso con mayor minuciosidad en los códigos de procedimiento, y, en menor medida, por la deontología periodística.

  16. Diritto penale, vittimizzazione e “protagonismo” della vittima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Fondaroli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a « victim » of crime is unknown in both the Italian Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Law, with the exception of the transposed provisions of the Community acts into our national legislation and those regarding the creation of “solidarity funds” (for example, the funds to assist the victims of terrorism, of mafia, or road accidents. However, a definition is present in Article 2 of the EU Directive 2012/29/UE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25th October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, and replacing the Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA. In place of the term “victim”, our legal system uses the traditional figure of a “person damaged as the result of crime” (Article 185 of the Penal law, who joins the proceedings as a private party to claim damages (Article 74 of the Criminal Procedure Law, the figure of the “injured party” and the associations representing the interests offended by the crime (Article 91 of the Criminal Procedure Law. The irruption of the victim into the criminal trial beyond the confines of our legal traditions produces an explosive effect. Indeed, these confines are already very large with regard to the experience of some foreign countries where often extra procedural methods of victim-offender mediation are provided.

  17. CONSECUENCIAS JURÍDICO-PENALES DEL ABSENTISMO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vázquez González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El absentismo y/o el abandono escolar no son tan sólo uno de los principales problemas a los que se debe enfrentar cualquier sistema educativo, sino también un problema social relacionado con la exclusión social, la marginación y la delincuencia, ya que la investigación criminológica ha comprobado como el fracaso escolar o un temprano abandono de los estudios opera como un facilitador de la delincuencia juvenil. Cuando el absentismo o abandono escolar se produce debido a un incumplimiento injustificado por parte de los padres del deber de educar y proporcionar una formación integral a sus hijos, deber legal de asistencia inherente a la patria potestad, el Estado deberá intervenir para garantizar el derecho a la educación de los menores, recurriendo incluso al Derecho penal, mediante la aplicación del delito de abandono de familia del art. 226.1 CP.

  18. Polygenic scores via penalized regression on summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Timothy Shin Heng; Porsch, Robert Milan; Choi, Shing Wan; Zhou, Xueya; Sham, Pak Chung

    2017-09-01

    Polygenic scores (PGS) summarize the genetic contribution of a person's genotype to a disease or phenotype. They can be used to group participants into different risk categories for diseases, and are also used as covariates in epidemiological analyses. A number of possible ways of calculating PGS have been proposed, and recently there is much interest in methods that incorporate information available in published summary statistics. As there is no inherent information on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in summary statistics, a pertinent question is how we can use LD information available elsewhere to supplement such analyses. To answer this question, we propose a method for constructing PGS using summary statistics and a reference panel in a penalized regression framework, which we call lassosum. We also propose a general method for choosing the value of the tuning parameter in the absence of validation data. In our simulations, we showed that pseudovalidation often resulted in prediction accuracy that is comparable to using a dataset with validation phenotype and was clearly superior to the conservative option of setting the tuning parameter of lassosum to its lowest value. We also showed that lassosum achieved better prediction accuracy than simple clumping and P-value thresholding in almost all scenarios. It was also substantially faster and more accurate than the recently proposed LDpred. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. Parametric Studies of Flat Plate Trajectories Using VIC and Penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Morency

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying debris is generated in several situations: when a roof is exposed to a storm, when ice accretes on rotating wind turbines, or during inflight aircraft deicing. Four dimensionless parameters play a role in the motion of flying debris. The goal of the present paper is to investigate the relative importance of four dimensionless parameters: the Reynolds number, the Froude number, the Tachikawa number, and the mass moment of inertia parameters. Flying debris trajectories are computed with a fluid-solid interaction model formulated for an incompressible 2D laminar flow. The rigid moving solid effects are modelled in the Navier-Stokes equations using penalization. A VIC scheme is used to solve the flow equations. The aerodynamic forces and moments are used to compute the acceleration and the velocity of the solid. A database of 64 trajectories is built using a two-level full factorial design for the four factors. The dispersion of the plate position at a given horizontal position decreases with the Froude number. Moreover, the Tachikawa number has a significant effect on the median plate position.

  20. Declared Pedagogical Values of Coaches at Hungarian Football Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Dániel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on empirical research that was carried out in the total population of the coaches employed at Hungarian football academies (N=196. The main objectives of the investigation were to reveal the coaches’ opinions about some major pedagogical views and to discover whether they realize their declared pedagogical values or not. The methods for collecting the data were a self-administered questionnaire, analysis of documents, and semi-structured interviews. The results are presented according to the following sub-topics: The content and the structure of the coaches’ pedagogical values and the place of education in coaching effectiveness. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the disregard of pedagogical values can cause continuous harm to both the athletes and the coaches. The personality of young players suffering from educational and emotional neglect might develop in a one-sided manner. The effect of dysfunctional consequences with the coaches might prevent them from achieving their goals. In the worst case scenario, ignoring the young players’ education can hinder the realization of the coaches’ intended objectives and can result in unintended and adverse outcomes.

  1. Contextualizing History in Hungarian Films of the New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Orban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian films produced after the year 2000 build on the historical reality of the fall of communism and anticipate, or come to terms with, entry into the European Union.  This article will explore six films that deal with history through multiple perspectives to dramatize the dynamic between historical events and human responses to them.  These films reference history, or efface it, as a way of problematizing the relationship between human behavior and history.  Colossal Sensation [Világszám – Dodó és Naftalin] (2005 and Children of Glory [Szabadság, szerelem] (2006, for example, examine Hungarians’ moments of defiance during the 1956 uprising but shape historical events to fit human constructs.  Contemporary history provides satire of rising capitalism in The District! [Nyócker!] (2005 whose plot weaves historical figures into a modern rendition of Romeo and Juliette.  Miracle in Krakow [Csoda Krakkóban] (2004 also presents a book as its central metaphor, and, like The District!, the book allows some of history’s uglier moments to be erased.  Béla Tarr’s Werkmeister Harmonies [Werkmeister harmóniák] (2000 and Nimród Antal’s Control [Kontroll] (2003, films without overt historical markers, provide allegorical visions of societal unrest that can be read as allusions to millennial concerns.

  2. HUNGARIAN EXPERIENCES WITH THE BELIEFS ABOUT ATTRACTIVENESS SCALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit; Szabo, Kornélia

    2016-03-30

    Sociocultural influences regarding bodily appearance and their psychological consequences play a considerable role in the development and maintenance of body image disturbance and eating disorders. The purpose of the study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Beliefs About Attractiveness Scale-Revised and its correlates among young adults in Hungary. In our cross-sectional online study, participants were 18-35 years old (N = 820, 40% male). self-reported anthropometric data, Beliefs About Attractiveness Scale-Revised, Eating Disorder Inventory, SCOFF questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the fit indices of the three-factor solution are acceptable (χ²(₁₇₁)) = 5124.8, p scales were confirmed. Among those who were at risk of developing an eating disorder, all of the measured beliefs were significantly greater than among those who were not at risk (thin: Z = 6.501, p Scale-Revised is a reliable, valid measure and we suggest its introduction into Hungarian research. Relationships between beliefs about attractiveness and self- esteem, body image and eating disorders suggest intervention opportunities in with regards to prevention and treatment of eating disorders.

  3. R and D policy of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berki, Tamas; Macsuga, Geza; Neubauer, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is authorised by the prescriptions of the law on Atomic Energy to support research and development activities in those scientific and technical areas, which primarily contribute to performing the nuclear safety regulatory responsibility and improving effectiveness and efficiency of licensing, inspection and assessment activities. HAEA's Research and Development program is an essential one: it is run on significant financial resources and with the involvement of a wide range of Technical Support Organisations (TSO). Therefore appropriate priorities have to be applied and directions have to be followed when decisions are made on activities to be supported by the HAEA. These priorities and strategic directions for the R and D activities are defined in the Research and Development Policy of HAEA, which was lastly revised in 2008. The report introduces the summary evaluation and major results of R and D activities sponsored by the HAEA in the previous 2005-2008 cycle and the directions and general elements of the R and D Policy of the ongoing period 2009-2012. (author)

  4. 'Should We Leave or Stay?' Notes on Recent Hungarian Outmigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva V. Huseby-Darvas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study is based on Hungarian electronic media sources, informal interviews and similar personal communications, as well as statistical data provided by kind and cooperative colleagues in Hungary. Addressing the recent, massive outmigration from Hungary, the article explores some of the primary push-and-pull factors, and then discusses responses to the emigration phenomenon itself and its likely long-term demographic, social and economic implications, by scholars as well as by politicians from both the governing party and the opposition. To give the emic perspective, I cited and translated from my conversations with a few young emigrants, would-be-emigrants, and mothers’ of these young people, and thus illustrate the issue from those most involved. Then, by also citing scholars, authors, columnists, and politicians my aim was to offer the etic, or outsiders’ view, but – since for various reasons – they also appear to be involved in and concerned with the problem of outmigration, theirs is still an emic perspective, though of a different order. Realizing that the present attempt is merely a quick snapshot of an ongoing, potentially volatile and dynamic process, further research and a multidisciplinary attempt to interpret and analyze the recent emigration from Hungary are needed.

  5. Voting Patterns on Hungarian Parliamentary Elections in 2002–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabás Rácz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post–communist transitional era, Hungarian elections show diverse results among various areas, raising the question if there are firmly embedded differences between some parts of the country. In the light of the election returns between 1985–2006, it appears that there is a more or less definite pattern. This study will examine the 2006 legislative returns and compare the results with the previous trends and especially the 2002 data, testing the validity of the findings indicating the presence of some fairly constant regional standards of voting. As a main indicator of past trends we use mostly the territorial (party lists which provide more accurate picture of voting preferences that individual districts which in runoffs carry an indirect distortion of voters’ primary preferences by other considerations.2 For a deeper analysis of the recent 2002 and 2006 elections, we will compare the first run individual district voting outcomes, as they give the more accurate picture of the voters’ real preferences.

  6. [Multidisciplinary approach of hip fractures based on Hungarian data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Krisztina; Turchányi, Béla; Mintál, Tibor; Somogyi, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Hip fractures are described by increased mortality, loss of quality of life, functional decline and burden of diseases. They show a growing number worldwide. The aim of the present study is to summarise the existing data on the incidence, mortality, complications and rehabilitation of hip fractures, which relevance is reported only by few studies. To reduce mortality and complications of hip fractures the authors emphasize the importance of primary treatment within 12 hours, appropriate selection of surgical methods corresponding to the fracture type after the assessment of femoral head viability, vitamin D supplementation, same conditions for primary treatment during everyday of the week, and an adequate acute treatment and rehabilitation for patient's general health status. In the future integrated processing of multidisciplinary results of hip fractures based on Hungarian data can support the development of efficient treatment and prevention strategies, which can be advantageous for the patient, families, health care system, and the society, too, by the reduction of costly complications of hip fracture healing and mortality. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(37), 1469-1475.

  7. ¿ES LEGÍTIMA LA PROTECCIÓN PENAL DE LOS DERECHOS MORALES DE AUTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alejandro Osorio Moreno

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto del derecho penal moderno y desde una perspectiva comparada entre el derecho penal español y el derecho penal colombiano en cuanto a la protección penal de los derechos morales de autor, se pone en discusión si es necesaria la intervención penal o no, a partir de cuestionar si en verdad se protege un bien jurídico relevante que ameritaría el mecanismo de control social más grave del que dispone el Estado que es el derecho penal, o cómo se planteará, si a partir de la protección de los derechos patrimoniales de autor se cobijan los morales tal como acontece en España en la actualidad.

  8. Hungarian Economic Development Prospects – in the Light of the One Belt and One Road Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Novák

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to delineate the most important aspects of the historical Hungarian economic development path, while shedding light on long-term Chinese investment and trade opportunities in Hungary. In order to make the One Belt and One Road Initiative a success, China needs proper knowledge of the Central European countries’ long-term development needs and goals. This analysis delivers a first assessment of the basic long-term questions of Hungarian economic development. The paper reviews milestones of economic progress after 1990 until the present, and shortly looks into the effects of the economic transformation of the 90s, and the main repercussions of the Global Financial Crisis (2008-2009. At the end of the paper a short glimpse is given on how the Hungarian economy could develop, and what are the possible development models to be utilized by Hungarian decision-makers. At the same time, it will be clear where Hungarian and Chinese need can intersect each other.

  9. Hungarian Minority Politics in Post-Socialist Romania: Interests, Strategies, and Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toró Tibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the integration strategies formulated by the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania and the Hungarian political elite in the post-communist period. It argues that the internal debates of the political community are formulated in a field where other actors (the Hungarian and the Romanian state, political parties, European institutions, etc. carry out their activities, which deeply influences both the chosen strategies and the needed resources for their implementation. Moreover, it questions the monolithic organization of the minority organization, showing that DAHR as the representative of the minority community was shaped by several internal debates and conflicts. Also from 2003 these conflicts have grown beyond the borders of the organization and since 2008 we can follow a whole new type of institutionalization. In achieving this, I introduce three strategies - individual integration, collective integration, and organizational integration - which are chosen by different fragments of the Hungarian minority elite both toward the Hungarian and the Romanian political sphere. Throughout the 1989-2012 period, the outcome of the conflict between the supporters of these strategies is deeply influenced by the policies of the two states.

  10. Reflections on the Status of Hungarian Loanwords in Old Romanian Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation has always been important for religion as a way of preaching God's word. The first Romanian translations of religious texts, including the first (although incomplete translation of the Bible, date from the sixteenth century. In this early period of Romanian writing, Romanian translators encountered several problems in conveying the meaning of these texts of a great complexity. Some of the difficulties were due to the source texts available in the epoch, others to the ideal of literal translation, to the principle of legitimacy or to the relatively poor development of Romanian language which limited the translators' options. The present study focuses on the causes and purposes for which lexical items of Hungarian origin interweave old Romanian translations. In this epoch, Hungarian influence was favoured by a complex of political, legal, administrative and socioculturel factors, sometimes even forced by these circumstances. On the one hand, given the premises of vivid contacts between Romanians and Hungarians in the regions where the old Romanian translations (or their originals can be located, a number of Hungarian loanwords of folk origin penetrated these texts. On the other hand, when using Hungarian sources, translators have imported useful source language caiques and loanwords, which have enriched Romanian language.

  11. [Extramural research funds and penal law--status of legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    After decades of smooth functioning, the cooperation of physicians and hospitals with the industry (much desired from the side of the government in the interest of clinical research) has fallen in legal discredit due to increasingly frequent criminal inquires and proceedings for unduly privileges, corruption, and embezzlement. The discredit is so severe that the industry funding for clinical research is diverted abroad to an increasing extent. The legal elements of embezzlement assume the intentional violation of the entrusted funds against the interest of the customer. Undue privileges occur when an official requests an advantage in exchange for a service (or is promised one or takes one) in his or somebody else's interest. The elements of corruption are then given when the receiver of the undue privilege provides an illegal service or takes a discretionary decision under the influence of the gratuity. The tension between the prohibition of undue privileges (as regulated by the penal law) and the granting of extramural funds (as regulated by the administrative law in academic institutions) can be reduced through a high degree of transparency and the start of control possibilities--public announcement and authorization by the officials--as well as through exact documentation and observance of the principles of separation of interests and moderation. With the anti-corruption law of 1997, it is possible to charge of corruption also physicians employed in private institutions. In contrast, physicians in private practice are not considered in the above criminal facts. They can only be charged of misdemeanor, or called to respond to the professional board, on the basis of the law that regulates advertising for medicinal products (Heilmittelwerbegesetz).

  12. El cuerpo, el gueto y el Estado penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el enfoque del autor sobre la etnografía, la teoría social, y la política del conocimiento a través de un diálogo que vuelve sobre su trayectoria intelectual y los vínculos analíticos entre sus investigaciones sobre el cuerpo, la marginalidad urbana comparada y el Estado penal. Resalta las conexiones prácticas y fundamentos epistemológicos detrás de sus principales proyectos de investigación, explica las distintas maneras en que se despliega el trabajo de campo de observación en cada uno de ellos, y examina el papel de los intelectuales en las sociedades avanzadas de la era del neoliberalismo hegemónico. Rechazando tanto el empirismo de Hume como el neo-cognitivismo kantiano, el autor aboga por el uso de la etnografía como un instrumento de ruptura y construcción, la potencia del conocimiento carnal, el imperativo de la reflexividad epistémica y la necesidad de ampliar los géneros textuales y estilos con el fin de captar mejor el sabor y el dolor de la acción social. En la esfera pública, propone que las ciencias sociales pueden actuar como un disolvente de la doxa y un faro que arroja luz sobre las propiedades latentes y las tendencias desapercibidas en las transformaciones sociales a fin de generar rupturas y ampliar el debate cívico.

  13. Penalized differential pathway analysis of integrative oncogenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, Wessel N; van de Wiel, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Through integration of genomic data from multiple sources, we may obtain a more accurate and complete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. We discuss the integration of DNA copy number and mRNA gene expression data from an observational integrative genomics study involving cancer patients. The two molecular levels involved are linked through the central dogma of molecular biology. DNA copy number aberrations abound in the cancer cell. Here we investigate how these aberrations affect gene expression levels within a pathway using observational integrative genomics data of cancer patients. In particular, we aim to identify differential edges between regulatory networks of two groups involving these molecular levels. Motivated by the rate equations, the regulatory mechanism between DNA copy number aberrations and gene expression levels within a pathway is modeled by a simultaneous-equations model, for the one- and two-group case. The latter facilitates the identification of differential interactions between the two groups. Model parameters are estimated by penalized least squares using the lasso (L1) penalty to obtain a sparse pathway topology. Simulations show that the inclusion of DNA copy number data benefits the discovery of gene-gene interactions. In addition, the simulations reveal that cis-effects tend to be over-estimated in a univariate (single gene) analysis. In the application to real data from integrative oncogenomic studies we show that inclusion of prior information on the regulatory network architecture benefits the reproducibility of all edges. Furthermore, analyses of the TP53 and TGFb signaling pathways between ER+ and ER- samples from an integrative genomics breast cancer study identify reproducible differential regulatory patterns that corroborate with existing literature.

  14. Kafka's Writing Machine: Metamorphosis in the Penal Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Weinstein

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Kafka's "In the Penal Colony" is a problematic story, largely because of the conflicting interpretations it has received: does its famous machine dispense grace or torture? Is Kafka giving us a parable of Old vs. New Law? How does the "liberal" explorer or the "liberal" reader assess the Officer's impassioned pleading for the Machine and the kind of justice it serves? A strange kind of coherence emerges, however, when one focusses on the central unifying motif of the story: understanding. The tale itself is little more than the Officer's desperate effort to make the explorer-reader understand; the machine itself makes its victim understand the nature of justice. Language is, of course, a primary vehicle for understanding, and Kafka's story dramatizes two radically opposed languages: verbal and physical. All efforts to bridge the distance between people, between matter and spirit, seem to fail, at least insofar as spoken language is concerned; the machine's mission is to create physical language, an unmediated script which is the reality of which it speaks. By writing the crime onto and into the flesh of the criminal, the machine offers a sublime and frightening figure of "visceral knowledge," of the open self as the opened self. By entering into the machine himself, the Officer undergoes the classic Kafka metamorphosis: he becomes the prisoner, and he thereby suffers knowledge. The entire parable may be seen as an illustration of the writer's yearning for a language so potent that the reader would experience, "in the flesh," the writer's words. Kafka's own narrative techniques aim at precisely such a metamorphosis in the reader.

  15. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  16. The Moderating Effect of Valenced Contact: Slovak Language Media Use, Acculturation and L2 Confidence among Young Hungarian Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Laszlo; Gasiorek, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the tenets of the social context model of L2 acquisition with insights from the parasocial contact hypothesis, the present paper addresses the role of mass media in L2 acquisition and acculturation among young Hungarian speakers in Slovakia. Questionnaire data were collected among Hungarian-speaking secondary school students (N = 310).…

  17. Collecting money at a global level. The UN fundraising campaign for the 1956 Hungarian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusztáv D. KECSKÉS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the role that the UN played in providing the financial means for the international reception of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. According to the author’s conclusions, through the coordination of moneyraising efforts, authorised by international law (that is, by the UN General Assembly’s decisions and the professional and trustworthy documentation of humanitarian needs and activities, the institutional network of the UN contributed considerably to the formation and practical implementation of Western governments’ international humanitarian action aimed at solving the crisis of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. This study is based on documents in the UN archives (New York, Geneva, the Swedish National Library (Stockholm, the UNHCR Archives, the Archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, (Geneva and the NATO Archives (Brussels, and in the Diplomatic Archives Center (La Courneuve, Nantes, Diplomatic Archive (Brussels and the Hungarian National Archives (Budapest.

  18. Selected English-Language Bibliography of Interest for Hungarian Cultural Studies: 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2014-2015, covering the period since the publication in the fall of 2014 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items, which were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included. For a more extensive bibliography of Hungarian Studies from about 2000 to 2010, for which this is a continuing update, see Louise O. Vasvári, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, and Carlo Salzani. “Bibliography for Work in Hungarian Studies as Comparative Central European Studies.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Library (2011:  http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/clcweblibrary/hungarianstudiesbibliography.

  19. Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Költő, András; Gősi-Greguss, Anna C; Varga, Katalin; Bányai, Éva I

    2015-01-01

    Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) are presented. The Hungarian translation of the HGSHS:A was administered under standard conditions to 434 participants (190 males, 244 females) of several professions. In addition to the traditional self-scoring, hypnotic behavior was also recorded by trained observers. Female participants proved to be more hypnotizable than males and so were psychology students and professionals as compared to nonpsychologists. Hypnotizability varied across different group sizes. The normative data-including means, standard deviations, and indicators of reliability-are comparable with previously published results. The authors conclude that measuring observer-scores increases the ecological validity of the scale. The Hungarian version of the HGSHS:A seems to be a reliable and valid measure of hypnotizability.

  20. Linguistic Representation of Emotions in Japanese and Hungarian: Quantity and Abstractness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton SZEMEREY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, two linguistic aspects of emotion expression are studied in the form they are performed in present day Japanese and Hungarian. After a brief summary on the recent emotional researches connected to Japanese culture and language, the concept of Linguistic Category Model is introduced. The quantitative study presented afterwards investigates emotion expression in terms of amount and abstraction. Translations were used for comparison and the results showed that 1 Japanese tend to use less explicit emotion terms compared to Hungarians and 2 emotion language in Japanese is characterized by the choice of less abstract phrases compared to Hungarian. These findings are discussed in the light of their relevance to former researches of cross-cultural psychology and linguistics.

  1. The Outsider Within: Béla Tarr and Hungarian National Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Tőke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Béla Tarr is probably the most paradoxical figure in contemporary Hungarian cinema. His artistic trajectory shows a movement from documentary style realism (Family Nest, 1979 towards more modernist cinematic practices (Satan’s Tango, 1994, Werckmeister Harmonies, 2000, and The Man from London, 2007. A major celebrity in the global film culture that prides itself in being transnational, international, and in crossing linguistic and ethnic boundaries, Tarr has consistently found himself on the fringes of the Hungarian cultural and political establishment. In this study Tőke considers Tarr’s films and public persona as catalysts in the debates about what constitutes “Hungarian cinema” in a globalizing world from the 1970s until today.

  2. Social normative beliefs regarding cigarette smoking in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Piko, Bettina F; Balazs, Mate A; Struk, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Hungary will continue to experience a high burden of disease and death from lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease unless there is a significant reduction in youth smoking. Social factors have been found to be among the most important determinants of adolescent smoking, yet few studies have investigated social normative beliefs in Hungarian youth. The purpose of the current study was to investigate three measures of smoking normative beliefs thought to influence adolescent smoking: perceived prevalence of smoking; perceived popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society; and perceived disapproval by friends and family. A cross-sectional school-based survey of eighth grade (n = 258) and 12th grade (n = 288) students in Mako, Hungary was conducted to assess social normative beliefs about smoking, current smoking, ever smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. The association of the normative beliefs with the smoking behavior variables was examined through logistic regression analysis, and the underlying factor structure of the normative belief items in the current sample was determined through factor analysis. The percent of boys reporting current smoking was 40.5% in 12th grade and 27.0% in eighth grade. Among girls, the percent was 44.0% of 12th graders and 29.1% of eighth graders. Parent/peer disapproval was the most consistently associated normative belief with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking across both samples. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Implementation of the Hungarian RW management project: Results and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigassy, J.; Czoch, I.; Ormai, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a National RW Management Project was launched to solve handling and disposal of LLW/ILW of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant and to elaborate a complex strategy for the management of radwastes from the NPP, including HLW, spent fuel and wastes from the decommissioning. It was intended to implement the project so as to have selected the possible site (or sites) for the LLW/ILW waste repository by 1996. This paper describes the first results of the nation-wide screening for suitable areas and the problems related to the comparative evaluation process to select potential sites for a surface or geological LLW/ILW disposal facility. International tenders were issued to find the most appropriate technology to reduce the quantity of liquid and solid radwaste in the Nuclear Power Plant. Their results will provide a better basis for planning the characteristics and quantity of radwaste. The applications revealed that supercompacting can be ordered as a service when the need arises, and thus it was possible to re-allocate the funding originally foreseen for the equipment to treat solid wastes. Great importance is attached in the Project to public acceptance and PR activity. An expert organization was selected in a two-phase bidding process, and it was decided that detailed exploration of a potential site will take place only if public acceptance is assured. The original program of the Hungarian RW Management Project was extended in 1994 to perform on-site underground investigations (with Canadian support) in a silt-stone formation. The first results confirm that this is a potential site for deep geological disposal of HLW. The financial and legal framework of the RW management is also to be solved. The new law on nuclear energy -- now in preparation -- will deal with that problem in one of its most important chapters, defining the responsibilities for RW management and the sources of funding

  4. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  5. ‘Transfers’ in Hungarian Literature from Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Erika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the variants of the postmodern phenomena of literary ‘transfer’ (‘trans-correspondence,’ ‘transpass’ and their relationships with Hungarian literature (in Vojvodina from the beginnings (the creative tradition of Kornél Szenteleky’s oeuvre up to the events of present-time literary history (e.g., to the publication of Esti by Péter Esterházy. Referential aspects (the literary themes of the railway, the train, the change of trains, specific contexts (e.g., Kornél Esti as a contextual ‘transferring’ literary character and metaphorical contents (e.g., the meanings of the straight line and the plane in the literature of the region come into the focus of our research. Another significant aspect of the research is the interpretation of the intricate web of cross-cultural ‘transfers’ (between the works of Dezső Kosztolányi-Danilo Kiš-Péter Esterházy. The dominant motif of Central-Eastern European man’s experience of space is the straight line of the flatlands: lacking the sea-experience of the Southern European or of the more southern regions, as well as the related mythical experience of the world, infinity-experience, or reality perceptions hosting unrealities. The trip in this sense is an intermediate form of life: movement towards other shapes. The direction and extent of this movement has always been defined by the ‘straight line,’ the main road, and later the straight line of the railway

  6. ALGUNOS APUNTES SOBRE LAS RAZONES DE LA REFORMA DEL PROCEDIMIENTO PENAL EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gilles Bélanger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en Latinoamérica, la mayor parte de los países han modificado sus códigos penales con el objeto de tener una mejor salud procesal. En esta transición, hace falta ayuda internacional real, apoyo, colaboración e intercambio de ideas, programas, experiencias, grupos de trabajo, capacitación a nivel bilateral y multilateral dirigida por expertos para los actores en el sistema penal y para la sociedad. Todos los países de Latinoamérica, han tenido éxitos y todos tienen fallas en las reformas procesales desarrolladas en materia penal. Parece entonces oportuno, empezar el dialogo y la colaboración para contribuir a una mejor comprensión y edificación de los sistemas penales y su evolución. Para ello se requiere compartir las experiencias que han funcionado en otros países, adaptándolas al marco jurídico de cada contexto en particular. Por un lado, esto ayuda a mejorar la comprensión operacional del procedimiento penal y por otro lado, el respeto de las garantías jurídicas establecidas en las Cartas Magnas de cada país y por ende estabilidad institucional, seguridad y desarrollo económico para la sociedad.

  7. El acoso sexual infantil a través del código penal peruano/Child sexual harassment through the peruan penal code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ernesto Peña Labrin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El medio cibernético es un escenario idóneo para que se presenten diversas conductas criminógenas, aunque no necesariamente delictivas. El acoso sexual infantil es un ejemplo, ya que aprovecha el anonimato de la red para lograr ciertas conductas. La legislación tiene como reto avanzar de tal manera que la sociedad se sienta resguardada.

  8. L2 Romanian Influence in the Acquisition of the English Passive by L1 Speakers of Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankó Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main question to be investigated is to what extent native speakers of Hungarian understand and acquire the English passive voice, as there is no generalized syntactic passive construction in Hungarian. As we will show, native speakers of Hungarian tend to use the predicative verbal adverbial construction when translating English passive sentences, as this construction is the closest syntactic equivalent of the English passive voice. Another question to be investigated is whether L2 Romanian works as a facilitating factor in the process of acquiring the L3 English passive voice. If all our subjects, Hungarian students living in Romania, were Hungarian-Romanian bilinguals, it would be obvious that knowledge of Romanian helps them in acquiring the English passive. However, as it will be shown, the bilingualism hypothesis is disconfirmed. Still, passive knowledge of Romanian influences to some extent the acquisition of the English passive voice.

  9. The Use of Hungarian and Serbian in the City of Szabadka/Subotica : An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarl Ferdinand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ferdinand and Komlosi analyze the use of Hungarian and Serbian in the city of Szabadka/Subotica, which is located in the Serbian region of Northern Vajdaság/Vojvodina. A mostly Hungarian speaking city for centuries, Szabadka/Subotica suffered the strong pro-Serbian language policy implemented by the Yugoslavian government from the end of the First World War until the dismantlement of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, which gave Hungarian and other local minority languages a second chance to survive. Nowadays, Szabadka/Subotica is home to two main language groups, southern Slavic languages such a Serbian and Croatian (over sixty per cent and Hungarian (thirty three per cent. Although Ferdinand and Komlosi employed official figures from the Serbian censuses to determine the size of each group, the situation of each language was mapped through empirical observation of language use in informal conversations, in official signage, and in permanent as well as temporary commercial signage. The results show that the role of Serbian (mostly written in Latin script is dominant in almost all spheres of public life and as a lingua franca among various groups. Nevertheless, Hungarian maintains a strong presence in the city, especially in the center and in its northwestern districts. In this paper, Ferdinand and Komlosi aim to contribute to a better general understanding of group dynamics in bilingual settings and, specifically, to provide a clearer view of the language situation in one of the Hungarian-speaking regions lost by the historic Kingdom of Hungary after World War I.

  10. Female students of Hungarian origin in the higher education system of Serbia: A gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendak-Kabok Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of students of Hungarian origin studying at the University of Novi Sad (Vojvodina, Serbia is considerably lower than expected, based on the size of the Hungarian national community living in Vojvodina. This fact is caused by various reasons, but the most important is that one third of the Hungarian students continue their higher education in Hungary instead of Serbia. The primary cause of this brain drain is that they cannot continue their studies in their mother tongue. Hungary is a member of the European union, and therefore prospective students choose it over Serbia, as a Eu university degree opens up better employment opportunities, especially in the Eu. This paper analyzes the number of female students from the Hungarian national community in Vojvodina, who are studying at the university of Novi Sad, and compares their number to the number of students of Serbian nationality at the same university, as well as the gender aspect of their faculty choices. The aim of this study is to express the lower representation of Hungarian female students at the university of Novi Sad, especially in the areas of technical sciences studies and computing and information sciences, and to propose measures and solutions in order to overcome the above mentioned lower representation. The research results indicate a decrease in the number of female Hungarian students and a seriously biased structure of their faculty choices at the university of Novi Sad, as well as the fact that their faculty choices result in problems which they face later when they start looking for employment. It would be of great importance if the government, as the founder of higher educational institutions, would take action. The civil society's engagement is needed as well in this field, through affirmative and other measures which could increase the number of students in the technical study areas and thereby increase the likeliness of finding suitable employment opportunities

  11. [VALIDATION OF THE HUNGARIAN MDS-UPDRS: WHY DO WE NEED A NEW PARKINSON SCALE?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Krisztina; Aschermann Zsuzsanna; Acs, Péter; Bosnyák, Edit; Deli, Gabriella; Pál, Endre; Késmárki, Ildikó; Horváth Réka; Takács, Katalin; Komoly, Sámuel; Bokor, Magdolna; Rigó, Eszter; Lajtos, Júlia; Klivényi, Péter; Dibó, György; Vécsei, László; Takáts, Annamária; Tóth, Adrián; Imre, Piroska; Nagy, Ferenc; Herceg, Mihály; Hidasi, Eszter; Kovács, Norbert

    2014-03-30

    The Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has been published in 2008 as the successor of the original UPDRS. The MDS-UPDRS organizing team developed guidelines for the development of official non-English translations consisting of four steps: translation/back-translation, cognitive pretesting, large field testing, and clinimetric analysis. The aim of this paper was to introduce the new MDS-UPDRS and its validation process into Hungarian. Two independent groups of neurologists translated the text of the MDS-UPDRS into Hungarian and subsequently back-translated into English. After the review of the back-translated English version by the MDS-UPDRS translation administration team, cognitive pretesting was conducted with ten patients. Based on the results of the initial cognitive pretesting, another round was conducted. For the large field testing phase, the Hungarian official working draft version of MDS-UPDRS was tested with 357 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Hungarian Official Draft Version. To become an official translation, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had to be ≥ 0.90 compared to the English-language version. For all four parts of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS, the CFI was ≥ 0.94. The overall factor structure of the Hungarian version was consistent with that of the English version based on the high CFIs for all the four parts of the MDS-UPDRS in the CFA; therefore, this version was designated as the "OFFICIAL GUNGARIAN VERSION OF THE MDS-UPDRS'.

  12. Genetic analysis of the Hungarian draft horse population using partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background The Hungarian draft is a horse breed with a recent mixed ancestry created in the 1920s by crossing local mares with draught horses imported from France and Belgium. The interest in its conservation and characterization has increased over the last few years. The aim of this work is to contribute to the characterization of the endangered Hungarian heavy draft horse populations in order to obtain useful information to implement conservation strategies for these genetic stocks. Methods To genetically characterize the breed and to set up the basis for a conservation program, in the present study a hypervariable region of the mitochrondial DNA (D-loop) was used to assess genetic diversity in Hungarian draft horses. Two hundred and eighty five sequences obtained in our laboratory and 419 downloaded sequences available from Genbank were analyzed. Results One hundred and sixty-four haplotypes and thirty-six polymorphic sites were observed. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values (Hd = 0.954 ± 0.004; π = 0.028 ± 0.0004) were identified in Hungarian population, although they were higher within than among the different populations (Hd = 0.972 ± 0.002; π = 0.03097 ± 0.002). Fourteen of the previously observed seventeen haplogroups were detected. Discussion Our samples showed a large intra- and interbreed variation. There was no clear clustering on the median joining network figure. The overall information collected in this work led us to consider that the genetic scenario observed for Hungarian draft breed is more likely the result of contributions from ‘ancestrally’ different genetic backgrounds. This study could contribute to the development of a breeding plan for Hungarian draft horses and help to formulate a genetic conservation plan, avoiding inbreeding while. PMID:29404201

  13. JURIDICAL REGIME OF THE INTEREST IN THE ROMANIAN LAW. PARTICULAR CASE. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE REGULATIONS OF THE REMUNERATORY INTEREST VERSUS THE PENALIZING INTEREST, IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucia Cristea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a case where the rate of the conventional interest is not specified made me investigate what is the maximal limit that can be obtained in this case, under the regulation in force, in the Romanian law (sect.1!To formulate a solution, I considered as necessary to analyze : the provision on the moratory damages (according to the Roman Civil Code and the putting of the debtor in default, in order to know what is the date starting from which the moratory damages are calculated (according to the Roman Civil Code-sect.2; the juridical regime of the interest (according to the Roman Bankin Law-sect.3;comparison between the remuneratory interest and the penalizing interest (according to the Roman Banking Law-sect.4;solution for the case and conclusions-sect. 5.

  14. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  15. All Roads Lead To… Options and Variations in Acquiring Native Proficiency in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit H. Ward

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study conducted with a first generation American heritage learner of Hungarian in a college setting. We have found our study important for several reasons. The latest developments in technology made a variety of new learning environments available, which are used mostly by the new generation of language learners. As a result, instructors are expected to accommodate a variety of learning styles. Are there appropriate resources for the learners of Hungarian, including courses, instructors, textbooks and other learning material? Can they meet the needs of the different generations of language learners with evolving new learning styles?

  16. Decarbonising the Hungarian Electricity and Heat Sectors: What Is the Least impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaderjak, P.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will report on an economic assessment of decarbonisation scenarios for the Hungarian electricity and heat sectors by 2050. The assessment is based on economic modeling that assumes an expanding application of existing technologies. The results suggest that CO 2 abatement in the heat sector might be a cheaper and more realistic option for decarbonisation in the Hungarian case. With regard to the electricity sector, decarbonisation foreseen in the Commission's 2050 vision (90-95%) is not feasible without a massive application of CCS technology or without a non-foreseeable technology breakthrough.(author)

  17. Abstracts of the “26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Prod Kaposvár, Hungary, May 31, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 100 participants attended the 26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Twenty papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  18. Producing Just Papers or Creating Added Value? Snap-Shot about Quality Systems at Hungarian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil NYERKI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short historical review and the research results are presented, which are focused on the quality management systems used by the Hungarian SME’s. The research was based on an original empirical survey, conducted using a random sample of fifty managers from small and medium sized Hungarian enterprises. All of them use certified quality management systems. The paper presents their current state in the light of their responses, under several aspects. In conclusion, suggestions are given for the problems, such as measurement, development, and education on the research topic.

  19. Reseñas y Recensiones: Lenis, Karin. (2014). El sistema de responsabilidad penal de menores. Un estudio de las legislaciones de España y Colombia desde la teoría del Derecho Penal del Enemigo.

    OpenAIRE

    Muñetones Rozo, Ingrid Bibiana

    2015-01-01

    Reseñas y Recensiones: Reseñas y Recensiones: Lenis, Karin. (2014). El sistema de responsabilidad penal de menores. Un estudio de las legislaciones de España y Colombia desde la teoría del Derecho Penal del Enemigo. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Ibañez, 644 p.

  20. Penalized estimation for competing risks regression with applications to high-dimensional covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrogi, Federico; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    of competing events. The direct binomial regression model of Scheike and others (2008. Predicting cumulative incidence probability by direct binomial regression. Biometrika 95: (1), 205-220) is reformulated in a penalized framework to possibly fit a sparse regression model. The developed approach is easily...... Research 19: (1), 29-51), the research regarding competing risks is less developed (Binder and others, 2009. Boosting for high-dimensional time-to-event data with competing risks. Bioinformatics 25: (7), 890-896). The aim of this work is to consider how to do penalized regression in the presence...... implementable using existing high-performance software to do penalized regression. Results from simulation studies are presented together with an application to genomic data when the endpoint is progression-free survival. An R function is provided to perform regularized competing risks regression according...

  1. Teoría de la inflación penal

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Edison

    2016-01-01

    [ES]La tesis en cuestión tiene por objeto la proposición de un modelo teórico, explicativo y crítico sobre la presencia del derecho penal en la vida civil, fundado en un concepto de derecho que integre tanto lo formal como lo informal, y sobre todo, en el concepto de inflación penal. Dicha teoría se asienta sobre la hipótesis: Los aumentos o disminuciones de la legislación penal estatal y positiva se encuentran directamente relacionados(as) y dependientes a causas endógenas y exógenas. Son ca...

  2. Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies with Multiple Outcomes Using Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers for biologically meaningful outcomes and phenotypes. Penalization methods have been adopted in the analysis of the joint effects of a large number of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and marker identification. This study is partly motivated by the analysis of heterogeneous stock mice dataset, in which multiple correlated phenotypes and a large number of SNPs are available. Existing penalization methods designed to analyze a single response variable cannot accommodate the correlation among multiple response variables. With multiple response variables sharing the same set of markers, joint modeling is first employed to accommodate the correlation. The group Lasso approach is adopted to select markers associated with all the outcome variables. An efficient computational algorithm is developed. Simulation study and analysis of the heterogeneous stock mice dataset show that the proposed method can outperform existing penalization methods. PMID:23272092

  3. The penalization of migrants: irregularity and prison in the construction of the neoliberal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the punitive processes affecting foreigners in Spain are analyzed. After a brief contextualization of the migratory process, and its problematization in terminology related to insecurity and crime, attention is paid to two ways of penalization: the administrative one, linked with laws for foreigners, and the penal one, reinforced by the precarious situation of these collectives. Later, an analysisi of their effects of the material —related to the labor market—, symbolic —in social categorizations— and disciplinary –in the conformation of subjectivities- is provided. The pertinence of studying processes of penalization to discern broader social dynamics and the pertince of giving more importance to these processes in studies about migrant populations is here proposed.

  4. La inimputabilidad y el tratamiento del disminuido psíquico en el proceso penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rojas Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución Política colombiana proscribe cualquier tipo de responsabilidad objetiva; en consecuencia, es necesario que la persona a la que se sancione con una pena haya actuado con culpabilidad, cosa que no sucede con los inimputables, personas que no pueden comprender la ilicitud de su conducta o determinarse de acuerdo con dicha comprensión, por lo que el Código Penal establece dos regímenes diferenciados de responsabilidad penal: uno para imputables y otro para inimputables, para quienes no se prevén penas sino medidas de seguridad. Por el contrario, la Ley 906 de 2004 no contempla un tratamiento jurídico diferenciado para quienes no tienen la capacidad de comprender o decidir voluntariamente sobre sus derechos en el proceso penal, por lo que se propone un nuevo enfoque al respecto.

  5. ¿Es el plagio una conducta reprimida por el derecho penal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ¿Será que el mensaje de la Sala Penal de la Corte Suprema es el de no activar la última ratio del sistema legal con conductas que deben ser materia de la jurisdicción civil, pero eso sí dependiendo de quién las acometa o ejecute? (se recuerda que el caso en análisis envuelve a una profesora universitaria y ¿será que la dificultad teórica y práctica de adecuación de la conducta a los tipos penales relacionados con el derecho de autor, hace que el derecho penal no sea el instrumento institucional más idóneo para reprimir la infracción a los derechos de esa particular área jurídica? La respuesta a estos interrogantes deben ser el comienzo para pensar o repensar si ese expansionismo del derecho penal que ha llegado al campo de la propiedad intelectual vale la pena revisarlo y mantenerlo. Señalaba Cesare Becaría: “Lo que impide el crimen, no es la cantidad de reprimendas penales, sino la garantía de su punición”. Si no hay certeza o garantía en el castigo, ¿valdrá la pena recurrir a la aplicación judicial de esos tipos penales?, este artículo busca abrir la discusión en este punto.

  6. ¿Es el plagio una conducta reprimida por el derecho penal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ¿Será que el mensaje de la Sala Penal de la Corte Suprema es el de no activar la ultima ratio del sistema legal con conductas que deben ser materia de la jurisdicción civil, pero eso sí dependiendo de quien las acometa o ejecute? (se recuerda que el caso en análisis envuelve a una profesora universitaria, y ¿será que la dificultad teórica y práctica de adecuación de la conducta a los tipos penales relacionados con el derecho de autor hará que el derecho penal no sea el instrumento institucional más idóneo para reprimir la infracción a los derechos de esa particular área jurídica? La respuesta a estos interrogantes deben ser el comienzo para pensar o repensar si ese expansionismo del derecho penal que ha llegado al campo de la propiedad intelectual vale la pena revisarlo y mantenerlo. Señalaba Cesare Becaría: “Lo que impide el crimen, no es la cantidad de reprimendas penales, sino la garantía de su punición”. Si no hay certeza o garantía en el castigo, ¿valdrá la pena recurrir a la aplicación judicial de esos tipos penales? Este artículo busca abrir la discusión en este punto.

  7. Penal symbolism in Serbia in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explores a scarce and unusual phenomenon for the 19th century Serbia, of the emphasized nexus between crime and penalty. The author marks that special, symbolical relation of penalty, on the one hand, and sanction on the other, as 'penal symbolism'. This term refers to penalization which reflects the ties between crime and punishment by copying crime in terms of modus or place of execution, or by 'punishing' those body parts which partook in committing a crime. The author classifies the examples of preserved judgments and legislations containing penal symbolism to those referring to modus or place of execution of death penalty, those which are examples of penal symbolism related to other sanctions, and those which are examples of the symbolic talion. The author raises the questions of the origin of this phenomenon, as well as of its justification, and aims at providing answers by reconstructing legal and social framework of Serbia in the first half of the 19th century. With this objective in mind, she discusses the development of Criminal Law and its basic features, as well as the development of judiciary, the systematic institutionalization of the network of criminal courts, and, especially, the composition thereof. In the conclusion, the author rejects the possibility that penal symbolism is a product of legal transplantation or that of the continuity of Serbian medieval law. She asserts that the scarcity of material criminal law sources led to judging by 'justice and fairness', and that those facts created conditions for the primitive sense of justice to find its way into judgments and legislations as penal symbolism.

  8. El pensamiento alemán en el derecho penal argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido L. Croxatto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este ensayo es abordar desde una perspectiva histórica la influencia del pensamiento alemán (la filosofía alemana, la dogmática alemana en el derecho penal argentino, rescatando la forma en que distintos teóricos alemanes fueron leídos y receptados en Argentina. Se pretende pensar la codificación penal argentina como un diálogo – muchas veces como una mera recepción acrítica – entre los juristas y codificadores latinoamericanos y los pensadores alemanes, en sus distintas vertientes y etapas históricas. Se analizan distintos debates –como la polémica entre el causalismo y el finalismo- tanto por la forma en que se sucedieron en Alemania, como por la forma en que se dieron en Argentina (el debate causalismo-finalismo se sucedió en los complejos años setenta en Argentina, tomando en cuenta sobretodo los contextos políticos en que surgieron esas polémicas; qué significado tuvieron estas discusiones – y qué significaba asumir determinadas posiciones – en función de los contextos políticos donde se evidenciaron. De este modo se espera trazar un panorama de la discusión actual en el derecho penal argentino, haciendo énfasis en el análisis histórico de las problemáticas que aún enfrenta el Derecho Penal, tratando de generar, al mismo tiempo, un pensamiento penal crítico, consciente – pero no rehén – de las influencias provenientes de Europa, es decir, un pensamiento penal crítico que tome en cuenta las particulares condiciones sociales e históricas de la región en que se aplica el Derecho.

  9. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  10. La eficacia de la Prueba Indiciaria en el Proceso Penal Ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Medina, Lenin

    2007-01-01

    La eficacia de la prueba Indiciaria en el Proceso Penal Ecuatoriano, a tomado una nueva dimensión en nuestro sistema procesal, ya que a partir de la vigencia del nuevo Código de Procedimiento Penal, se ha orientado a garantizar la aplicación del debido proceso, en todos los parámetros que la constitución establece, en el presente trabajo estudiamos diferentes tópicos como presunción , sospecha , conjetura, vestigio, huella y rastro donde podría aparecer la prueba indiciaria, si...

  11. Feminicidio y derecho penal: herramientas para su mejor aplicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoanna Caterine Prieto Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El numeral 11 del artículo 104 del Código Penal colombiano introdujo como causal de agravación del homicidio aquella acción que se comete contra una mujer en razón a su condición de género, pero que ello no llega a ser suficiente en razón al desconocimiento que se tiene por parte del aparato jurisdiccional penal para su debida aplicación, en razón a que no se tiene claridad sobre las motivaciones que llevaron al victimario a cometer dicho homicidio (feminicidio.

  12. El garantismo y el punitivismo en el Código Orgánico Integral Penal

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Cornejo Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente artículo es determinar la necesidad de la existencia de una parte punitivista y una garantista dentro del Código Orgánico Integral Penal, partiendo del estudio de la actualización doctrinaria en materia penal dentro del ordenamiento jurídico ecuatoriano, considerando que al ser el Ecuador un Estado constitucional de derechos y justicia, nos inspira a la construcción de mecanismos que tengan como fundamento y fin la tutela de las libertades del individuo, frente a las ...

  13. AS TRÊS DIMENSÕES DA PROPORCIONALIDADE NO DIREITO PENAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sebástian Borges de Albuquerque Mello

    2015-01-01

    O presente artigo analisa as manifestações do princípio da proporcionalidade, relacionando-o com diversos princípios fundamentais do Direito Penal. Assim, relaciona-se necessidade com intervenção mínima, adequação com adequação social e a proporcionalidade em sentido estrito com a compatibilização harmônica e axiológica das penas dentro do sistema jurídico-penal.

  14. El Ministerio Público y la “Atención Primaria” de la Conflictividad Penal

    OpenAIRE

    Mendaña, Ricardo J.; Arias Salgado, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    El artículo revisa la aplicación práctica de los conceptos pertinentes a la mejora de la justicia penal. La adopción de nuevos paradigmas y líneas de acción para intervenir frente a los conflictos penales implica situar la mejora de la atención primaria como una estrategia de intervención superior a las actividades de modelos tradicionales de respuesta judicial. This article looks at the practical application of relevant concepts when improving crime justice. The adoption of new paradigms ...

  15. El pensamiento alemán en el derecho penal argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Guido L. Croxatto; Eugenio R. Zaffaroni

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este ensayo es abordar desde una perspectiva histórica la influencia del pensamiento alemán (la filosofía alemana, la dogmática alemana) en el derecho penal argentino, rescatando la forma en que distintos teóricos alemanes fueron leídos y receptados en Argentina. Se pretende pensar la codificación penal argentina como un diálogo – muchas veces como una mera recepción acrítica – entre los juristas y codificadores latinoamericanos y los pensado...

  16. El nuevo tratamiento penal del blanqueo de capitales en el derecho brasileño (ley 12.683/2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Regis Prado, Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Análisis de los impactos causados por la nueva ley (12.683/2012) sobre el tratamiento penal del blanqueo de capitales This is an analysis of the impacts caused by the law 12.683/2012 concerning the penal treatment of money laudering

  17. Fragments of a Hungarian Past in the Literature of 1.5 and Second-Generation Austro-Hungarian Immigrants in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Israeli literature is presently preoccupied with the past diasporic lives of the previous generation, the one that came to Israel from practically all four winds in the mid-late twentieth century. Hungarian-Israeli writers—e.g., Yoel Hoffmann, Judith Rotem, Yael Neeman and Esti G. Hayim—constitute a distinct group within this stream of 1.5 and second generation poets and novelists who have written about immigration and State foundation, often using a documentary or fictionalized memoirist mode. This article highlights the components of these writers' complex burden of a whole world destroyed, in most cases, not long before they were born and which they strive to restore or at least re-imagine in their oeuvre as contemporary Israeli writers. These components include: Holocaust trauma and its transference to the second generation, Hungarian speaking families within the Israeli multicultural setting, the ties of these families with their Hungarian foreign relatives, and household objects related to this past.

  18. Política de despenalización como medio eficaz para una justicia penal justa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Barba Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El actual sistema de justicia penal en México se encuentra en una grave crisis, derivada de la falta de una adecuada política criminal y técnica legislativa. La política de despenalización serviría para resolver muchos de los problemas que se originan por la pésima justicia penal que actualmente impera en México. Por este medio se podría resolver el problema de la hipertrofia legislativa, la antinomia de tipos penales, el fortalecimiento de un subsistema sancionatorio más benévolo que aquel basado en la amenaza penal, y sobre todo de la unificación de la legislación penal en nuestro país, para lograr la anhelada justicia justa.

  19. Quality management and patient safety: survey results from 102 Hungarian hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makai, P.; Klazinga, N.; Wagner, C.; Boncz, I.; Gulácsi, L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the development of quality management systems in Hungarian hospitals. It also aims to answer the policy question, whether a separate patient safety policy should be created additional to quality policies, on national as well as hospital level. METHOD:

  20. A Comparative Study of Learning Strategies Used by Romanian and Hungarian Preuniversity Students in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingvay, Mónika; Timofte, Roxana S.; Ciascai, Liliana; Predescu, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Development of pupils' deep learning approach is an important goal of education nowadays, considering that a deep learning approach is mediating conceptual understanding and transfer. Different performance at PISA tests of Romanian and Hungarian pupils cause us to commence a study for the analysis of learning approaches employed by these pupils.…

  1. Unknown Hungarian first fruits of the Slovak poet Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelenková, Anna; Gbúr, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2017), s. 469-485 ISSN 0324-4652 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Autor's bi-literary stance * Hviezdoslav, Pavol Országh * Slovak-Hungarian literary context Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Literary theory

  2. Using Learning Management Systems in Business and Economics Studies in Hungarian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Judit T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores all uses of LMS in teaching Business Mathematics in Hungarian undergraduate training from the point of view of the instructors. Since no similar survey had been carried out in Hungary earlier, the aim was to fill in this gap and to investigate which LMS systems are being used by the instructors, to what specific purposes and…

  3. The 1956 Hungarian refugee emergency, an early and instructive case of resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soviet repression of the Hungarian uprising in 1956 caused an exodus of 200,000 refugees. Most of the refugees fled to Austria. Austria immediately called on states to help both financially and by physically sharing the refugees by means of resettlement. As a result, most of the refugees were

  4. New Spirit and New Hero: How Hungarian Startups Redefine the Ideas of Local Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Natasa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates how the Bridge Budapest, a CSR organization founded by leading Hungarian IT startups, attempts to shape the values of Hungarian society towards capitalism in general, and towards entrepreneurship in particular. In my paper I argue that the central aim of the organization is to facilitate Hungary’s catching up with the core capitalist countries through the transformation of the attitudes and the ideologies surrounding capitalism in the Hungarian context, i.e. the local spirit of capitalism. This consists, on the one hand, of restoring the legitimation of some of the core institutions of capitalism, such as the enterprise and the entrepreneur, and of confronting the risk-taking, innovative and ethical figure of the entrepreneur hero with the provincial figure of the ‘postcommunist cheater’. On the other hand, it also consists of propagating a new management of work that aims to produce self-controlling and self-motivating employees. In the narrative of Bridge Budapest IT companies appear as the perfect moral and economic subjects – the bearers of the new spirit of capitalism – that have the expertise to offer solutions to the problems of Hungarian society, and around which the local capitalism should be built.

  5. Beware of the Dog! Private Linguistic Landscapes in Two "Hungarian" Villages in South-West Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a single type of sign can be connected to language policy on a larger scale. Focusing on the relationship between language policy and language ideologies, I investigate the private Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Hungarians living in two villages in Slovakia. Through an examination of "beware of the dog" signs,…

  6. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  7. Teaching the Romanian Neighbors Hungarian: Language Ideologies and the Debrecen Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Attila Gyula

    2016-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the hitherto scant literature on learning a historical minority language and on language ideologies in the context of a study abroad program in Hungary, Debrecen. I analyse the language ideologies of the decision makers in Hungary and in the Debrecen Summer School in relation to the teaching of Hungarian to the…

  8. Hope and hopelessness as predictors of suicide ideation in Hungarian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and dispositional hope predict suicide ideation in 395 Hungarian college students. Both hopelessness and hope uniquely predicted suicide ideation, a pattern that remained unchanged even after controlling for psychological symptoms. Moreover, a significant Hopelessness × Hope interaction predicted suicide ideation. Present findings highlight how hope buffers the association between hopelessness and suicide risk in college students.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF STATE’S ROLE IN THE HUNGARIAN VENTURE CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Konecsny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of state also has an indirect and direct effect on the developement of the Hungarian venture capital market. Indirect effect is realized through the law legislation and the direct one by the operate of the different venture capital firms and funds which invest public financial sources. The main purpose of the direct intervention is to finance the under-capitalized small and medium-sized start-up companies with equity. The paper examines the Hungarian venture capital market from the aspect of state intervention. It starts with an European overview which summarizes the common and different attributes of state’s role in the venture capital market between several European countries. The paper focuses on the Hungarian situation, it describes concisely the effect and efficiency of the governmental instructions which were taken for the legislation of the venture capital market. Using the results of a previous research the paper also examines the characteristics of the direct instructions. The paper decribes briefly the main details of the publicprivate initiative called JEREMIE-program, which started on the Hungarian venture capital market in the recent past.

  10. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized operator support systems and related activities in Hungary are summarized. Systems developed in the past, presently developed and used as well as being in a planning phase are briefly described. Activity of the Hungarian participants in the framework of the co-ordinated project on operator support systems for nuclear power plant is summarized. (author). 55 refs

  11. Nationwide Network of TalentPoints: The Hungarian Approach to Talent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Peter; Rajnai, Gabor; Sulyok, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 a novel approach to talent support was promoted by several talent support programmes in Hungary. The new idea was a network approach. The nationwide network of so-called TalentPoints and its framework, the Hungarian Genius Program, gained substantial European Union funding in 2009, and today it is growing rapidly. A novel concept of talent…

  12. Intercultural Contact and Multilingualism in an Intimate Relationship in the Austro-Hungarian Littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Anja Iveković

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a case study of multilingualism in private correspondence in turn-of-the-century Austro-Hungarian Istria. Language attitudes and use of German, Italian and Slovenian are analyzed, with results indicating the compatibility of national feelings with an appreciation of multilingualism, as well as the important role that intimate intercultural relationships play in this regard in a culturally mixed region.

  13. Geotechnical research in the Hungarian Central Institute for the Development of Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the geotechnical project of the Hungarian Central Institute for the Development of Mining. The activities of the Department of Geophysics and Nuclear Technology in the field of isotope and radiochemistry for geotechnical research are discussed in detail. (Sz.J.)

  14. The First Steps to a New Comprehensive Slovenian-Hungarian Dictionary: The Analysis of Relevant Bilingual Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Bálint Čeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of existing bilingual Slovenian-Hungarian dictionaries, which was made as part of the project aiming to design a concept for a new comprehensive Slovenian-Hungarian dictionary. First, a short historical overview of Slovenian-Hungarian lexicography is provided, including first collections of dialect vocabulary, glossaries, and collections and dictionaries of idioms. Then, an overview of Slovenian-Hungarian and Hungarian-Slovenian dictionaries is made, the first one being published in 1961. The paper then focuses on a comparison on three Slovenian-Hungarian dictionaries, which are currently used by majority of users, namely Slovenian-Hungarian part of the dictionary by Elizabeta Bernjak (1995, Slovenian-Hungarian dictionary by Jože Hradil (1996, and Slovenian-Hungarian part of the Hradil’s bidirectional dictionary. The dictionaries are compared in terms of size, headword list, coverage, headword presentation, grammar information, as well as in terms of other elements of dictionary microstructure such as translations and examples. The discussion section includes an analysis of the coverage offered by the dictionaries of the vocabulary compilled by teachers at bilingual schools in Prekmurje. The results indicate that the coverage of various levels of vocabulary, frequent or rare, is rather poor; as dictionaries are medium-sized and outdated, this is to be expected, however as the analysis shows, some basic concepts are also often not covered (e.g. research, death, allergy. The second part of the discussion is dedicated to the presentation of selected examples of good practice in bilingual lexicography, such as Comprehensive English-Slovenian dictionary Oxford-DZS as the first bilingual dictionary in Slovenia to use the corpus-based approach, as well as offer much more contextual information on the headwords. Also presented are English-Spanish online dictionaries by Oxford University Press and Collins, the focus

  15. Nation-building under the Austro-Hungarian sceptre Croat-Serb antagonism and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbovich Ana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century many European nations, including Serbs and Croats became politically conscious of their "nationhood", which became a contributory factor in the crumbling of the two great empires in Central-East Europe - the Habsburg and the Ottoman - at the beginning of the following century. The Serbs had, since medieval times, an awareness of their long history and tradition, great medieval civilization and cultural unity regardless of the fact that they lived under several different adminis­trations. As in the case of Habsburg Serbs, language and literature became building blocks of Croat national consciousness in the nineteenth century. Unlike Serb nationalism centred on people, Croat nationalism was mainly territory-related. Since both Serbs and Croats inhabited the Austro-Hungarian provinces claimed by the Croats as their "historical Right" (absorption in 1097 of the small medieval Croat state by the Hungarians is interpreted, by many Croat historians, as a voluntary act of union, the different conceptions of nationalism resulted in competing claims. Croatian politics became one of opposing any recognition of Serbian institutions and cultural characteristics without Serbs previously accepting the concept that the only "political nation" in the Austro-Hungarian Province of Croatia was Croatian. Nonetheless, Croats compromised when in need of Serb assistance in opposing Hungarian domination. In turn, Serb politics was divided between those supporting cooperation with the Croats in order to achieve greater autonomy from the Hungarians in the Dual Monarchy, and those who supported some cooperation but insisted on forming an entity separate from the Croats in the future and joining with the Kingdom of Serbia, which regained its independence in 1878. The ensuing world and civil wars brought the Croato-Serb conflict to the fore, with the first and the second Yugoslavia failing to accommodate the two nations' opposing aspirations.

  16. Simulation of impulsively started flow past a sphere and a disc using iterative brinkman penalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

    We present an iterative Brinkman penalization scheme to enforce the no-slip condition onsolid boundaries in three-dimensional ow simulations. We use a high-order particle-meshvortex method, where the velocity field is obtained from the vorticity field by solving a Poisson equation on a Cartesian...

  17. 49 CFR 26.47 - Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.47 Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall... administer your program in good faith. (b) If you do not have an approved DBE program or overall goal, or if you fail to implement your program in good faith, you are in noncompliance with this part. ...

  18. Variational and penalization methods for studying connecting orbits of Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Nien Chen

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of second order Hamiltonian systems that possess infinite or finite number of equilibria. Variational arguments will be used to study the existence of connecting orbits joining pairs of equilibria. Applying penalization methods, we obtain various patterns for multibump homoclinics and heteroclinics of Hamiltonian systems.

  19. The Role of the Environmental Health Specialist in the Penal and Correctional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; Gordon, Theodore J.

    1976-01-01

    Implementing a health and hygiene program in penal systems necessitates coordinating the entire staff. Health specialists could participate in facility planning and management, policy formation, and evaluation of medical care, housekeeping, and food services. They could also serve as liaisons between correctional staff and governmental or…

  20. On the use of a penalized least squares method to process kinematic full-field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulart, Raphaël; Rotinat, René

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at exploring the performances of an alternative procedure to smooth and differentiate full-field displacement measurements. After recalling the strategies currently used by the experimental mechanics community, a short overview of the available smoothing algorithms is drawn up and the requirements that such an algorithm has to fulfil to be applicable to process kinematic measurements are listed. A comparative study of the chosen algorithm is performed including the 2D penalized least squares method and two other commonly implemented strategies. The results obtained by penalized least squares are comparable in terms of quality to those produced by the two other algorithms, while the penalized least squares method appears to be the fastest and the most flexible. Unlike both the other considered methods, it is possible with penalized least squares to automatically choose the parameter governing the amount of smoothing to apply. Unfortunately, it appears that this automation is not suitable for the proposed application since it does not lead to optimal strain maps. Finally, it is possible with this technique to perform the derivation to obtain strain maps before smoothing them (while the smoothing is normally applied to displacement maps before the differentiation), which can lead in some cases to a more effective reconstruction of the strain fields. (paper)

  1. [Assisted reproduction and artificial insemination and genetic manipulation in the Criminal Code of the Federal District, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena Sesma, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The article that one presents has for purpose outline and comment on the recent modifications to the Penal Code for the Federal District of México which establish, for the first time, crimes related to the artificial procreation and to the genetic manipulation. Also one refers to the interaction of the new legal texts with the sanitary legislation of the country. Since it will be stated in some cases they present confrontations between the penal and the sanitary reglamentation and some points related to the legality or unlawfulness of a conduct that stayed without the enough development. These lacks will complicate the application of the new rules of the Penal Code of the Federal District.

  2. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar P. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research

  3. Proceso penal, privacidad y autodeterminación informativa en la persecución penal de la delincuencia organizada. Un análisis desde la perspectiva del derecho procesal penal alemán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Romero Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento y fortalecimiento de la delincuencia organizada en las últimas décadas del siglo XX determinan un cambio en las herramientas de investigación penal y su regulación en muchos sistemas jurídicos. Estos instrumentos, apoyados en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, poseen características que los diferencian de las clásicas medidas de investigación. En el presente artículo se describe esta transformación en el proceso penal alemán (I, analizando el contexto en que se ha originado la regulación de estos nuevos instrumentos de investigación penal de la delincuencia organizada (A, estudiando sus características especiales (B y deduciendo las características generales (C. Posteriormente se reseña, desde la perspectiva de la doctrina y jurisprudencia alemanas, el significado de dos libertades fundamentales afectadas con la ejecución de tales mecanismos (II: el derecho a la privacidad (A y el derecho a la autodeterminación informativa (B. Cómo conciliar el uso de estas medidas de investigación y su afectación a las garantías fundamentales mencionadas, constituye el tercer apartado del artículo (III. En este se examinan los diferentes presupuestos desarrollados por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia alemanas, para legitimar este tipo de intervenciones. Seguidamente (IV se describe, de manera general, la estructura desarrollada por el legislador alemán para la regulación de las medidas de investigación aquí tratadas, teniendo en cuenta los presupuestos señalados en el acápite precedente. Finalmente, las conclusiones están dirigidas a reflexionar acerca de la importancia de una regulación estructurada de aquellas medidas de investigación, de carácter secreto y utilizadas en la persecución penal de determinados tipos de criminalidad, como la delincuencia organizada, cuyo empleo acarrea graves injerencias en derechos fundamentales.

  4. IPF-LASSO: Integrative L1-Penalized Regression with Penalty Factors for Prediction Based on Multi-Omics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Boulesteix

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As modern biotechnologies advance, it has become increasingly frequent that different modalities of high-dimensional molecular data (termed “omics” data in this paper, such as gene expression, methylation, and copy number, are collected from the same patient cohort to predict the clinical outcome. While prediction based on omics data has been widely studied in the last fifteen years, little has been done in the statistical literature on the integration of multiple omics modalities to select a subset of variables for prediction, which is a critical task in personalized medicine. In this paper, we propose a simple penalized regression method to address this problem by assigning different penalty factors to different data modalities for feature selection and prediction. The penalty factors can be chosen in a fully data-driven fashion by cross-validation or by taking practical considerations into account. In simulation studies, we compare the prediction performance of our approach, called IPF-LASSO (Integrative LASSO with Penalty Factors and implemented in the R package ipflasso, with the standard LASSO and sparse group LASSO. The use of IPF-LASSO is also illustrated through applications to two real-life cancer datasets. All data and codes are available on the companion website to ensure reproducibility.

  5. SkyFACT: high-dimensional modeling of gamma-ray emission with adaptive templates and penalized likelihoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Emma; Weniger, Christoph [GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Calore, Francesca, E-mail: e.m.storm@uva.nl, E-mail: c.weniger@uva.nl, E-mail: francesca.calore@lapth.cnrs.fr [LAPTh, CNRS, 9 Chemin de Bellevue, BP-110, Annecy-le-Vieux, 74941, Annecy Cedex (France)

    2017-08-01

    We present SkyFACT (Sky Factorization with Adaptive Constrained Templates), a new approach for studying, modeling and decomposing diffuse gamma-ray emission. Like most previous analyses, the approach relies on predictions from cosmic-ray propagation codes like GALPROP and DRAGON. However, in contrast to previous approaches, we account for the fact that models are not perfect and allow for a very large number (∼> 10{sup 5}) of nuisance parameters to parameterize these imperfections. We combine methods of image reconstruction and adaptive spatio-spectral template regression in one coherent hybrid approach. To this end, we use penalized Poisson likelihood regression, with regularization functions that are motivated by the maximum entropy method. We introduce methods to efficiently handle the high dimensionality of the convex optimization problem as well as the associated semi-sparse covariance matrix, using the L-BFGS-B algorithm and Cholesky factorization. We test the method both on synthetic data as well as on gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, |ℓ|<90{sup o} and | b |<20{sup o}, as observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We finally define a simple reference model that removes most of the residual emission from the inner Galaxy, based on conventional diffuse emission components as well as components for the Fermi bubbles, the Fermi Galactic center excess, and extended sources along the Galactic disk. Variants of this reference model can serve as basis for future studies of diffuse emission in and outside the Galactic disk.

  6. El cuerpo, el gueto y el Estado penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2010-02-01

    ="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: border; -moz-background-origin: padding; -moz-background-inline-policy: continuous">
    política del conocimiento a través de un diálogo que vuelve sobre su trayectoria intelectual y los vínculos analíticos entre sus investigaciones sobre el cuerpo, la marginalidad urbana comparada y el Estado penal. Resalta las conexiones prácticas y fundamentos epistemológicos detrás de sus principales proyectos de investigación, explica las distintas maneras en que se despliega el trabajo de campo de observación en cada uno de ellos, y examina el papel de los intelectuales en las sociedades avanzadas
    de la era del neoliberalismo hegemónico. Rechazando tanto el empirismo de Hume como el neo-cognitivismo kantiano, el autor aboga por el uso de la etnografía como un instrumento de ruptura y construcción, la potencia del conocimiento carnal, el imperativo de la reflexividad epistémica y la necesidad de ampliar los géneros textuales y estilos con el fin de captar mejor el sabor y el dolor de la acción social. En la esfera pública, propone que las ciencias sociales pueden actuar como un disolvente de la doxa y un faro que arroja luz sobre las propiedades latentes y las tendencias desapercibidas en
    las transformaciones sociales a fin de generar rupturas y ampliar el debate cívico.La protección penal a niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Mariño, Carlos Rosendo

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación titulada "La Protección Penal a Niños y Adolescentes Víctimas de Violencia Familiar" describe los problemas que presentan el sistema de administración de justicia penal respecto a la protección de los derechos de los niños, niñas y adolescentes que sufren violencia en el hogar. Tiene como objetivo principal analizar y describir la protección penal de Jos derechos de los niños, niñas y adolescentes víctimas de violencia familiar, conocer cómo se aplica los principios ...

  7. A TUTELA PENAL DO MEIO AMBIENTE E SUA (INCOMPATIBILIDADE COM A INTERVENÇÃO MÍNIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Clara Alves Adamczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o Direito Penal deve atuar como última via e para tutelar os bens jurídicos mais relevantes, propõe-se a analisar se a imputação da responsabilidade penal ambiental iria de encontro com a premissa da intervenção mínima. Assim, tem-se como objetivo do presente estudo analisar se a responsabilização penal no âmbito do direito ambiental viola o princípio da intervenção mínima.

  8. Reliability and validity study on the Hungarian versions of the oswestry disability index and the Quebec back pain disability scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Tamás; Varga, Peter Paul; Szövérfi, Zsolt; Kümin, Michelle; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lazary, Aron

    2013-05-01

    Patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) are widely used in spine care. The development of reliable and valid National versions of spine-related disability questionnaires is strongly recommended from both the clinical and scientific points-of-view. The aims of this study were to adapt and validate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Quebec back pain disability scale (QDS) for use with the Hungarian language. After translating and culturally adapting the ODI and QDS, 133 patients with lumbar degenerative spinal disorder filled in the questionnaire booklet twice within 2 weeks. Subjects completed the Hungarian versions of the two PROMs as well as the WHOQoL-BREF validated as a general life quality questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale of pain. Internal consistency, reliability and construct validity of the questionnaires were determined, as were the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores. The Hungarian ODI consisted of one factor that showed good internal consistency (Cronbach-α 0.890). The QDS showed a four-factor structure with Cronbach-α values between 0.788 and 0.917. No significant floor or ceiling effects were observed. The test-retest analysis showed excellent reliability of the Hungarian ODI and QDS. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.927 and 0.923, respectively. SEM values of 4.8 and 5.2 resulted in a MDC of 13 and 14 points in the Hungarian ODI and QDS, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between pain and ODI was 0.680 (p 0.4, p disability measured by the Hungarian ODI and QDS was significantly higher in the surgical subgroup than in non-surgically treated patients (p < 0.001). Translation and cultural adaptation of the ODI and QDS were successful. Hungarian versions of the ODI and QDS proved to be reliable, valid PROMs confirming that they can be used in future clinical and scientific work with Hungarian-speaking spine patients.

  9. Importance of the Hungarian phytosociological school established at the University of Debrecen in development of current field botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.

  10. Pseudo-realia in the Romanian Translations of Various Hungarian Institutions and in the Hungarian Translations of Romanian Public Administration Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopus Andras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My presentation addresses an issue translators of Romanian–Hungarian legal and economic texts encounter almost day by day. Each field of translation is special in its kind, but translating legal/economic texts requires an especially accurate knowledge of the acts, laws, and concepts of both the source and target language since this is essential for the translated text to be really a quality, professional, and – last but not least – an intelligible one to the target-language audience, i.e. the customers.

  11. LA RESPONSABILIDAD PENAL DEL NOTARIO EN COLOMBIA EN EL EJERCICIO DE SUS FUNCIONES PÚBLICAS. ESTUDIO DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DEL DERECHO PENAL ECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Abello Gual

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata el tema de los delitos aplicables a la actividad notarial y del estudio de las figuras especiales de la teoría del delito, que le serían aplicables a la función notarial. En este orden de ideas, queda planteada la discusión en torno a la responsabilidad penal del notario y de sus empleados, en el ejercicio de su función pública.

  12. Impact of Austrian hydropower plants on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsuffa, I.

    1999-01-01

    Statistical analysis of daily water level data from four gauging stations along the Hungarian Danube reach has been carried out with the purpose of analysing the impact of the Austrian hydropower plants on the floods of the river. Conditional probability distribution functions of annual flood load maxima and annual number of floods were generated for the periods 1957-1976 and 1977-1996. By comparing these distribution functions, it could be shown that the flood load maxima have decreased, while the number of small and medium floods have increased during the past forty years. These changes indicate a decreased rate of flood superposition resulting from the barrages constructed in this period. The significantly decreased flood load maxima indicate that the Austrian barrage system has positive impact on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

  13. [Hungarian Philadelphia negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasia registry. Evaluation of the Polycythemia vera patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombi, Péter; Illés, Árpád; Demeter, Judit; Homor, Lajos; Simon, Zsófia; Kellner, Ádám; Karádi, Éva; Valasinyószki, Erika; Udvardy, Miklós; Egyed, Miklós

    2017-06-01

    Intruduction and aim: The Hungarian National Registry for Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms has been developed. The aim of the recent study is to assess the clinical characteristics of Hungarian patients with polycythemia vera. Data of 351 JAK2 V617F and exon 12 mutation positive polycythemia vera patients were collected online from 15 haematology centres reporting epidemiologic, clinical characteristics, diagnostic tools, therapeutic interventions, thromboembolic complications, disease transformations. Vascular events prior to and after diagnosis were evaluated upon the Landolfi risk assessment scale. 116 thromboembolic events were reported in 106 PV patients prior to diagnosis and 152 occasions in 102 patients during follow-up. The frequency of major arterial events were significantly reduced (ppolycythemia vera. The Landolfi risk stratification was proven to be useful. Based on evaluated data, accuracy of diagnostic criteria and compliance to risk-adapted therapeutic guidelines are needed. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 901-909.

  14. From new clones to flowers – innovative business models in the Hungarian wine economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kismarjai Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ovestocked Hungarian wine sector wineries often need to find entirely new ways that enable them to increase their market share. These opportunities are determined by the current market potentials, the geographic location and of course the wine district itself. In this study I examined some examples of outbreak opportunities for producers in this difficult economic situation. Young winemakers from different Hungarian wine districts unite to open wine bars - these are now present in several towns all over the country. Other winemakers have been experimenting with new clones in less recognized wine districts. A small winery from a historic wine district recommends its wines with flowers in a new shop.

  15. Introduction. The formation of the Hungarian Information Society in the last ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Sinka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hungary was an example to follow as one of the initiators of the change that ultimately resulted in the elimination of the Soviet dependence, as well as in the democratization of Eastern-Central European countries. The iron curtain pulled down in 1989 opened up the country to the world. The comfortable protection was suddenly replaced by the new challenges of the global market economy and culture. The forming of the Hungarian information society could have brought one of the most radical changes among these. The present paper studies the successes and failures of the development of the Hungarian information society in the last decade on the basis of the research report (MITJ, 2008 prepared by ITTK (Information Society and Trend Research Centre http://ittk.hu/english/index.html

  16. LOS DELITOS DE VIOLACIÓN Y ESTUPRO DEL ARTÍCULO 365 BIS CÓDIGO PENAL: UNA RACIONALIZACIÓN DESDE EL MANDATO DE LEX STRICTA Y EL PRINCIPIO DE LESIVIDAD. ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A LA INTRODUCCIÓN DE DEDOS U OTRAS PARTES DEL CUERPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Fernández Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El art. 365 bis CP constituye una de las últimas manifestaciones del modelo penal de seguridad ciudadana en nuestro Sistema Penal que, en esta ocasión, ha tenido como principales víctimas a los principios de legalidad y correspondencia con la realidad social. El desconocimiento de la realidad social por parte del legislador penal a la hora de describir el precepto in comento ha ocasionado una falta de certeza jurídica que, a la vez, ha derivado en una quiebra del mandato de ¡ex stricta por parte de la mayoría de los tribunales penales chilenos. El presente artículo pretende, en la medida de lo posible, mitigar la manifiesta irracionalidad de este precepto a través de una interpretación alternativa desde el mandado de ¡ex stricta y el principio de lesividadSection 365 bis of the Chilean Criminal Code is one of the latest manifestations of the law and order policy in our Criminal Justice System. In this occasion, it has mainly affected the principle of legality and its correspondence with social reality. A criminal justice lawmaker non-familiarized with social reality can create a lack of legal certainty and, consequently, a breach of the lex stricta mandate. A paradigmaticlesample of this is the typical description made of section 365 bis and its interpretation by most criminal courts. This paper seeks, to thelestent possible, to mitigate such manifest irrationality

  17. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Standing Broad Jump among Hungarian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex trends in anaerobic power assessed by a standing broad jump and to determine norm-referenced values for youth in Hungary. Method: A sample of 2,427 Hungarian youth (1,360 boys and 1,067 girls) completed the standing broad jump twice, and the highest distance score was recorded. Quantile…

  18. Behind the Exporters’ Success: Analysis of Successful Hungarian Exporter Companies From a Strategic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Kazai Onodi; Krisztina Pecze

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to provide an overview of export success from a strategic management perspective. The paper empirically tested the relationships between the firm’s export performance, strategic thinking, adaptation to the changing environment and companies’ capabilities. The research is based on the Hungarian Competitiveness Research database of 2013 that consists of 300 firms. Cluster analysis differentiated successful export-oriented and stagnant companies. Both of them had high...

  19. Strategic foresight process--Improvements for the Hungarian Ministry of Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Németh, Bence

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2013Ð2014, the Hungarian Ministry of Defense (HUN MoD) engaged in its first structured strategic Foresight process, a process designed to examine events that might affect Hungary until 2030. While it achieved success, the process also had shortcomings. Namely, the Strategic Analysis Group accurately predicted two events, Russia's use of military force and the migration crisis worsening, yet they neither foresaw how fast Russian aggr...

  1. Three Hungarian researchers and three periods of the history and culture of the Albanian people

    OpenAIRE

    Myrvete Dreshaj-Baliu

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is the contribution of three Hungarian researchers: the publicist, the editor and the historian Windisch (Karl Go$ lieb von Windisch, 1725 -1793); the outstanding historian, medievalist, latinist and germanist Thalloczy (Ludwig von Thallóczy, 1857-1916); and the geographer and ethnographer of international dimensions Nopcsa (Baron Nopcsha 1877-1933). Their selection is not random; it refl ects the up to now development in the science of Albanology and our goal as rese...

  2. Selected English-Language Bibliography of Interest for Hungarian Cultural Studies: 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Louise O. Vasvári

    2015-01-01

    As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2013-2014, covering the period since the publication in Fall of 2013 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items that were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included.      ...

  3. The curricular importance of mathematics : a comparison of English and Hungarian teachers' espoused beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an interview study of 45 English and 10 Hungarian teachers of mathematics. The semi‐structured interviews focused on the teachers’ professional life‐histories and invited them to discuss their beliefs about the necessary subject content for the teaching and learning of mathematics. Substantial differences emerged between the two cohorts, which accord with well‐defined national perspectives on education in general and mathematics education in particular. They reflect, at nat...

  4. Wave theory analysis of the Hungarian vehi-cle fleet especially focusing on emission categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor SZENDRO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarity means the improvement of quality, decrease of production costs and production time, increase of safety and morale. With the help of tools of toyotarity strategic factors can be determined, production or service problems can be revealed. In this paper tools of toyotarity are obtained to analyse the driving factors of Hungarian vehicle fleet and car renewal. Product analysis was conducted on the basis of wavetheory.

  5. Early Hungarian Information about the Mongol Western Campaign (1235–1242 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article examines the origin of the primary information about the Mongol Western Campaign spread in the Kingdom of Hungary on the eve of the Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe. At the beginning of this article, the author pays particular attention to the information on the Mongol expansion, which appeared in the Hungarian Kingdom through the Cumans of southern Moldova. After that the author goes on to consider the earliest news about the beginning of the Mongol Western Campaign delivered to the Hungarian Kingdom by Catholic missionaries as a result of their persistent attempts to find a historic ancestral home of the western Hungarians. The primary information about the beginning of the Mongol Western Campaign was brought to Europe by Dominican Friar Julian, after his return from a journey to the Trans-Volga Magyars in the late 1235. In addition to the valuable description of the Eastern European peoples on the eve of the Mongol invasion, Julian’s report on his first journey to the East contains interesting information about both the early Jochid expansion that preceded the Mongol Western Campaign and the arrival to the land of the Trans-Volga Magyars of the official representative of the Mongol power who informed the Magyars on the completion of the all-Mongolian kuriltai of 1235, which made the decision on the beginning of the Mongol campaign in the West. In turn, the letter of Friar Julian written at the beginning of 1238 is repleted with information about the Mongol tactical warfare, previous military campaigns of Genghis Khan and Jochi, and the first Mongol conquest in the early stages of the Western campaign of Batu. But the most important news brought by Friar Julian in Hungary was an oral report of the Prince of Vladimir on the Mongol plans to attack the Hungarian Kingdom confirming both by the contents of the Batu’s ultimatum and eschatological interpretations of future events.

  6. Cynical References to Political Correctness in Hungarian Media in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Erzsébet Barát

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the strategy in Hungarian public discourse for discrediting feminism in the media in the early 2000s. The strategy consists in the systematic conflation of feminism with the demand for “politically correct” language. My analysis will show that the motivation for the conflation occurs, on the one hand, in the name of tolerance or, on the other, to the determent of feminism. These apparently very different discourses, however, overlap and are effects of the same strategy...

  7. The clinical testing of a Hungarian-made triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyertyanfy, G.; Foeldes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The parameters of the calibration curve of the new Hungarian RK-11 kit for the determination of the total T3 content of the serum and the reliability of the results were studied. The data of the measurements made on a number of patients by RK-11, Biodata and Byk-Mallinckrodt kits were compared. The new kit seems to be applicable to the determination of the total T3 content in the serum. (author)

  8. Pancreatic Cancer: Multicenter Prospective Data Collection and Analysis by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Balázs, Anita; Kui, Balázs; Gódi, Szilárd; Szücs, Ákos; Szentesi, Andrea; Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Vincze, Áron; Czimmer, József; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szabó, Imre; Izbéki, Ferenc; Halász, Adrienn; Leindler, László; Farkas, Gyula; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Szepes, Zoltán; Hegyi, Péter; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. There is very limited information available regarding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of pancreatic cancer in Central Europe. The purpose of the study was to prospectively collect and analyze data of pancreatic cancer in the Hungarian population. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group (HPSG) organized prospective, uniform data collection. Altogether 354 patients were enrolled from 14 Hungarian centers. Chronic pancreatitis was present in 3.7% of the cases, while 33.7% of the patients had diabetes. Family history for pancreatic cancer was positive in 4.8%. The most frequent presenting symptoms included pain (63.8%), weight loss (63%) and jaundice (52.5%). The reported frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption was lower than expected (28.5% and 27.4%, respectively). The majority of patients (75.6%) were diagnosed with advanced disease. Most patients (83.6%) had a primary tumor located in the pancreatic head. The histological diagnosis was ductal adenocarcinoma in 90.7% of the cases, while neuroendocrine tumor was present in 5.3%. Biliary stent implantation was performed in 166 patients, 59.2% of them received metal stents. Primary tumor resection was performed in 60 (16.9%) patients. Enteral or biliary bypass was done in 35 and 49 patients, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, smoking status and presence of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were identified as independent predictors for overall survival. We report the first data from a large cohort of Hungarian pancreatic cancer patients. We identified smoking status and chemotherapy as independent predictors in this cohort.

  9. The Outsider Within: Béla Tarr and Hungarian National Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Lilla Tőke

    2016-01-01

    Béla Tarr is probably the most paradoxical figure in contemporary Hungarian cinema. His artistic trajectory shows a movement from documentary style realism (Family Nest, 1979) towards more modernist cinematic practices (Satan’s Tango, 1994, Werckmeister Harmonies, 2000, and The Man from London, 2007). A major celebrity in the global film culture that prides itself in being transnational, international, and in crossing linguistic and ethnic boundaries, Tarr has consistently found himself on th...

  10. The next 20 years operation of the 36 years old Hungarian training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aszodi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Hungary prepares for extending the design lifetime of the four VVER-440/213 type units; in that case they will finish operation between 2032 and 2037. Discussion on possible new nuclear units in Hungary was recently commenced. The paper describes actions in human resource management and knowledge management, and also the new safety analysis methods which were applied during the recent Periodic Safety Review of the Hungarian Training Reactor

  11. Burocracias penales, administración institucional de conflictos y ciudadanía: Experiencia comparada entre Brasil y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Fernández Patallo

    2010-01-01

    TISCORNIA Sofía, KANT DE LIMA Roberto y EILBAUM, Lucía (comp.). 2009. Burocracias penales, administración institucional de conflictos y ciudadanía. Experiencia comparada entre Brasil y Argentina. Buenos Aires: Antropofagia.

  12. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András

    2015-12-06

    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  13. ATTACHMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF RISK FOR EATING DISORDERS ON A REPRESENTATIVE HUNGARIAN ADULT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Tamás Dömötör; Czeglédi, Edit

    2015-11-30

    Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called "Hungarostudy 2013" (N = 2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD = 18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N = 76) among the respondents (N = 1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t (1888) = -3.939, p eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR = 1.09, p = 0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR = 0.98, p = 0.515). Younger age (OR = 0.97, p cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment's further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.

  14. The American Reception and Settlement of Hungarian Refugees in 1956–1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pastor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, close to two hundred thousand Hungarians crossed into Austria.  About thirty thousand of these refugees were allowed to enter the United States. Their common experience of living under totalitarian communism and participating or being a witness to the exhilarating thirteen days of the revolution and their sudden, previously unplanned, departure from the homeland gave them a collective identity that was different from the one shared by the people of previous waves of Hungarian influx to the United States. The high educational level of the refugees attained before and after their arrival made their absorption into the mainstream relatively easy. The integration process was facilitated by the shaping of a positive image of the 1956 refugees by the US government and the media.  The reestablishment of the communist system in post-1956 Hungary contributed to the perception that, for the refugees in the United States, there was no hope for return to the homeland.  This assumption strengthened the attitudes of those who wished to embrace the American melting pot model.  Many of the 1956-ers in the United Sates, however, were also comfortable with the notion of ethnic pride and believed in the shaping of a dual national identity.

  15. Comparison of Trust and Social Relations among Students in Russian and Hungarian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Lazányi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trust is the basis of social relations and the building block of every society. However, various societies have different levels of social trust, which is a consequence of various cultural dimensions’ as well as historic and economic variables’ interplay. The paper intends to explore the relation of social embeddedness and the level of interpersonal trust in two significantly different cultures – Russian and Hungarian. The results presented in the article are, on the one hand, the outcomes of secondary analysis of the data obtained from the World Values Survey and the European Social Survey, on the other hand, they also offer an insight into the still ongoing primary research on 585 students in business higher education in Hungary and Russia. The results indicate that although there are gender and other demographic variables based differences, social embeddedness and national culture (values, attitudes, behaviour is of relevant influence on the level of interpersonal trust. According to the data presented, the Hungarians – despite being a low-trust nation – in general trust their peers more than the Russians do. However, if we distinguish between two forms of trust – thick and thin – the Hungarians then achieve significantly higher scores in thin trust only.

  16. Miocene tectonics of the Maramures area (Northern Romania): implications for the Mid-Hungarian fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M.; Gröger, H. R.; Fügenschuh, B.; Schmid, S. M.

    2007-06-01

    The interplay between the emplacement of crustal blocks (e.g. “ALCAPA”, “Tisza”, “Dacia”) and subduction retreat is a key issue for understanding the Miocene tectonic history of the Carpathians. Coeval thrusting and basin formation is linked by transfer zones, such as the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, which seperates ALCAPA from Tisza-Dacia. The presented study provides new kinematic data from this transfer zone. Early Burdigalian (20.5 to ˜18.5 Ma) SE-directed thrusting of the easternmost tip of ALCAPA (Pienides), over Tisza-Dacia is linked to movements along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone and the Periadriatic line, accommodating the lateral extrusion of ALCAPA. Minor Late Burdigalian (˜18.5 to 16 Ma) NE-SW extension is interpreted as related to back-arc extension. Post Burdigalian (post-16 Ma) NE SW shortening and NW SE extension correlate with “soft collision” of Tisza-Dacia with the European foreland coupled with southward migration of active subduction. During this stage the Bogdan-Voda and Dragos-Voda faults were kinematically linked to the Mid-Hungarian fault zone. Sinistral transpression (16 to 12 Ma) at the Bogdan-Voda fault was followed by sinistral transtension (12 10 Ma) along the coupled Bogdan-Dragos-Voda fault system. During the transtensional stage left-lateral offset was reduced eastwards by SW trending normal faults, the fault system finally terminating in an extensional horse-tail splay.

  17. Playing with anthems: The formation of the cult of empress Elisabeth in Hungarian music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windhager Ákos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reveal how the cult of Empress Elisabeth affected the reception of three different volumes of Hungarian music. These three works are: Erzsébet-emlény (Elisabeth Memorial Album, 1854 edited by Kornél Ábrányi; Erzsébet (Elisabeth, 1854 opera by Károly Doppler, Ferenc Doppler and Ferenc Erkel; and Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth (The Legend of Saint Elisabeth, 1865 by Franz Liszt. In spite of their high artistic level, the first two works were banned by the cultural elite who interpreted them as Habsburgian political music after the downfall of the dual state. On the other hand, the intentionally apolitical oratorio by Franz Liszt was regarded by the same cultural elite as the highest standard of artistic representation of the Empress. As a consequence of parallel distribution of both imperially and nationally constructed memories, a strange diffusion appeared in the social sphere, especially in Hungarian cultural memory. Conflicting memories emerged due to the discrepancy between the original Hungarian political myth (Kossuth-myth and Empress Elisabeth’s cult. Using the terminology introduced by Claude Lévi-Strauss, I have labeled this situation as the clash of the cold and hot society in Hungary during the 19th century.

  18. Allowance officers Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies on the eve of the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of historical material provides information on measures of state and military administration on the eve of the First World War to improve the welfare of Russian officers and Austro-Hungary, through various forms of material incentives, which are reflected in the cash payments, promotions, awards and social guarantees. On the basis of archival materials of the study period, open scientific publications and Internet resources there are disclosed the features of the destination of salaries, various allowances and compensations Russian army in comparison to the Austro-Hungarian army, who spoke Russian opponent in the First World War. The author notes that the existing system of money allowances in the Russian army was more advantageous than in the Austro-Hungarian army. However, neither one nor the other could not fully meet the needs of the majority of officers of both armies, entered as opponents in the First World War. One of its major shortcomings, both in Russia and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was a wide gap in the amounts of all kinds of money allowances between chief officers, staff officers and generals.

  19. [The relationship of work-related psychosocial risk factors with depressive symptoms among Hungarian workers: preliminary results of the Hungarian Work Stress Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Katalin; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Szabó, Anita; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Stauder, Adrienne

    2015-03-01

    Research has shown that psychosocial stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorders. The present study aims at processing the preliminary results of the Hungarian Survey of Work Stress, concerning the relationship between depressive symptoms and work stress. Cross-sectional survey among Hungarian workers was carried out (n = 1058, 27.5% man, 72.5% woman, age 37.2 years, SD = 11 years). Psychosocial factors were measured using the COPSOQ II questionnaire, while BDI-9 was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was carried out applying Spearman's correlation and logistic regression. A quarter of the workers reported moderate or severe symptoms of depression (BDI≥19). The study confirmed the association between depressive symptoms and work-family conflict (OR = 2.21, CI: 1.82-2.68), possibilities for development (OR = 0.76, CI: 0.59-0.97) meaning of work (OR = 0.69, CI: 0.59-0.89) and commitment (OR = 0.60, CI: 0.47-0.78). The results point toward the need of such organizational measures that allow for the reduction of psychosocial stress.

  20. L1-Penalized N-way PLS for subset of electrodes selection in BCI experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseyev, Andrey; Moro, Cecile; Faber, Jean; Wyss, Alexander; Torres, Napoleon; Mestais, Corinne; Benabid, Alim Louis; Aksenova, Tetiana

    2012-08-01

    Recently, the N-way partial least squares (NPLS) approach was reported as an effective tool for neuronal signal decoding and brain-computer interface (BCI) system calibration. This method simultaneously analyzes data in several domains. It combines the projection of a data tensor to a low dimensional space with linear regression. In this paper the L1-Penalized NPLS is proposed for sparse BCI system calibration, allowing uniting the projection technique with an effective selection of subset of features. The L1-Penalized NPLS was applied for the binary self-paced BCI system calibration, providing selection of electrodes subset. Our BCI system is designed for animal research, in particular for research in non-human primates.

  1. La impronta genética de Ihering en la dogmática penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ocupa el presente estudio de dar cuenta de la importancia de Rudolf Von Ihering para el Derecho penal y sus desarrollos dogmáticos. La impronta de su importancia marcó el descubrimiento de un concepto de antijuridicidad independiente de la culpabilidad, inauguró la discusión entre objetivistas y subjetivistas en materia del injusto y visionó un concepto final de acción fundado teleológicamente; lo cual significa que su pensamiento y el núcleo duro de la discusión permanece con plena actualidad, especialmente para el entendimiento de un Derecho Penal Liberal ante las arremetidas de nuevas concepciones que, eludiendo el tema de los cuestionamientos al subjetivismo, legitiman instituciones que son paradigmáticas a dicho pensamiento.

  2. La impronta genética de Ihering en la dogmática penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se ocupa el presente estudio de dar cuenta de la importancia de Rudolf Von Ihering para el Derecho penal y sus desarrollos dogmáticos. La impronta de su importancia marcó el descubrimiento de un concepto de antijuridicidad independiente de la culpabilidad, inauguró la discusión entre objetivistas y subjetivistas en materia del injusto y visionó un concepto final de acción fundado teleológicamente; lo cual significa que su pensamiento y el núcleo duro de la discusión permanece con plena actualidad, especialmente para el entendimiento de un Derecho Penal Liberal ante las arremetidas de nuevas concepciones que, eludiendo el tema de los cuestionamientos al subjetivismo, legitiman instituciones que son paradigmáticas a dicho pensamiento.

  3. LA CONCILIACIÓN PREPROCESAL EN EL SISTEMA PENAL ACUSATORIO Y SUS PRINCIPALES APORTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Becerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación que se efectúa en el presente estudio, inicia con un acercamiento al concepto de conciliación como mecanismo alternativo de resolución de conflictos, estableciendo los rasgos generales de esta figura; para posteriormente analizar el antecedente inmediato de la conciliación preprocesal en la ley 600 de 2.000, que abrió camino para concederle en materia penal a este mecanismo mayor importancia. Subsiguientemente se profundiza en la conciliación preprocesal consagrada expresamente en la ley 906 de 2004, y se analizan los cambios generados, para así conocer sus características, y determinar sus principales aportes, en el marco del sistema penal acusatorio.

  4. Penalized regression procedures for variable selection in the potential outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Zhu, Yeying; Coffman, Donna L

    2015-05-10

    A recent topic of much interest in causal inference is model selection. In this article, we describe a framework in which to consider penalized regression approaches to variable selection for causal effects. The framework leads to a simple 'impute, then select' class of procedures that is agnostic to the type of imputation algorithm as well as penalized regression used. It also clarifies how model selection involves a multivariate regression model for causal inference problems and that these methods can be applied for identifying subgroups in which treatment effects are homogeneous. Analogies and links with the literature on machine learning methods, missing data, and imputation are drawn. A difference least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm is defined, along with its multiple imputation analogs. The procedures are illustrated using a well-known right-heart catheterization dataset. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Fundamentos de la detención preventiva en el procedimiento penal colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz Bolívar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribución se ocupa de analizar en concreto los principios que rigen la privación preventiva de la libertad en el procedimiento penal, desde el punto de vista constitucional, legal y de instrumentos internacionales, buscando armonizar los criterios que utilizan los jueces de garantías al momento de resolver la solicitud del fiscal en esta materia. El principio de proporcionalidad constitucional, los elementos desarrollados legalmente y los pronunciamientos del sistema interamericano de derechos humanos dan base a las interpretaciones que se proponen en el artículo, buscando proteger la libertad, sin renunciar a las necesidades básicas de la justicia y la sociedad que requieren un proceso penal eficiente y que responda a la realidad nacional.

  6. DILEMA DIFERENŢIERII RĂSPUNDERII PENALE PENTRU RELELE TRATAMENTE COMISE DE O PERSOANĂ CU FUNCŢIE DE RĂSPUNDERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela URSU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoarece unele autorităţi (ca, de exemplu, poliţistul sunt, potrivit literei legii (art.123 alin.(1 şi alin.(2 CP RM, atât persoane publice, cât şi persoane cu funcţie de răspundere, în contextul relelor tratamente incriminate la art.1661 CP RM, unii subiecţi de aplicare în concret a legii penale recunosc poliţistului calitatea de persoană cu funcţie de răspundere, motiv din care reţin circumstanţa agravantă în dependenţă de faptă, prevăzută fie la lit.e alin.(2, fie la lit.e alin.(4 art.1661 CP RM, iar alţii îi reţin calitatea de persoană publică, încadrându-i faptele în acord cu variantele-tip ale infrac­ţiu­nilor de tortură, tratament inuman sau degradant. Pornind de la câteva hotărâri din practica judiciară naţională, pre­zentul studiu îşi propune să ofere răspuns la următoarea întrebare: Care este cea mai potrivită soluţie de calificare în ipo­teza comiterii infracţiunilor de tortură, tratament inuman sau degradant de către autorităţi care deţin dubla calitate: atât de persoană publică, cât şi de persoană cu funcţie de răspundere?THE DIFFERENTIATION DILEMMA OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY REGARDING THE ILL-TREATMENT COMMITTED BY A PERSON WITH PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITIESBecause some authorities, like the policeman, are according to the law (Article 123 para.(1 and para.(2 of the Penal Code of Moldova, both public persons and persons holding responsible positions, in the context of maltreatment incri­minated by the article 1661 of the Penal Code of Moldova, some subjects invested with the power to apply the criminal law treat the police officials as persons holding a responsible positions, the reason why the aggravating circumstance, depending on the offense, is either letter e para.(2, either – letter e para.(4 article 1661 of the Penal Code of Moldova. While others treat them as public persons, stating their crimes as torture, inhuman or degrading treatment. Starting from several

  7. Construção e identidade da dogmática penal: do garantismo prometido ao garantimo prisioneiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Pereira de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tratamos, neste artigo, da construção eidentidade da Dogmática Penal enquanto paradigmade Ciência Penal dominante na modernidade. E ofazemos através de três passos, a saber: demarcandosuas matrizes e modelos fundacionais (num primeiromomento em nível do saber e, num segundomomento, em nível da relação saber-poder; demarcandoo que é a Dogmática Penal desde suaauto-imagem (desde uma escuta à voz dospenalistas que protagonizam e compartilham seuparadigma para, ao final, problematizá-la em nívelfuncional, apontando a contradição entre suasfunções declaradas (garantismo prometido e asfunções realmente cumpridas na modernidade(garantismo prisioneiro. A Dogmática aparece,nesta perspectiva, como um protagonismo decisivono processo de instrumentalização e legitimaçãodo controle penal moderno e da ordem social queele co-constitui.Abstract: This article deals with the constructionand identity of the Penal Dogmatic, as a paradigmof the Penal Science, dominant in modernity. Thisis done in three steps: delineating their originsand foundational models (at a first moment at thelevel of knowledge and, in a second, in aknowledge power moment determining what isPenal Dogmatic, since its self image (since alistening to a voice of penalists whom have carriedout and shared their paradigm, to, at the end,transform it into a problem at a functional level,pointing out the contradictions between thedeclared functions (promise guarantism and thereal functions promised in modernity (prisonguarantism. The Dogmatic appears, in thisperspective, as a decisive carry out in the processof instrumentalizating and legitimating of themodern penal control, and of the social order,which it constructed.

  8. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  9. MEMBANGUN POLITIK KRIMINAL PADA PERTAMBANGAN BATUBARA YANG MENYEJAHTERAKAN MASYARAKAT MELALUI SARANA NON-PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Firmansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Article 33 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945, states earth water and natural resources contained therein controlled by the state and used for the welfare of the people. The realization of such mastery by delegating the authority to manage the natural resources of the state to the company is to provide state Mining Permit or Special Mining Permit. In protecting and overseeing the company that is engaged in coal mining government passed Law Number 4 of 2009 on Mineral and Coal Mining. In Article 162 of Law Number 4 of 2009 states that every person who impede or interfere mining activities from business license holders of mining and business permit of the mining specifically penalized by fines or imprisonment. The article shows a process of criminalization an action (criminal policy, which aim to protect the companies that already have a Mining Permit, but the criminal policy is contrary to the purpose of the criminal policy is an effort for the welfare of society and policies the protection of society, the existence of Article 162 of Law Minerals coal and coal mining communities can impede convicted. In the case of the counteraction form caused they want to protect the environment or their ancestral lands from exploration activities. So it is activity is not uncommon form of criminal policy by means of criminal law that gives rise to new conflicts. Therefore the criminal policy should be shifted from penal facilities to non-penal policy more accommodating community participation, so that the purpose of the criminal policy, namely the welfare of society and protect the community can be realized.Keywords: Political Criminal, Mining, Non-Penal

  10. LA IMPUGNACIÓN DE LA CREDIBILIDAD DE TESTIGOS EN EL SISTEMA PENAL ACUSATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Decastro González

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explica en qué consiste el procedimiento de impugnación de la credibilidad de testigos en el sistema penal acusatorio colombiano consagrado en la ley 906 de 2004, analiza algunos de sus aspectos problemáticos desde la perspectiva procesal y probatoria y expone los equívocos del concepto 'impugnación' en nuestro medio y su relación con la sana crítica.

  11. Computation of optimal transport and related hedging problems via penalization and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Stephan; Kupper, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a widely applicable approach to solving (multi-marginal, martingale) optimal transport and related problems via neural networks. The core idea is to penalize the optimization problem in its dual formulation and reduce it to a finite dimensional one which corresponds to optimizing a neural network with smooth objective function. We present numerical examples from optimal transport, martingale optimal transport, portfolio optimization under uncertainty and generative adversa...

  12. Penalized likelihood and multi-objective spatial scans for the detection and inference of irregular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Carlos M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregularly shaped spatial clusters are difficult to delineate. A cluster found by an algorithm often spreads through large portions of the map, impacting its geographical meaning. Penalized likelihood methods for Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics have been used to control the excessive freedom of the shape of clusters. Penalty functions based on cluster geometry and non-connectivity have been proposed recently. Another approach involves the use of a multi-objective algorithm to maximize two objectives: the spatial scan statistics and the geometric penalty function. Results & Discussion We present a novel scan statistic algorithm employing a function based on the graph topology to penalize the presence of under-populated disconnection nodes in candidate clusters, the disconnection nodes cohesion function. A disconnection node is defined as a region within a cluster, such that its removal disconnects the cluster. By applying this function, the most geographically meaningful clusters are sifted through the immense set of possible irregularly shaped candidate cluster solutions. To evaluate the statistical significance of solutions for multi-objective scans, a statistical approach based on the concept of attainment function is used. In this paper we compared different penalized likelihoods employing the geometric and non-connectivity regularity functions and the novel disconnection nodes cohesion function. We also build multi-objective scans using those three functions and compare them with the previous penalized likelihood scans. An application is presented using comprehensive state-wide data for Chagas' disease in puerperal women in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Conclusions We show that, compared to the other single-objective algorithms, multi-objective scans present better performance, regarding power, sensitivity and positive predicted value. The multi-objective non-connectivity scan is faster and better suited for the

  13. Performance of penalized maximum likelihood in estimation of genetic covariances matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Karin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of genetic covariance matrices for multivariate problems comprising more than a few traits is inherently problematic, since sampling variation increases dramatically with the number of traits. This paper investigates the efficacy of regularized estimation of covariance components in a maximum likelihood framework, imposing a penalty on the likelihood designed to reduce sampling variation. In particular, penalties that "borrow strength" from the phenotypic covariance matrix are considered. Methods An extensive simulation study was carried out to investigate the reduction in average 'loss', i.e. the deviation in estimated matrices from the population values, and the accompanying bias for a range of parameter values and sample sizes. A number of penalties are examined, penalizing either the canonical eigenvalues or the genetic covariance or correlation matrices. In addition, several strategies to determine the amount of penalization to be applied, i.e. to estimate the appropriate tuning factor, are explored. Results It is shown that substantial reductions in loss for estimates of genetic covariance can be achieved for small to moderate sample sizes. While no penalty performed best overall, penalizing the variance among the estimated canonical eigenvalues on the logarithmic scale or shrinking the genetic towards the phenotypic correlation matrix appeared most advantageous. Estimating the tuning factor using cross-validation resulted in a loss reduction 10 to 15% less than that obtained if population values were known. Applying a mild penalty, chosen so that the deviation in likelihood from the maximum was non-significant, performed as well if not better than cross-validation and can be recommended as a pragmatic strategy. Conclusions Penalized maximum likelihood estimation provides the means to 'make the most' of limited and precious data and facilitates more stable estimation for multi-dimensional analyses. It should

  14. Iluminismo e absolutismo no modelo jurídico-penal de Cesare Beccaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander de Castro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cesare Beccaria, tido como o autor que,elaborando um sistema de direito penal com base emprincípios iluministas, criou as bases do modernodireito penal de cunho liberal, possuía, entretanto,vínculos muito profundos com o absolutismo austríaco.Assim, no presente trabalho, analisaremosalguns pontos da tessitura política em que Beccariaproduziu a obra Dei Delitti e delle Pene, procurandoaprofundar a compreensão sobre o modo como oIluminismo, no contexto de formação do absolutismohabsbúrgico, funcionaria na elaboração do modelojurídico-penal do jurista italiano.Abstract: Cesare Beccaria, known as the authorwho, elaborating a system of criminal law basedon illuminists principles, has created the bases ofthe modern liberal criminal law, had, however, verydeep bonds with the Austrian absolutism. Thus,in the present paper, we will analyze some pointsof the politic structure where Beccaria producedhis work Dei Delitti e delle Pene, seeking to examinethe understanding about the way Illuminism,in the context of the Habsburg absolutism’sformation, would operate in the elaboration ofthe Italian jurist’s legal criminal model.

  15. Evaluation of Penalized and Nonpenalized Methods for Disease Prediction with Large-Scale Genetic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Won

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to recent improvement of genotyping technology, large-scale genetic data can be utilized to identify disease susceptibility loci and this successful finding has substantially improved our understanding of complex diseases. However, in spite of these successes, most of the genetic effects for many complex diseases were found to be very small, which have been a big hurdle to build disease prediction model. Recently, many statistical methods based on penalized regressions have been proposed to tackle the so-called “large P and small N” problem. Penalized regressions including least absolute selection and shrinkage operator (LASSO and ridge regression limit the space of parameters, and this constraint enables the estimation of effects for very large number of SNPs. Various extensions have been suggested, and, in this report, we compare their accuracy by applying them to several complex diseases. Our results show that penalized regressions are usually robust and provide better accuracy than the existing methods for at least diseases under consideration.

  16. La Intervención del Derecho Penal en Los Fenómenos Migratorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Duarte Cunha Medeiros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo analisar la legitimidad de la intervención penal en los actuales flujos migratórios. La premisa principal considera que la utilización del derecho penal como instrumento de gestión para controlar flujos migratório ratifica el discurso del miedo hacia la inmingración y fomenta la criminalidad organizada que se ha estructurado frente a las políticas tolerancia cero contra la inmigración, especialmente, la trata de personas y el contrabando de migrantes. En este sentido, el analisis y la delimitación del bien jurídico “ política migratória” sugiere una reflexión a la luz de las bases principiológicas del Derecho Penal y despierta cuestiones que implican en una redefinición del derecho de punir en la sociedad del riesgo.

  17. A Postneoliberal Turn? Variants of the Recent Penal Policy in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Sozzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed the connection between the emergence and consolidation of a postneoliberal political program and alliance – Kirchnerism – and penal policies in Argentina. Three key moments are identified in this recent period. After the experience of an intense punitive turn during the 1990s and early 2000s, Kirchnerist political alliances tried to deploy a progressive political discourse and agenda on penal issues. Nevertheless, this initially coincided with a strong wave of penal populism ‘from below’ that continued the precedent trend towards increasing punitiviness.  Since 2005, and for a brief moment, this tendency stopped. However, after that and during the presidencies of Fernandez de Kirchner a more volatile and contradictory scenario was generated. The incarceration rate between 2002 and 2014 in Argentina grew substantially as did the rate of convictions. Meanwhile the percentage of suspended sentences as part of the total convictions and the percentage of custodial sanctions both fell. Especially in relation to incarceration, these levels of change are not as stark as those of the preceding decades. However, the trends persist. Therefore, the question of how to transcend the dynamics of the punitive turn remains a pending and urgent political subject. The article argues the importance of analysing why a punitive turn is interrupted and presents an explanation of it.

  18. El garantismo y el punitivismo en el Código Orgánico Integral Penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Cornejo Aguiar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es determinar la necesidad de la existencia de una parte punitivista y una garantista dentro del Código Orgánico Integral Penal, partiendo del estudio de la actualización doctrinaria en materia penal dentro del ordenamiento jurídico ecuatoriano, considerando que al ser el Ecuador un Estado constitucional de derechos y justicia, nos inspira a la construcción de mecanismos que tengan como fundamento y fin la tutela de las libertades del individuo, frente a las variadas formas del ejercicio arbitrario del poder punitivo del Estado, en donde las garantías y principios establecidos en el Código Orgánico Integral Penal, deben ser considerados como filtros de contención del poder punitivo que impiden que dicho poder se desborde y destruya todo a su paso. Seguidamente se analiza el significado del garantismo y punitivismo. Por último, se toca la relación existente entre garantismo y punitivismo, concluyendo que el garantismo es una corriente que proporciona ideas sustanciales para transformar el procedimiento judicial impidiendo así la arbitrariedad del poder punitivo.

  19. A second order penalized direct forcing for hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary flow simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introini, C.; Belliard, M.; Fournier, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a second order penalized direct forcing method to deal with fluid-structure interaction problems involving complex static or time-varying geometries. As this work constitutes a first step toward more complicated problems, our developments are restricted to Dirichlet boundary condition in purely hydraulic context. The proposed method belongs to the class of immersed boundary techniques and consists in immersing the physical domain in a Cartesian fictitious one of simpler geometry on fixed grids. A penalized forcing term is added to the momentum equation to take the boundary conditions around/inside the obstacles into account. This approach avoids the tedious task of re-meshing and allows us to use fast and accurate numerical schemes. In contrary, as the immersed boundary is described by a set of Lagrangian points that does not generally coincide with those of the Eulerian grid, numerical procedures are required to reconstruct the velocity field near the immersed boundary. Here, we develop a second order linear interpolation scheme and we compare it to a simpler model of order one. As far as the governing equations are concerned, we use a particular fractional-step method in which the penalized forcing term is distributed both in prediction and correction equations. The accuracy of the proposed method is assessed through 2-D numerical experiments involving static and rotating solids. We show in particular that the numerical rate of convergence of our method is quasi-quadratic. (authors)

  20. Illicit operation of industrial plant subject to licensing, or of other installations within the purview of the German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), which have been shut down for protection against hazards (section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 Penal Code (StGB)); Das unerlaubte Betreiben von genehmigungsbeduerftigen Anlagen oder sonstigen Anlagen im Sinne des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes, deren Betrieb zum Schutz vor Gefahren untersagt worden ist (Paragraph 327 Abs.2 Nr.1 StGB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, A.

    1995-12-31

    The 18th act of 28 March 1980 for amendment of the German Criminal Code (StGB) incorporated the provisions governing the criminal offence of illicit operation of installations subject to licensing into the StGB. These provisions have until then been forming part of the BImSchG (Federal Act on Emission Control). The study in hand presents a discussion of section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 StGB, because this provision represents a fundamental type of an administration accessory criminal offence and thus is suitable to be taken as a basis for an analysis of the scope of problems covered by the StGB, but having an effect on and being interlaced with offences governed by other acts and legal provisions. The study addresses inter alia items such as the object of legal protection defined by this section of the StGB, the provisions defining the licensability of a non-licensed installation in operation, and the consequences of defective decisions under administrative law on the applicability of criminal law provisions. The specific aspects of section 327 StGB, which are of a dominantly administrative nature, are discussed, in particular those referring to the definition of the term ``industrial installation`` as defined by the BImSchG. [Deutsch] Durch das 18. Strafrechtsaenderungsgesetz vom 28.3.1980 wurde der Straftatbestand des unerlaubten Betreibens von Anlagen, die einer Genehmigung nach dem Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz beduerfen, aus dem BImSchG in das Kernstrafrecht ueberfuehrt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung versucht eine eingehendere Auseinandersetzung mit Para. 327 Abs. 2 Nr. 1 StGB, weil diese Vorschrift als ein Grundtypus der verwaltungsakzessorischen Straftatbestaende die Gelegenheiit zur vertieften Diskussion von umfassenderen strafrechtlichen Problemkreisen gibt. Angesprochen sind insoweit vor allem die Frage des geschuetzten Rechtsgutes der Norm, der Behandlung der materiellen Genehmigungsfaehigkeit eines ungenehmigten Anlagenbetriebs sowie der Auswirkungen von

  1. Una apuesta analítica del funcionamiento del dispositivo psi pericial en el campo penal Uma aposta analitica do funcionamento do dispositivo psi pericial inserido no campo penal An analysis of the psy expert assemblage in the penal field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Gallego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación al dispositivo psi pericial inserto en el campo penal aquí efectuada, traza un itinerario de análisis que aborda el funcionamiento de dicho dispositivo, poniendo especial énfasis en las imbricadas relaciones entre los saberes jurídicos y lo psi. Para efectuar dicho análisis, se utilizan documentos específicos producidos por los peritos psi en el marco del Poder Judicial del Uruguay. Se entiende a las prácticas psi como el efecto de ciertas confluencias históricas relacionadas con el examen, con las estrategias de objetividad, con la traducción de categorías psi en categorías jurídicas y con la incorporación de la lógica de individualización como eje del dispositivo psi pericial. La pregunta que guía el análisis versa sobre lo que posibilita la incorporación del dispositivo psi pericial en el campo penal.A aproximação ao dispositivo psi pericial inserido no campo penal aqui realizada traça um itinerário de análise que aborda o funcionamento do dispositivo, enfatizando as relações imbricadas entre os saberes jurídicos e psi. Para realizar a análise, utilizam-se documentos específicos produzidos por peritos psi no marco do Poder Judicial do Uruguai. Entendem-se as práticas psi como efeito de certas confluências históricas relacionadas ao exame, às estratégias de objetividade, à tradução de categorias psi em categorias jurídicas e à incorporação da lógica da individualização como um ponto central do dispositivo psi pericial. A pergunta que orienta a análise é o que possibilita a incorporação do dispositivo psi pericial no campo penal.The approach made here about the "expert psy assemblage" inserted into the criminal field draws a path of analysis that considers the operation of this assemblage, highlighting the intertwined relationships between the legal and psychological knowledge. To undertake such analysis, specific documents produced by the psy experts, working under the Judiciary

  2. Delitos que Vulneran la Intimidad de las Personas: Análisis crítico del artículo 161-A del Código Penal Chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ingrid Díaz Tolosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo 161-A del Código Penal chileno es una muestra de los resultados que se obtienen al legislar materias tan importantes, como lo es la protección penal de la intimidad de las personas, de forma acelerada. La norma en análisis resiste innumerables críticas; su redacción es confusa e imprecisa, lo que conlleva arduas tareas de interpretación. Este trabajo pretende contribuir en esta labor, reflexionando acerca de puntuales problemas asociados a la tipificación de los delitos recogidos en la citada disposición, así respecto al inciso primero se analiza, especialmente, si se penaliza la indiscreción o deslealtad en las comunicaciones y actuaciones privadas, mientras que en cuanto al inciso segundo se medita acerca de si se exige el conocimiento de la obtención subrepticia del material por parte de quien lo difunde. Además, se destaca la necesaria interpretación restrictiva de estos tipos, se analiza el interés público como fundamento de la autorización legal o judicial para ejecutar las conductas tipificadas, y de ¡egeferendae, se indican las ventajas que tendría introducir un elemento subjetivo del tipo distinto del dolo como la finalidad de vulnerar ¡a intimidad de otro, a fin de salvar las incertidumbres que existen en la actual legislaciónThe article 161-A of the Chilean Penal Code is a sample of the results that are obtained when so important matters, like the penal protection of the privacy, are legislated precipitately. The norm in analysis resists innumerable critiques; its draft is confused and vague, giving us an arduous interpretation work. This paper tries to contribute in this analysis, thinking over punctual problems, for example, regarding to the first clause we studied, specially, if the indiscretion or disloyalty is penalized in the communications and private performances, while as for the second clause it is pondered if who diffuse the information must to know about that it was obtained illegally

  3. CONTRADICTORIALITATEA ÎN CORAPORT CU ALTE PRINCIPII ALE PROCESULUI PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available În legătură cu reformarea sistemului judiciar şi schimbările intervenite în viaţa social-politică a statului nostru, prin­cipiul contradictorialităţii a obţinut o nouă rezonanţă din considerentul că reforma judiciară şi de drept este legată direct de contradictorialitate. Reforma legii procesual penale trebuie să fie fundamentată pe o temelie teoretică solidă. Contra­dictorialitatea, însă, în calitate de noţiune juridică, este insuficient cercetată în doctrina dreptului procesual penal. La ziua de azi, specialişti notorii în domeniul dreptului procesual penal analizează şi studiază importanţa fundamentelor şi principiilor de bază ale procesului penal şi, în primul rând, contradictorialitatea acestuia. Legea procesual penală a Republicii Moldova cunoaşte o evoluţie şi dezvoltate în sensul democratizării şi lărgirii începuturilor contradictoriale în înfăptuirea justiţiei. Aceasta e şi firesc, deoarece contradictorialitatea are o importanţă enormă pentru întregul sistem al procesului penal, determinând în mare parte statutul juridic şi raporturile dintre participanţii la procesul penal, precum şi relaţiile juridice stabilite între participanţii la acest proces şi instanţa de judecată. CONTRADICTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH OTHER PRINCIPLES OF THE CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGIn connection with the judiciary system reforming and changes in socio-political life of our state, the adversarial principle has gained a new resonance on the grounds that the judicial and legal reform is directly linked to adversariality. The reform of the criminal procedure law must be based on solid theoretical foundation. However, adversariality, as legal concept, is not enough investigated in the doctrine of the criminal procedure law. Currently, notorious specialists in the field of criminal procedure law examine and study the importance of fundamentals and basic principles of the criminal process and

  4. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)

  5. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  6. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil de textes reglementaires relatifs a la radioprotection. Partie 2: arretes et decisions pris en application du Code de Sante Publique et du Code du Travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)

  7. Teoria da adequação econômica da conduta: significado econômico da conduta em face da tutela penal antitruste

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz da Silva, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Essa tese tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento da teoria da adequação econômica da conduta no direito penal econômico. Vale-se de uma abordagem interdisciplinar abrangendo a Economia, o direito econômico e o direito penal. Para alcançar o desiderato a investigação analisou a intervenção do direito penal em face da atividade econômica e, em especial, os fundamentos da tutela penal antitruste, para fins de estabelecer os contornos teóricos necessários à aplicação das premissas fund...

  8. EVOLUCIÓN CRIMINOLÓGICA, PENAL Y PENITENCIARIA EN CATALUÑA DESDE LA REFORMA DEL CÓDIGO PENAL DE 1995. ESTUDIO ESTADÍSTICO-DESCRIPTIVO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep García-Borés Espí

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo surge como resultado de la recopilación de datos llevada a cabo por el equipo investigador del Observatorio del Sistema Penal y los Derechos Humanos de la Universidad de Barcelona (OSPDH, en el marco de la investigación: “¿Resocialización o incapacitación?: Sostenibilidad del Sistema Penitenciario español ante las nuevas realidades delictivas y demandas de seguridad”[1]. A lo largo del proceso de recogida de información el equipo investigador del OSPDH, fue constatando la existencia de evidencias estadísticas que ponían de manifiesto la evolución y los cambios experimentados en el sistema penitenciario catalán durante los últimos veinte años, identificándose una estrecha relación entre los mismos y los diversos periodos político-económicos vividos en el conjunto del Estado español desde la reforma del Código Penal de1995 hasta la actualidad[2]. [1] El presente trabajo se ha realizado en el marco del Proyecto de Investigación  I+D+i: "¿RESOCIALIZACIÓN O INCAPACITACIÓN? SOSTENIBILIDAD DEL SISTEMA PENITENCIARIO ESPAÑOL ANTE LAS NUEVAS REALIDADES DELICTIVAS Y DEMANDAS DE SEGURIDAD, con referencia DER2011-27337, del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad.   [2] Periodos que son desarrollados en este mismo Monográfico en el artículo de Brandariz (2015, titulado: La evolución del sistema penitenciario español, 1995-2014: transformaciones de la penalidad y modificación práctica de la realidad penitenciaria.

  9. Evolución del Derecho penal en el ámbito internacional. Pluralismo y garantismo jurídico-penal como criterios orientadores || Evolution Of The Supranational Criminal Law: Pluralism And Protection Of The Civil Liberties As Guiding Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Correcher Mira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La realidad social internacional presenta un nuevo paradigma que debe ser asumido por el Derecho penal. El contexto social internacional, marcado por la globalización a nivel mundial y el proceso de integración europea en el ámbito comunitario, supone una modificación de las líneas clásicas de recepción de las normas penales, demandando un tratamiento supraestatal del sistema penal. En este trabajo, se analiza desde una perspectiva crítica las propuestas de internacionalización del Derecho penal, en la medida que éstas no han seguido nociones como el pluralismo jurídico y el carácter garantista inherente al Derecho penal.   ABSTRACT The social international reality presents a new paradigm that must be taken up office for the Criminal law. The social international context, marked by the globalization worldwide and the process of European integration in the European area, supposes a modification of the classic lines of receipt of the Criminal law, demanding a supranational treatment of the Criminal System. In this work, the offers of internationalize the Criminal Law will be analyzed from a critical point of view, cause these have not followed notions as the juridical pluralism and the protection of civil liberties inherent in the Criminal Law.

  10. Evolución del Derecho penal en el ámbito internacional. Pluralismo y garantismo jurídico-penal como criterios orientadores || Evolution Of The Supranational Criminal Law: Pluralism And Protection Of The Civil Liberties As Guiding Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Correcher Mira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La realidad social internacional presenta un nuevo paradigma que debe ser asumido por el Derecho penal. El contexto social internacional, marcado por la globalización a nivel mundial y el proceso de integración europea en el ámbito comunitario, supone una modificación de las líneas clásicas de recepción de las normas penales, demandando un tratamiento supraestatal del sistema penal. En este trabajo, se analiza desde una perspectiva crítica las propuestas de internacionalización del Derecho penal, en la medida que éstas no han seguido nociones como el pluralismo jurídico y el carácter garantista inherente al Derecho penal.   ABSTRACT The social international reality presents a new paradigm that must be taken up office for the Criminal law. The social international context, marked by the globalization worldwide and the process of European integration in the European area, supposes a modification of the classic lines of receipt of the Criminal law, demanding a supranational treatment of the Criminal System. In this work, the offers of internationalize the Criminal Law will be analyzed from a critical point of view, cause these have not followed notions as the juridical pluralism and the protection of civil liberties inherent in the Criminal Law.  

  11. Possible pressurized thermal shock events during large primary to secondary leakage. The Hungarian AGNES project and PRISE accident scenarios in VVER-440/V213 type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budabest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear power plants of WWER-440/213-type have several special features. Consequently, the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the behaviour of the PWRs of western design. The opening of the steam generator (SG) collector cover, as a specific primary to secondary circuit leakage (PRISE) occurring in WWER-type reactors happened first time in Rovno NPP Unit I on January 22, 1982. Similar accident was studied in the framework of IAEA project RER/9/004 in 1987-88 using the RELAP4/mod6 code. The Hungarian AGNES (Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety) project was performed in the period 1991-94 with the aim to reassess the safety of the Paks NPP using state-of-the-art techniques. The project comprised three type of analyses for the primary to secondary circuit leakages: Design Basis Accident (DBA) analyses, Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) study and deterministic analyses for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Major part of the thermohydraulic analyses has been performed by the RELAP5/mod2.5/V251 code version with two input models. 32 refs.

  12. Possible pressurized thermal shock events during large primary to secondary leakage. The Hungarian AGNES project and PRISE accident scenarios in VVER-440/V213 type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, L [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budabest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear power plants of WWER-440/213-type have several special features. Consequently, the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the behaviour of the PWRs of western design. The opening of the steam generator (SG) collector cover, as a specific primary to secondary circuit leakage (PRISE) occurring in WWER-type reactors happened first time in Rovno NPP Unit I on January 22, 1982. Similar accident was studied in the framework of IAEA project RER/9/004 in 1987-88 using the RELAP4/mod6 code. The Hungarian AGNES (Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety) project was performed in the period 1991-94 with the aim to reassess the safety of the Paks NPP using state-of-the-art techniques. The project comprised three type of analyses for the primary to secondary circuit leakages: Design Basis Accident (DBA) analyses, Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) study and deterministic analyses for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Major part of the thermohydraulic analyses has been performed by the RELAP5/mod2.5/V251 code version with two input models. 32 refs.

  13. Gender patterns of socioeconomic differences in premature mortality: follow-up of the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Mária S; Skrabski, Arpád; László, Krisztina D; Janszky, Imre

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in premature mortality rates and in the size of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary across countries. We aimed to quantify the gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and premature all-cause mortality and to analyse whether psychosocial factors might associate between SES and mortality among men and women separately in the middle-aged Hungarian population. Men (n = 1130) and women (n = 1529), aged 40-69 years, participants in the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel (2002) were followed up for 3.5 years for total mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between several socioeconomic measures and total death. During the follow-up, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died. The age-adjusted hazard ratios and the Rothman's synergy indexes showed that each measure of socioeconomic position was more deleterious in men compared with women. When investigating potential explanatory factors for the SES-mortality association, we found that adjustment for severe depression resulted in the most pronounced reduction in the regression coefficients for the association between most socioeconomic factors and male premature death. There was no indication that depression would mediate between SES and mortality in women. Work stress factors, poor lifestyle and low social support also contributed to the explanation of the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and premature death in men. Middle-aged Hungarian men seem to be considerably more vulnerable to the chronic stress of material disadvantage than women. This effect modification by gender might partly be explained by a stronger connection between low SES and depressive symptoms in men.

  14. [Dyadic coping and well-being -- the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Tamás; Sallay, Viola; Nistor, Michaela; Józsa, Péter

    2012-01-01

    In studying coping processes, there is often a focus on individual coping while dyadic processes in couples are seldom addressed. Therefore we present here data with the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI) that was developed to assess dyadic forms of coping (e.g., stress communication, support, delegated and negative coping). 473 adult participants, living in committed relationships (176 male and 296 female, aged 34,0 +/- 11,9 years) were involved in a questionnaire study. Along with the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory we assessed satisfaction with life (SWLS) and marital satisfaction (Marital Stress Scale). Subscales of the Dyadic Coping Inventory were found reliable and the expected factor structure for both the dyadic coping of oneself and the partner were replicable. Moreover, specific forms of dyadic coping accounted for significant amount of explained variance in life satisfaction (31,8 and 27,7% for male and female respondents) and marital satisfaction (1,8 and 48,5%). Results imply possible gender differences, since marital satisfaction of women was negatively predicted both by negative coping of oneself and the partner (betas=-0,174 and -0,152), and positively by the support of the partner and the evaluation of the common dyadic coping (betas= 0,255 and 0,187), whereas there was only one significant link in male respondents, supportive coping of oneself (beta= 0,320). Results show that 1. the Hungarian version of the DCI is a reliable and valid measure, and 2. there may be specific gender differences in dyadic coping that has to be considered when planning further research, training programs and therapeutic interventions for couples.

  15. The Mid-Hungarian line: a zone of repeated tectonic inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, László; Nagymarosy, András

    1998-11-01

    The Mid-Hungarian line is a major tectonic feature of the Intra-Carpathian area separating two terranes of different origin and tectonic structure. Although this tectonic line was known from borehole records, it has not been described in seismic sections. The study presents interpreted seismic lines crossing the supposed trace of the Mid-Hungarian line. These seismic sections show north-dipping normal faults and thrust faults as well as cross-cutting young strike-slip faults. A complex tectonic history is deduced, including intra-Oligocene-Early Miocene thrusting, Middle Miocene extension, local Late Miocene inversion and Late Miocene-Pliocene normal faulting and left-lateral wrenching. In the light of our seismic study we think that the best candidate for the Mid-Hungarian line is a north-dipping detachment fault beneath large masses of Neogene volcanics. The auxiliary structures to the north seen on seismic sections suggest that it moved as a south-vergent thrust fault during the Palaeogene-Early Miocene which later was reactivated as a set of normal faults. The northern Alcapa unit overrode the southern Tisza-Dacia unit along this fault zone. The same relative positions are observed in the northern termination of the line. Other structures along the supposed trace of the line are north-dipping normal- or strike-slip faults which frequently were reactivated as smaller thrust faults during the late Neogene. Palaeogene-Early Miocene thrusting along the line might be the result of the opposite Tertiary rotations of the two major units, as suggested by palaeomagnetic measurements and earlier models.

  16. Impact of the "Quality Food from Hungary" brand on the competitiveness of Hungarian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Végh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a generally known fact that Hungarian products are at a disadvantage in Western markets, since a certain part of foreign customers have not yet heard of Hungarian products. Many of them believe that products made in Eastern Europe are cheap and of poor quality. How could they possibly know Hungarian products, if national food producers and traders can only invest a minimal amount to promote their products? Food producers in EU countries spend far much more to market their products than their fellows in Hungary. The Community strategy for agricultural marketing has been aimed at counterbalancing this tendency. In 1998, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development launched the “Quality Food from Hungary” trademark with the aim of distinguishing top quality food products from other products. The role of the quality trademark is to inform and protect the customers. The trademark makes the customers aware of the fact that the concerned food product differs from other products, and it also protects the customer, since both the producer and the certifying authority assume the responsibility for the controlled top quality of the product. In order to obtain the “Quality Food from Hungary” trademark, the raw materials, ingredients, the manufacturing process and the final product shall exceed the criteria stipulated within the effective food regulations. The basic requirement for awarding the right to use the trademark is the quality of the product, but the quality of its packaging is also taken into consideration and shall not only reflect the quality from an aesthetic point of view, but it shall also facilitate storage, transportation and utilisation.

  17. The impact of the language barrier on the success of Hungarian minority women in the higher education system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendák-Kabók Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is to analyze the impact of the language barrier faced by Hungarian minority female professors and students in the higher education sys­tem of Serbia. The aim of this paper is to propose measures which might allow Hungarian minority students to overcome the language barrier more easily and to raise awareness for the need of more Hungarian women in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM. The analysis is based on twenty four semi-structured interviews conducted with minority Hungarian female professors and students, who are working or studying at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Interviews were conducted with a pre-composed questionnaire between the end of 2014 and the beginning of 2015. Interviewees were chosen with a snowball sampling method. Results of analysis show that the majority of Hungarian women face a language barrier at the start of their studies, mostly because of their limited knowledge of the majority’s language. These barriers were more pronounced in Hungarian female students than with professor. This phenomenon can be attributed to the time in which they grew up, or to a different social environment of the twentieth century, when bilingualism was completely natural, from which, less segregation of the nations resulted and a better knowledge of the Serbian language. The professors particularly point out that being bilingual is a great advantage and that their knowledge of several languages was a key advantage in their academic careers. With the analysis of the interviews it was determined that the language barrier was mostly pronounced for students of social sciences and humanities (SSH, where language is the primary tool of communication. The language barrier was less important for the students studying in STEM sciences, where students and professors interact through formulas and written exams.

  18. Future orientation and suicide risk in Hungarian college students: Burdensomeness and belongingness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C; Chang, Olivia D; Martos, Tamás; Sallay, Viola

    2017-01-01

    We tested a model consistent with the notion that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness mediate the association between future orientation and suicide risk (viz., depressive symptoms and suicide ideation) in college students. The sample was comprised of 195 Hungarian college students. Results indicated that the negative associations found between future orientation and suicide risk outcomes were accounted for by both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. The present findings highlight the importance of studying positive future cognitions in suicide risk and provide support for perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness as potential proximal mechanisms associated with heighted suicide risk in adults.

  19. Some characteristics of the Hungarian power systems long term expansion strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, A.

    1995-01-01

    The formulation of the power system expansion strategy meeting the targets of the Hungarian energy policy is justified by the ageing of the existing power plants, the technology change unavoidable because of the more and more rigorous environment protection regulations, the requirement of updating and by the compliance with the expectation of safe electric power supply. These requirements (fuel supply and diversification, economic considerations, operational and environmental considerations) call for the construction of new power plant units even if the demand for electric power would not show any further increase in future. 1 tab

  20. Distribution of trace and minor elements in Hungarian spice paprika plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sziklai, I L; Oerdoegh, M; Szabo, E; Molnar, E

    1988-06-01

    Detailed investigations were carried out to study the distribution of trace and minor elements in different parts (fruit, seed and rib, peduncle, stem, leaf, root) of ripe Hungarian spice paprika plants. Two varieties were analyzed for their Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and Zn content by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the iron contents of the samples were much higher than those of the other trace elements. For trace elements Co, Fe, Mn, Sc, V and Zn a considerable enrichment was observed in the leaf, while the Rb and K, Na, Mg showed accumulation mainly in the peduncle. (author) 8 refs.; 3 tabs.

  1. Nuclear power plants in past and future of Hungarian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueki, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    In the Hungarian electric power supply nuclear power plants are important and stay so. It is underpinned by the country's energy resources. Although building nuclear power plants is an enormous investment and the extension with new blocks costs a lot, electric power generated by NPP is the cheapest one and can remain the cheapest if rational decisions will be made. Building and operation Paks Nuclear Power Plant demands for high level professional culture in education, in planning, in industry, in research and in operations. With building new reactor blocks it is expected that energy policy, power plant engineering will renew, while new jobs are created and the economy growths. (TRA)

  2. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth ra...

  3. Banking union through Hungarian eyes–assessment of a possible close cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Anikó Szombati

    2017-01-01

    Legislation laying down the first two pillars of the institutional system of the Banking Union was finalised in April 2014. In accordance with the regulations, non-euro area Member States, including Hungary, may notify the ECB at any time if they wish to participate in the common system even before the euro is adopted. The paper aims at summarising the possible pros and cons vis-à-vis the Banking Union from a Hungarian perspective. It highlights the reasons for not opting in at the inception ...

  4. Radioactivity of fish in the Hungarian reach of the river Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtacs, E.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the Hungarian nuclear power program a series of measurements was initiated to detect radionuclides in fishes of Danube river at two sampling points near the station region. The beta activity of samples was counted with anticoincidence shielded low background Tesla NZ-602 type apparatus. The radioactivity of samples was measured after simple physical or radiochemical preparation. The results show no significant difference according either to sampling sites of seasons. Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs of natural or global fallout origin are low and hardly differ from values obtained earlier by other researchers. (author)

  5. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  6. Derecho penal, cyberbullying y otras formas de acoso (no sexual en el ciberespacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miró Llinares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las redes sociales, en particular, e internet en general, constituyen hoy en día un nuevo ámbito de desarrollo personal, un nuevo espacio vital en el que cada individuo pasa varias horas al día, se comunica con otros, crea relaciones, y en el que, por tanto, también se cometen ataques contra bienes individuales como el honor, la libertad, la intimidad o la propia dignidad personal. En el presente trabajo se analiza la respuesta del ordenamiento penal español a las distintas formas de acoso no sexual a menores realizado en el ciberespacio. A partir de la descripción y conceptualización de fenómenos como el cyberbullying, o los actos individuales de online harassment, se analiza la concreta incardinación de las distintas modalidades de acoso, continuado o no, a menores, en los diferentes tipos de la parte especial. Al no existir un precepto penal que regule expresamente la mayoría de estas conductas, y pese a haberse convertido el tipo básico de los delitos contra la integridad moral en el delito de referencia para los tribunales, son varios (amenazas, coacciones, injurias, etc. los tipos penales que pueden aplicarse en conductas de acoso, generalmente entre iguales, que, como se verá por el amplísimo repertorio jurisprudencial, están comenzando a proliferar en el ciberespacio.

  7. De víctimas a victimarios: sobre la racionalidad mediática-penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchado, Mauricio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] En el presente trabajo nos proponemos, como objetivo general, indagar sobre las construcciones mediáticas en torno a la figura del “individuo peligroso” en el discurso de la prensa gráfica local, tomando como caso de análisis el Diario La Capital de Rosario. Para ello, procuraremos describir un procedimiento discursivo singular en el relato mediático a raíz de los resultados de nuestro trabajo de campo: la víctima de un delito, en caso de tener antecedentes penales, será configurado como victimario. Operación discursiva que cristaliza una de las tantas manifestaciones de una racionalidad mediática-penal neoliberal donde por una parte, se condena justificando la muerte de la víctima por pertenecer a un sector social que no merece vivir y por otro, construye la figura de una víctima que pronto será victimario de si-mismo. [en] In this paper we propose, as a general objective, inquiring about media constructions around the figure of the “dangerous individual” in the discoruse of local press media, taking the case of the newspaper La Capital of Rosario. For that, we will describe a singular process: if a victim of crime have criminal records, will be configured as a victimizer. Discursive operation that cristalice one of the many manifestations of a neo-liberal-penal-media rationality where on the one hand, condemn justifying the death of the victim for belong to a social sector that does not deserve to live and on the other, builds the victim figure that will be soon a victimizer of himself.

  8. The convict’s family as a participant in his penal resocialisation, readaptation and social reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Machel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the elements of penal social rehabilitation procedure is maintaining social ties with criminal’s families. The family bonds of criminal, maintained at an appropriate level, provide the basis for social re-processing, and for safeguarding criminals, freed conditionally or at the end of their sentences, from reoffending. Maintaining proper social ties between inmates and their families is essential for the proper process of penal reintegration and its end effect. The social bonds of prisoners can be classified according to the length of the sentence and depend on the type of sentence. If there is no family relationship (e.g. when someone is serving a sentence for an offense against their family it is not possible to use it in the social rehabilitation process. Weak familial bonds can be reconstructed and treated as one of the process’s important objectives. A strong familial bond can and should be used to support and strengthen that process. The family bond is felt somewhat differently by women (the issue is concern for children, fear of abandonment by life partners, etc. than by men. However, with regard to both categories of convicts, it plays an important role in the process of their rehabilitation and social re-adjustment, and helps prevent stigma. The recommended way of using good family relationships and rebuilding poor ties in penal work was applied with a positive effect for 20 months in a measured social rehabilitation experiment devised by the author, organised and implemented in a prison in Gdańsk-Przeróbka until the introduction of martial law in Poland in 1981. It was very positively evaluated by J. Rejman in his book entitled Change in the Polish penitentiary system – constraints and opportunities, published in 2013. The system operated throughout the entire prison facility and, as noted, was effective both in resocialisation and rehabilitation.

  9. Hungarian contribution to the Global Soil Organic Carbon Map (GSOC17) using advanced machine learning algorithms and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2017-04-01

    GSOC17 proposals, as well as to the development of global soil information system under GSP Pillar 4 on soil data and information. However, we elaborated our adherent code (created in R software environment) in such a way that it can be improved, specified and applied for further uses. Hence, it opens the door to create countrywide map(s) with higher grid resolution for SOC (or other soil related properties) using the advanced methodology, as well as to contribute and support the SOC (or other soil) related country level decision making. Our paper will present the soil mapping methodology itself, the resulted GSOC17@HU map, some of our conclusions drawn from the experiences and their effects on the further uses. Acknowledgement: Our work was supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA, Grant No. K105167).

  10. Problems of causality in environmental penal law. The relevance of causality problems on the environmental sector from the view of penal law. Kausalitaetsprobleme im Umweltstrafrecht. Die strafrechtliche Relevanz der Schwierigkeiten naturwissenschaftlicher Kausalfeststellung im Umweltbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine-Cosack, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 'classic' elements of an offence against human health or property are not applicable in environmental law, owing to problems of causality. The new environmental penal law therefore focuses on the 'capability' of any act to damage human health, animal health, vegetation, water, air, or soil. It remarks doubtful whether this approach is more efficient. Further, there is still the problem of assessing damage. The book discusses causality problems in environmental penal law. Causality in a given case is discussed from the view of general causality laws and problems of proof. Other possible causes of damage must be excluded. The author discusses: Interdependences between scientific and penal causality, the problems of successful and potential offences, the relationship between individual and universal objects of legal protection, and procedural issues (e.g. the binding effect of experts' opinions on a given subject). (orig./HSCH).

  11. "As Long as You Work Hard, You Can Achieve Your Goals" : Hungarian Immigrants on the American Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Kolozsvari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants to the United States frequently perceive America as the land of endless opportunities and prosperity, and this perception is very frequently a propelling force in the decision for immigration. Through 20 in-depth interviews with middle-class Hungarians who live in the United States I will discuss how immigration to the United States has influenced the perceptions of these Hungarians of opportunities in the United States. I will also highlight how reasons for immigration and perceptions of the American Dream vary by gender.

  12. BIOÉTICA, TRASPLANTE DE ÓRGANOS Y DERECHO PENAL EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda M. Guerra García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los lineamientos del Derecho Penal que trascienden los conceptos de trasplantes de órganos y las implicaciones Bioéticas de los mismos. Del mismo modo se establecen algunos de los principales criterios relacionados con el debate bioético en torno al problema de la Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, problemas relacionados con temas como la Muerte Encefálica, el consentimiento informado, Justicia y Distribución, los Xenotrasplantes y la Clonación Embrionaria entre otros.

  13. Violencia de género en la familia: perspectiva jurídico penal

    OpenAIRE

    José Julio Nares Hernández; Dulce Gloria Martínez García; Ricardo Colín García

    2015-01-01

    Se analizan desde una perspectiva garantista la Constitución Federal y los tratados internacionales que obligan al Estado a tutelar penalmente el derecho humano de la mujer a una vida libre de violencia en el hogar. Se concluye que para cumplir con este deber es ineludible la creación legislativa de tipo penal que sancione la violencia familiar asociada a la violencia de género. Esta acción legislativa sería parte de una nueva política criminológica dedicada específicamente a la prevención, s...

  14. Acusación Pública e Instrucción del Procedimiento Penal

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Rodríguez, Adriano Jacinto

    2015-01-01

    El Ministerio Fiscal es un elemento esencial dentro de nuestro ordenamiento jurídico. Sin embargo carece de un papel claro dentro de nuestro esquema de justicia penal. Por otro lado, el Juez de Instrucción no cumple adecuadamente con su papel de garante dentro de nuestro sistema precisamente por su doble papel de garante e investigador. Por tanto es necesario un cambio que sitúe a cada sujeto en el lugar que le corresponde para tener un procedimiento más garantista en el que cada uno cumpla c...

  15. Elastic SCAD as a novel penalization method for SVM classification tasks in high-dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Natalia; Toedt, Grischa; Lichter, Peter; Benner, Axel

    2011-05-09

    Classification and variable selection play an important role in knowledge discovery in high-dimensional data. Although Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms are among the most powerful classification and prediction methods with a wide range of scientific applications, the SVM does not include automatic feature selection and therefore a number of feature selection procedures have been developed. Regularisation approaches extend SVM to a feature selection method in a flexible way using penalty functions like LASSO, SCAD and Elastic Net.We propose a novel penalty function for SVM classification tasks, Elastic SCAD, a combination of SCAD and ridge penalties which overcomes the limitations of each penalty alone.Since SVM models are extremely sensitive to the choice of tuning parameters, we adopted an interval search algorithm, which in comparison to a fixed grid search finds rapidly and more precisely a global optimal solution. Feature selection methods with combined penalties (Elastic Net and Elastic SCAD SVMs) are more robust to a change of the model complexity than methods using single penalties. Our simulation study showed that Elastic SCAD SVM outperformed LASSO (L1) and SCAD SVMs. Moreover, Elastic SCAD SVM provided sparser classifiers in terms of median number of features selected than Elastic Net SVM and often better predicted than Elastic Net in terms of misclassification error.Finally, we applied the penalization methods described above on four publicly available breast cancer data sets. Elastic SCAD SVM was the only method providing robust classifiers in sparse and non-sparse situations. The proposed Elastic SCAD SVM algorithm provides the advantages of the SCAD penalty and at the same time avoids sparsity limitations for non-sparse data. We were first to demonstrate that the integration of the interval search algorithm and penalized SVM classification techniques provides fast solutions on the optimization of tuning parameters.The penalized SVM

  16. La protección del bienestar animal a través del Derecho Penal

    OpenAIRE

    Hava García, Esther

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza la influencia que los movimientos animalistas están teniendo en el reconocimiento de un estándar de protección a los animales en el ordenamiento jurídico. Tras exponer las principales normas que regulan el bienestar animal en el Derecho europeo y en el Derecho administrativo español, así como la evolución que en los últimos años ha experimentado la tutela penal de los animales, se trata de concretar el bien jurídico protegido tanto en el delito d...

  17. Nicaragua en proceso de creación de Código Procesal Penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Barrientos Pellecer

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available En la elaboración de un Código Procesal Penal, Nicaragua puede hacer acopio de toda la experiencia regional, para avanzar a la sencillez y simplificación de formas y etapas procesales, mediante procedimientos ágiles que no impliquen grandes inversiones, y se apliquen de manera gradual, sin afectar los derechos del imputado, la víctima y la sociedad. También cuenta el país con los recursos humanos suficientes y calificados para elaborar una legislación capaz de enriquecer el desarrollo latinoamericano del sistema acusatorio.

  18. Modern environmental penal law in the light of the jurisdiction - review and tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, R.

    1992-01-01

    The jurisdiction in modern environmental penal law has gone beyond just adopting the ecological tenets of the legislature: it has farthered their development, thus contributing substantially to an ecologically oriented understanding of the offences of water pollution and ecologically harmful waste disposal. This orientation has made prosecution more efficient and through its preventive effects has increased ecological awareness. A good example within the sphere of public interest are communal plant operators. In other areas such as private business and private households the preventive effect is not yet as apparent, but this will probably change in the course of time. (orig.) [de

  19. Elementos de la soberanía y del tribunal penal internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Scalquette, Rodrigo Arnoni

    2007-01-01

    Com o título de Elementos da Soberania e do Tribunal Penal Internacional procuramos demonstrar a ligação e pontos conflitantes entre o poder soberano e a Corte Internacional Criminal. No capítulo I, abordamos o conceito de soberania e seu enfoque de concepção política, realizado por Jean Bodin. Vimos o Estado-Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes e a soberania inalienável e indivisível de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A relação entre Umberto Campagnolo e seu professor, Hans Kelsen, também foi abordada, nota...

  20. La implantación del Sistema Penal Acusatorio en Colombia: Un estudio multidisciplinario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Reyes A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El Acto Legislativo No. 03 del 19 de diciembre de 2002 modificó la Constitución de 1991 y estableció el Sistema Penal Acusatorio en Colombia. Este es, tal vez, el cambio más complejo sufrido en la administración de justicia durante la última década. La implantación del nuevo sistema implicaba modificaciones de fondo en la rama judicial, la defensoría penal pública, la fiscalía general de la nación y los órganos de policía judicial. Para diseñar el detalle del proceso de cambio, la Comisión Interinstitucional para la Implantación del Sistema Penal Acusatorio abrió un concurso público que fue adjudicado a la Universidad de los Andes en unión temporal con el Instituto Ser de Investigación. Este artículo presenta un escueto recuento de la forma en que se desarrolló este trabajo multidisciplinario dirigido desde el Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial. / On December 19th 2002 the accusatory system was formally introduced in the Colombian Constitution. This is, perhaps, the most complex change that our judicial system has undergone in the last decade. The implementation of the new criminal system implied a profound change in several institutions: a the criminal courts, b the general prosecution office; c the national defense office; and d all other state agencies that support criminal investigations. In order to design this transition the Comisión Interinstitucional para la Implantación del Sistema Penal Acusatorio (a governmental Commission responsible for the implementation of the accusatory system open up a bidding. Uniandes in a temporal Union with the Instituto SER de Investigación, won this call for tenders. This paper briefly describes the way this multidisciplinary effort was done under the direction of the industrial engineering department.

  1. Tutela penal de la vida humana y política criminal. Aborto y eutanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, María Angélica

    2015-01-01

    Al ser la vida humana el derecho fundamental más importante, su tutela penal se ha llevado a cabo históricamente y en la actualidad, con mayor o menor intensidad, en todos los ordenamientos jurídicos del mundo. Dentro de la protección del derecho a la vida, mediante la tipificación del delito de homicidio y de asesinato, con sus distintas modalidades, nos encontramos con dos figuras jurídicas controvertidas por estar estrechamente vinculadas con la moral y, consiguientemente, por tener mucha ...

  2. Aproximación al estudio de la criminalidad y el derecho penal ambiental peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available   El presente estudio pretende esbozar algunos criterio u orientaciones para una aproximación crítica en relación con las actuales prácticas sociales que afectan o transgreden gravemente un conjunto de valores ambientales, valores pasibles de ser tutelados desde nuestro sistema de control penal. En ese sentido, se postula la necesidad de formular un modelo de análisis sistémico que integre los diferentes componentes que guardan relación con el fenómeno de la criminalidad contemporánea, en su variante ambiental.

  3. Credibility of psychological and psychiatric skilled procedures made to offended minors within penal procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Baide, Fátima P; Fernández Calvo, Miguel E

    2007-01-01

    Como parte de la implementación del sistema adversarial al proceso penal costarricense y la inminente eliminación del Consejo Médico Forense, se hace necesario que los psiquiatras y psicólogos forenses conozcan cuales son los nuevos retos a los que se enfrentaran al presentarse a debate y ser cuestionados, en cuanto a la realización de las pericias practicadas a personas menores de edad en delitos de Agresión Sexual. Es importante conocer el sistema de acreditación de peritos y las críticas m...

  4. La responsabilidad del Contador Público en empresas imputadas por delitos tipificados en la Ley Penal Tributaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rossana Greco; Oscar Nedel

    2013-01-01

    El objeto de estudio del presente trabajo es la responsabilidad del contador público en su actuación como auditor externo de estados contables, en el marco de la ley penal tributaria y previsional, teniendo en cuenta la modificación de la ley 24.769 introducida por la ley 26.735 (BO: 28.12.2011) que incorpora el concepto de responsabilidad empresarial, aceptando como sujeto no solo a la persona física, sino que también a la persona jurídica. La metodología utilizada se basó en la revisión doc...

  5. Repensando la libertad de expresión desde el abordaje al art. 213 del Código Penal argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matalone, Noelia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo intenta presentar abordajes críticos sobre el delito tipificado en el art. 213 del Código Penal. En tal temperamento, se contrapone el tipo penal de apología del delito con los derechos individuales de las personas, en particular, la libertad de expresión. En este sentido, la autora formula una propuesta de derogación de la norma, como consecuencia de los fundamentos y efectos de esta norma, todo ello en orden a preservar, por sobre los intereses que puedan sostener este tipo de prohibición, la pluralidad de voces en la sociedad. Para ello, apela al sentido de la tolerancia social y a los principios de razonalibidad y de necesidad del sistema penal al momento de investigar y perseguir este tipo de casos.

  6. Aporía de la política criminal del exhibicionismo penal en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jair García Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como fin ulterior, esgrimir las líneas esenciales de la política criminal de exhibicionismo penal contra los presuntos responsables de la comisión de delitos, circunstancia que vulnera el esquema garantista del sistema penal mexicano adoptado a través de la reforma constitucional de 2008 y degrada el constructo social del Estado Democrático de Derecho , robustecido mediante la reforma constitucional en materia de derechos humanos de 2011. A lo larg o de los siguientes apartados, se esgrime un estudio sobre los derechos fundamentales lesionados por la práctica estatal del exhibicionismo penal, hecho que ha significado violaciones tanto al debido proceso legal como a la dignidad y honor de los gobernad os quienes deberían ser los principales sujetos de protección del Estado mexicano.

  7. Tratamiento de la delincuencia organizada en España: en particular, tras la reforma penal del 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis De la Cuesta Arzamendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La reforma operada por la Ley Orgánica 5/2010 en el Código Penal español ha supuesto, en relación con la delincuencia organizada, una completa reestructuración de los tipos penales relativos a las organizaciones y grupos criminales, con lo que se supera la insatisfactoria situación anterior de ausencia de un concepto penal de organización criminal, que aparece ya legalmente establecido. No pocos son los problemas técnicos que suscita la nueva regulación, tanto en lo que se refiere a la extensión de los tipos penales como por el solapamiento de estos con otras modalidades delictivas y actos punibles (v. gr., los delitos de asociación ilícita, que continúan vigentes. Los defectos de técnica legislativa se extienden, igualmente, al campo de las sanciones y demás consecuencias jurídicas del delito, respecto de las que se confirma la tendencia endurecedora del ordenamiento jurídico español, el cual también se caracteriza por la progresiva introducción de regulaciones procesales específicas, dirigidas a favorecer la persecución penal. La presente contribución pasa revista a esta nueva situación normativa, que se analiza en la línea de la dogmática jurídico-penal, al poner de relieve sus contradicciones e insuficiencias desde el prisma políticocriminal en un área de la mayor importancia criminológica y para la seguridad de los ciudadanos.

  8. Grammatical Gender Trouble and Hungarian Gender[lessness]. Part I: Comparative Linguistic Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvári

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define linguistic gender[lessness], with particular reference in the latter part of the article to Hungarian, and to show why it is a feminist issue. I will discuss the [socio]linguistics of linguistic gender in three types of languages, those, like German and the Romance languages, among others, which possess grammatical gender, languages such as English, with only pronominal gender (sometimes misnamed ‘natural gender’, and languages such as Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric languages, as well as many other languages in the world, such as Turkish and Chinese, which have no linguistic or pronomial gender, but, like all languages, can make lexical gender distinctions. While in a narrow linguistic sense linguistic gender can be said to be afunctional, this does not take into account the ideological ramifications in gendered languages of the “leakage” between gender and sex[ism], while at the same time so-called genderless languages can express societal sexist assumptions linguistically through, for example, lexical gender, semantic derogation of women, and naming conventions. Thus, both languages with overt grammatical gender and those with gender-related asymmetries of a more covert nature show language to represent traditional cultural expectations, illustrating that linguistic gender is a feminist issue.

  9. Creating a “Vocabulary of Rupture” Following WWII Sexual Violence in Hungarian Women Writers’ Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Schwartz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Schwartz analyses three narratives by Hungarian women writers— Alaine Polcz’s Asszony a fronton (A Wartime Memoir, Judit Kováts’s Megtagadva [‘Denied’] and Fanni Gyarmati Miklósné Radnóti’s Napló [‘Diary’]—with regard to their representation of the rapes of Hungarian women by Red Army soldiers during WWII. Schwartz examines to what degree the rapes are positioned as a “rupture” in the first person narrators’ lives, and how the three narratives offer elements of a “vocabulary of rupture” (Butalia 2000 so as to work through traumatic memory and thus come to terms with both the short-term and long-term effects of trauma and social stigmatization. Even though the narratives eschew a black-and-white portrayal of the rapists, an orientalist stereotying is nonetheless present. Schwartz concludes with Avery Gordon that these and other rape narratives can be read as part of the process of settling the ghosts of a still unresolved past violence yet beyond simple ideological binaries along the victim-perpetrator line.

  10. The regulatory role of the Hungarian Geological Survey in the closure of Mecsek uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamor, T.; Gombor, L.

    2001-01-01

    Under Mining Act XLIII established in 1993, the Hungarian Geological Survey was given a wide range of authority related to the environment, mining, nuclear and general constructions. In implementing these task the Survey will be supported by the well established Geological Institute of Hungary and the Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute. The Survey's role in the nuclear field includes the licensing of plans and reports on geologically related research to any nuclear facilities. The Hungarian Geological Survey is also co-authority on matters related to the establishment, construction, modification and closure, environmental protection of nuclear facilities in general and all matter related to uranium mining. The Survey's regulatory activity in radioactive waste management follows the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Tourism 62/1997 which is based on the Atomic Energy Act CXVI of 1966. These regulations were prepared in harmony with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency conventions, standards and guides and those of other countries. Case histories on the applications of these regulations to the closure of Mecsek uranium mine and the operation of the research laboratory tunnel for long-lived, high level radioactive waste are presented here. (author)

  11. Hungarian gyerekestül vs. gyerekkel (‘with [the] kid’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Fekete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the various uses of the Hungarian -stUl (‘together with’, ‘along with’ sociative (associative suffix (later in the paper referred to simply as “sociative”, as in the example gyerekestül. As opposed to its comitative-instrumental suffix -vAl (‘with’, the -stUl suffix cannot express instrumentality. The paper aims to demonstrate the difference in use between the comitative-instrumental -vAl and the -stUl suffix in contemporary Hungarian, and to illuminate the historical emergence of the suffix as well as its grammatical status. It is argued on the basis of Antal (1960 and Kiefer (2003 that -stUl cannot be analyzed as an inflectional case suffix (such as the -vAl suffix, or -ed, -ing, or the plural in English, but should rather be categorized as a derivational suffix (such as English dis-, re-, in-, -ance, -able, -ish, -like, etc.. The paper also tries to shed light on the hypothetical cognitive psychological distinction between the comitative and the sociative. It is suggested that the sociative is based on the amalgam image schema which is derived from the LINK schema of the comitative. The ironical reading of the sociative is an implicature in the sense of Grice (1989 and Sperber and Wilson (1987. Psycholinguistic experimentation is proposed to follow up on the mental representation of the sociative.

  12. [Work schedules in the Hungarian health care system and the sleep quality of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Pakai, Annamária; Kívés, Zsuzsanna; Szunomár, Szilvia; Regős, Annamária; Oláh, András

    2016-03-06

    One way of ensuring the continuity of health care is the shift work, which is burdensome and it can lead to sleep disturbances. The aim of the study was to measure the typical Hungarian nursing shift systems in hospitals, to analyse the causes of irregular work schedules, and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 236 head nurses filled out the national online survey, and 217 nurses in clinics of the University of Pécs filled the Hungarian version of Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire. The head nurses provided data of 8697 nurses's schedules. 51.89% of nurses work in flexible shift system. 1944 employees work in regular shift system, most of them in the following order: 12-hour day shift and 12-hour night shift, followed by a one- or two-day rest. Where there is no system of shifts, the most frequent causes are the needs of nurses and the nurse shortage. Nurses who are working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses who are working in flexible and regular shift system (p = 0.044). It would be helpful if the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  13. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in Hungarian Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Bodoki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. Our aim was to identify a correlation between VDR polymorphisms or haplotypes and myositis. We studied VDR-BsmI, VDR-ApaI, VDR-TaqI, and VDR-FokI polymorphisms and haplotypes in 89 Hungarian poly-/dermatomyositis patients (69 females and 93 controls (52 females. We did not obtain any significant differences for VDR-FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI genotypes and allele frequencies between patients with myositis and healthy individuals. There was no association of VDR polymorphisms with clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in myositis patients. Men with myositis had a significantly different distribution of BB, Bb, and bb genotypes than female patients, control male individuals, and the entire control group. Distribution of TT, Tt, and tt genotypes was significantly different in males than in females in patient group. According to four-marker haplotype prevalence, frequencies of sixteen possible haplotypes showed significant differences between patient and control groups. The three most frequent haplotypes in patients were the fbAt, FBaT, and fbAT. Our findings may reveal that there is a significant association: Bb and Tt genotypes can be associated with myositis in the Hungarian population we studied. We underline the importance of our result in the estimated prevalence of four-marker haplotypes.

  14. Language Play and Linguistic Hybridity as Current Trends in Hungarian Word-Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Benczes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian literature on word-formation typically focuses on rule-governed descriptions of regular and typologically relevant patterns. However, there are plenty of other word-formation trends that usually go unnoticed in mainstream morphological research. The present paper will focus on two such trends: 1 rhyming and alliterating compounds such as pannon puma ‘Pannonian puma’ (a euphemism for Hungary’s economic performance, on the analogy of Asian tiger; and 2 creative prefixations such as meggugliz (‘to google’ and felhájpol (‘to hype’. Although these are seemingly two quite different patterns, in fact they share two significant traits. On the one hand, they are demonstrations of the fact that language users make full use of the creative possibilities in language and routinely play with sounds and meanings. On the other hand, they are also indications of the influential role of English in present-day Hungarian word-formation. It seems that language users are not only aware of the possibilities that this interference can result in but are also able to exploit these consciously. This crossing of language boundaries is becoming increasingly inevitable with the global spread of English.

  15. Teachers’ implicit beliefs about the students of the Roma and the Hungarian cultural group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Bojana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the beliefs about cultural, ethnic or racial diversities among students are vital for the effective work of teachers. Hence, in this paper, we aim at determining: (1 in what ways the teachers perceive and interpret the school situation that includes the students from a minority cultural group (Roma and Hungarian, i.e. what kinds of beliefs they express in the given situation; (2 whether there are any differences in the way in which teachers, within the same stadium of development of intercultural sensitivity, perceive the given situation. The sample included class teachers whose score on the Intercultural Development Inventory pointed to intercultural sensitivity in accordance with the stadium of minimisation (seventeen teachers and polarisation (six teachers. The Critical Incident Technique (CI was applied in the study, in two parallel forms: with a Hungarian and a Roma student. Thematic analysis yielded seven topics, four of which occurred only in the CI with a Roma student: Disrespecting school as an institution, Abuse of minority status, Separation from the class and Typical children’s motives. The comparison of teachers’ statements depending on the CI version and the developmental phase indicate that the specificity of a cultural group in question affects the expressed beliefs about this group, regardless of teachers’ intercultural sensitivity.

  16. Propaganda Versus Genocide: The United States War Refugee Board and the Hungarian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Halász

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1944 the Second World War had been raging for more than four long years, with the death toll among soldiers and civilians alike climbing. European Jews constituted a special group of the victims, a fact that leaders of the Allied powers failed to acknowledge. In January 1944 a major revision of previous government policy was brought about in the United States with the establishment of the War Refugee Board in Washington, promising an American commitment to the rescue of European war refugees, including Jews. In March of the same year the situation for Jewish inhabitants in Hungary turned dire as German forces occupied the country. For lack of any other instantly applicable way to influence Hungarian developments, leaders of the new American War Refugee Board decided to launch a propaganda campaign to fight the Nazis and their accomplices. This paper will examine the motivations of American policy makers in focusing on political propaganda measures during the first phase of the Hungarian Holocaust (March–July 1944, and it will describe the logic and workings of the campaign as a means to save Hungary’s Jewry in the last full year of the Second World War.

  17. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes.

  18. Non-blind walls: sensing (and seeing through decoration in hungarian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy HOWARD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions of the role and interpretation of art integrated into the fabric of educational institutions are explored here. Using six case studies taken from Hungarian schools built between 1900 and 1931 issues are raised concerning the ‘curricular’ and aesthetic nature of the works. Particular attention is drawn to how the art may be perceived, especially when, as in the two principal cases, it is created for schools for the visually impaired. To this end the selection of media ranges from stained glass to mosaic via painting, carving and ironwork, and the locations range from assembly halls to facades via staircases and doors. The political, religious and secular signs expressed are analysed against the backdrop of educational reform and social rupture. The generic subject of ‘the decorated school’ has been much debated since the introduction of mass education, yet there exists precious little academic study. The choice of the Hungarian examples acknowledges the wealth of material and diversity of ways in which artwork in schools can be read or, better, ‘sensed’. Ultimately, caution is advised.

  19. The coexistence of Swabians and Hungarians in a village in near Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sólyom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes the contact hypothesis of social psychology as its starting point and examines a Swabian-Hungarian ethnic village as an example.The contact hypothesis suggests that contact or interaction between members of different groups under the right circumstances diminishes prejudice and hostility between those groups and mitigates stereotyping and discrimination. However, for this effect to occur, certain conditions must be met: the parties should be of equal status, have a common goal, cooperate, receive the support of authorities and maintain a personal relationship, since this is the only way long- term success can be achieved. Pursuit of mutual assimilation, physical proximity and time can also help people to accept each other and adopt coexistence. These conditions have been met in the case of the Swabian and Hungarian ethnic groups living in the village of Dunabogdány. Social and political processes, Catholicism and the fact that the German language has been added to the local school curriculum have also contributed to the successful outcome.

  20. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth rate figures in the 1960s, the populists’ views of the 1930s resurfaced in public discourse in the 1960s and 1970s and up to the present day. The concern about the increasing trend of single-child families in rural settlements as well as in urban areas appeared in the various works of Hungarian writers and journalists throughout the previous century. The present paper intends to focus on the intellectual background to the public debates on the population issue, outlining the accounts of the interwar ‘village explorers’ briefly, and the way they are related to the pre-Second World War populist movement. Finally the reappearance of the debates between populists and non-populists of the 1970s is discussed, a debate that is still continuing.

  1. [Autoimmune pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos; Czakó, László

    2015-02-22

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare disease which can even mimic pancreatic tumor, however, unlike the latter, it requires not surgical but conservative management. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 29 relevant clinical questions in 4 topics were defined (Basics; Diagnosis; Differential diagnostics; Therapy). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinial questions were accepted with almost total (more than 95%) agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based autoimmune pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide very important and helpful data for tuition of autoimmune pancreatitis, for everyday practice and for establishing proper finance. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  2. HOW DOES THE JEREMIE PROGRAM AFFECT THE HUNGARIAN VENTURE CAPITAL MARKET?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Széles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 2007-2013 EU's budgetary period a new program was introduced for SMEs. JEREMIE - Joint European Resources for Micro to medium Enterprises - offers to EU Member States and regions the possibility to invest some of their EU structural funds allocations in revolving funds and so recycle financial resources in order to enhance and accelerate investments in enterprises. The market for venture capital and private equity is relatively small in Central and Eastern Europe, but has matured during the past decade and yields are better than in Western Europe. In 2009 Hungary got the first notification for the venture capital part of the JEREMIE program, and started to organize the channel to distribute this renewable source for Hungarian start-up and innovative (from micro to medium enterprises. 2010 was the first year of the “JEREMIE venture capital funds” in Hungary. There are no tangible results yet, but a snapshot could be taken about how this program affects the Hungarian venture capital market.

  3. Researching the Spatial Aspects of the Romani-Hungarian coexistence by the Means of Mental Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Bogárdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our study we shall analyse the spatial aspects of the Romani-Hungarian coexistence based on the field research results of the village seminar workshop organized by the Szent István University (Gödöllő. We present two different situations: one segregate analysis using Baks as an example, where we find a settlement considered as majority, and a Romani segregate; and provincial ghettoization using Átány as an example, where due to a previous site termination the Romani people dispersed over the whole village area. We conducted surveys in both settlements in order to find out the local residents’ opinion on the development of the value of the inhabited area. Our goal on the one hand is to present the method of ethnicity analysis by mental mapping in rural areas, and on the other in addition to offering methodological practices is to point out a few important takeaways of the spatiality of the Romani-Hungarian coexistence based on our actual experiences.

  4. Development of banking in Herzegovina during the Austro-Hungarian occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the development of cash offices and banks in Herzegovina under Austro-Hungarian occupation. Priority in development was given to its economy and banks by Austro-Hungarian authorities, especially banks with foreign capital in relation to the founding and development of domestic banks in Herzegovina. New authorities were especially active in building military barracks, headquarters, fixing the roads and other infrastructure, which increased employment, cash flow and the need to found banks. On the other hand, by repressive measures and divisions according to religion and nationality, occupying authorities were holding back a faster economic, cultural and sports development of the domestic population. At the initiative of the Serbian and other nations in Herzegovina, they founded economic, banking, cultural and sports organizations and associations which were actively involved in the country's development. That was the foundation for the development of a network of banking organizations and cash offices, which contributed to larger cash flow and the advancement of economy, crafts, trade and other activities in the country.

  5. The voice of the Martians Hungarian scientists who shaped the 20th century in the West

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, George

    2001-01-01

    Budapest, in the period of the two decades around World War I, proved to be an exceptionally fertile breeding ground for scientific talent. It is left for historians of science to discover and explain the conditions that catalyzed the emergence of so many brilliant individuals" - Stanislav Ulam has written, himself a member of the Manhattan Project to make the atomic bomb. Fritz Houtermans, who first recognized the nuclear origin of stellar power, has offered an "explanation": "The galaxy of scientific minds, that worked on the liberation of nuclear power, were really visitors from Mars. They found it difficult to speak English without an alien accent, which would give them away, and therefore they chose to pretend to be Hungarian, whose inability to speak any language but Hungarian without a foreign accent is well known. It would be hard to check the above statement, because Hungary is so far away" In the 1990s the world commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the first man-made nuclear chain reaction in Ch...

  6. Assessing and Promoting the Level of Safeguards Culture in Hungarian Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanka, Z.; Vincze, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hungarian SSAC has introduced a comprehensive domestic safeguards verification system consisting of regular comprehensive SSAC verifications in the whole lifetime of the facilities. The main goals of the comprehensive verification system are: (i) to assess the facility's safeguards system compliance with the relevant national legislation and recommendations, (ii) to assess the activities of the facility aimed at maintaining and further developing its safeguards system, and, (iii) to revise validity of data and information previously provided by the facility subject to safeguards licencing procedures. The maintenance level of the system as well as the available knowledge on the possible needs for change reflect the top management's awareness of this issue and is a good indicator of the present and future effectiveness of the facility level safeguards system and the level of safeguards culture. The structure, preparation, conduction, documentation and initial experiences of the comprehensive safeguards verification system is introduced in the paper. Additionally, HAEA has just introduced a safeguards indexing method for evaluation the safeguards culture at Hungarian nuclear facilities. The main goal of indexing method and the evaluated parameters are also shown in the paper. (author)

  7. Qualifying lighting remodelling in a Hungarian city based on light pollution effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolláth, Z.; Dömény, A.; Kolláth, K.; Nagy, B.

    2016-01-01

    The public lighting system has been remodelled in several Hungarian cities. In some cases the majority of the old luminaries were fitted with high pressure sodium lamps and they were replaced with white LED lighting with a typical correlated colour temperature of about 4500 K. Therefore, these remodelling works provide a testbed for methods in measurements and modelling. We measured the luminance of the light domes of selected cities by DSLR photometry before and after the remodelling. Thanks to the full cut off design of the new lighting fixtures we obtained a slight decrease even in the blue part of the sky dome spectra of a tested city. However, we have to note that this positive change is the result of the bad geometry (large ULR) of the previous lighting system. Based on Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations we provide a comparison of different indicators that can be used to qualify the remodelling, and to predict the possible changes in light pollution. - Highlights: • Changes of the skydome of a Hungarian city were measured after lighting remodelling. • The observations were compared with Monte Carlo radiation transfer calculations. • Photopic measurements demonstrate improvement in light pollution after remodelling. • However, blue rich lighting increases the risk of negative ecological effects.

  8. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  9. A Penalized Semialgebraic Deflation ICA Algorithm for the Efficient Extraction of Interictal Epileptic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Hanna; Albera, Laurent; Comon, Pierre; Kachenoura, Amar; Merlet, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    As a noninvasive technique, electroencephalography (EEG) is commonly used to monitor the brain signals of patients with epilepsy such as the interictal epileptic spikes. However, the recorded data are often corrupted by artifacts originating, for example, from muscle activities, which may have much higher amplitudes than the interictal epileptic signals of interest. To remove these artifacts, a number of independent component analysis (ICA) techniques were successfully applied. In this paper, we propose a new deflation ICA algorithm, called penalized semialgebraic unitary deflation (P-SAUD) algorithm, that improves upon classical ICA methods by leading to a considerably reduced computational complexity at equivalent performance. This is achieved by employing a penalized semialgebraic extraction scheme, which permits us to identify the epileptic components of interest (interictal spikes) first and obviates the need of extracting subsequent components. The proposed method is evaluated on physiologically plausible simulated EEG data and actual measurements of three patients. The results are compared to those of several popular ICA algorithms as well as second-order blind source separation methods, demonstrating that P-SAUD extracts the epileptic spikes with the same accuracy as the best ICA methods, but reduces the computational complexity by a factor of 10 for 32-channel recordings. This superior computational efficiency is of particular interest considering the increasing use of high-resolution EEG recordings, whose analysis requires algorithms with low computational cost.

  10. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating penalized logistic regression models to predict Heat-Related Electric grid stress days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramer, L. M.; Rounds, J.; Burleyson, C. D.; Fortin, D.; Hathaway, J.; Rice, J.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the conditions associated with stress on the electricity grid is important in the development of contingency plans for maintaining reliability during periods when the grid is stressed. In this paper, heat-related grid stress and the relationship with weather conditions is examined using data from the eastern United States. Penalized logistic regression models were developed and applied to predict stress on the electric grid using weather data. The inclusion of other weather variables, such as precipitation, in addition to temperature improved model performance. Several candidate models and datasets were examined. A penalized logistic regression model fit at the operation-zone level was found to provide predictive value and interpretability. Additionally, the importance of different weather variables observed at different time scales were examined. Maximum temperature and precipitation were identified as important across all zones while the importance of other weather variables was zone specific. The methods presented in this work are extensible to other regions and can be used to aid in planning and development of the electrical grid.

  12. Integrative Analysis of High-throughput Cancer Studies with Contrasted Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingjie; Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Yong; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2015-01-01

    In cancer studies with high-throughput genetic and genomic measurements, integrative analysis provides a way to effectively pool and analyze heterogeneous raw data from multiple independent studies and outperforms “classic” meta-analysis and single-dataset analysis. When marker selection is of interest, the genetic basis of multiple datasets can be described using the homogeneity model or the heterogeneity model. In this study, we consider marker selection under the heterogeneity model, which includes the homogeneity model as a special case and can be more flexible. Penalization methods have been developed in the literature for marker selection. This study advances from the published ones by introducing the contrast penalties, which can accommodate the within- and across-dataset structures of covariates/regression coefficients and, by doing so, further improve marker selection performance. Specifically, we develop a penalization method that accommodates the across-dataset structures by smoothing over regression coefficients. An effective iterative algorithm, which calls an inner coordinate descent iteration, is developed. Simulation shows that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark with more accurate marker identification. The analysis of breast cancer and lung cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements shows that the proposed method identifies genes different from those using the benchmark and has better prediction performance. PMID:24395534

  13. PIRPLE: a penalized-likelihood framework for incorporation of prior images in CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stayman, J Webster; Dang, Hao; Ding, Yifu; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of diagnosis and treatment, it is common for a number of imaging studies to be acquired. Such imaging sequences can provide substantial patient-specific prior knowledge about the anatomy that can be incorporated into a prior-image-based tomographic reconstruction for improved image quality and better dose utilization. We present a general methodology using a model-based reconstruction approach including formulations of the measurement noise that also integrates prior images. This penalized-likelihood technique adopts a sparsity enforcing penalty that incorporates prior information yet allows for change between the current reconstruction and the prior image. Moreover, since prior images are generally not registered with the current image volume, we present a modified model-based approach that seeks a joint registration of the prior image in addition to the reconstruction of projection data. We demonstrate that the combined prior-image- and model-based technique outperforms methods that ignore the prior data or lack a noise model. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of registration for prior-image-based reconstruction methods and show that the prior-image-registered penalized-likelihood estimation (PIRPLE) approach can maintain a high level of image quality in the presence of noisy and undersampled projection data. (paper)

  14. Penalized Nonlinear Least Squares Estimation of Time-Varying Parameters in Ordinary Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Jiguo; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Wu, Hulin

    2012-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in biomedical research and other scientific areas to model complex dynamic systems. It is an important statistical problem to estimate parameters in ODEs from noisy observations. In this article we propose a method for estimating the time-varying coefficients in an ODE. Our method is a variation of the nonlinear least squares where penalized splines are used to model the functional parameters and the ODE solutions are approximated also using splines. We resort to the implicit function theorem to deal with the nonlinear least squares objective function that is only defined implicitly. The proposed penalized nonlinear least squares method is applied to estimate a HIV dynamic model from a real dataset. Monte Carlo simulations show that the new method can provide much more accurate estimates of functional parameters than the existing two-step local polynomial method which relies on estimation of the derivatives of the state function. Supplemental materials for the article are available online.

  15. Differentiation of penal policy in the light of positive paradigm and its confronting challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Shamlou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Positivism is an empirical approach for understanding of human communication and phenomena, which raised firstly French famous thinker “August Comte”. Human and social Sciences were under domination of positive thought for a long time. In criminal law inter alia Italian famous thinkers sought to analyses the crime problem with a positive approach. However, some of their point of view such as born criminal thesis was not respected by penal scientist, but was affected by their idea was assumed that experiment is the only scientific criterion and basis of criminal law. They thought that value judgments and normative sentences have not scientific character. The positivist approach, developed the abstract thought of classic criminal fundamentalism which was before this, the dominate approach of penal policy towards of objectivism at etiology of crime on the basis of separation of objectivism and subjectivism. But it faced with insufficiency in both methodology and efficiency, so that somebody talked about returning punity approach of classic fundamentalism

  16. La función de la costumbre en el Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Trinidad Núñez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ocupa de la función de la costumbre como fundamento de la punibilidad en el Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional (ECPI. En primer lugar, estudia su lugar en el sistema de fuentes del Estatuto. Luego, investiga específicamente si en el ECPI existe una prohibición de fundamentar la punibilidad en el derecho consuetudinario. Para ello, estudia el alcance del principio de legalidad en el sistema de la CPI y su relación con el derecho consuetudinario. A continuación, analiza si el ECPI admite el recurso al derecho consuetudinario como criterio de interpretación, incluso en perjuicio del imputado. Finalmente, se ocupa de la propuesta de fundamentar la punibilidad directamente en normas consuetudinarias cuando la CPI ejerce jurisdicción sobre crímenes cometidos en el territorio y por nacionales de Estados no parte. El trabajo concluye que aunque el ECPI reconoce a la costumbre una función más marginal que la que tuvo en las experiencias precedentes de derecho internacional penal, existen, sin embargo, ámbitos en los que esta fuente puede tener significado y ello incluso en relación con la fundamentación de la punibilidad.

  17. La expectativa razonable de intimidad y el derecho fundamental a la intimidad en el proceso penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Julián Guerrero Peralta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto tiene el objetivo de ilustrar históricamente la formación de la categoría “expectativa razonable de intimidad” en el derecho procesal penal norteamericano y observar las dificultades de su adaptación a los sistemas continentales que cuentan con la intimidad como un derecho fundamental constitucional. En tal sentido, el artículo muestra la evolución de las discusiones jurisprudenciales de Norteamérica, empezando por la decisión Katz de los años 60’s hasta las modernas interpretaciones que extienden el modelo a la vigilancia aérea de objetos y personas. Frente a la legislación colombiana resulta importante destacar que la noción tiene otras perspectivas interesantes, que inscriben la problemática en una nueva realidad del derecho probatorio que se relaciona con la tecnología del control aplicada a las pruebas penales.

  18. Modelo Operativo de gestión de redes sociales para el sistema penal adolescente, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Andradre-Gyllen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo analizamos los principales resultados del diseño, implementación y evaluación de un modelo operativo de gestión de redes sociales, utilizando la metodología de investigación acción participante (IAP en programas del sistema de responsabilidad penal adolescente, en la Región de Los Ríos, Chile. Los resultados evidencian cambios favorables en la gestión y en la estructura de la red de actores de los programas participantes. El modelo operativo de gestión de redes sociales nos permitió superar las actuales restricciones de articulación del sistema de responsabilidad penal adolescente, dando énfasis a la capacidad de los actores del sistema para desarrollar nuevas formas de coordinación territorial que favorezcan la integración social de los individuos jóvenes infractores de ley.

  19. Construcciones sociales sobre mujeres desde el discurso jurídico en sentencias penales sobre infanticidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Gastiazoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El infanticidio como figura penal se suprime del Código Penal Argentino en 1994, para ser una figura de homicidio agravado por el vínculo con prisión o reclusión perpetua. Diez años después de su última derogación, el caso Romina Tejerina en Jujuy generó una serie de cuestionamientos respecto de su penalización. Otro caso, que tomó estado público fue el de Eli Díaz en la ciudad de Villa Dolores en Córdoba, juzgada en el 2006, siendo (en contraposición al caso Tejerina absuelta por una mayoría compuesta solo de ciudadanos comunes (jurados. En el presente trabajo se analiza la construcción y la producción que desde el discurso jurídico se hace de las diferentes mujeres en los casos de infanticidio. A su vez, estas imágenes se comparan con las representaciones que los legisladores tuvieron en el debate del Congreso del año 2010 cuando se intentó reponer la figura. La sujeción del género centrada en la buena o mala madre, mujer, esposa, en intersección con otras dimensiones de clase social, y edad, se categoriza en el discurso de los tribunales de acuerdo a imaginarios sociales que sostienen una identidad normativa sobre estas mujeres.

  20. Improving multisensor estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation via conditional bias-penalized optimal estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomgeun; Seo, Dong-Jun; Noh, Seong Jin; Prat, Olivier P.; Nelson, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    A new technique for merging radar precipitation estimates and rain gauge data is developed and evaluated to improve multisensor quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), in particular, of heavy-to-extreme precipitation. Unlike the conventional cokriging methods which are susceptible to conditional bias (CB), the proposed technique, referred to herein as conditional bias-penalized cokriging (CBPCK), explicitly minimizes Type-II CB for improved quantitative estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation. CBPCK is a bivariate version of extended conditional bias-penalized kriging (ECBPK) developed for gauge-only analysis. To evaluate CBPCK, cross validation and visual examination are carried out using multi-year hourly radar and gauge data in the North Central Texas region in which CBPCK is compared with the variant of the ordinary cokriging (OCK) algorithm used operationally in the National Weather Service Multisensor Precipitation Estimator. The results show that CBPCK significantly reduces Type-II CB for estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation, and that the margin of improvement over OCK is larger in areas of higher fractional coverage (FC) of precipitation. When FC > 0.9 and hourly gauge precipitation is > 60 mm, the reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) by CBPCK over radar-only (RO) is about 12 mm while the reduction in RMSE by OCK over RO is about 7 mm. CBPCK may be used in real-time analysis or in reanalysis of multisensor precipitation for which accurate estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation is of particular importance.

  1. Features of financial and economic support of penal system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk G.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current economic and social problems in the country are displayed on all areas of functioning of the state. In particular, the absence of stable development of industrial sector and high level of shadowing cause a negative impact on revenues to state and local budgets. The penal system of Ukraine, according to the current legislation, is financed by the general and special funds of the State Budget of Ukraine; but taking into account the general trends of the limited cost of maintenance of this type of objects arises the question about optimization of the level of funding of the whole system. The formation of the required financing system institutions of the penal system is an urgent task today because the level of the financial costs of prisoners in the country is relatively very low and does not meet international standards. The world experience of financial support of institutions of punishment shows the feasibility of shifting costs to the state on the special funds that are generated due to the implementation of productive activities through the employment of prisoners themselves who produce competitive products with its further sale. That question of optimal sources of financing of the penitentiary system is solved in this article.

  2. Survival associated pathway identification with group Lp penalized global AUC maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhenqiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been demonstrated that genes in a cell do not act independently. They interact with one another to complete certain biological processes or to implement certain molecular functions. How to incorporate biological pathways or functional groups into the model and identify survival associated gene pathways is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative gradient based method for survival analysis with group Lp penalized global AUC summary maximization. Unlike LASSO, Lp (p 1. We first extend Lp for individual gene identification to group Lp penalty for pathway selection, and then develop a novel iterative gradient algorithm for penalized global AUC summary maximization (IGGAUCS. This method incorporates the genetic pathways into global AUC summary maximization and identifies survival associated pathways instead of individual genes. The tuning parameters are determined using 10-fold cross validation with training data only. The prediction performance is evaluated using test data. We apply the proposed method to survival outcome analysis with gene expression profile and identify multiple pathways simultaneously. Experimental results with simulation and gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed procedures can be used for identifying important biological pathways that are related to survival phenotype and for building a parsimonious model for predicting the survival times.

  3. Modelo Operativo de gestión de redes sociales para el sistema penal adolescente, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Andradre-Gyllen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo analizamos los principales resultados del diseño, implementación y evaluación de un modelo operativo de gestión de redes sociales, utilizando la metodología de investigación acción participante (IAP en programas del sistema de responsabilidad penal adolescente, en la Región de Los Ríos, Chile. Los resultados evidencian cambios favorables en la gestión y en la estructura de la red de actores de los programas participantes. El modelo operativo de gestión de redes sociales nos permitió superar las actuales restricciones de articulación del sistema de responsabilidad penal adolescente, dando énfasis a la capacidad de los actores del sistema para desarrollar nuevas formas de coordinación territorial que favorezcan la integración social de los individuos jóvenes infractores de ley.

  4. Efectos de la sentencia penal absolutoria en un proceso de responsabilidad civil por el ejercicio de actividades peligrosas

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Arango, Agustín; Velásquez Hoyos, Sebastián

    2006-01-01

    En el siguiente trabajo pretendemos mostrar los efectos de la sentencia penal absolutoria en un proceso de responsabilidad civil por el ejercicio de actividades peligrosas. La importancia del tema radica en que “el hecho punible origina no solo consecuencias de orden penal, sino también civil, por lo cual – en principio- toda persona que realice una conducta típica, antijurídica y culpable, trátese de imputable o inimputable, debe restituir las cosas al estado en que se encontraban en el mome...

  5. Juridical-penal aspects of the cesium-137 accident; Implicacoes juridico-penais do acidente com o cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carolina Chaves [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The study of the juridical-penal aspects of the Cesium-137 accident, has, as a base, the police inquiry and the penal lawsuit concerning to the episode. Due to the lack of a law which typified activities related with radioisotope material as crime, the responsible were sentenced according to the penalties of body injury crime and homicide. Among the 10 investigated people, only 5 were condemned by the Judiciary and only 4 serve the sentence. (author) 5 refs.; e-mail: mariliag at netline.com.br

  6. Limitaciones del Derecho Probatorio contemporáneo en los delitos masivos de conocimiento de los tribunales penales internacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ospina, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    El Derecho Penal Internacional como conjunto de normas que regulan la responsabilidad penal individual por violaciones graves al derecho internacional, implica, en el ámbito de la CPI, el juicio y la condena, en caso de proceder, por la comisión de crímenes de genocidio, lesa humanidad, guerra y agresión. La práctica del referido tribunal, establecido para juzgar las situaciones más graves y trascendentes, implica en algunos casos la investigación y juicio de delitos de carácter masivo, es de...

  7. El Derecho Penal del enemigo en las reformas constitucionales/The criminal law of the enemy in the constitutional reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martínez Bastida (México

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la historia se ha realizado un proceso sincrético criminalizador de conductas e individuos; la política criminal incorpora esta tecnología diferenciadora entre ciudadanos y enemigos que se materializa en el Derecho Penal del Enemigo. Este Derecho de emergencias irrumpe en nuestra vida jurídica, de manera manifiesta, mediante la reforma constitucional del 18 de junio de 2008 mostrando la crisis en que se encuentra actualmente el paradigma garantista y pasando por alto que el Derecho Penal del Enemigo se constituye en el riesgo para los Derechos Fundamentales del gobernado.

  8. The rise and fall of supermax: how the US prison model and ultra-punitive penal policy travelled to Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Julie de Dardel et Ola Söderström

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the US anti narcotic program ‘Plan Colombia’ during the first decade of the 21st century special agents of the US Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) took position in the heart of the Colombian penitentiary administration. Their task was to lead a profound reform of the sector based on the US ultra punitive penal regime and its ‘supermax’ housing units. Based on extensive fieldwork with prison architects inmates and other actors in the penal systems of the US and Colombia this p...

  9. The Rise and Fall of Supermax: How the US Prison Model and Ultra Punitive Penal Policy Travelled to Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    de Dardel, Julie; Söderström, Ola

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the US anti-narcotic program, ‘Plan Colombia’, during the first decade of the 21st century, special agents of the US Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) took position in the heart of the Colombian penitentiary administration. Their task was to lead a profound reform of the sector, based on the US ultra-punitive penal regime and its ‘supermax’ housing units. Based on extensive fieldwork with prison architects, inmates and other actors in the penal systems of the US and Colombia, ...

  10. Derecho Constitucional, Derechos Humanos y Código Penal en Nicaragua. Una interrelación necesaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Chamorro Fletes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo código penal de Nicaragua se ubica dentro del engranaje del ordenamiento jurídico de nuestro país. Todo el ordenamiento se subordina a la Constitución y, por lo tanto, los principios, derechos y obligaciones que en ella se prescriben, informan y limitan las disposiciones de dicho código. Solo en ese caso estaremos en presencia de un Estado democrático de derecho y contaremos con un código penal democrático.

  11. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  12. INFRACŢIUNI CE IMPLICĂ SEMNE DE EXTREMISM RELIGIOS: ASPECTE DE DREPT PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexe JEFLEA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available În articol sunt abordate unele probleme ce ţin de clarificarea conceptului de extremism religios în legea penală astăzi în vigoare a Republicii Moldova. Cercetarea legii penale în materia identificării şi interpretării extremismului religios începe cu definirea acestui fenomen. S-a precizat că la baza extremismului religios se poziţionează stârnirea discordiei religioase. Autorii au demonstrat că sintagma „extremism religios”, fiind o noţiune criminologică şi politică, nu se regăseşte în nicio normă a Codului penal din Republica Moldova. S-a constatat că mai multe componenţe de infrac­ţiuni implică, într-un fel sau altul, religia. Nu toate aceste fapte sunt de conotaţie extremistă, însă toate au la bază ura sau intoleranţa religioasă ca motiv special al săvârşirii mai multor fapte penale ce implică semne de extremism religios. Totodată, s-a arătat că legea penală a Republicii Moldova nu acoperă toate formele de extremism, lista acestora fiind de fapt mai largă. Prin urmare, autorii au demonstrat necesitatea introducerii unor prevederi noi care ar incrimina şi alte fapte cu caracter extremist.Criminal offences which involve signs of religious extremism: aspects of criminal lawThis scientific research is dedicated to some questions which are linked to the clarification of the concept of religious extremism in the light of criminal legislation of theRepublicofMoldova. Exploration of the criminal legislation in the matter of identification and interpretation of the religious extremism begins from the definition of this phenomenon. There have been summarized that namely the provocation of religious disagreement constitutes the basis on the religious extremism. The authors have demonstrated that the expression “religious extremism” being a criminological and political concept, is absent in the modern criminal legislation of theRepublicofMoldova. There have been observed that a lot of criminal

  13. Delito de Bigamia e Intervención Mínima: ¿Es el Matrimonio, Todavía, un Bien Jurídico-Penal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Faustino Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de los delitos contra el matrimonio, y del delito de bigamia como figura central, que no es compatible con la función actual del sistema penal, criticándose los bienes que deberían ser objeto de protección por otras áreas del derecho. Se trata de la política criminal sobre la planificación familiar, criticándose la intervención del Estado en los asuntos familiares. Se destacan los principios de intervención mínima, fragmentaridad, subsidiariedad y proporcionalidade. Se analiza el tipo penal del art. 235 del Código Penal, criticándose dicha penalización, dado que es un tipo penal subsidiario, perfectamente prescindible por el ordenamiento jurídico-penal.

  14. Assessing Hungary’s Stance on Migration and Asylum in Light of the European and Hungarian Migration Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhász Krisztina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union and its member states are facing one of their biggest challenges in recent years due to the surge in migration. This crisis saw more than a million migrants and refugees cross into Europe in 2015. Solutions and policies have been advanced at both the European and national levels, keeping in mind that migration policy is an area of shared competence under Article 4 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. On 13 May 2015, the EU adopted the European Agenda on Migration, which set out immediate and medium-term actions designed to tackle the crisis more effectively. Earlier, in October 2013, the Hungarian government adopted its own migration strategy. The first part of this study provides some insight into the aims and measures contained in the European and Hungarian migration strategies. In the second part, I focus on the steps taken by the Hungarian government regarding asylum policy and crisis management. I conclude that the actions and communications of the Hungarian government are contrary to both these strategic documents.

  15. Look Behind the (Animated Pictures. Notes on the Role of the Aesopic Language in Hungarian Animated Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Zoltán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores a certain tendency of Hungarian animated film related to a strategy of constructing meaning. The so-called Aesopic language, which can be found in Hungarian animated film, is interested in creating ambiguity, hidden meanings, especially against oppressive political systems. The paper approaches the development of the Aesopic language in Hungarian animated film based on two factors. The first one examines the characteristics of the animated film in general, focusing on the double sense of the animated image. The second one is a historical approach, considering how the Communist regime affected artistic freedom, and how the Aesopic language became general in Central and Eastern Europe during the decades of Communism. After delineating the concept, the essay continues with interpretations of Hungarian animated films produced by the famous Pannonia Film Studio as examples of the Aesopic language. The paper distinguishes between a less and a more direct variant of creating ambiguity, depending on whether the animated films lack or contain explicit references to the Communist system. The group o|f the less direct variant includes Rondino, Changing Times and The Fly, among the examples of the more direct variant we can find Storv about N, Our Holidays and Mind the Steps!.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the general health questionnaire-12 and Rosenberg self-esteem scale in Hungarian and Slovak early adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, M.; Nagyova, I.; Katreniakova, Z.; Geckova, A.M.; Orosova, O.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) were evaluated in samples of Hungarian and Slovak early adolescents. The principal component analyses support the two-factor solution for GHQ-12 with subscales

  17. The Mythical Power of the Dual River-System of the Carpathian Basin: The Notion of a Hungarian Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Keményfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyula Prinz is responsible for the notion of “Magyar Mezopotámia” [Hungarian Mesopotamia]. The natural basis for this idea is that Hungarian culture developed on the surface of an alluvial plains area. This sort of natural environment was the precondition of great civilizations based on agriculture. In other words, the intrinsic Duna-Tisza [Danubius-Tibiscus] river structure, which is similar to that of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, would elevate Hungary to the status of a mesopotamic country. This is how the central Hungarian area could become the distributing core of culture and how this culture could be radiated towards the neighboring peoples who also lived together with us in the Carpathian Basin. Our “cultural power” therefore “elevated” the cultural level of other peoples who lived with us on the edges of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, the end, or the borderline, of the highbrow “core culture” is located where the territory populated by Hungarians ends, or where the plains area shifts into the Carpathian Mountains.

  18. Dramatic effect on Selenium concentration in blood serum due to the difference between the Hungarian and Indian dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Lahiri, S.; Andrasi, D.; Kovacs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The importance of Selenium as trace element in animals, as well as in humans is well known. The deficiency of Selenium was observed in case of several heavy or fatal clinical events such as high infant mortality, premature, malformations and even prostate cancer. Hungary is in the top of their worldwide statistic with parallel of the low concentration of Selenium in soil as well as in food. The direct correlation can explain in Venezuela, where the prostate cancer is 'unknown disease'. The concentration of Selenium in India is higher than the worldwide level. Under the scientific bilateral cooperation 'Speciation dependent studies on physicochemical behavior of some elements in trace scale in natural and synthetic system' the Selenium was determined in human blood serum from the group of Hungarian and group of Indian patients. The samples were given in same time from each group. The main goal of the study was explain the effect of the traditional dietary habit for the level of Selenium. Therefore the samples were taken from the visiting scientist just arrived to the host institute as well as from the host scientists too. After 2 weeks stay the sampling was repeated, when the guest scientists eat the same food as the host scientists. The measurements were done in Thermo-2 ICP-MS from blood-serum separated by centrifuge. The results are summarized in Table 1. Dramatic effect was found for the level of Selenium in blood serum. As it was expected the Hungarian samples showed low concentration of Selenium in starting of the visit, as well as the high concentration was found in Indian sample, comparing to the Hungarian sample. After two weeks the Hungarian sample showed much higher concentration, however it was still less, than in Indian sample. Similar effect was found during the visit the Indian scientists in Hungary, however their Selenium concentration decreased not so spectacular due to the Selenium 'store' in body. The general

  19. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  20. THE BIOGRAPHY OF JÁNOS NAGYVÁTHY - THE FIRST HUNGARIAN AGRICULTURAL WRITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor LUKÁCS

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available 210 years ago Nagyváthy János published the first systematic, agricultural trade book, called ’Diligent Farmers’ in Hungarian in Pest. This outstanding person of our agricultural history was born on 19th January 1755, in Miskolc. After leaving the Protestant secondary grammar school in Miskolc, he studied law and theology in Sárospatak. At the Protestant secondary grammar school in Losonc he became a ’Subrector’, that is, the the teacher of poetry. Due to a serious illness affecting his eyes he left this job and went to Pest for medical treatment. During the long therapy he visited the lectures of Mitterpacher Lajos, who was the most excellent theoratical agricultural specialist in the country. In 1782 he took military service for four years, in the Duka cavalry regiment, where he reached the rank of a captain and he was garrisoned in Belgium, Italy and Austria. As a commisariat officer he got to know the more developed agriculture of Europe, and it was at that time that he studied agricultural technical literature. In 1786 he had a relapse of his eye disease therefore he left the army and tried to find a cure in Vienna. Here he got acquainted with Jordán Péter, director of the domains of the court, who employed him as an assistant. During the time he spent in the domain of Vöslau, he could completed his academic knowledge with practical experience. In 1788 he moved to Pest where he made friends with Kazinczy, Batsányi, Verseghy and Széchenyi Ferenc, who were the representatives of the most progressive group of nobility. He became the member of the ’Magnanamitas’ Masonic Lodge. In 179o he published four pamphlets anonymously called ’ The change of religion’, ’Civil prediction from the stars’, ’The red friend’, ’Hours of joy in the life of a true Hungarian patriot’. In 1791 he published ’The diligent farmer’ in two volumes on 1213 pages recommending it to the ’sweaty Hungarian farmer’. In this book he wrote about all his

  1. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  2. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  3. Identification of two novel mutations in the SLC45A2 gene in a Hungarian pedigree affected by unusual OCA type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Lola; Fábos, Beáta; Farkas, Katalin; Sulák, Adrienn; Tripolszki, Kornélia; Széll, Márta; Nagy, Nikoletta

    2017-03-15

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogenic group of pigmentation abnormalities. OCA type IV (OCA4, OMIM 606574) develops due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the solute carrier family 45, member 2 (SLC45A2) gene. This gene encodes a membrane-associated transport protein, which regulates tyrosinase activity and, thus, melanin content by changing melanosomal pH and disrupting the incorporation of copper into tyrosinase. Here we report two Hungarian siblings affected by an unusual OCA4 phenotype. After genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of the patients, the coding regions of the SLC45A2 gene were sequenced. In silico tools were applied to identify the functional impact of the newly detected mutations. Direct sequencing of the SLC45A2 gene revealed two novel, heterozygous mutations, one missense (c.1226G > A, p.Gly409Asp) and one nonsense (c.1459C > T, p.Gln437*), which were present in both patients, suggesting the mutations were compound heterozygous. In silico tools suggest that these variations are disease causing mutations. The newly identified mutations may affect the transmembrane domains of the protein, and could impair transport function, resulting in decreases in both melanosomal pH and tyrosinase activity. Our study provides expands on the mutation spectrum of the SLC45A2 gene and the genetic background of OCA4.

  4. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  5. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  6. Hungarian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamar, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the licensing milestones of Paks NPP reactor protection refurbishment project starting from the simple task specification of high-tech I and C installation and up to acceptance tests and issuing license which are scheduled for 1999. Specific emphasis are put on the structure of the reactor protection refurbishment project licensing documentation

  7. Age-specific distributions from coarse-count data: An epidemiological and demographic application of a penalized composite link model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Silvia

    as realizations of a Poisson process. The latent unobserved distribution with higher resolution is assumed to be smooth and can be estimated from the composite data via maximum likelihood. In the second study the penalized composite link model for ungrouping is compared to alternative well known ungrouping...

  8. Smoothing of X-ray diffraction data and K (alpha)2 elimination using penalized likelihood and the composite link model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooi, J.J.; Van der Pers, N.M.; Hendrikx, R.W.A.; Delhez, R.; Bottger, A.J.; Eilers, P.H.C.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction scans consist of series of counts; these numbers obey Poisson distributions with varying expected values. These scans are often smoothed and the K2 component is removed. This article proposes a framework in which both issues are treated. Penalized likelihood estimation is used to

  9. Policía Local como Policía Judicial. Intervenciones relevantes en el proceso penal

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Martínez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Ponencia comparativa de las funciones más habituales de la práctica forense en que la Policía Local actúa en funciones de Policía Judicial. Ponencia presentada en el curso "La reforma del Código Penal", Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Policía Local, 17-18 diciembre 2012. Ayuntamiento de Alicante

  10. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  11. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  12. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  13. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  14. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  15. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  16. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  17. Spatial development of sports facilities in Hungarian cities of county rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Gábor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more attention is devoted to the spatial development of the location of sports facilities within cities. The main aim of our paper is to observe the most important spatial characteristics of their development in Hungarian cities of county rank. In these cities three main periods of development of sports facilities can be observed. Larger sports facilities were constructed especially on the edge of cities or in the suburbs, while in the case of smaller facilities a bigger role was played by locations within the city boundaries. As regards the factors influencing the location of sports facilities, the most important role was played by the location of available land areas, besides accessibility and from the mid-1960s links to existing facilities can be mentioned as well.

  18. Properties of Hungarian oak(quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Hilandar Monastery forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zdravko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study results of the basic physical and strength properties of Hungarian oak (Quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Kakovo Monastery forests of Hilandar Monastery in Greece. Wood properties were analyzed in detail, as an indispensable proof of wood quality and its use for joinery, interiors and wooden floors. The basic physical properties of wood (moisture content at the time of tree felling, density and volume porosity and the basic strength properties (compressive strength, bending strength and module of elasticity were researched. The results are presented in Tables and in Diagrams with statistical parameters and compared to the literature data. The correlation of the study properties of wood was also analyzed.

  19. Representation of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers and Refugee Affairs In Hungarian Dailies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla VICSEK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available How does the press in Hungary write about refugees, asylum-seekers and refugee affairs? We sought to answer this question. Articles appearing in 2005 and 2006 in two leading national Hungarian dailies were examined with quantitative content analysis. The results show that the articles analyzed often treat refugee affairs as an “official” political matter. The high proportion of legislation and political positions conveys the image that refugee affairs are a state or intergovernmental matter, an “official”, legal, political issue rather than for example a humanitarian question. Most of the articles published in both papers write about problems and conflicts in connection with refugee affairs. The negative media image has different significance for different topics. We argue that the question of refugee affairs is a topic where the image shown by the media is of great relevance: the media can be a more important source of information on this subject than personal contacts.

  20. [Gens Rulandica-Hungarian connections of a famous German family of physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, G

    2000-01-01

    The Ruland family of German origin played an important role both in Hungarian and European medical history. Being a rather numerous family, and moreover, due to their habit of preferring to give the same first names to their children and because they worked in a relatively short period (ca. between 1550 and 1650), researchers often confuse one Ruland with the other. The present paper based on source-criticism, makes successful attempts to put the genealogy in order, presenting the history of the family, giving detailed biographies of each single Ruland and bringing together the bibliography of their works as well. As a result of her efforts the author puts a new light on the biographical data of the best known Ruland, namely of John David and at the same time she revisits the activity of John Ruland, who lived and worked in Hungary.