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Sample records for hungarian penal code

  1. [Analysis of selected changes in project the penal code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Jarosław; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Szram, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the authors have analysed selected proposals of changes in the project of amendments in the penal code. Special attention has been placed on problem of the legality of the "comma" in art. 156 of the penal code. In this matter also a review of court jurisdiction has been made.

  2. Recent changes in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code relevant to medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Swapnil S; Kumar, Lavlesh; Mestri, S C

    2010-02-01

    Some sections in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code have a direct binding on medical practitioner. With changing times, few of them have been revised and these changes are presented in this article.

  3. Indian NGO challenges penal code prohibition of "unnatural offences".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne

    2002-07-01

    On 7 December 2001, the Naz Foundation (India) Trust (NFIT), a non-governmental organization based in New Delhi, filed a petition in the Delhi High Court to repeal the "unnatural offences" section of the Indian Penal Code that criminalizes men who have sex with men.

  4. Amendment of the Provisions of the Dutch Penal Code Pertaining to the Exercise of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    By the Act of 27 November 2013, the Dutch Government has radically changed the provisions of its Penal Code pertaining to the exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction (Arts. 4-8 Penal Code). The new rules take effect from July 1st 2014 onwards. Most importantly, the Act widens the scope of the

  5. Statutory disclosure in article 280 of the Turkish Penal Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büken, Erhan; Sahinoğlu, Serap; Büken, Nüket Ornek

    2006-11-01

    A new Turkish Penal Code came into effect on 1 June 2005. Article 280 concerns health care workers' failure to report a crime. This article removes the responsibility from health care workers to maintain confidentiality, but also removes patients' right to confidentiality. It provides for up to one year of imprisonment for a health care worker who, while on duty, finds an indication that a crime might have been committed by a patient and who does not inform the responsible authorities about it. This forces the health care worker to divulge the patient's confidential information. A patient who thinks he or she may be accused of a crime may therefore not seek medical help, which is the universal right of every person. The article is therefore contrary to medical ethics, oaths taken by physicians and nurses, and the understanding of patient confidentiality.

  6. The Penal Code (Amendment) Act 1989 (Act A727), 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In 1989, Malaysia amended its penal code to provide that inducing an abortion is not an offense if the procedure is performed by a registered medical practitioner who has determined that continuation of the pregnancy would risk the life of the woman or damage her mental or physical health. Additional amendments include a legal description of the conditions which constitute the act of rape. Among these conditions is intercourse with or without consent with a woman under the age of 16. Malaysia fails to recognize rape within a marriage unless the woman is protected from her husband by judicial decree or is living separately from her husband according to Muslim custom. Rape is punishable by imprisonment for a term of 5-20 years and by whipping.

  7. Medical Liability in the Light of New Hungarian Civil Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The number of medical malpractice lawsuits filed each year in Hungary has considerably increased since the change of regime. The judicial decisions and practices on determining and awarding wrongful damages recoverable for medical malpractices in the Hungarian civil law have been developing for decades.

  8. Medical Liability in the Light of New Hungarian Civil Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The number of medical malpractice lawsuits filed each year in Hungary has considerably increased since the change of regime. The judicial decisions and practices on determining and awarding wrongful damages recoverable for medical malpractices in the Hungarian civil law have been developing for decades.

  9. VIOLATING THE RIGHT TO PRIVATE LIFE UNDER THE NEW ROMANIAN PENAL CODE

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    MIRELA GORUNESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is more and more difficult nowadays that the private life of a person to remain out of other people intervention and out of public visibility. In this context, the present paper is concentrated of a new criminalization included in The New Romanian Penal Code - article 226 from this law. It is about the violation to the right to private life which is for the first time incriminated by the Romanian Penal Code.

  10. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  11. [Some consequences of the application of the new Swiss penal code on legal psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jacques; Gravier, Bruno

    2007-09-19

    The new text of the Swiss penal code, which entered into effect at the beginning of 2007, has many incidences on the practice of the psychiatrists realizing expertises in the penal field or engaged in the application of legal measures imposing a treatment. The most notable consequences of this text are, on the one hand, a new definition of the concept of penal irresponsibility which is not necessarily any more related to a psychiatric diagnosis and, on the other hand, a new definition of legal constraints that justice can take to prevent new punishable acts and which appreciably modifies the place of the psychiatrists in the questions binding psychiatric care and social control.

  12. Criminal responsibility of psychophats in the light of the brazilian penal code Imputabilidade penal dos psicopatas à luz do Código Penal Brasileiro

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    Fernanda Eloise Schmidt Ferreira Feguri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Justifies the choice of this theme, before the controversy in doctrine and jurisprudence as to what a psychopath is being treated before Article 26 § only the Brazilian Penal Code, and also explain why such barbaric crimes in recidivism. At the beginning of the work, it was demonstrated the concept of crime and the disciplines surrounding the criminal law, followed by the concept of a psychopathic, through history, reporting some types of personality disorders, and when and how did the origin of psychopath and how people who had this disorder were treated in the antiquity. It was then explained what becomes of guilt, how takes its implementation, trought accountability, nonimputability sticking to Article 26 § only the Brazilian Penal Code. Following this came to the institute’s measure of security, through its concept, assumptions and methods, including the application, term and termination of dangerousness being still emphasize on expert opinions. Finally, it was reported that cases involving people who have a type of personality disorder, being described succinctly as they are seen to justice and society. Concluding the study, one comes to the conclusion that such individuals are not they amnestied of the semi-liability provided for in Article 26, § only the Brazilian Penal Code Article 26, § only the Brazilian Penal Code. For what can be seen, with latest research is that the benefit of diminished criminal responsibility, given to those agents who do not have full mental unfair, the fact that some people can stay in jail for long as these recourse to psychiatry may be out of hospitals, if any, within three years, by the grace of the laws that protect them. Thus, endorse, this work, that the arrest or other criminal penalty is more honest, more fair, less socially discriminatory, that the sanction psychiatric.Justifica-se a escolha do presente tema, ante a polêmica na doutrina e na jurisprudência, quanto à forma que um psicopata vem

  13. [Art. 192 Polish Penal Code--lawyers comments and medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Art. 192 was enacted in the Polish Penal Code in 1997. Performance of a "medical intervention" without the patient's consent has been penalized. The binding norm is not generally acclaimed in medical circles, but lawyers seem very interested in them. In essence the regulation is clear in medical circles but teaching of lawyers has its differences. Inconsistent interpretation are concerned with objectivity of legal protection, extent of disposition of the legal norm and other determinant factors. The literature does not permit for an unambiguous and effective interpretation of this regulation. Urgent amendment of this law is necessary.

  14. Cyberprotests and the (penal) code Ciberaprotestas y código (penal)

    OpenAIRE

    Edición Activismo y Movimientos sociales

    2012-01-01

    Given the current turmoil of demonstrations and social protests that use Internet social networks as means of dissemination and organization, it seems Westerns governments are testing or trying to develop new measures of social control via modification of their legal codes. This article explores the situation of Spain in this respect, through four short interviews with communication and new media professionals: Elvira Huelbes (Journalist at Cuarto Poder), Jaime Pastor (Political Sciencies Pro...

  15. Cyberprotests and the (penal code Ciberaprotestas y código (penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edición Activismo y Movimientos sociales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the current turmoil of demonstrations and social protests that use Internet social networks as means of dissemination and organization, it seems Westerns governments are testing or trying to develop new measures of social control via modification of their legal codes. This article explores the situation of Spain in this respect, through four short interviews with communication and new media professionals: Elvira Huelbes (Journalist at Cuarto Poder, Jaime Pastor (Political Sciencies Professor in UNED, Javier de la Cueva (Lawyer specialized in ICTand Miguel Romero (Editor of Viento Sur.Las amplias y aceleradas transformaciones sociales y tecnológicas sucedidas de las últimas décadas están produciendo en la coyuntura de crisis importantes reacomodos globales en los sistemas productivos que empiezan a tener efectos políticos en la institucionalidad democrática configurada desde la posguerra europea. Parece emerger un ciclo de contestación con un sensible aumento de las movilizaciones en un número crecientes de países, en el que las redes sociales telemáticas contribuyen a un aumento de la capacidad de difusión y coordinación de unos movimientos sociales que, con su trabajo en red diversifican, repertorios de protestas y propuestas de alcance transnacional.

  16. Law No. 91, Amendment to the Penal Code, 5 September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Law replaces Article 398 of the Iraq Penal Code with the following language: "If a sound contract of marriage has been made between a perpetrator of one of the crimes mentioned in this chapter and the victim, it shall be a legal extenuating excuse for the purpose of implementing the provisions of Articles (130 and 131) of the Penal Code. If the marriage contract has been terminated by a divorce issued by the husband without a legitimate reason, or by a divorce passed by the court for such reasons related [to] a mistake or a misconduct of the husband, three years before the expiry of the sentence of the action, then, the punishment shall be reconsidered with a view to intensifying it due to a request from the public prosecution, the victim herself, or any interested person." Among the crimes mentioned in the chapter referred to in Article 398 is rape.

  17. [The concept of insanity in Danish penal and mental health codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Christensen, Mette; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2010-04-26

    The medical terms insanity and psychosis are used synonymously to describe a condition with substantial changes in the "total" personality and loss of realism. In the 10th revision of the diagnostic classification system ICD-10 (1994) the intention was to replace the term "psychosis" with "psychotic" to indicate the presence of hallucinations and delusions. However, in Danish legislation - most importantly in the penal code and the Mental Health Act - the term "insanity" is still in use. This difference has lead to diagnostic uncertainty, especially in clinical and forensic psychiatric practice.

  18. Provision 280 of the Turkish Penal Code: infringes on physician's dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgi, M Cumhur; Oguz, N Yasemin

    2010-09-01

    Every medical interference could be interpreted as an intervention into one's physical integrity and physical autonomy. This fact has brought along the necessity of determining the responsibilities of physicians, apotheosized throughout history from time to time, and to define the limits of the medical profession. The Turkish Penal Code (TPC) is the kind of legislation that imposes such limits. A revised version of the TPC has been in effect since June 1st, 2005. Ever since its enforcement, the TPC has attracted fierce criticism from several counts. However, Provision 280 is considered to be the most problematic one with regard to medical ethics. Along with several critical aspects, this provision stipulates almost a psychological violence for all health care professionals, particularly for the physicians as a matter of intervening with human dignity. The above-mentioned provision 280 needs to be annulled promptly in order to prevent physicians from remaining under psychological pressure while practicing their professions, as well as maintaining the moral values of the profession.

  19. Statement of Problem: Dangerous Desires in Orwell's 1984 and the Present Spanish Penal Code

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    Alison Hogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our construct of a dangerous subject has changed little over the past century. Dangerous subjects in Oceania, a region created by Orwell in his novel 1984 in a constant state of war, consciously or unconsciously manifest too much autonomy. Self-autonomy and agency breach established moral codes of conduct and manifest an inability to self-govern and conform i.e. discipline. What is deemed dangerous is constructed by Ingsoc, Oceania’s prevailing political philosophy; however, if considered of value to the party, time is invested and mandatory treatment is imposed to bring them into line with normative conduct. This treatment consists in stripping them of their identity and desires, which is achieved through them being rendered physically and psychologically innocuous. In the same vein, two new dangerous collectives were designated by the Spanish legislature in a reform introduced to the Penal Code in June 2010, the terrorist and sex offender. On this occasion, it is their efforts to resist this normalization onslaught that renders them dangerous. Unable to incarcerate indeterminately or execute both collectives, a new post-custodial security measure is deployed to ensure that both collectives remain socially and politically isolated. This article compares the dangerous symptomatology depicted by Orwell in 1984 with the dangerous offender constructed by the Spanish legislature in OL 5/2010, the problematization of their habits and behaviours as well as the alleged cure offered to these dangerous subjects. For Ingsoc and the Spanish legislature, the imminent danger is a threat to social and public order. Nuestra construcción de un sujeto peligroso ha cambiado poco durante el siglo pasado. Sujetos peligrosos en Oceanía, una región creada por Orwell en su novela 1984 que está en un constante estado de guerra, manifiestan demasiada autonomía de forma consciente o inconsciente. La anulación de la propia autonomía y la voluntad establecieron c

  20. Statement of Problem: Dangerous Desires in Orwell's 1984 and the Present Spanish Penal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our construct of a dangerous subject has changed little over the past century. Dangerous subjects in Oceania, a region created by Orwell in his novel 1984 in a constant state of war, consciously or unconsciously manifest too much autonomy. Self-autonomy and agency breach established moral codes of conduct and manifest an inability to self-govern and conform i.e. discipline. What is deemed dangerous is constructed by Ingsoc, Oceania’s prevailing political philosophy; however, if considered of value to the party, time is invested and mandatory treatment is imposed to bring them into line with normative conduct. This treatment consists in stripping them of their identity and desires, which is achieved through them being rendered physically and psychologically innocuous. In the same vein, two new dangerous collectives were designated by the Spanish legislature in a reform introduced to the Penal Code in June 2010, the terrorist and sex offender. On this occasion, it is their efforts to resist this normalization onslaught that renders them dangerous. Unable to incarcerate indeterminately or execute both collectives, a new post-custodial security measure is deployed to ensure that both collectives remain socially and politically isolated. This article compares the dangerous symptomatology depicted by Orwell in 1984 with the dangerous offender constructed by the Spanish legislature in OL 5/2010, the problematization of their habits and behaviours as well as the alleged cure offered to these dangerous subjects. For Ingsoc and the Spanish legislature, the imminent danger is a threat to social and public order. Nuestra construcción de un sujeto peligroso ha cambiado poco durante el siglo pasado. Sujetos peligrosos en Oceanía, una región creada por Orwell en su novela 1984 que está en un constante estado de guerra, manifiestan demasiada autonomía de forma consciente o inconsciente. La anulación de la propia autonomía y la voluntad establecieron c

  1. Decree amending and adding various provisions to the Penal Code for the Federal District with respect to local jurisdiction and to the Penal Code for the whole Republic with respect to federal jurisdiction, 29 December 1988. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Mexico's decree amending and adding various provisions to the penal code for the federal district, with respect to local jurisdiction, and to the penal code for the whole republic, with respect to federal jurisdiction, December 29, 1988, among other things, amends the penal code to strengthen provisions relating to sex crimes. Among the provisions are the following: anyone procuring or facilitating the corruption of a minor (under 18) or a person lacking capacity, by means of sexual acts, or who induces him to engage in begging, drunkenness, drug addiction, or some other vice; to form part of an unlawful association; or to commit whatever crimes will be imprisoned for 3-8 years and subjected to a fine. The sentence shall be enhanced if the minor or incapacitated person forms a habit due to repeated acts of corruption. Whoever encourages or facilitates a person's engaging in prostitution or obtains or delivers a person for the purpose of prostitution will be imprisoned for 2-9 years and fined. Pandering will be punished with imprisonment for 2-9 years and a fine. Whoever, without consent and without the purpose of achieving intercourse, performs on her a sexual act with lascivious intent, or forces her to perform it, will be sentenced to "15 days to 1 year's or to 10-40 days' community service work." If physical or moral violence is used, the penalty will be 2-7 years imprisonment. Performing the above act on a person under age 12 or on someone unable to resist increases the punishment. Whoever uses physical or moral violence to have intercourse with a person of whatever sex shall be imprisoned 8-14 years; using an object other than a penis either vaginally or anally on either a male or a female will result in imprisonment of 1-5 years. If the victim is under age 12, unable to resist, or if 2 or more persons commit the crime, an enhanced punishment will result.

  2. [The Austrian penal code and the Codex Ur-nammu--a comparison from the forensic medicine viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, O; Roll, P; Seybold, I

    1991-01-01

    A comparison between the Mesopotamian Law (Codex Ur-nammu) and the Austrian Penal Code reveals the long-sightedness of the founder of the 3rd dynasty from Ur, called Ur-nammu. It seems extremely remarkable that at those remote times (3rd Millenium B. C.) body injuries were satisfied by simple money-penalties. The Codex Ur-nammu therefore not only represents on exceedingly piece of work from the historical point of view but also from the point of view from Legal Medicine.

  3. A premodern legacy: the "easy" criminalization of homosexual acts between women in the Finnish Penal Code of 1889.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, J

    1998-01-01

    Homosexual acts between women were criminalized in Finland in the 1889 Penal Code which also criminalized men's homosexual acts for the first time explicitly in Finnish legislation. The inclusion of women in the Penal Code took place without much ado. In the article it is argued that the uncomplicated juxtaposing of men and women was due to the legacy of a cultural pattern where man and woman, as categories, were not in an all-pervasive polarity to each other, for example, in sexual subjectivity. A cultural pattern of low gender polarization was typical of preindustrial rural culture, and it can help us apprehend also certain other features in contemporary Finnish social and political life, for example, women obtaining a general franchise and eligibility for the parliament first in the world, in 1906. A modern image of "public man" and "private woman" was only making its way in Finnish society; hence, there was not much anxiety at women's entry in politics, or, for that matter, at their potential for (homo)sexual subjectivity becoming recognized publicly in criminal law.

  4. [The unitary interpretation of article 34 interjection first of the Argentinean Penal Code in forensic psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Roberto L M

    2009-01-01

    The present essay is intended to oppose to the bipartite thesis of the capacity of penal culpability ("to be able to understand the criminality of the act or to be able to direct the actions"), a unitary thesis in which it seems biopsychologically impossible to direct the behaviour towards an object that hasn't been previously understood, nor a complete divorce of action from understanding (as it results from a maximum integration of the intellective, volitive and affective spheres of a dynamic psyche).

  5. Survival of crimes of suspicion: the case of article 259 of the Argentine Penal Code

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Los “delitos de sospecha”, se encuentran plenamente vigentes pese a ser tipos manifiestamente inconstitucionales por violar los principios de inocencia, culpabilidad, lesividad, legalidad y de acto. Para demostrar tal afirmación, luego de caracterizar a esta categoría, se verifican sus elementos analizando los delitos de admisión y ofrecimiento de dádivas a funcionarios públicos del artículo 259 del Código penal argentino. The “crimes of suspicion”, are effective totally in spite...

  6. [Patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, S; Schiffer, B; Seifert, D

    2009-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the development of the number of patients with schizophrenia in detention (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia and the characterization of these patients. Patients with schizophrenia are examined, by using a standardized questionnaire answered by the attending psychiatrist or psychologist (n = 531). During the last 12 years the number of patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals has increased three times, whereas the number of patients with other diagnoses heightened only twofold. The patients with schizophrenia showed high rates of psychiatric comorbidities (substance disorders 73.9 %, personality disorders 17.2 %), previous inpatient treatments (78.3 % with a mean of 7.5 stays) and previous convictions (63.4 %). Almost half of these convictions (46.6 %) were violent offences (e. g. assault, homicide). Possible explanations for this development are discussed.

  7. RECEPTING THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPREMACY OF CONSTITUTION ON THE NEW PENAL CODE

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    Marius ANDREESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supremacy of Constitution has as main consequence the compliance of entire law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing of the observance of this principle is essential for the rule of law, is primarily an attribute of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislator to receive by texts adopted, within its content and form, the constitutional norms. Entering into force of the new criminal codes generated a significant jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court on the verification of constitutionality of some regulations in the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code. Through this study we intend to analyze the following key issues: a how were the constitutional principles and values embodied in some criminal and criminal procedural norms of the new codes; b the effects of Constitutional Court decisions in the process of constitutionalizing of the criminal law; c applying into judicial activities of the Constitutional Court decisions, particularly those through which the new Criminal Code regulations were found unconstitutional.

  8. RECEPTING THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPREMACY OF CONSTITUTION ON THE NEW PENAL CODE

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    Marius ANDREESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supremacy of Constitution has as main consequence the compliance of entire law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing of the observance of this principle is essential for the rule of law, is primarily an attribute of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislator to receive by texts adopted, within its content and form, the constitutional norms. Entering into force of the new criminal codes generated a significant jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court on the verification of constitutionality of some regulations in the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code. Through this study we intend to analyze the following key issues: a how were the constitutional principles and values embodied in some criminal and criminal procedural norms of the new codes; b the effects of Constitutional Court decisions in the process of constitutionalizing of the criminal law; c applying into judicial activities of the Constitutional Court decisions, particularly those through which the new Criminal Code regulations were found unconstitutional.

  9. [Remarks about the position of the medico-legal expert in imperative regulations in the Penal and Civil Codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.

  10. [Security measures in the penal code, in the opinions of expert psychiatrists and some problems in their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdukiewicz, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to remind expert psychiatrists, the three basic elements required for the application of security measures such as placing the convict in a psychiatric hospital. They are: 1) An act was of serious social damage, 2) the damage was committed in a state of non-liability, 3) there is a high risk of the person repeating the act of similar social damage. The fulfilment of these three is an obligation for the court to apply the security measure of placing the person in a psychiatric hospital (art. 94 section 1 of the penal code). Practice shows that experts have difficulties in these evaluations, which in turn results in faults in directing for placement withoutjust cause, or in turn-there is no directing, even though there are causes for it. There is a huge need for legal regulations on these manners, after the forensic psychiatric observation ends. The non-liable delinquent who committed an act of serious social damage is in risk of committing this act once more, whilst he is not in custody. The issue is in showing a legal basis for keeping the non-liable delinquent from such an act in a psychiatric hospital, in spite of ending the observation, until the legal sentence on the security measure is in place.

  11. 犯罪论对刑法典的形塑作用--以德国犯罪论与刑法典的关系史为线索的考察%The Structure of Crime's Shaping Effect on Penal Code:A Historical Review of the Relationship between German Penal Code and the Structure of Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江溯

    2013-01-01

      刑法典与犯罪论体系的关系是犯罪论体系论争的一个前提性问题。对此,主张“维持论”的学者提出了“刑法典对犯罪论具有制约关系”的命题。通过对德国犯罪论与刑法典关系史的考察,可以看出,无论是构成要件、违法性还是罪责,都不是德国刑法典的产物,而是德国刑法学者智慧的产物。更为重要的是,阶层犯罪论体系的这些基本概念,通过在刑法学界形成共识之后,形塑了德国刑法典的发展。我国犯罪论体系的建构不应拘泥于刑法典本身的规定,因此引入德国阶层犯罪论体系并不存在障碍。%The relationship between the penal code and the structure of crime is the prerequisite for the discussion on the structure of crime. In response to this issue,the scholars who argue for the reten-tion of the former Soviet's theory of the structure of crime have proposed that Penal Code determine the structure of crime. Through a historical analysis of the relationship between German penal codes and their theories of the structure of crime,we can see that the definition of crime,wrongdoing and culpa-bility are not the product of penal codes. On the contrary,they are the theoretical product of German criminal law scholars. More importantly,the theory of the basic structure of crime has shaped the im-provement of German penal codes. The construction of Chinese theory of the structure of crime should not be restricted to Chinas Penal Code. Therefore,there is no barrier to the introduction of German theory of the structure of crime.

  12. PENALES INTERNACIONALES

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    Daniel Ricardo Vargas Díaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal del presente estudio se enfoca en analizar las similitudes y divergencias que se presentan al interior de los tribunales penales internacionales respecto al concepto de víctima; lo anterior, en oposición a lo establecido por el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos. Una investigación de carácter cualitativo aplicada a lo largo del proyecto permitió concluir que a pesar de la interpretación que concede cada tribunal al concepto de víctima, estos se esfuerzan por conceder una posición garantista a esta dentro del proceso penal es- tablecido, que se acerca a lo instituido por la jurisprudencia de cortes regionales de derechos humanos.

  13. [Selected legal aspects of the protection of the unborn child in the light of the draft amendment to the Polish Penal Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Moniak; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2015-10-01

    Criminal Law Codification Commission, acting at the Ministry of Justice prepared proposals for amendments in the Polish Penal Code, related to offenses against life and health that were presented to the public in 2013. The draft provides for the protection of the child in the prenatal stage, introducing a new category of the entity to be protected, which is "unborn child" and "unborn child able to live outside the mother's body". These regulations provide for mothers criminal liability and responsibility of the medical staff (a doctor), as well as the child's father to the extent in which he is obliged to take steps aimed at rescuing the fetus. It is doctor's responsibility to show particular care for human health and life since a doctor has special medical knowledge and that is regulated by art. 30 of the act on professions of doctor and dentist. The proposed rule changes were not brought before the legislature in the current term of the Sejm (2011-2015), but due to the development of medicine, including obstetrical ultrasound, which enables visualization of a child that moves in the womb and is treated as a separate entity with distinct personal features the grounds are given for the opinion that the issue of the legal status of the unborn child, particularly in the context of causing death of a child in the last phase before birth as a result of medical malpractice or other external factors will be back in the public discussion.

  14. LA RESPONSABILIDAD DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DERIVADA DEL INCUMPLIMIENTO DE LAS OBLIGACIONES CONTABLES. INFLUENCIA DE LA REFORMA PENAL Y LA NUEVA REGULACIÓN CONTABLE / THE CRIMINAL RESPONSABILITY OF THE COOPERATIVES ARISING FROM NOT COMPLYING WITH THE ACCOUNTING OBLIGATIONS. THE REPERCUSSION OF THE REFORM OF THE PENAL CODE AND THE NEW ACCOUNTING REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Begoña VILLARROYA LEQUERICAONANDIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo perseguido con la realización de este trabajo es conocer la responsabilidad penal derivada del incumplimiento de las obligaciones contables por parte de los órganos sociales de las cooperativas, observando la incidencia de la reforma del Código Penal en la responsabilidad. Para ello, se comienza haciendo una breve descripción de las obligaciones contables, no solo el deber de llevanza de la contabilidad, libros obligatorios,… sino también las obligaciones específicas de las cooperativas recientemente reguladas en la Orden de 21 de diciembre de 2010 sobre los aspectos contables de las sociedades cooperativas (BOE de 29 de diciembre, donde nos encontramos con numerosos cambios en los que parte de las aportaciones de los socios pasarán a calificarse como pasivo. A continuación se analizan los distintos artículos del Código Penal en los que la contabilidad tuviera relevancia, incidiendo en como podría verse afectada la responsabilidad de la empresa con la reciente reforma. / The aim of this work is to know the criminal responsibility for social organs arising from not complying with the accounting obligations and the repercussion of the reform of the Penal Code in the treatment of responsibility. The paper starts with a brief description of the accounting obligations, not only formal but also material obligations, and the specific rules for the valuation of cooperatives that have recently been regulated in the Order of December 21, 2010 (BOE December, 29 of the countable aspects of cooperative companies will be analyzed in this paper. In it we will find numerous changes in whicht parts of the contributions of the partners will be classified as debts.. Finally, this work analyzes various articles of the Criminal Code in which the accounting is most important, highlighting the possibility of responsibility of the companies after the new reform.

  15. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  16. Differentiating among penal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    This review article assesses Loïc Wacquant's contribution to debates on penality, focusing on his most recent book, Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity (Wacquant 2009), while setting its argument in the context of his earlier Prisons of Poverty (1999). In particular, it draws on both historical and comparative methods to question whether Wacquant's conception of 'the penal state' is adequately differentiated for the purposes of building the explanatory account he proposes; about whether 'neo-liberalism' has, materially, the global influence which he ascribes to it; and about whether, therefore, the process of penal Americanization which he asserts in his recent writings is credible.

  17. El proyecto de reforma del derecho penal canónico/The Draft Reform to Penal Canon Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Sánchez-Girón

    2014-01-01

      The proposed reform of Book VI of the CIC drawn up by the PCLT highlights the restoration of justice among the purposes of canonical penalty, and envisages a hardening of the penal law contained in the Code...

  18. Penal law of the future: directions of reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishko A.Ya.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most urgent problems of the penal legislation application are stated: social and economic support of post-penitentiary adaptation; lack of legal status of the RF subject in the penitentiary legal relations; direct dependence of many rights and legitimate interests of convicts upon judicial and administrative discretion; absence of a mechanism of implementing penal norms and subordinate normative legal acts, monitoring their implementation. The provisions of the RF Penal Code, contradicting the view established in the penal law theory regarding the penitentiary legal relations termination after the release of convict from further punishment, are revealed. The main technical and legal defects of the penal legislation in the inter-branch and interdisciplinary spheres are called (goals and objectives of the penal law are defined, goals and objectives of the punishment execution aren’t; principles of guilt and justice are fixed in the Criminal Code, but aren’t fixed in the Penal Code; incomparability of the guarantees of exercising the right to qualified legal assistance by ordinary citizens and convicts, etc.. The problem of the substitution of legislator by penal agency in regulating convicts’ rights and legitimate interests is stated. The provisions to be implemented in new penal legislation are expressed: 1 punishment in form of imprisonment should be in the very fact of isolation from society, otherwise the convict’s legal status shouldn’t differ from other citizens; 2 the list of prohibitions and restrictions for prisoners should be determined at the legislative level; 3 penal legislation should be exempt from evaluation terms and norms-exceptions, regarding convicts rights’ restrictions.

  19. Emotional Intelligence of Hungarian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracsi, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The research focused on the personal and social competencies of Hungarian teachers as unexplored areas. The participants in the survey were 707 Hungarian teachers from elementary and secondary schools. In view of the expectations of the European Union related to new teacher roles, the following research question was formulated to guide the study:…

  20. [Qualification of persons taking part in psychiatric opinion-giving in a penal trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgryzek, K

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of new Penal code by the Parliament brings about the necessity of conducting a detailed analysis of particular legal solutions in the code. The authors present an analysis of selected issues included in the Penal Code, referring to proof from the opinion of psychiatric experts, particularly those regarding professional qualifications of persons appointed by the court in a penal trial to assess mental health state of definite persons (a witness, a victim, the perpetrator). It was accepted that the only persons authorized the conduct psychiatric examination in a penal trial are those with at least first degree specialization in psychiatry.

  1. Derecho Penal. Parte especial

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Corbacho, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo básico que se persigue obtener con el desarrollo de esta asignatura es el conocimiento de la parte especial del Código penal. Se llevará a cabo un análisis individualizado de cada uno de los delitos y faltas, prestando una especial atención a los problemas de parte especial que los mismos plantean. Sobre cada uno de ellos, se analizará la visión jurisprudencial. La asignatura de Derecho penal especial tiene como objetivo enseñar a las/os alumnas/os los delitos y faltas conte...

  2. Formulation of Policy for Cyber Crime in Criminal Law Revision Concept of Bill Book of Criminal Law (A New Penal Code)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soponyono, Eko; Deva Bernadhi, Brav

    2017-04-01

    Development of national legal systems is aimed to establish the public welfare and the protection of the public. Many attempts has been carried out to renew material criminal law and those efforts results in the formulation of the concept of the draft Law Book of the Law of Criminal Law in the form of concept criminal code draft. The basic ideas in drafting rules and regulation based on the values inside the idology of Pancasila are balance among various norm and rules in society. The design concept of the New Criminal Code Act is anticipatory and proactive to formulate provisions on Crime in Cyberspace and Crime on Information and Electronic Transactions. Several issues compiled in this paper are whether the policy in formulation of cyber crime is embodied in the provisions of the current legislation and what the policies formulation of cyber crime is in the concept of the bill book of law - criminal law recently?.

  3. Vajon in Translated Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structures the discourse marker vajon forms in translated Hungarian fiction. Although translation data has been deployed in the study of discourse markers (Aijmer & Simon- Vandenbergen, 2004, such studies do not account for translation-specific phenomena which can influence the data of their analysis. In addition, translated discourse markers could offer insights into the idiosyncratic properties of translated texts as well as the culturally defined norms of translation that guide the creation of target texts. The analysis presented in this paper extends the cross-linguistic approach beyond contrastive analysis with a detailed investigation of two corpora of translated texts in order to identify patterns which could be a sign of translation or genre norms impacting the target texts. As a result, a distinct, diverging pattern emerges between the two corpora: patterns of explicit polarity show a marked difference. However, further research is needed to clarify whether these are due to language, genre, or translation norms.

  4. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  5. Responsabilidade penal no transtorno bipolar Penal responsibility in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma mulher que cometeu delito de assalto e foi avaliada em perícia psiquiátrica para análise da responsabilidade penal. Conclui-se que ela apresentava doença mental, na forma de transtorno bipolar, daí ser inimputável. A avaliação da responsabilidade penal é de extrema importância, para que se possam aplicar medidas de segurança ou sanções penais e correcionais adequadas a cada caso.The authors report a case of a woman who committed the crime of assault and was evaluated in penal imputability exam to assess criminal responsibility. It was concluded that she had a mental illness, bipolar disorder, being inimputable. The evaluation of penal responsibility is extremely important, in order to apply adequate involuntary commitment or correctional and penal sanctions to each case.

  6. Multiple Operator Movements in Hungarian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surányi, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I argue for an approach to multiple operator constructions in Hungarian within a radically derivational model which heavily restricts the role of pre-fabricated functional A-bar projections and which holds that it is the verb in this language that carries and projects the relevant ope

  7. Radiology education in Hungarian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Boetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    Basic concepts of nuclear physics are not more abstract and more difficult than those of electricity. For the orientation of the citizens of the 21st century, the Hungarian school curriculum has made them compulsory for all teenagers. According to the teachers' experience, the students find nuclear issues more relevant and more interesting than the topics inherited from the schoolbooks of earlier centuries. (author)

  8. Functions of modal particles in Hungarian

    OpenAIRE

    Marusynets, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the functions of Hungarian modal particles from the Relevance Theory perspective, which offers a cognitive account of utterance interpretation. It is argued that Hungarian modal particles govern the selection of context by guiding the hearer towards relevant interpretation.

  9. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  10. Building and toning: An analysis of the institutionalization of mediation in penal matters in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellegi Borbála

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1 January 2007, victims of crimes and offenders have been offered the chance to have recourse to mediation in Hungary. This paper will first give a short overview of the current situation of mediation in penal matters in Hungary, then it will discuss some general phenomena and dilemmas concerning the general introduction of mediation. After that, I will present a SWOT analysis1 of the current Hungarian mediation system in penal matters. The main goal of this article is to set up certain criteria for the further development of the restorative approach. The lessons we have learnt, the strengths and opportunities of the system and the identification of weaknesses might prove useful for other countries when they choose to introduce mediation, and in relation to the protection of victims in particular.

  11. Derecho Penal del Riesgo y Derecho Penal del Enemigo

    OpenAIRE

    Prittwitz, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    La presente ponencia, impartida por el profesor Prittwitz, se realizó en el Congreso Internacional de Política Criminal, en San José de Costa Rica, el día 22 de marzo de 2012. En ella, primeramente se realizan unas observaciones sobre la relación entre Derecho penal y política criminal y sobre la cuestión de quiénes tienen la competencia en la política criminal (o deberían reclamarla). Luego, se caracterizan las dos caras del derecho penal: la del riesgo y la del enemigo, y se comenta sobre l...

  12. La reforma al sistema penal colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Quijano, Jairo; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2002-01-01

    Nos debemos hacer una pregunta presupuesto: ¿Estamos verdaderamente interesados en buscar la verdad en el proceso penal?. Si concluimos que fundamentalmente el proceso penal es un valor ético en sí mismo, tenemos que concluir que efectivamente debemos buscar la verdad en el proceso penal y en cualquier otro tipo de proceso.

  13. Estudios de derecho penal internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Olasolo Alonso, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Breve compilación de los numerosos ensayos que el profesor Héctor Olásolo Alonso ha escrito sobre la parte general, la parte especial, la política criminal y diversos aspectos procesales del Derecho Penal Internacional.

  14. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  15. HUNGARIAN HIGHER EDUTATION-SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva DARABOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sustainability already goes far beyond the aspects of environmental protection; the knowledge and the education are also part of the sustainable development. In the field of education, a condition of realizing the sustainability is that the state should ensure a predictable and stable budget for the operation of institutions. Aim of the treatise, at first, is to examine the fulfilment of Europe 2020 Strategy objective affecting the higher education directly and then, based on statistical data, to present the trend in number of students of the Hungarian higher education and its composition by regions and to examine the change in the budgetary support.In order to retain the sustainability and competitiveness, the state and the institutions should make efforts to harmonise their sources and expenditures and to ensure a predictable, stable financial environment for the sector and its stakeholders.

  16. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  17. 6th Congress of Croatian and Hungarian and 17th Congress of Hungarian Geomathematicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Tutek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this year's 6th Congress of Croatian and Hungarian and 17th Congress of Hungarian Geomathematicians was Geomathematics – from theory to practice and its key topics were • Applied geomathematics (geosciences, environmental science • Geomathematics in reservoir characterization and modelling • Hydrological and hydrogeological modelling • Theoretical geomathematics (geostatistics, neural networks, statistics • Geoinformatics (including GIS.

  18. THE SZEKLERS AND HUNGARIANS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Szeklers and Hungarians from Romania. This study regards, as its main topic, the possibility of establishing at present, a geodemographical entity on Romania’s territory, since certain representatives of the Hungarian ethnical minority in our country, and with a particular insistence of those in the vicinity of the western border, always remember to bring into view the problem of establishing an autonomy, common to a Székely Land, located in the central area of our country, which would include Mureş, Harghita and Covasna counties. Without carrying out a detailed account of this situation, it needs to be mentioned, just as it will emerge of the following presentation, that such an approach has neither the most reduced geodemographical support, since the Szeklers, after being assimilated by the Hungarian ethnic group, are no longer present at the census of 20 October 2011. By taking into account the above mentioned aspects, in order to be able to respond to the insistent requests for autonomy in Transylvania, we proceeded to highlight, through a fairly detailed approach of the Hungarian ethnical minority, obviously in point of the number of inhabitants and of their distribution on Romania’s territory, resulting of this the fact that the number of Hungarians is of 1,227,623 people, value which related to those 20,121,641 inhabitants of Romania, means 6.10%. The total number of mentioned Hungarians is characterized by a pronounced concentration on Romania’s territory, standing out by creating a corridor with a diagonal aspect, on the northwestsoutheast direction, consisting of seven counties, the first four (Satu Mare, Bihor, Sălaj and Cluj being registered with 2.01% (404,561 inhabitants of those 6.10% Hungarians, the following three (Mureş, Harghita and Covasna accounting for 3.03% (609,033 inhabitants, and hence in the corridor are present 5.04% (1,013,594 Hungarians of 6.10% at the level of the entire country. The above mentioned

  19. El consentimiento en materia penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Iván Machado Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se plantea un estudio de las diferentes posturas dogmáticas que se han suscitado en la doctrina jurídico-penal en torno a la relevancia del instituto del consentimiento, como su regulación, recorriendo las legislaciones penales española, alemana, italiana y colombiana. Así mismo, se toman en consideración las recientes posturas, en donde se entiende el consentimiento como un supuesto de autopuesta en peligro, o como uno de heteropuesta en peligro de la víctima. Se propone un entendimiento de la figura desde la óptica de la teoría de la imputación objetiva, y para ello se incluye el consentimiento como causa de ausencia de la imputación objetiva.

  20. Oralidad, publicidad y proceso penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cavalli Asole

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Si nos situamos en la Roma de la época de la República, nos encontramos un proceso penal distinto al que practicamos en estos tiempos y por estas latitudes. Y no es por capricho que ubiquemos un punto de partida como el señalado, sino que lo hacemos porque el proceso penal de la República romana, el accusatio, quaestio o iudiciun publicum, ha sido señalado como el mejor elaborado y por ser el que, comparativamente, tuvo más alta significación al lograr los avances de civilización más considerables. (...Contenido: El principio de oralidad. Principio de publicidad. La técnica al servicio del proceso. Conclusiones.

  1. La legitimidad del derecho penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bernate-Ochoa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante sobre la legitimidad del derecho penal se ha convertido en un asunto medular dentro de los estudios contemporáneos sobre la materia, dado que hoy en día se reconoce que a partir de la solución a este interrogante teórico se puede asumir la tarea de construir un sistema. El panorama contemporáneo nos ofrece dos soluciones al respecto: por una parte, se sostiene que la legitimación del derecho penal emana de la Constitución, y se prescinde de una construcción sistémica del delito en aras de la obtención de consecuencias acordes con lo planteado en la Carta Política. Por otra, desde una propuesta -de corte normativista- se entiende que la legitimación del derecho penal debe encontrarse en la sociedad, y a partir del entendimiento de ésta se encuentra la necesidad de aquél, lo cual ejerce una influencia en la construcción del sistema del delito.

  2. Causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Sandoval Fernández

    2003-01-01

    Este trabajo se ocupa de las causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal, especialmente de aquellas que tienen efecto en el injusto. Como subtemas se delimita el concepto de responsabilidad penal y su ausencia. Se estudian las principales teorias a cerca de la relación tipicidad-antijuridicidad y su incidencia en el derecho penal colombiano. Por último contiene una propuesta acerca de cómo deberian agruparse las causales del arto 32 C. PlOO.

  3. Causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sandoval Fernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ocupa de las causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal, especialmente de aquellas que tienen efecto en el injusto. Como subtemas se delimita el concepto de responsabilidad penal y su ausencia. Se estudian las principales teorias a cerca de la relación tipicidad-antijuridicidad y su incidencia en el derecho penal colombiano. Por último contiene una propuesta acerca de cómo deberian agruparse las causales del arto 32 C. PlOO.

  4. Seguridad ciudadana y respuesta penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Scapusio Minvielle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de seguridad ciudadana será empleado en esta comunicación en su sentido restringido, vinculado al sentimiento de confianza de la población de no verse expuesta a hechos de violencia física, tengan origen éstos en actos individuales o sociales.  (...Contenido: Diferentes expresiones de la seguridad ciudadana. La respuesta penal. Evaluación global del problema. El desafío dogmático. Conclusiones

  5. Elementos para uma geografia penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Christie

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o autor apresenta um novo ramo da criminologia, a "geografia penal", justificando-o pela análise das taxas de encarceramento na Europa, na América do Norte e na América Latina. Procura-se mostrar como as variações dessas taxas, no tempo e no espaço, respondem antes a fatores culturais e geo-políticos do que ao nível ou à evolução da criminalidade nos diferentes países.

  6. Seguridad ciudadana y respuesta penal

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Scapusio Minvielle

    2015-01-01

    El concepto de seguridad ciudadana será empleado en esta comunicación en su sentido restringido, vinculado al sentimiento de confianza de la población de no verse expuesta a hechos de violencia física, tengan origen éstos en actos individuales o sociales.  (...)Contenido: Diferentes expresiones de la seguridad ciudadana. La respuesta penal. Evaluación global del problema. El desafío dogmático. Conclusiones

  7. Funciones actuales del derecho penal

    OpenAIRE

    González Radío, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    El abordaje del estudio científico de las funciones actuales del derecho penal, requiere plantearse qué es el derecho y delimitar la naturaleza y la identidad del objeto, además del encuadre subjetivo, sus fuentes y su estructuración material y formal. Para ello, hay que diferenciar el (vulgar-popular-religioso-poético-filosófico-científicotécnico- tecnológico) frente al . Tanto desde el “saber” como, posteriormente, con el conocer, el derecho presenta dos marcos de referencia: una evocación...

  8. Derecho penal de la empresa

    OpenAIRE

    Hava García, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Contenidos:Bloque temático 1: Rasgos generales del Derecho penal de la empresa. Concepto y ámbito de estudio. Consideraciones político-criminales. Técnicas de tipificación. El sistema de sanciones. Bloque temático 2: Delitos societarios. Elementos comunes. Los delitos en particular: Falsedades. Infidelidad de los órganos societarios. Oposición al control administrativo. Administración desleal. Bloque temático 3: Delitos contra los derechos de los trabajadores. Imposición y manteni...

  9. Redes sociales y derecho penal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La gran evolución de Internet en las últimas décadas ha supuesto que este servicio tecnológico se encuentre presente en todos los ámbitos de nuestra vida. Sin embargo, este fenómeno lleva aparejado un incremento de la criminalidad, con la consiguiente respuesta del derecho penal. En este contexto las redes sociales se erigen como un instrumento muy importante de comunicación entre las personas, a la vez que aparecen como un medio idóneo para la comisión de conductas delictivas: usurpación del...

  10. Proyecto de reforma del Proceso Penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Scapusio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El Anteproyecto de Código de Proceso PenalExpositora: Beatriz ScapusioLa Imputabilidad Aportes dogmáticos para un tema clave de la responsablidad penalExpositor: Dardo Preza RestucciaEstructuras procesales en el proceso de conocimiento y en el proceso de ejecuciónExpositora: Raquel Landeira

  11. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time s...

  12. Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Penalized Regression Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, Stephan; Wijler, Etiënne

    2016-01-01

    We study the suitability of lasso-type penalized regression techniques when applied to macroeconomic forecasting with high-dimensional datasets. We consider performance of the lasso-type methods when the true DGP is a factor model, contradicting the sparsity assumption underlying penalized regressio

  13. Restraints on the Choice of Penal Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChaiDaotong

    2005-01-01

    The rule of law in criminal cases is the true difficulty in the rule of law and its largest “bottleneck.” This is because it is difficult to form rational concepts and institutions with regard to crimes, criminals, penal law and punishment and hence doubly difficult for the State or society to formulate realistic and effective penal policies. If we start from the basic constitutional position, we see that without the backing or guarantee of a constitutional doctrine or institution penal policies or even the basic discourse of the rule of law in other penal matters can have no true meaning or value. In this sense, we may say that the keyestablishment of the issue in whether the establishment of the rule of law in penal matters can successfully grasp the central and crucial issues lies in our efforts to consider the true implications or cardinal tenets of constitutionalism and in particular,

  14. Online Testing of Hungarian Children's Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsolnai, Anikó; Kasik, László

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our cross-sectional investigation was to explore prosocial behavior at the ages of 9, 11, and 13, and to reveal associations between this social behavior and some background variables such as age, gender, and parents' educational attainment. The participants were 185 Hungarian students and their teachers. Two Likert-type questionnaires…

  15. Community Cable Television--Hungarian Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekfu, Andras

    This paper argues that, although community cable television is one of the most dynamic (although experimental) elements of the Hungarian media structure, it is well on its way toward institutionalization. It is suggested that whether community cable television is able to retain the spontaneity, innovativeness, and elasticity of its early days may…

  16. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  17. 從網路犯罪公約談我國妨害電腦使用罪章的修訂 Amending Chapter 36 of the Penal Code of Taiwan on the Basis of the Study on the Cybercrime Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    廖宗聖 Tsung-Sheng Liao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 電腦犯罪已成為當代新興的犯罪類型,各國無不積極面對此一挑戰。我國在2003 年新增刑法第36 章妨害電腦使用罪章,除為了解決電磁紀錄與動產、文書存在不同的屬性外,也希望藉由該章的制定,能對其他影響電腦系統安全、侵害電腦資料完整、保密及可使用的行為加以規範。不過制定至今,該罪章產生不少解釋上或適用上的困難,為解決種種相關的問題與爭議,本文在參考歐洲理事會網路犯罪公約的規範後(第1 篇第1 章第2 條、第4 條、第5 條及第6 條),嘗試對妨害電腦使用罪章提出相關修訂建議(第358 條、第359 第、第360 條及第360 條第1 項、第2 項),期能供立法者於未來修訂該罪章時的參考。 Computer crimes have become a new model of crimes and a new challenge for most countries over the world. In 2003, Taiwan enacted Chapter 36 of the Penal Code to deal with computer crimes. Although the new chapter avoided some application problems caused by treating electro-magnetic records as chattel and documents, the change of coping with computer crimes still raises other new problems. After exploring, this article argues that Taiwan could resolve those new problems by amending Chapter 36 of the Penal Code based on the comparison study of the Cybercrime Convention.

  18. Austro-Hungarian Bank building in Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladžić Viktorija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the negotiations between Austria and Hungary in 1867 when dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was formed, the question of the central bank was not touched to prevent further complications. In 1878, after years of prolonged negotiations, the central bank was successfully transformed into an institute in which Austria and Hungary had an equal share. The 'Austro- Hungarian Bank' acted as a central bank for both parts of the Empire. The dualistic character of the institute was characterized by two managements and two head offices in Vienna and Budapest. During first decade of 20th century it was built few dozens of bank buildings in Hungary and the most important: the central Austro-Hungarian Bank building in Budapest on Szabadsbg tjr 8. Bank building in Budapest was built according to the design made by Ignbc Alpbr who won the competition. Most of the other bank buildings built throughout Hungary were designed by architect Juzsef Hubert, but Austro-Hungarian bank building in Subotica was designed by architect Ferenc Juzsef Raichl in 1901. Main topic of this paper is research of architecture of Austro-Hungarian Bank Building in Subotica. It is obvious, although smaller in size, that the building was designed according to the main concept of the central bank building in Budapest. Compositions of the both facade applied similar architectural elements, like pillars, projections, attics, plinth and also decorative elements that symbolizes the function of a building. Inner organization of space also corresponds to each other, in both buildings: beside offices there were several apartments for renting. In contrast to other bank buildings in Hungary designed by Juzsef Hubert, bank building in Subotica, although made according to the concept of Central Bank building in Budapest represents remarkable and unique architectural masterpiece including all: architectural composition, decorative elements and function of a building.

  19. El derecho penal de las drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Luiz Zilio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca hacer un análisis de la política criminal y del derecho penal de las drogas que la mantiene, desde las imágenes y funciones oficiales declaradas, hasta las reales funciones encapsuladas. Describe el impacto de la intervención penal en el tema de drogas en Brasil, expresando en elevado número de víctimas y encarcelados en los últimos años. Al final, insiste en la necesidad de una política penal alternativa.

  20. BALANCE DE DERECHOS EN DOS REFORMAS PENALES

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Gabriela Farías Calderón

    2012-01-01

    El artículo ofrece un comparativo entre los artículos de la Constitución referentes a la reforma penal y las legislaciones penales de Chihuahua y Nuevo León. Asimismo, con el fin de analizar la oferta de derechos en el proceso, se describen las etapas procesales penales en las dos mencionadas entidades federativas. Se concluye que la legislación de Nuevo León dista de apegarse a los preceptos constitucionales, mientras que la de Chihuahua, a pesar de algunos fallos, está más de acuerdo con és...

  1. RIESGO Y DERECHO PENAL. SOBRE PRESUPUESTOS CONSTITUTIVOS DEL DERECHO PENAL EN EL ESTADO DE DERECHO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    En el moderno Estado de Derecho el Derecho penal se justifica como garantía de lalibertad, por lo que no cabe usarlo para suprimir la libertad individual en nombre de la seguridad colectiva. Es ese presupuesto de la libertad y el supremo valor del individuo el que da sentido a los principios penales de culpabilidad y proporcionalidad. El Derecho Penal del Estado de Derecho es también un Derecho penal de asunción de riesgos, pues arriesgado es castigar al delincuente sineliminar de raíz so hum...

  2. Race Making in a Penal Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a ground-level investigation into the lives of penal inmates, linking the literature on race making and penal management to provide an understanding of racial formation processes in a modern penal institution. Drawing on 135 days of ethnographic data collected as an inmate in a Southern California county jail system, the author argues that inmates are subjected to two mutually constitutive racial projects--one institutional and the other microinteractional. Operating in symbiosis within a narrative of risk management, these racial projects increase (rather than decrease) incidents of intraracial violence and the potential for interracial violence. These findings have implications for understanding the process of racialization and evaluating the effectiveness of penal management strategies.

  3. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony; Walther, Jens Honoré

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time steps, than what is customary in the Brinkman penalization, thus reducing its computational cost while maintaining the capability of the method to handle complex geometries. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method by considering challenging benchmark problems such as flow past an impulsively started cylinder and normal to an impulsively started and accelerated flat plate. We find that the present method enhances significantly the accuracy of the Brinkman penalization technique for the simulations of highly unsteady flows past complex geometries.

  4. On Solving Lq-Penalized Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Zhou Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lq-penalized regression arises in multidimensional statistical modelling where all or part of the regression coefficients are penalized to achieve both accuracy and parsimony of statistical models. There is often substantial computational difficulty except for the quadratic penalty case. The difficulty is partly due to the nonsmoothness of the objective function inherited from the use of the absolute value. We propose a new solution method for the general Lq-penalized regression problem based on space transformation and thus efficient optimization algorithms. The new method has immediate applications in statistics, notably in penalized spline smoothing problems. In particular, the LASSO problem is shown to be polynomial time solvable. Numerical studies show promise of our approach.

  5. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  6. Hungarian space research 1981-1985: Lectures and review articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This monograph presents an overview of Hungarian space research from 1981 to 1985. Topics discussed in the original report include the development of space research centers, the flight of the first Hungarian astronaut, Hungarian participation in international space programs such as the Vega/Halley's Comet mission and the BEALUCA materials science experiment, advances in astronomical research, and activities of the Cosmic Geodetic Observatory. Other topics discussed incude space biomedical studies, meteorological applications of space research, satellite communications, and satellite power supply systems.

  7. El + verb complex predicates in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Dékány

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structure of complex predicates comprising the verbal particle el- (`away' and a verb in Hungarian. I show that el- has different meaning contributions to the predication when combined with different types of verbs. I argue that despite the three seemingly unrelated meanings of el-, two uses involve the same lexical item. In these unifiable cases I analyze el- as a measure function that can measure in both the spatial and the temporal domains.

  8. Competitiveness of the Hungarian elite sport system

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of significant research conducted under the IOC PhD Student Research Grant Programme with the support of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. The main objectives of the research were to understand why Hungary is successful in specific sports and to explore the relationship between elite sport policy systems and success in international competitions. The increasing international sporting competition forces governments to invest more money in elite sport deve...

  9. Research on Relative Age in Hungarian Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Nikoletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400. The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

  10. NOŢIUNILE DE “FUNCŢIONAR PUBLIC” ŞI “FUNCŢIONAR” IN CONCEPŢIA LEGIUITORULUI PENAL ROMÂN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Chirila

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of crimes provided for in art. 255 Penal Code (accepting bribery andart.257 Penal Code (traffic of influence – job offences or job related offences, criminal acts witch are includedin Chapter I of Title VI of the Penal Code-special part are committed in a directly mode by a public servant oranother official, in other words active subject of the mentioned offence is qualified. This qualification have toexist in the momment when the subject is commiting an offence, the subsequent acquisition of quality having norelevance, because to the perpetrator is not confering the status as an author, like loosing the quality of a publicservant or another official does’nt change situation related with the existence of the crime committedservice.According to paragraph 1 art.147 Penal Code through public servant means any person engaged permanentlyor temporarily, under any title, regardless the way how it was invested, a commission of any kind, remunerate ornot, in service unit of the covered art. 145. From the analysis of art. 147 Penal Code, in conjunction with the art.145 Penal Code, that any person can have quality of public servant if he exercise an commission service in apublic authority, public institutions, an institution or other legal persons of public interest and services of publicinterest.Romanian legislature distinguish between the quality of "public servant" and the "official". According toArticle 147. paragraph 2 Penal Cod. „official” means any person mentioned in paragraph 1, and any employeeengaged in an errand service to a legal person other than legal ones provided in that paragraph. "Through asystematic paraphrase, the concept of "official" includes any person who exercises temporarily or permanently,under any title, regardless the way he was invested, a commission of any kind, remunareted or not, in the serviceof the unit referred to art. 145 Penal Code and any employee engaged

  11. Unconstitucionality of the articles 7, [section] 1 and 8 of criminal code for breach of the principle of ne bis in idem/Da insconstitucionalidade dos artigos 7, [section] 1 e 8 do codigo penal por violacao ao principio ne bis in idem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Xavier

    2012-01-01

    ...] 1 e 8 do Codigo Penal brasileiro face ao principio ne bis in idem, cuja positivacao no ordenamento juridico brasileiro decorreu da incorporacao do Pacto Internacional de Direitos Civis e Politicos/66...

  12. Penalized unsupervised learning with outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Daniela M

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of performing unsupervised learning in the presence of outliers - that is, observations that do not come from the same distribution as the rest of the data. It is known that in this setting, standard approaches for unsupervised learning can yield unsatisfactory results. For instance, in the presence of severe outliers, K-means clustering will often assign each outlier to its own cluster, or alternatively may yield distorted clusters in order to accommodate the outliers. In this paper, we take a new approach to extending existing unsupervised learning techniques to accommodate outliers. Our approach is an extension of a recent proposal for outlier detection in the regression setting. We allow each observation to take on an "error" term, and we penalize the errors using a group lasso penalty in order to encourage most of the observations' errors to exactly equal zero. We show that this approach can be used in order to develop extensions of K-means clustering and principal components analysis that result in accurate outlier detection, as well as improved performance in the presence of outliers. These methods are illustrated in a simulation study and on two gene expression data sets, and connections with M-estimation are explored.

  13. Derechos humanos y procedimiento penal: pautas del procedimiento penal Alemán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schöne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El preámbulo del proyecto de las "Reglas Mínimas de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Procedimiento Penal"¡ afirma que los Derechós Fundamentales que por respeto a la dignidad del hombre han sido proclamados en la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos y otros convenios y pactos internacionales requieren para su realización efectiva de su formulación en reglas más concretas para el procedimiento penal. (...Contenido: Fuentes y bases del procedimiento penal alemán. El procedimiento penal ordinario en su fase preliminar. El procedimiento penal ordinario en su fase principal. Perspectivas de la reforma

  14. [Prevention of congenital malformations by means of folic acid - insurmountable problems due to the German penal code and German drug legislation when preparing a preconceptional model in Saxony-Anhalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, C; Steinbicker, V; Robra, B P; Kolbe, M; Heinrich, C

    2001-07-01

    For the last 20 years the prophylactic effect of the vitamin folic acid against the occurrence of neural tube defects has been known but in Germany this fact has not been realized by the public. The recommendations by medical institutions fail, among other reasons, because a folic acid prescription by gynaecologists comes too late in the course of events, i.e., women go to the gynaecologist when pregnancy has already set in and it is too late for preventive measures. An effective folic acid prophylaxis must take place before the onset of pregnancy. Data from the regional surveillance of congenital anomalies of the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt and interviews with women in maternity, as well as gynaecologists, indicate that there is a substantial knowledge deficit concerning folic acid prophylaxis. In 1998, therefore, a working group was set up in Saxony-Anhalt. It comprises representatives from interested institutions and has the goal of rectifying the knowledge deficit of women of childbearing age by way of a broad-based campaign while making use of the results of regional congenital anomalies monitoring. A pharmaceutical company was enlisted for cost-free distribution of its folic acid product. Legal problems with the prescription drug laws, the law against unfair competitive practices, the advertising of medicaments law and the SGB V (social code) made it impossible to procure multivitamins containing folic acid free of charge for women wanting a child. A highly differentiated legislation has hitherto prevented an elementary improvement in prevention.

  15. TAXONOMY AND STRUCTURE OF HUNGARIAN PERSONALITY-TRAITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SZIRMAK, Z; DERAAD, B

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on the application of the principles of the lexical approach to a non-Indo-European language, namely Hungarian. This language is a Uralic island surrounded on all sides by Indo-European languages. In addition, the Hungarians are, in terms of cultural features, Europeans. These con

  16. Competition assignment problem algorithm based on Hungarian method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Chao; REN Yongtai; GE Huiling; DENG Hualing

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Hungarian method can only solve standard assignment problems, while can not solve competition assignment problems. This article emphatically discussed the difference between standard assignment problems and competition assignment problems. The kinds of competition assignment problem algorithms based on Hungarian method and the solutions of them were studied.

  17. Hungarian University Students' Misunderstandings in Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanyi, Tamas; Toth, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    The misunderstandings related to thermodynamics (including chemical equilibrium) and chemical kinetics of first and second year Hungarian students of chemistry, environmental science, biology and pharmacy were investigated. We demonstrated that Hungarian university students have similar misunderstandings in physical chemistry to those reported in…

  18. Hungarian University Students' Misunderstandings in Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanyi, Tamas; Toth, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    The misunderstandings related to thermodynamics (including chemical equilibrium) and chemical kinetics of first and second year Hungarian students of chemistry, environmental science, biology and pharmacy were investigated. We demonstrated that Hungarian university students have similar misunderstandings in physical chemistry to those reported in…

  19. Check list of the Hungarian Salticidae with biogeographical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szüts, Tamás

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated check list of the Hungarian jumping spider fauna is presented. 70 species are recorded from Hungary so far. Four species are new to the Hungarian fauna: Hasarius adansoni, Neon valentulus, Sitticus caricis, Synageles subcingulatus. With 12 original drawings.

  20. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  1. Outlook for developing the Hungarian oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsengeller, I.

    1984-01-01

    Reports from the 72nd general meeting of the Hungarian state society of miners and metallurgists are presented. Half of the need for energy supply is provided by oil and natural gas. The annual extraction is 2 million T of oil and 7 billion mT of natural gas. The discovered reserves guarantee extraction for 10-30 years. The need is stressed for using new methods in oil refining to extract more valuable products. World Bank credit also has to be used for development of the industry.

  2. El tercero civilmente responsable en el procedimiento penal colombiano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordoba Angulo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    ... su participacion en los procedimientos penales. En concreto, se arguira que la regulacion vigente de la figura en el actual Codigo de Procedimiento Penal no se compadece con la legislacion sustancial ni con las exigencias constitucionales minimas...

  3. The Hungarian Peculiarities of National Remembrance: Historical Figures with Symbolic Importance in Nineteenth-century Hungarian History Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to place nineteenth-century Hungarian art into international context, this article calls for the theoretical discourse of cultural memory, when a suppressed community turns to their past and insists on their antecedents’ traditions for the survival of their culture. When, in the 1850s and 1860s, the leaders of the Habsburg Austrian Empire retaliated against Hungary for its 1848-49 “Fight for Freedom”, Hungarian visual art of the era rediscovered long-honoured figures of the historical past as the essential components of Hungarian national identity. This article argues that the successful visualization and memorialization of outstanding historical characters with symbolic values for the Hungarian nation was due to history painting itself as medium. The Hungarian painters’ choice of characters vigorously reacted to the changing political relationship between the Austrians and the Hungarians from the failure of the 1849 Hungarian Fight for Freedom until the 1850s and the 1870s involving the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Keeping it in mind, the display and the reception of four great paintings, Bertalan Székely’s The Discovery of the Body of King Louis II (1860, Viktor Madarász’s Péter Zrínyi and Ferenc Frangepán in Prison at Wiener-Neustadt (1864, Székely’s The Women of Eger (1867 and Gyula Benczúr’s The Baptism of Vajk (1875 are analysed.

  4. Ciberaprotestas y código (penal) Cyberprotests and the (penal) code

    OpenAIRE

    Edición Activismo y Movimientos sociales

    2012-01-01

    Las amplias y aceleradas transformaciones sociales y tecnológicas sucedidas de las últimas décadas están produciendo en la coyuntura de crisis importantes reacomodos globales en los sistemas productivos que empiezan a tener efectos políticos en la institucionalidad democrática configurada desde la posguerra europea. Parece emerger un ciclo de contestación con un sensible aumento de las movilizaciones en un número crecientes de países, en el que las redes sociales telemáticas contribuyen a un ...

  5. Comentarios al código de procedimientos penales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García Rada

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Etapas del proceso penal: la instruccción y el juicio oral. La acción penal: pública y privada. Su ejercicio. Cuando en un procedimiento civil aparecen indicios razonables de la comisión de un delito perseguible de oficio. Cuestiones prejudiciales y su efecto procesal. Las excepciones que pueden oponerse a un proceso penal y sus efectos procesales. Territorialidad de la ley penal.

  6. ¿Es el Derecho penal internacional un «Derecho penal del enemigo»?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo cuestiona la tesis del profesor alemán Günther JAKOBS según la cual en caso de necesidad, de grave peligro para la «seguridad cognitiva», lo que hay que hacer es recurrir a un Derecho penal especial, un «Feindstrafrecht» o «Derecho penal del enemigo», con el que el Estado no trata simplemente de castigar a los delincuentes, sino de luchar contra sus enemigos. El autor concluye que tanto en tiempos de Paz, como en tiempos de Guerra, no se necesita un Derecho penal del...

  7. La norma penal como norma de conducta

    OpenAIRE

    Regis Prado, Luiz

    2011-01-01

    El artículo trata de la dicotomía entre norma de determinación y norma de valoración, para concluir que la norma penal es una norma jurídica de conducta, que prescribe un modo determinado de actuar. De esta forma, señala su estructura lógica y principales características, así como sus efectos en el campo de la antijuridicidad. SUMARIO: 1. Consideraciones generales; 2. Norma penal como norma de conducta. Norma de determinación o norma de valoración: distinción conceptual; 3. Nor...

  8. Principialística procesal penal colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Álzate, John Jairo; Universidad de Medellín

    2016-01-01

    En los textos de Derecho Procesal Penal colombiano se echa de menos un apartado sobre el título preliminar del Código de Procedimiento Penal, no sabemos si por el puro procedimentalismo de las mismas, sea por abandonar la conceptualización de la normatividad rectora a la teoría general del proceso y/o a la filosofía del Derecho Procesal. Cualquiera sea la razón, no puede menos de sorprendernos el ''desprecio'' por el título preliminar, teniendo en cuenta lo establecido por el artículo 22 del ...

  9. EN BUSCA DE OTRO DERECHO PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Andrea Vallejo Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende describir algunos de los problemas contemporáneos del derecho penal en Colombia, así como las orientaciones que han asumido las líneas de investigación de los grupos de las universidades Eafit, de Antioquia y de Medellín en la búsqueda de soluciones a estos problemas, y la propuesta que se tiene a partir de la fundamentación de línea de investigación en Derecho Penal en la Institución Universitaria de Envigado.

  10. Responsabilidad penal por accidentes de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a Vitoria, Aurora

    1991-01-01

    Sabido es que en este campo el Derecho penal puede intervenir cuando el car??cter fundamental de determinados bienes jur??dicos y la insuficiencia de las normas laborales y del mecanismo sancionador administrativo as?? lo aconsejen, pero no puede olvidarse tampoco que un recurso indiscriminado y excesivo al Derecho penal,, lo ??nico que acarrea es convertirlo en una t??ctica legislativa que encubra las deficiencias de otras v??as que en realidad deben ser las utilizadas, como las sanciones ad...

  11. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sums of bonds. 24.148 Section 24.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Penal sums of bonds. The penal sums of bonds prescribed in this part are as follows: Bond Basis...

  12. An Iterative Brinkman penalization for particle vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Leonard, A.;

    2013-01-01

    We present an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in vortex particle methods. This is achieved by implementing a penalization of the velocity field using iteration of the penalized vorticity. We show that using the conventional Brinkman pen...

  13. Ciencia del Derecho penal y politica criminal europea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kubiciel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ... concepcion parece haber pasado de moda a comienzos del siglo XXI. Por ejemplo, la comision de Bolsa y Valores de estados unidos investiga empresas alemanas por practicas corruptas en Rusia y numerosos convenios internacionales reclaman la creacion de tipos penales en los ambitos del Derecho penal economico y del medio ambiente, asi como tipos penales pa...

  14. Prevalence of malocclusions in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábris, Katalin; Márton, Sándor; Madléna, Melinda

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, associated caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in the Hungarian population using the World Health Organisation (WHO) questionnaire designed to assess dentofacial anomalies. A total of 483 adolescents (289 girls, 194 boys), aged 16-18 years, were assessed. Orthodontic anomalies were detected in 70.4 per cent of the sample. Crowding and spacing were observed in 14.3 and 17 per cent, respectively, with the latter being more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible (10.4 and 2.9 per cent, respectively). A Class I occlusion was found in 52.8 per cent of the subjects. A half cusp anomaly in the antero-posterior molar relationship was more prevalent than a full cusp anomaly (26.9 and 20.3 per cent, respectively). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the visible plaque indices scores (VPI) of the 340 adolescents with malocclusion were significantly higher (P adolescents who displayed no anomalies. The prevalence of malocclusion in the Hungarian population seems to be comparable with other European communities.

  15. Ottoman-Hungarian Conflict through Venetian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeynep YELÇE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The new phase in Ottoman-Hungarian relations starting with the ascension of Süleyman I and the following period of conflict have been thoroughly examined by scholars; causes and effects have been analyzed; and the process has been evaluated in a wide array of perspectives ranging from evaluations as a process of glorious conquest to a process of tragic enslavement. This paper moves away from such grand narratives to explore the way the process was perceived by contemporaries as they lived through the conflict. As such, this paper focuses on the letters of Lorenzo Orio, the Venetian ambassador in Buda between 1519-1523. From his arrival in Buda on June 5, 1519, to his presentation of his report to the Pregadi on December 22, 1523; Orio has been a close witness of the relations and conflicts between the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and the Hungarians. The information offered by Orio in these tumultuous times, as he tried to present a neutral stance for Venice, has not only added to the soft power of Venice but presents us the experience and perception of an era. In other words, it opens a window to the rumors, gossip, fears, and hopes in the daily lives of the contemporaries.

  16. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  17. Mapping the Conditions of Penal Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the conditions of penal optimism behind suggestions that the penal expansionism of the last three decades may be at a ‘turning point’. The article proceeds by outlining David Green’s suggested catalysts of penal reform and considers how applicable they are in the Australian context. Green’s suggested catalysts are: the cycles and saturation thesis; shifts in the dominant conception of the offender; the GFC and budgetary constraints; the drop in crime; the emergence of the prisoner re-entry movement; apparent shifts in public opinion; the influence of evangelical Christian ideas and the Right on Crime initiative. The article then considers a number of other possible catalysts or forces: the role of trade unions; the role of courts; the emergence of recidivism as a political issue; the influence of ’evidence based’/’what works’’ discourse; and the emergence of justice reinvestment (JR. The article concludes with some comments about the capacity of criminology and criminologists to contribute to penal reductionism, offering an optimistic assessment for the prospects of a reflexive criminology that engages in and engenders a wider politics around criminal justice issues.

  18. Penal Policies In Bulgaria And Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mihaiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary european studies underline the necessity of adoption of an european model, in order to assure the compliance with the fundamental rights and liberties of people deprived of liberty. But the visions of the model favour one of the two opposite tendencies, which are invariable present in theoretical debates and penal politics

  19. [Changes in legal status in the field of civil and penal doctor's liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukiet-Nagórska, T

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the effects of organization changes in the range of health care, which took place in Poland, on the penal and civil liability of doctors. Her opinion refers also to the amendment of the penal code. The author emphasizes wider than before possibility of the doctor's liability for harm caused to a person or for the infringing of patient's rights. She also draws our attention to the description of offences pertaining to doctors, contained in the new panel code. The author proposes to work out the standards of procedure with the patient (based on the model of treatment standards)--according to the specific nature of particular sections of medicine or clinics. She expresses her conviction about the need to initiate changes in the legal status through the joint actions of doctors and lawyers.

  20. [Group Lasso Penalized Classifier for Diagnosis of Diseases with Categorical Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjia; Xue, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Six kinds of erythemato-squamous diseases have been common skin diseases, but the diagnosis of them has always been a problem. The quantitative data processing method is not suitable for erythemato-squamous data because they are categorical qualitative data. This paper proposed a new method based on group lasso penalized classification for the feature selection and classification for erythemato-squamous data with categorical qualitative data. The first categorical data of 33 dimensions were changed by the virtual code, and then 34th dimension age data were discretized and changed by the virtual code. Then the encoded data were grouped according to class group and variable group. Lastly Group Lasso penalized classification was executed. The classified accuracy of 10-fold cross validation was 98.88% ± 0.002 3%. Compared with those of other method in the literature, this new method is simpler, and better for effect and efficiency, and has stronger interpretability and stronger stability.

  1. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey 2014. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.

  2. An Iterative Brinkman penalization for particle vortex methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, J. H.; Hejlesen, M. M.; Leonard, A.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in vortex particle methods. This is achieved by implementing a penalization of the velocity field using iteration of the penalized vorticity. We show that using the conventional Brinkman penalization method can result in an insufficient enforcement of solid boundaries. The specific problems of the conventional penalization method is discussed and three examples are presented by which the method in its current form has shown to be insufficient to consistently enforce the no-slip boundary condition. These are: the impulsively started flow past a cylinder, the impulsively started flow normal to a flat plate, and the uniformly accelerated flow normal to a flat plate. The iterative penalization algorithm is shown to give significantly improved results compared to the conventional penalization method for each of the presented flow cases.

  3. TOWARDS LOCATING THE NIGERIAN SHARI'AH PENAL CODES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alfa

    State adopted Sharī'ah as its legal system and eleven other states later followed suit. .... He shall pay the blood money where the heirs consent to pardon him iv. .... the heirs remit the death penalty and pardoning for homicide punishable.

  4. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  5. Progressive Dyslexia: Evidence from Hungarian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Aydelott, Jennifer; Genethliou, Marios; Jacobs, Helen; Weekes, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia who was premorbidly literate in two alphabetic scripts, Hungarian (L1) and English (L2). Testing was performed over a two-year period to assess the impact of progressive illness on oral reading and repetition of single words. Results showed significant decline in oral reading in both languages, and an effect of language status in favour of oral reading in L1. Phonological complexity was a significant predictor of oral reading decline in both languages. Of interest, we observed an effect of language status on task performance whereby repetition was better in L2 than L1 but oral reading was better in L1 than L2. We conclude that language status has an effect on repetition and oral reading abilities for bilingual speakers with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia. PMID:22713383

  6. La investigación policial sin control judicial como integrante de la expresión típica «mediando causa por delito» (arts. 534 a 536 del Código Penal)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The crimes included in articles 534 to 536 of the Spanish penal Code punish to the authority or civil servant that cause a crime, injures the fundamental rights as privacy or domiciliary inviolability...

  7. [Hungarian psychiatry in the light of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimay, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    In order to get an accurate picture of mental health and psychiatric care, the article reviews the relevant structures and functioning of the European Union. It examines a few, important professional events that reflect the gaining significance of the issue of mental health within the EU; the 2005 World Health Organization's European Ministerial Conference, the 2008 European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being, and the results of the so-called Thematic Conferences. For the future of the European Union, the articles stresses the crucial need for the continuing research and development, and highlights the benefits of the European Research Region an its framework programmes especially in the fields of brain research and mental health research. The issue of mental health, its care providing system, and the atmosphere of the work place, as the surveying of the Eurobarometer underscored, should be treated as priorities for the EU and during the Hungarian presidency. The programme of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union provides priority to the presentation of the European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being to the Council Conclusion, as well as to the organization of a priority research presidential conference on the regions R and D, entitled "Discovery research in neuropsychiatry: depression, anxiety and schizophrenia in focus." The articles emphasizes the challenges of Hungarian psychiatry, first and foremost the difficulties of human resources, the theoretical context and determined perspectives for the establishment of the new National Psychiatry and Addictology Institute, the need of the move towards GP's and community care, and the importance of the cooperation with civil organizations, and scientific information gathering. The given tasks can only be achieved along with the professional development of psychiatry, with a change of perspectives towards EU since a concentrated multi level allocation of resources is only possible in the

  8. Water cycle investigations in Hungarian forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judit Sitkey

    2006-01-01

    From the biological point of view the value of autotrophy plant association is determined by the carbon fixation and the carbon cycle. Among the plant associations of Hungary, forest has the largest biological carbon fixation and carbon cycle. In general,the annual water cycle is the key factor in the organic material production of the Hungarian forests. The most intensive water consumption and organic material production take place from May till July, which period is named main water consumption and respectively main growing period. In Hungary the categories of the forest climate are characterized by main tree species and based on the forest climate covers 8% of the forest area, hornbeam-oak forest climate covers 22%, sessile oak-Turkey oak forest climate covers48% and forest steppe climate covers 22%. Partly in the frame of ICP-Forests, the Department of Ecology in the Forest Research Institute carries out long term, complex ecophysiological investigations on several sample plots (so-called basic plots) throughout the whole country. The organic material production (growth), the nutrient and water cycle, the measurements of air pollutants and meteorological parameters, as well as chemical analyses are all part of the investigations. As a comparison the figure of two basic plotsforest steppe climate in the hydrological year of 2001-2002. In the Hungarian forest 60%-70% of the precipitation is used for interception, evaporation, and in the vegetation season, for the transpiration both in beech and forest steppe climate. From other point of view, only 30%-40% of the open air precipitation infiltrates into the soil and can be utilized by the forest.

  9. Regional Disparities along the Romanian-Hungarian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the actual state and condition of territorial inequalities at the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which shows - at present - an evident advantage of the Hungarian side, from the point of view of complex socio-economical aspects. This advantage is especially outstanding for the Hungarian side in the field of infrastructural supply (drinking water, natural gas, and public sewage networks, but it is valid for some characteristics of human capital, too, (above all, with regard to the illiteracy rate and the proportion of highly skilled persons with bachelor degree. Despite these difficulties, these inequalities are not insurmountable and should not affect efficient cross-border cooperation between the two countries. This regional inventory facilitates the evaluation of the starting-point of this kind of cooperation and also depicts some aspects of the interregional cooperation of the four counties north of the Romanian-Hungarian border region which belong to the Carpathian Euroregion.

  10. New Features of Educational Media Development in Hungarian Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras

    1994-01-01

    The development of educational technology media in Hungarian secondary education is discussed in terms of changing general pedagogical requirements; the influence of interactivity on teaching procedures; training teachers and developing educational media; and new statutory frameworks. (AEF)

  11. Innovation and Internationalization of Hungarian SMEs in the IT Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csonka László

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to look at the extent and type of internationalization among Hungarian information technology (IT small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the possible relationship between the degree of innovativeness and the internationalization of these companies. Information technologies play an important role in the Hungarian economy: this sector is one of the most R&D intensive industries in which many SMEs are active.

  12. Excise Tax Overshifting in the Hungarian Beer Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bakó, Barna; Berezvai, Zombor

    2013-01-01

    We conduct this paper on excise tax shifting in the Hungarian beer market. Using a regression model we show that tax overshifting occurs in this market. We present a model with oligopolistic competition to explain how tax overshifting can occur because of the separated vertical structure. Our results suggests that Hungarian beer producers compete in Bertrand fashion and the hypothesis of collusion between beer producers can be rejected.

  13. Retardo mental: periculosidade e responsabilidade penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é discutir os conceitos de periculosidade e responsabilidade penal, por meio do relato de caso de uma paciente com diagnóstico de retardo mental que cometeu homicídio. Ela foi submetida à medida de segurança detentiva em hospital psiquiátrico de custódia e segurança, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Este relato demonstra a importância da psicopatologia e da psiquiatria na prática forense, auxiliando o magistrado na determinação da responsabilidade penal do indivíduo portador de transtorno mental ou retardo mental. O estudo do comportamento violento em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos pode contribuir para o seu entendimento, prevenção e tratamento.

  14. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  15. Las mujeres y la Corte Penal Internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Facio, Alda

    2002-01-01

    El impacto potencial en las mujeres de todo el mundo de una corte penal internacional es inmenso. Futuras víctimas de la violencia sexual ejercida en conflictos armados no tendrán que sufrir la misma suerte que las mujeres de otras guerras y conflictos casi nunca recibieron justicia de las comisiones o cortes anteriores a la CPI. Este artículo trata sobre las implicaciones de la CPI y la protección a las mujeres.

  16. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, M Al; Carroll, R J; Wand, M P

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  17. Derecho penal y autopoiesis: reflexiones acerca de los sistemas penales sociológicos cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Esiquio Manuel Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo aborda una cuestión sumamente problemática en el ámbito de la relación entre Derecho Penal y Sociología, esto es, la concerniente a la legitimación sociológica del Derecho Penal a partir del pensamiento del sociólogo alemán NIKLAS LUHMANN, y por supuesto, del penalista GÜNTHER JAKOBS, quien a la postre fundamenta en esencia su propuesta del sistema penal a partir de la sociología de LUHMANN y la filosofía de HEGEL. En esa tarea, por lo compleja y extensa que podría ser la expedic...

  18. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sum of bond. 25.93... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers....164(c)(2), the penal sum of the brewers bond must be equal to 10 percent of the maximum amount of...

  19. Sistema acusatorio de justicia penal y principio de obligatoriedad de la acción penal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Vega,Manuel

    2013-01-01

    En el artículo se revisa y confirma el marcado carácter acusatorio del actual proceso penal chileno y su relación con su incidencia en la eficacia del principio de obligatoriedad de la acción penal que rige las actuaciones del Ministerio Público. Se desarrollan los corolarios de que una mayor intervención de los órganos jurisdiccionales para evitar las actuaciones de la Fiscalía desconocedoras de dicho principio de obligatoriedad, puedan acarrear consecuencias en la estructura acusatoria del ...

  20. [Alternative imporisonment measures in the penal legislation of the Socialist Republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, S; Sclafani, F

    1976-01-01

    On April 19th, 1969 the People's Poland Parliament adopted a new penal legislation consisting of a Penal Code, a Code of Criminal Procedure and an executory Penal Code, which all came into force January 1st, 1970. The distinctive peculiarity of the above mentioned Codes, as the Authors have pointed out, is that they conform to the recent political, social and economic democratization of Poland and to the structure and dynamics of delinquency in this country. In examining the measures concerning educational rehabilitation provided for by the penal law in question, the Authors have started discussing questions like restriction on personal freedom, conditional suspension of criminal procedings, supervision of the convict who has been given the benefice of conditional suspension of the execution of sentence or of conditional release and supervision of the recidivist as well as points related to warranty and postjail care. Though these measures show some similarity to those provided for by bourgeois penal legislations, they result from a quite anthithetic ideology according to which punishment has to perform a double function of defence of working-class achievements as well as of an effective rehabilitation of the convict. A detailed analysis of the theoretical premises and of the actual carrying out of these measures shows, the Authors say, that though they represent only a further stage in the development of socio-juridical progress, they are put in conformity with the criminal policy's trends and the politico-ideological contents of a socialist government. They testify therefore an actual effort to make social rehabilitation of the convict possible in that they prevent the exertion of all negative psycho-pathogenic influences of jail environment on the convict, especially in case of slight crimes. The ultimate importance of these measures is that they can be considered an articulate attempt to promote actual social rehabilitation of the convict and therefore they are

  1. Soil-atmosphere relationships: The Hungarian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Ferenc; Rajkai, Kálmán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Mona, Tamás; Horváth, Ákos

    2015-10-01

    This study discusses scientific contributions analyzing soil-atmosphere relationships. These studies deal with both the biogeophysical and biogeochemical aspects of this relationship, with biogeophysical aspects being in the majority. All of the studies refer either directly or indirectly to the fundamental importance of soil moisture content. Moisture has a basic influence on the spatiotemporal pattern of evapotranspiration, and so 1) on cloud formation and precipitation events by regulating the intensity of convection, and 2) on the trace-gas exchanges in the near-surface atmosphere. Hungarian modeling efforts have highlighted that soils in the Pannonian Basin have region-specific features. Consequently, shallow and deep convection processes are also, to some extent, region-specific, at least in terms of the diurnal change of the planetary boundary layer height and the spatial distribution of convective precipitation. The soil-dependent region-distinctiveness of these two phenomena has been recognized; at the same time the strength of the relationships has not yet been quantified.

  2. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  3. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  4. International Equity Portfolios and Currency Hedging: The Viewpoint of German and Hungarian Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Bugár, Gyöngyi; Maurer, Raimond

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the benefits derived from international diversification of stock portfolios from German and Hungarian point of view. In contrast to the German capital market, which is one of the largest in the world, the Hungarian Stock Exchange is an emerging market. The Hungarian stock market is highly volatile, high returns are often accompanied by extremely large risk. Therefore, there is a good potential for Hungarian investors to realize substantial benefits in terms of risk redu...

  5. Robert Garrett, Tasmanian penal colony surgeon: alcoholism, medical misadventure and the penal colony of Sarah Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, P

    2011-09-01

    Robert Garrett emigrated from Scotland to Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in 1822. Within a few months of arrival he was posted to the barbaric penal colony in Macquarie Harbour, known as Sarah Island. His descent into alcoholism, medical misadventure and premature death were related to his largely unsupported professional environment and were, in many respects, typical of those subjected to this experience.

  6. Derecho penal y autopoiesis: reflexiones acerca de los sistemas penales sociológicos cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esiquio Manuel Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda una cuestión sumamente problemática en el ámbito de la relación entre Derecho Penal y Sociología, esto es, la concerniente a la legitimación sociológica del Derecho Penal a partir del pensamiento del sociólogo alemán NIKLAS LUHMANN, y por supuesto, del penalista GÜNTHER JAKOBS, quien a la postre fundamenta en esencia su propuesta del sistema penal a partir de la sociología de LUHMANN y la filosofía de HEGEL. En esa tarea, por lo compleja y extensa que podría ser la expedición, me limitaré exclusivamente al punto central de la fundamentación tanto de la concepción de la sociedad en LUHMANN como del sistema penal de JAKOBS, es decir, en el concepto de autopoiesis. En el sistema jakobsiano la sociedad impone al hombre, para que sea sujeto con capacidad de imputación, un conjunto de exigencias decisivas para garantizar el mantenimiento de ese sistema. Por lo tanto la imputación de la conducta no se hace depender de un dato psicológico del autor, sino de la desatención o el incumplimiento de alguna de las exigencias decisivas normativas que la sociedad le ha atribuido.

  7. Derecho penal y autopoiesis: reflexiones acerca de los sistemas penales sociológicos cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esiquio Manuel Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda una cuestión sumamente problemática en el ámbito de la relación entre Derecho Penal y Sociología, esto es, la concerniente a la legitimación sociológica del Derecho Penal a partir del pensamiento del sociólogo alemán NIKLAS LUHMANN, y por supuesto, del penalista GÜNTHER JAKOBS, quien a la postre fundamenta en esencia su propuesta del sistema penal a partir de la sociología de LUHMANN y la filosofía de HEGEL. En esa tarea, por lo compleja y extensa que podría ser la expedición, me limitaré exclusivamente al punto central de la fundamentación tanto de la concepción de la sociedad en LUHMANN como del sistema penal de JAKOBS, es decir, en el concepto de autopoiesis. En el sistema jakobsiano la sociedad impone al hombre, para que sea sujeto con capacidad de imputación, un conjunto de exigencias decisivas para garantizar el mantenimiento de ese sistema. Por lo tanto la imputación de la conducta no se hace depender de un dato psicológico del autor, sino de la desatención o el incumplimiento de alguna de las exigencias decisivas normativas que la sociedad le ha atribuido.

  8. [Criminalistic and penal problems with "dyadic deaths"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszczak, Paweł; Kunz, Jerzy; Bolechała, Filip

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a supplement to the article "Medico legal problems of dyadic death" elaborated by the same authors. Recalling the cases presented there. It is also an attempt to present the basic criminalistic, penal and definitional problems of dyadic death called also postagressional suicide. Criminalistic problems of dyadic death were presented in view of widely known "rule of seven golden questions"--what?, where?, when?, how?, why?, what method? and who? Criminalistic analysis of cases makes some differences in conclusions but it seemed interesting to match both--criminalistc and forensic points of views to the presented material.

  9. Ensayos de derecho penal y procesal internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Olasolo Alonso, Hector

    2011-01-01

    Análisis pionero, serio y riguroso de las posibilidades que el marco procesal del Estatuto de Roma y de las Reglas de Procedimiento y Prueba ofrecen a la Corte Penal, y en particular a su Fiscalía, para desarrollar de manera eficaz acciones preventivas dirigidas a evitar que ciertas situaciones de crisis terminen desencadenando la comisión sistemática o generalizada de crímenes de lesa humanidad, crímenes de guerra o genocidio.

  10. SANCTIONING DUPLICATION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND PENAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cabrera Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first approach from the point of view of jurisprudence, to the recurring problem of concurrency sanctions in cases where further intervention of the courts has become necessary for administrative action. In this regard, the main judgments of both the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court is, that have shaped the decisions that must be applied from the administrative level, in particular by educational inspectors, when it is foreseeable that it can produce a duplication of disciplinary procedures in the two areas, penal and administrative.

  11. El tratamiento penal del delincuente imputable peligroso

    OpenAIRE

    Armaza Armaza, Emilio José

    2011-01-01

    XI, 529 p. No cabe duda que una de las cuestiones que en el ámbito de la política-criminal ha venido adquiriendo mayor importancia durante los últimos lustros, es la constituida por el tratamiento penal que el Estado debe dispensar al delincuente imputable peligroso de criminalidad grave. En este sentido, a pesar de que a lo largo de la historia las diversas sociedades humanas han tenido que bregar con la actuación de estas personas, no ha sido sino hasta bien entrada la segunda mitad del ...

  12. [How to help and promote Hungarian medical publications?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurik, Imre

    2010-02-07

    The journal impact factor (IF) is often recognized as a symbol of scientific prestige and relevance. However it is greatly influenced by the field or scope of journals, publisher, scientific, editorial, and economic background. Although there are many suggestions to modify the most important scientometric parameter, it is widely used to compare journals, individuals, departments, scientific outputs to judge academic promotions, grant allocations, awarding appointments. Most of the researchers use international database searching relevant publication, which will be cited in their own paper. Unfortunately these international databases refer only few Hungarian journals. It is recommended to develop and maintain a Hungarian Electronic Medical Bibliography, divided by the field of scientific interest (e.g., diabetology, gastroenterology, public health, urology etc.). Authors can upload the list or full text of publications, if copyright agreements allow, and search other Hungarian papers for citation, to promote each others. Organizer, manager, host and supporters of this database are very welcomed.

  13. Hollywood on the Danube: Hungarian Filmmakers in a Transnational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Portuges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exile, emigration and displacement have marked the trajectories of Hungarian filmmakers over the past century. Michael Curtiz, the Korda brothers—Alexander, Vincent and Zoltán—André de Toth, Emeric Pressburger, Vilmos Zsigmond, Miklós Rózsa, Peter Lorre, Géza von Radvány and other talented artists have crossed borders, cultures and languages, creating such classics as Casablanca, Somewhere in Europe, The Red Shoes and The Lost One. The legendary sign posted in Hollywood studios read: "It is not enough to be Hungarian, you have to have talent, too!" Accompanied by film extracts, rare footage, personal interviews, archive photographs, and documentary materials, my presentation explores the transnational odysseys of these Hungarian directors, producers, cinematographers, composers, actors and screenwriters whose artistic contributions became an indispensable part of international cinema, suggesting that the challenges of emigration may also offer opportunities for critique, self-examination and artistic creativity.

  14. Development of the security system of the new Hungarian banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfi, Sandor

    2000-04-01

    The more than 75 year old Hungarian Banknote Printing Corporation is an enterprise with a rich history. It is located in the very center of the capital, only some blocks away form the Parliament. Most people on this side of the Atlantic may not even have heard about the Hungarian currency, the Forint. Some may remember that after the WWII it was Hungary, where the severest hyperinflation in the world took place. As we come from a manufacturing company , we can give you information about deliberation and experiences of application of optically variable features on banknotes and some observations made in the past two years since the new Hungarian bank note series is ins circulation.

  15. DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES OF THE HUNGARIAN-UKRAINIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasztor Szabolcs

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the all pervasive globalisation trends previous state borders have become more permeable and subject to change. As borders disappear previously separated borderlands can unite and form a spatial unit where more increased economic interactions could integrate both sides to the global economy.The European continent is such a case which previously had been puctuated by strong state borders. Today the continent sees the physical and intellectual disappearance of borders. Regional integrations – like the European Union – spur this process and helps the integration of borderland inside and outside of the common market. The creation of a common market was a huge success and still a great deal of benefits are anticipated from the fulfillment. We are not taken by surprise when we see a massive increase in the number of border related studies and researchers. This field is very popular today. However the difference between Western and Eastern Europe is huge because eastern state borders are still strong or they link peripheral regions. There - under the communist times- border crossings were restricted and trade links were quite poor. No wonder that the tendencies of the past are still determining. This paper focuses on of one the most peripheral external borderland of the Schengen zone: the Hungarian-Ukrainian borderland. Expectations are running high and the disappearance of the border is a long-awaited hope. First I take into consideration the relevant economic theory in connection with more intense borderland dynamics. In the literature the trade theory, new economic geography and the traditional location theory approach this question. The approaches do not give coherent and clear-cut answers so I have to turn my attention to different empirical approaches. These show huge heterogeneity depending on the nature and character of the borderlands. In the mentioned case, settlement-level data are not fully available so I conduct a

  16. The interdependencies of bilingual behaviour. Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic profile of Hungarian-Romanian bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika-Mária Tódor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the specific features of a school population in Romania for whom Romanian is a non-native language, their mother tongue being Hungarian. The first part of the study offers a description of the main characteristics of the verbal behaviour of this bilingual population. The first subheading will discuss, on the one hand, the linguistic profile of the subjects (linguistic interference, linguistic pseudo-creativity etc. and, on the other hand, it will present the main aspects of the socio-affective dimension of verbal behaviour (such as communicational anguish, displacement of communicational intention, linguistic code switching etc.. Practically, these features can be followed in the case of other bi(multilingual speakers as well. The second part of the paper presents certain lexical and semantic interference and vocabulary activating habits in the case of bilingual persons, relating them to the linguistic context and the linguistic landscape.The formulated data and observations represent a synthesis of empirical research carried out between 2000–2013 through different methods, such as: observation, case studies (within the context of the data referring to the profile of language behaviour, structured interviews and questionnaires (employed in the study of the linguistic landscape. The main aim of this study is to offer a socio- and psycholinguistic profile of Hungarian-Romanian bilingualism set in a holistic context.

  17. Evolución de la Ley Penal en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Aller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La elaboración de un nuevo Código Penal. Postrimerías legales del tiempo de la Colonia. La anhelada codificación penal y procesal penal. La ley penal uruguaya. Falta de definición en materia de Política criminal. Excursus.Bajo la dirección del actual catedrático de Derecho Penal de la Universidad de la República y Director del Instituto Uruguayo de Derecho Penal, Milton Cairoli Martínez, se ha llevado a cabo un proyecto de Código Penal que sustituya al actualmente vigente desde el 1 de agosto de 1934 impulsado por José Irureta Goyena. Este trabajo contó con la aportación de representantes de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, Fiscalía de Corte, asociaciones de Jueces y de Fiscales, Colegio de Abogados, Asociación de Funcionarios Judiciales, Defensoría de Oficio y del INUDEP, arribándose a una propuesta cuya primera consideración favorable se halla en el hecho de reducirse sensiblemente la cantidad de artículos que lo integran en relación al actual cuerpo legal, indicando ello que el Derecho penal ha de ser reducido a su necesaria expresión.

  18. El proceso penal de las personas jurídicas

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno Beviá, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    La LO 5/2010 de 22 de junio de reforma del Código penal ha supuesto un antes y un después en nuestro ordenamiento, puesto que establece, por primera vez, la responsabilidad penal, directa y autónoma de las personas jurídicas.

  19. Named Entity Recognition in a Hungarian NL Based QA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkl, Domonkos; Szidarovszky, P. Ferenc; Kardkovacs, Zsolt T.; Magyar, Gábor

    In WoW project our purpose is to create a complex search interface with the following features: search in the deep web content of contracted partners' databases, processing Hungarian natural language (NL) questions and transforming them to SQL queries for database access, image search supported by a visual thesaurus that describes in a structural form the visual content of images (also in Hungarian). This paper primarily focuses on a particular problem of question processing task: the entity recognition. Before going into details we give a short overview of the project's aims.

  20. Abstracts of the 27th Hungarian conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abstracts, Conferences, Congresses, Symposiums...

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available About 100 participants took part in the 27th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by the Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Thirteen papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered almost all fields of rabbit research (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  1. La Reforma del Código Penal en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Asunción Moreno Castillo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available La redacción de un nuevo Código Penal podría calificarse de urgente necesidad si tenemos en cuenta que nuestras normas penales no se adecuan a las exigencias jurídicas, sociales y políticas de un Estado Social Democrático y de Derecho, pues el Código Penal vigente (1974 no es más que un texto parchado por todas partes, e incluso en alguna ocasión doblemente parchado, que no aguanta más remiendos. De ahí la necesidad de la redacción y aprobación de un texto penal que obedezca a las nuevas tendencias político criminales y postulados del Derecho penal moderno.

  2. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  3. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  4. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Csörnyei; László Csató; János Farkas; Ino Curik; István Nagy

    2010-01-01

    Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA) and gestation length (GL) were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records) and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records) sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets), were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14) for HLA and 0.08 (0.17) for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27) for HLA and 0.26 (0.35) for HLW. Estimated...

  5. Significant interethnic differencies in functional variants of PON1 and P2RY12 genes in Roma and Hungarian population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicsek, Ingrid; Sipeky, Csilla; Bene, Judit; Duga, Balazs; Melegh, Bela I; Melegh, Bela; Sümegi, Katalin; Jaromi, Luca; Magyari, Lili; Melegh, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is one of the most common therapies given to patients worldwide. However, the clinical efficacy and toxicity of clopidogrel is not constant in every patient due to interindividual variations. There are several factors that contribute to these interindividual differencies such as SNPs in genes of specific receptors and enzymes. PON1 (paraoxonase 1) plays an important role in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene decrease the activity of paraoxonase enzyme and lead to an unefficient clopidogrel effect. P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12) gene is coding a receptor, which is situated on the surface of the platelets and plays a role in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study we investigated 2 functional SNPs of PON1 gene (rs662 and rs854560) and 3 variants of the P2RY12 gene (rs2046934, rs6798347, rs6801273) in samples pooled from average Hungarian Roma and Hungarian population samples with PCR-RFLP method. For the PON1 variants we detected that the R allele frequency was significantly lower in the Roma group compared to the Hungarian population. (0.249 vs 0.318 p Roma than in Hungarians (0.332 vs 0.290 p Romas (1.4 vs 0.2 %, p Roma people that has not been reported for other populations.

  6. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were…

  7. "Unraveling Intercultural communication in an Hungarian cookie Company"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a Hungarian company going through the double transition of having been recently acquired by a foreign corporation and, at the same time, reorienting its business approach from east to west. This juncture in time for Central and Eastern European companies, namel...

  8. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  9. US-Hungarian Relations Ten Years After 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Glant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 1966, the tenth anniversary of the 1956 Revolution, was a key year in US–Hungarian relations. Diplomatic relations were raised from the lowest to the highest level, but suspicion and tension remained. Neither side knew what to expect from the other on account of the anniversary, the Vietnam War, economic and cultural negotiations, and the fate of Cardinal Mindszenty. A traditional diplomatic historical approach is supplemented here with cultural materials to present the full scale of contacts ranging from high political issues to the visit of Hollywood movie star Kirk Douglas in Budapest. First Secretary of the Legation for Press and Cultural Affairs Edward Alexander receives special attention, because he played a crucial role in the events of 1966. As press secretary, he helped calm Hungarian fears over what American journalists might report about the anniversary, while as cultural affairs officer he worked on documenting and expanding American cultural presence in Hungary. In the latter capacity, he opened the USIA Library at the Legation, fraternized with blacklisted painters of the Zuglói Kör [‘Zugló Circle’], monitored the Hungarian stage production of My Fair Lady, and reported on the publication of American literature in Hungarian.

  10. Long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvo Dajčman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the fractal structure of the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns. The presence of long memory components in asset returns provides evidence against the weak-form of stock market efficiency. The starting working hypothesis that there is no long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns is tested by applying the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS (1992 test, Lo’s (1991 modified rescaled range (R/S test, and the wavelet ordinary least squares (WOLS estimator of Jensen (1999. The research showed that the WOLS estimator may lead to different conclusions regarding long memory presence in the stock returns from the KPSS and unit root tests or Lo’s R/S test. Furthermore, it proved that the fractal structure of individual stock returns may be masked in aggregated stock market returns (i.e. in returns of stock index. The main finding of the paper is that both the Croatian stock index Crobex and individual stocks in this index exhibit long memory. Long memory is identified for some stocks in the Hungarian stock market as well, but not for the stock market index BUX. Based on the results of the long memory tests, it can be concluded that while the Hungarian stock market is weakform efficient, the Croatian stock market is not.

  11. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  12. "Great Expectations:" The Motivational Profile of Hungarian English Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Csizer, Kata; Menyhart, Adrienn; Torok, Dora

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate what characterizes the language learning motivation of Hungarian English language students in terms of Dornyei and Otto's process model of motivation ("Motivation in Action," 1998). We used a mixed-method research design, in which qualitative interviews conducted with 20 students were supplemented with questionnaire…

  13. Linguistics in Language Teaching: The Case of Finnish and Hungarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsoly, Eszter; Valijarvi, Riitta-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of various linguistic sub-disciplines in teaching Finnish and Hungarian. We sketch the profile of the two languages, including difficulties in learning and teaching them, and the context in which they are taught in the UK. Using examples from our own teaching, we argue that a linguistically oriented approach is well…

  14. Behaviour Profile of Hungarian Adolescent Outpatients with a Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, Elek; Csorba, Janos; Suli, Agota; Grosz, Zsofia

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour dimensions of 244 Hungarian adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a dual diagnosis (intellectual disability and psychiatric diagnosis) were examined by means of the adapted version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001). Four IQ subgroups were created: borderline, mild, moderate…

  15. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Handgrip among Hungarian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Karsai, István; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and sex-related variation in handgrip strength and to determine reference values for the Hungarian population. Method: A sample of 1,086 Hungary youth (aged 11-18 years old; 654 boys and 432 girls) completed a handgrip strength assessment using a handheld dynamometer. Quantile regression was…

  16. 27 CFR 19.245 - Bonds and penal sums of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds and penal sums of... Bonds and penal sums of bonds. The bonds, and the penal sums thereof, required by this subpart, are as follows: Penal Sum Type of bond Basis Minimum Maximum (a) Operations bond: (1) One plant bond—...

  17. [Psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the Codependence Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Anikó; Knapek, Éva; Balázs, Katalin; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the internal consistency of the subscales of the Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire (CdQ, Roehling & Gaumond, 1996). Thus, a reliable measurement of codependency for professionals become available in Hungary. The Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire enables professionals to identify codependent individuals. Our sample (N=137) was recruited from the general population and from self-help groups (82 individuals); and patients with borderline personality disorder (55 individuals) were recruited as clinical control group. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alfa and principal component analysis. In addition, in order to investigate the latent structure, factors analyses and hierarchical cluster analysis were used. Based on our results, the Cronbach's alfa values of the subscales of 'control', 'reliability' and 'intimacy' indicate appropriate reliability, however, the subscale of 'enmeshment' indicates poor reliability. The originally assumed factor structure is not supported by the results of the statistical analyses. The subscales are not separate from each other, which is also indicated by the correlations of the total scores of the subscales. The reliability of the Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire is nearly identical to the original data, except for one subscale ('enmeshment subscale'). Based on these results the Hungarian Version of the Codependent Questionnaire is considered to be reliable. Besides the Hungarian adaptation, the strength of this study is the investigation of a clinical sample. The use of the questionnaire is recommended without the subscale of 'enmeshment' and further 5 items, and it is suggested to use as one scale.

  18. Generalized L1 penalized matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2017-01-01

    for constraining models to obey certain structural properties, including parameter sparsity and sparsity on pairwise differences between parameter estimates. The utility of this framework is used to modify principal component analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and multivariate......Traditionally, chemometric models consists of parameters found by solving a least squares criterion. However, these models can suffer from overfitting, as well as being hard to interpret because of the large number of active parameters. This work proposes the use of a generalized L1 norm penalty...... analysis of variance type of models applied to synthetic and chemical data. This work argues that L1 norm penalized models offers parsimony, robustness and predictive performance, and reveals a path for modifying unconstrained chemometric models through convex penalties....

  19. Notas aclaratorias para el estudio del derecho penal especial

    OpenAIRE

    El Khoury, Henry Issa Issa

    2014-01-01

    La distinción que se hace entre derecho penal general y derecho penal especial, de corte meramente académico (y producto, en nuestro criterio, de una visión reduccionista de la división de los códigos penales en una parte general y otra especial), se presta para que ambas disciplinas sean observadas como entes absolutamente distintos e independientes, dejando de lado su consideración como conceptos complementarios, aspecto fundamental si se quiere tener una visión de conjunto de lo que es el ...

  20. La reforma procesal penal federal en México

    OpenAIRE

    Gánem Hernández, Eskándar

    2008-01-01

    En México, la procuración e impartición de justicia se encuentra en crisis según diversos diagnósticos científicos sobre el estado que guarda la justicia penal. La superación del estado actual de las cosas se presenta necesaria. La tesis doctoral, la reforma procesal penal en México, aborda el vigente modelo de enjuiciamiento criminal, y su posible transformación, con base en la Constitución de 1917, el Código Federal de Procedimientos Penales de 1934 y los principios procesales reconocidos. ...

  1. El sistema sancionatorio penal en Costa Rica y Alemania Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffer Sotomayor, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    El estudio de las sanciones penales constituye un tema de actualidad, no solo del derecho penal material sino también de la criminología y las ciencias sociales conexas. El constante aumento de los conflictos sociales y con ellos la delincuencia han incrementado el interés en las penas tanto en el R.F.A. como en C.R. Debido principalmente a los valres fundamentales que están en juego en la dinámica de las sanciones penales, tales como la seguridad, la justicia y la libertad.

  2. FINES Y DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS SANCIONES PENALES JUVENILES

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffer Sotomayor, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El artículo refiere los contenidos sobre los fines y la determinación de las sanciones penales juveniles. Se inicia con el elemento caracterizador del modelo de justicia responsabilizador penal juvenil. Presenta el dilema entre la prevención general y la prevención especial y el rol que desempeña el principio educativo, como finalidad primordial. Se presentan los principales criterios que debe considerar un juez al momento de determinar una sanción penal juvenil.

  3. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiprarametric additive hazard model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For survival data with a large number of explanatory variables, lasso penalized Cox regression is a popular regularization strategy. However, a penalized Cox model may not always provide the best fit to data and can be difficult to estimate in high dimension because of its intrinsic nonlinearity....... The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

  4. LÍNEA DE BASE DEL SISTEMA PENAL ECUATORIANO

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    RESUMO En el año 2000, el Ecuador cambió su sistema procesal penal de tipo inquisitivo por uno de corte acusatorio. Para determinar el funcionamiento del mismo se debía levantar una línea de base recogiendo en una base de datos algunos indicadores del proceso penal. A partir de este conjunto de datos y variables iniciales, se hizo factible la elaboración de un sistema informático procesal penal ecuatoriano (SIPPE) que permite elaborar un análisis de componentes principales. En nuestro caso, l...

  5. Abuso sexual: o abusador e a resposta penal

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Pos, Angela Caren

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho trata do fenômeno do abuso sexual em seus aspectos multidisciplinares, com destaque para o estudo do abusador sexual, especialmente sob o ponto vista psicológico, e a resposta criminal que é dada a esse problema. Sob o aspecto penal, além de verificar-se como o abuso sexual é tipificado em nosso Direito Penal, faz-se um retrospecto histórico acerca da pena e das medidas de segurança, refletindo-se a respeito da inadequação do tratamento penal dispensado ao preso pelo Estad...

  6. La Casación en el Sistema Penal Peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Yaipen Zapata, Victor Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta el análisis descriptivo y explicativo de la naturaleza jurídica de la casación penal, resaltando y explicando sus finalidades; en especial, se hace énfasis en su diseño normativo en el Código Procesal Penal y el tratamiento que le viene dando la Corte Suprema, como Tribunal de Casación. Mostramos además el desarrollo sistemático y fundamentado de las instituciones y aspectos jurídicos relacionados a la casación penal, como por ejemplo, el sistema de recursos en el Código Proce...

  7. A Guide to Assistance In Penal and Correctional Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bailus; Gordon, Theodore

    1973-01-01

    Lists the more significant federal assistance programs relating to penal and correctional reform which may serve as a guide for environmental health specialists who are beginning to assume much broader responsibilities in institutional environmental quality. (JR)

  8. artículo 9 del Código Penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Felipe Sánchez Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo 9 del Código Penal colombiano define, como norma rectora del sistema penal, la conducta punible. Este texto, cuestionando la recepción acrítica de doctrinas extranjeras al ordenamiento jurídico (y también códi - gos, normas, etc., expone algunos de los puntos más trascendentales de la teoría del delito, entre ellos, el concepto de conducta, desvalor de acción y re - sultado, relación de causalidad e imputación, ubicación sistemática del dolo y el tratamiento penal de los imputables a través de las interpretaciones de la doctrina penal colombiana.

  9. La prolusione di rocco e le dottrine del processo penale

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandi, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    L’articolo analizza le conseguenze del pensiero giuridico di Arturo Rocco, dal 1910 nella dottrina di procedura penale, ossia, il metodo tecnico-giuridico (esegesi, sistematica e critica). La dogmatica di procedura pena- le inizia con la monografia di Giovanni Conso, nel 1955. L’insoddisfazione con il tecnicismo giuridico e con la mancanza di maturità scientifica si è manifestata con Carnelutti nel 1946 (Cerenterola), sottolineando le peculiarità strutturali del procedimento penale. In questa...

  10. Generalized Penalized Least Squares and Its Statistical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Shijun; TAO Benzao

    2006-01-01

    The solution properties of semiparametric model are analyzed, especially that penalized least squares for semiparametric model will be invalid when the matrix BTPB is ill-posed or singular. According to the principle of ridge estimate for linear parametric model, generalized penalized least squares for semiparametric model are put forward, and some formulae and statistical properties of estimates are derived. Finally according to simulation examples some helpful conclusions are drawn.

  11. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  12. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino (México

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y comprensión del nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales de Veracruz resulta ineludible, en virtud de las nítidas diferencias existentes entre las figuras jurídicas que contiene el actual ordenamiento, en comparación con el anterior. Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión. El contenido esquemático y sustancial del código, la visión y recepción que del mismo tienen los operadores jurídicos y la sociedad en general, son aspectos que cubre el presente documento. The study and understanding of the new Code of Criminal Procedure of Veracruz is unavoidable, by reason of the sharp differences between the legal concepts that contains the actual order, compared with the previous. Needs to be systematized, describe and analyze the structure of the adversarial criminal system, in order to be able to evaluate and, if necessary, propose improvements to the system in question. The schematic and substantial content of the code, viewing and welcome that the same have the legal practitioners and society in general, are aspects covered by herein.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS, RANKING AND CLUSTERING OF HUNGARIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÁSZLÓ MAKRA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to rank and classify Hungarian cities and counties according to their environmental quality and level of environmental awareness. Ranking of the Hungarian cities and counties are represented on their „Green Cities Index” and „Green Counties Index” values. According to the methodology shown in Part 1, cities and counties were grouped on different classification techniques and efficacy of the classification was analysed. However, they did not give acceptable results either for the cities, or for the counties. According to the parameters of the here mentioned three algorithms, reasonable structures were not found in any clustering. Clusters received applying algorithm fanny, though having weak structure, indicate large and definite regions in Hungary, which can be circumscribed by clear geographical objects.

  14. Breeding value estimation in the Hungarian Sport Horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, János; Komlósi, István; Mihók, Sándor

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for a range of traits in Hungarian Sport Horses, and to compare several methods of estimating breeding value (BV) in this breed. The analyses were based on the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook, results of self-performance tests (SPTs) and show-jumping competition results. An SPT comprises subjective judgement of conformation traits, movement analysis traits and free-jumping performance, assessed via ordinal scores. Genetic parameters of SPTs were estimated with an animal model. Different measurements of the competition performance were compared using the same repeatability model. Estimates of BV for sport were made with random regression models using a first-order Legendre polynomial. Heritability was found to increase and permanent environmental variance to decrease continuously with age. BVs can be estimated at different ages and from these a composite BV index can be computed. It is possible to weight BVs for the specific age of a horse.

  15. Translating Family Names in Hungarian: A Diachronic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we focus on the translating practice and translatability of surnames used in Hungarian, from the problems of translating the immediate predecessors of surnames to the questions of translating surnames today. Our main interest is in how multilingualism, language contact situations, language prestige considerations, customs, fashion and other potential factors affect the use of these names in different languages, and the translatability in a wider sense in the actual practice in Hungary and other countries. We shall look at name translation practice in medieval documents, the relevant questions of spontaneous and conscious surname changes, the changes of Hungarian surnames used outside of Hungary, and finally the questions of translating surnames occurring in fiction.

  16. Derecho penal de la seguridad. Los peligros del derecho penal en la sociedad del riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Kindhäuser, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Una sociedad que en camino de su progreso (técnico) se genere a sí misma múltiples peligros debe, en compensación, desarrollar los instrumentos de control social que le procuren seguridad. A tal efecto se recurre, también, cada vez más al Derecho penal, el cual, sin embargo, no puede ejecutar esa tarea sin acortar o incluso renunciar a elementos esenciales del más básico Estado liberal de derecho.

  17. Derecho penal de la seguridad. Los peligros del derecho penal en la sociedad del riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Kindhäuser, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Una sociedad que en camino de su progreso (técnico) se genere a sí misma múltiples peligros debe, en compensación, desarrollar los instrumentos de control social que le procuren seguridad. A tal efecto se recurre, también, cada vez más al Derecho penal, el cual, sin embargo, no puede ejecutar esa tarea sin acortar o incluso renunciar a elementos esenciales del más básico Estado liberal de derecho.

  18. 匈牙利香肠%Hungarian sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼

    2008-01-01

    英文名:Hungarian sausage原产地:匈牙利行走匈牙利,从来不用为食物烦恼。这个国家从草原到城市,没有哪里找不到香肠摊子,在小摊上付出少许银两,匈牙利妈妈就会笑盈盈递过来一段香肠。

  19. What Influences the Savings Decisions of the Hungarian Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Horváthné Kökény; Zsuzsanna Széles

    2014-01-01

    We created a theoretical model of the main factors that influence household savings based on our secondary research, then conducted a questionnaire survey involving 4106 Hungarian households in the scope of primary research. The examined households had a low level of financial knowledge. They believe that financial literacy needs to be developed, since in general it is true that they are not adequately familiar with the various financial services and state aid options related to them. We came...

  20. ADRIAN HATOS, School Performance and Language of Hungarian Ethnic Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN HATOS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the thorniest issues of the linguistic policies in North-Western Transylvania was the establishment of linguistic arrangements in the mandatory education system. Supported also by arguments which refer to the equal opportunity rule, native language education for ethnic minority children, concerning especially the Hungarian language, has flourished both in mixed schools, and in schools that are segregated in terms of the teaching language. This article assesses the effects that the various linguistic contexts in which a Hungarian teenager in the region studies can have on his/her performance in school, compared to the performance of his/her colleagues who study in Romanian. I start from two hypotheses: linguistic shortcoming and opposition culture. The hierarchical linear regression modeling of the average of school results scores in the seventh grade, on a sample of over 3 700 pupils in the eighth grade in Bihor County, indicates a significant and systematic disadvantage of Hungarian pupils, although small as an absolute value, irrespective of the linguistic arrangement. Moreover, both the linguistic disadvantage thesis and the opposition culture model can be supported, although the results are not conclusive from this point of view.

  1. The Greek charter of the Hungarian King Stephen I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkovski Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Hungarian Christian ruler, King Stephen I (997-1038 issued several charters that have survived to this day. One of them is the charter issued on behalf of the nuns from the Monastery of the Holy Theotokos in Veszprémvölgy. The charter was written in the Greek language, and has been the subject of many studies. The original has not been preserved; what remains is a copy from the time of King Coloman, dated to 1109. The charter has not been published in a critical edition in any language other than Hungarian and even though it has been examined by numerous Hungarian scholars, many questions remain open. The aim of the author is to provide a critical edition and an English translation of the charter, but also to clarify some remaining doubts about the charter and its contents. Furthermore, some comparisons will be made with the Byzantine charters issued at the beginning of the 11th and during the 12th century.

  2. What do the Hungarian young people think about the nuclear?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmandi, T.; Aszodi, A.; Boros, I.; Hanti, A.; Legradi, G.; Petofi, G. [Budapest University of Technology and Economys, Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest (Hungary)

    2001-07-01

    During the last few years new challenges and opportunities appeared on the nuclear agenda, like the improvement of the economic competitiveness, enhancing radiation and waste safety, strengthening of the role of the public acceptance. It seems that the future of the nuclear industry depends on several things. On the one hand the scientific and technical development in the last decades worked up sufficient nuclear safety and radiation protection, and nuclear methods are widely used in the industry, agriculture and medical systems, as well. On the other hand there are some other interesting questions, like Human Relations and the public acceptance of the nuclear energy still lying ahead of us. The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1998 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to answer the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this paper our experience what we have drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth is summarised. (author)

  3. Outlier Detection Using Nonconvex Penalized Regression

    CERN Document Server

    She, Yiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the outlier detection problem from the point of view of penalized regressions. Our regression model adds one mean shift parameter for each of the $n$ data points. We then apply a regularization favoring a sparse vector of mean shift parameters. The usual $L_1$ penalty yields a convex criterion, but we find that it fails to deliver a robust estimator. The $L_1$ penalty corresponds to soft thresholding. We introduce a thresholding (denoted by $\\Theta$) based iterative procedure for outlier detection ($\\Theta$-IPOD). A version based on hard thresholding correctly identifies outliers on some hard test problems. We find that $\\Theta$-IPOD is much faster than iteratively reweighted least squares for large data because each iteration costs at most $O(np)$ (and sometimes much less) avoiding an $O(np^2)$ least squares estimate. We describe the connection between $\\Theta$-IPOD and $M$-estimators. Our proposed method has one tuning parameter with which to both identify outliers and estimate regression...

  4. Study on the Hungarian algorithm for the maximum likelihood data association problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianguo; He Peikun; Cao Wei

    2007-01-01

    A specialized Hungarian algorithm was developed here for the maximum likelihood data association problem with two implementation versions due to presence of false alarms and missed detections. The maximum likelihood data association problem is formulated as a bipartite weighted matching problem. Its duality and the optimality conditions are given. The Hungarian algorithm with its computational steps, data structure and computational complexity is presented. The two implementation versions, Hungarian forest (HF) algorithm and Hungarian tree (HT) algorithm, and their combination with the na(i)ve auction initialization are discussed. The computational results show that HT algorithm is slightly faster than HF algorithm and they are both superior to the classic Munkres algorithm.

  5. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  6. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  7. Criminologia: transtornos neuropsíquicos e imputabilidade penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Aparecido Disposti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available


    O artigo analisa a violação do princípio da culpabilidade, sustentáculo basilar do Direito Penal, que estruturado sob os demais princípios do Estado Democrático de Direito, deve projetar um Direito Penal mínimo e garantista. Entretanto, a proteção formal dos direitos e garantias individuais, no âmbito constitucional penal, não tem sido suficiente para se assegurar o jus libertatis do cidadão em conflito com o jus puniendi do Estado. A culpabilidade que fundamenta a aplicação da pena e limita a intervenção punitiva estatal, faculta ao magistrado individualizar a resposta penal de acordo com o necessário e o suficiente para a reprovação e a prevenção do crime. Porém, no Código Penal de 1940 encontram-se conceitos que não correspondem à realidade científica das psicopatologias identificadas e classificadas pela Criminologia moderna. Diferente da lei penal européia, o Código Penal brasileiro está aprisionado em seu hermetismo dogmático refletindo ainda, o reducionismo da Psiquiatria biofísica do século XIX. Esse isolamento inoculou na cultura jurídica criminal, acanhada visão das psicopatologias, que acrescido do mecanicismo da prática processual, afasta a justiça criminal de reconhecer os transtornos neuropsíquicos. É necessário que o Direito Penal brasileiro se abra à interdisciplinaridade da moderna Criminologia para adequar a sua

  8. New Approach for Error Reduction in the Volume Penalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakami-Nakano, Wakana; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Hattori, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The volume penalization method offers an efficient way to numerically simulate flows around complex-shaped bodies which move and/or deform in general. In this method a penalization term which has permeability eta and a mask function is added to a governing equation as a forcing term in order to impose different dynamics in solid and fluid regions. In this paper we investigate the accuracy of the volume penalization method in detail. We choose the one-dimensional Burgers' equation as a governing equation since it enables us extensive study and it has a nonlinear term similar to the Navier-Stokes equations. It is confirmed that the error which consists of the discretization/truncation error, the penalization error, the round-off error, and others has the same features as those in previous results when we use the standard definition of the mask function. As the number of grid points increases, the error converges to a non-zero constant which is equal to the penalization error. We propose a new approach for reduc...

  9. ABUZUL DE PUTERE SAU ABUZUL DE SERVICIU: DELIMITAREA ILICITULUI PENAL DE CEL CONTRAVENŢIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana EŞANU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prezentul studiu este consacrat determinării concrete a momentului în care abuzul de putere sau abuzul de serviciu finalizează a mai fi o faptă contravenţională în sensul art.312 Cod contravenţional, metamorfozându-se într-o faptă pre­judiciabilă care este incriminată în sfera ilicitului penal, la concret – la art.327 CP RM. Obiectivul enunţat ridică nume­roase probleme, dat fiind interpretarea neunitară a conţinutului unor semne ce constituie criterii de demarcaţie între numitele fapte, care, la rândul lor, au ocazionat o insecuritate juridică; or, destinatarul şi beneficiarul legii penale rămân într-o incertitudine asupra sferei de aplicare a uneia dintre legi: penale ori contravenţionale. Astfel privite lucrurile, în lucrare au fost soluţionate unele chestiuni principiale referitoare la motivul de operare al făptuitorului în contextul folosirii situaţiei de serviciu şi la urmările prejudiciabile rezultate dintr-o astfel de activitate, ceea ce ne-a permis disocierea infracţiunii prevăzute la art.327 CP RM de contravenţia cu aceeaşi denumire consacrată în art.312 Cod contra­venţional. ABUSE OF POWER OR ABUSE OF SERVICE: DEMARCATION OF CRIMINAL AND CONTRAVENTION IILICITThis article is devoted to the concrete determination of the moment in which the abuse of power or abuse of service finishes with a contravention deed of Article 312 from Contravention Code, changing completely in a prejudicial deed which is charged in the criminal illicit sphere specifically in Article 327 Criminal Code. The stated objective raises many problems given the heterogeneous interpretation of the signs’ content which constitute demarcation criteria between called facts, which in turn have brought legal insecurity or the recipient and beneficiary of Criminal Law remains in an uncertainty over the application sphere of one of the laws: criminal or contravention. Beyond that, in this paper were solved some issues related to

  10. Natio Made Visible: The Hungarian Political Community in Illustrated Books (ca. 1350–1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Mroziewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natio Made Visible: The Hungarian Political Community in Illustrated Books (ca. 1350–1700 The main objective of this paper is to examine the understanding of the natio Hungarica, as it emerges from the texts and images of a number of richly illustrated Hungarian books. The Chronicon pictum (ca. 1358, János Thuróczy’s Chronica Hungarorum (Brno, Augsburg, 1488, Mausoleum regum et Ungariae ducum (Nuremberg, 1664, Trophaeum domus Estorasianae (Vienna, 1700 and Clarissimorum Hungariae heroum icones (Vienna, 1652 served as points of reference for the discussion on the ways in which the Hungarian political community wanted to be and was perceived prior to its eighteenth- and nineteenthcentury transformation into a modern nation. The study encompasses the formative period of Hungarian illustrated books that contributed to the formulation of the national imagery in Hungary, based on the ethno-genetic myths, memories of shared ancestry and collective past, cultural values, legal code, customs and models of conduct, modes of self-display, and, last but not least, on the imagery of the homeland. The three-and-a-half-century chronological scope of the study has made it possible to trace the major changes which the concept of natio Hungarica underwent between mid-fourteenth and seventeenth centuries.   Unaoczniona Nacja Węgierska wspólnota polityczna w książkach ilustrowanych (ca. 1350 – 1700 Głównym celem artykułu było zbadanie rozumienia pojęcia natio Hungarica, jakie wyłania się z tekstów i obrazów węgierskich książek ilustrowanych. Chronicon pictum (ca. 1358, Chronica Hungarorum Jánosa Thuróczy’ego (Brno, Augsburg, 1488, Mausoleum regum et Ungariae ducum (Norymberga, 1664, Trophaeum domus Estorasianae (Wiedeń, 1700 oraz Clarissimorum Hungariae heroum icones (Wiedeń, 1652 stanowiły punkt wyjścia do analizy wyobrażeń, jakie wspólnota polityczna miała na swój temat oraz jakie starano się jej narzucić przed er

  11. MEDIASI PENAL SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENYELESAIAN PERKARA PENCURIAN RINGAN (STUDI DI POLRES MALANG KOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hasudungan Hutajulu

    2016-02-01

      Key words: penal mediation, minor theft case, an alternative penal settlement   Abstrak Penelitian mengenai pelaksanaan mediasi penal pada tindak pidana pencurian ringan oleh Polres Malang Kota bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis digunakannya mediasi penal serta menganalisis pelaksanaan mediasi penal sebagai alternatif penyelesaian perkara. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah yuridis sosiologis atau jenis penelitian hukum sosiologis atau penelitian lapangan. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh antara lain: Polres Malang Kota melakukan mediasi penal dengan alasan agar tercipta rasa keadilan terhadap para saksi sehingga masyarakat puas atas pelayanan yang dilakukan penyidik. Selain itu, langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam penerapan mediasi penal ini adalah mempertemukan para pihak, penyidik menyaksikan pengembalian barang yang dicuri oleh pelaku, membantu membuat surat kesepakatan bersama, menerima surat pencabutan perkara serta melakukan gelar perkara.   Kata kunci: mediasi penal, pencurian ringan, alternatif penyelesaian perkara

  12. EL DOLO EN EL CÓDIGO PENAL DE 2000

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende examinar el alcance y el sentido material de la figura dogmática del dolo, prevista en el artículo 22 del Código Penal (Ley 599 de 2000) como forma de imputación subjetiva general de la conducta punible (artículo 21), de la siguiente manera: “[l]a conducta es dolosa cuando el agente conoce los hechos constitutivos de la infracción penal y quiere su realización. También será dolosa la conducta cuando la realización de la infracción penal ha sido prevista como probable y s...

  13. EL TERRORISMO EN EL CÓDIGO PENAL COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Torres Vásquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se intenta de manera general abordar el terrorismo desde el punto de vista puramente legal, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. En Colombia es necesario y en ello radica este aporte, generar discusión jurídica respecto a la implementación de los delitos de terrorismo. Aquí se pretende puntualizar los tipos penales nuestros y se estudian algunos aspectos imbricados en los mismos, sin que ello sea un aspecto formal y dogmático, sino que alcontrario, es un análisis a la luz de las actuales interpretaciones sobre el terrorismo, lo cual no obsta para hacer algunos muy breves comentarios al respecto. Los elementos constitutivos de los bienes jurídicos Seguridad Pública y Derecho internacional Humanitario son analizados junto a los ingredientes normativos de los dos tipos penales estipulados en nuestro código penal.

  14. Penalized maximum likelihood estimation and variable selection in geostatistics

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Tingjin; Wang, Haonan; 10.1214/11-AOS919

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of selecting covariates in spatial linear models with Gaussian process errors. Penalized maximum likelihood estimation (PMLE) that enables simultaneous variable selection and parameter estimation is developed and, for ease of computation, PMLE is approximated by one-step sparse estimation (OSE). To further improve computational efficiency, particularly with large sample sizes, we propose penalized maximum covariance-tapered likelihood estimation (PMLE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$) and its one-step sparse estimation (OSE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$). General forms of penalty functions with an emphasis on smoothly clipped absolute deviation are used for penalized maximum likelihood. Theoretical properties of PMLE and OSE, as well as their approximations PMLE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$ and OSE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$ using covariance tapering, are derived, including consistency, sparsity, asymptotic normality and the oracle properties. For covariance tapering, a by-product of our theoretical results is consistency and asymptotic normal...

  15. The new system of the talent development program in Hungarian soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csáki István

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: due to a series of failures and the drastic reduction in the quality of Hungarian soccer, greater emphasis should be put on coaches’ professional development and talent development programs. The aim of this study was to present the newly established Hungarian Soccer Development Program that focuses on the development of youth talent.

  16. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  17. The National Union Catalog and Its Role in Reference and Research in the Hungarian Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlan, Judith B.

    The National Union Catalog (NUC), a repository of the cataloged holdings of major research libraries of the United States and Canada, has significance in the area of Hungarian studies despite special problems encountered in the separation of these cards from those in other languages and in editing Hungarian names and the use of accents. The Union…

  18. The Hungarian ICT sector – a comparative CEE perspective with special emphasis on structural change

    OpenAIRE

    Balázs Lengyel

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the Hungarian ICT sector from a Central European and Estern European perspective. It outlines the position of the ICT sector in Central European and Eastern European states. Furthermore, it describes the impact of ICT on structural improvement in the regiuon. In conclusion, it gives an overview of the Hungarian ICT policy.

  19. The acquisition of Hungarian high front unrounded short vs. long vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajdó, K.; Wempe, T.G.; van der Stelt, J.; Pols, L.C.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined spectral properties of the Hungarian vowel pair /i/ vs. /i:/ with contrasting phonemic vowel lengths in 2;0 and 4;0 years old boys acquiring Hungarian as their native language. Results were obtained by an automated pitch-synchronous bandfilter analysis method that estimates the

  20. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

    1. Epistemología e historia del juicio penal oral

      OpenAIRE

      Juan de Dios González Ibarra; Emilio Peña Rangel

      2008-01-01

      El diario avance de la sociedad ha dado origen a nuevas exigencias en los diversos campos de la vida cotidiana, y el derecho no es la excepción. La base de esta investigación es la urgente necesidad de innovación dentro del ámbito del derecho procesal penal, para hacer frente a los rezagos existentes. El objetivo es estudiar los antecedentes y la epistemología de los juicios orales como un nuevo sistema emergente de justicia penal, cuestionándonos principalmente desde los puntos de vista de l...

    2. La terminación anticipada del proceso penal

      OpenAIRE

      Chaparro Borda, Víctor Manuel

      1992-01-01

      El artículo 37 del Decreto 2700 de 1991 consagrada un nuevo mecanismo procesal que permite terminar el proceso penal en forma anticipada. La naturaleza jurídica de este instrumento no implica negociar la pena ni tasarla en forma anticipada por parte del fiscal, pues ha de tenerse en cuenta que este no tiene la disponibilidad de la acción penal ni la facultad de determinar el cuantum punitivo en concreto, su función constitucional consiste en investigar y acusar, no en forma discrecional o f...

    3. Cooperación judicial penal en Europa

      OpenAIRE

      Carmona Ruano, Miguel; González Vega, Ignacio U.; Moreno Catena, Víctor; Arnáiz Serrano, Amaya

      2013-01-01

      Directores: Miguel Carmona Ruano, Ignacio U. González Vega, Víctor Moreno Catena. Coordinadora: Amaya Arnáiz Serrano Unión Europea Evolución de la Cooperación Judicial Penal Internacional: en especial, la Cooperación Judicial Penal en Europa / Amaya Arnáiz Serrano. -- El cambio de paradigma y el principio de reconocimiento mutuo y sus implicaciones. Perspectivas del Tratado de Lisboa / Víctor Moreno Catena. -- El fortalecimiento de la confianza mutua: garantías procesales del imputad...

    4. Compound Identification Using Penalized Linear Regression on Metabolomics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Ruiqi; Wu, Dongfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Kim, Seongho

      2016-05-01

      Compound identification is often achieved by matching the experimental mass spectra to the mass spectra stored in a reference library based on mass spectral similarity. Because the number of compounds in the reference library is much larger than the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) values so that the data become high dimensional data suffering from singularity. For this reason, penalized linear regressions such as ridge regression and the lasso are used instead of the ordinary least squares regression. Furthermore, two-step approaches using the dot product and Pearson's correlation along with the penalized linear regression are proposed in this study.

    5. El tercero civilmente responsable en el procedimiento penal colombiano

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Miguel Córdoba Angulo

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available Se hace un análisis del sistema de responsabilidad civil extracontractual por el cual pueden ser convocados los llamados terceros civilmente responsables y la manera en la que se encuentra regulada su participación en los procedimientos penales. En concreto, se argüirá que la regulación vigente de la figura en el actual Código de Procedimiento Penal no se compadece con la legislación sustancial ni con las exigencias constitucionales mínimas que deben orientar toda actuación judicial.

    6. TRIBUNAL CONSTITUCIONAL Y DERECHO PENAL: UN ESTUDIO CRÍTICO

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Ángel Fernández Cruz

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como principal finalidad sistematizar y exponer algunas de las carac - terísticas de la jurisprudencia del TC en materia penal sustantiva desde la Reforma de la Constitución de 2005. Desafortunadamente, la principal característica de nuestra jurisprudencia constitucional radica en el incumplimiento de la mínima protección exigida a un TC en el control de las leyes penales. A partir del análisis crítico de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional este estudio propone una serie de cambios jurisprudenciales, algunos de la mayor urgencia.

    7. HERMITE SCATTERED DATA FITTING BY THE PENALIZED LEAST SQUARES METHOD

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Tianhe Zhou; Danfu Han

      2009-01-01

      Given a set of scattered data with derivative values. If the data is noisy or there is an extremely large number of data, we use an extension of the penalized least squares method of von Golitschek and Schumaker[Serdica, 18 (2002), pp.1001-1020]to fit the data. We show that the extension of the penalized least squares method produces a unique spline to fit the data. Also we give the error bound for the extension method. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    8. Funciones del Fiscal en el Sistema Procesal Penal Acusatorio Ecuatoriano

      OpenAIRE

      Guillén, Oscar Medardo

      2006-01-01

      El art.219 de la Constitución Política vigente, define el nuevo marco legal, para el ejercicio de la acción penal de instancia pública, del Ministerio Público, en concordancia con el Nuevo Código de Procedimiento Penal y la Ley Orgánica del Ministerio Público, instrumentos jurídicos que han permitido el cambio del sistema conocido como inquisitivo , caracterizado por la concentración de funciones en el juez, para dar paso al sistema acusatorio oral que se ha dicho es mas humano, democrático y...

    9. Inconstitucionalidades del Nuevo Código Procesal Penal

      OpenAIRE

      Vásquez Arana, César

      2016-01-01

      Los sistemas procesales adquieren sus características de acuerdo a la ideología política que impera en una determinada época y la concepción del Estado y del sujeto en la administración de justicia, en cuanto a privilegiar el interés colectivo o el individual, el principio de autoridad o la libertad individual. Basándose en estos aspectos es que hoy en día en materia procesal penal se distingue básicamente que nuestro proceso penal se sujeta al modelo acusatorio, en donde el individuo ocupa e...

    10. Epistemología e historia del juicio penal oral

      OpenAIRE

      Juan de Dios González Ibarra

      2008-01-01

      El diario avance de la sociedad ha dado origen a nuevas exigencias en los diversos campos de la vida cotidiana, y el derecho no es la excepción. La base de esta investigación es la urgente necesidad de innovación dentro del ámbito del derecho procesal penal, para hacer frente a los rezagos existentes. El objetivo es estudiar los antecedentes y la epistemología de los juicios orales como un nuevo sistema emergente de justicia penal, cuestionándonos principalmente desde los puntos de vista de l...

    11. Computerization of Hungarian reforestation manual with machine learning methods

      Science.gov (United States)

      Czimber, Kornél; Gálos, Borbála; Mátyás, Csaba; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

      2017-04-01

      Hungarian forests are highly sensitive to the changing climate, especially to the available precipitation amount. Over the past two decades several drought damages were observed for tree species which are in the lower xeric limit of their distribution. From year to year these affected forest stands become more difficult to reforest with the same native species because these are not able to adapt to the increasing probability of droughts. The climate related parameter set of the Hungarian forest stand database needs updates. Air humidity that was formerly used to define the forest climate zones is not measured anymore and its value based on climate model outputs is highly uncertain. The aim was to develop a novel computerized and objective method to describe the species-specific climate conditions that is essential for survival, growth and optimal production of the forest ecosystems. The method is expected to project the species spatial distribution until 2100 on the basis of regional climate model simulations. Until now, Hungarian forest managers have been using a carefully edited spreadsheet for reforestation purposes. Applying binding regulations this spreadsheet prescribes the stand-forming and admixed tree species and their expected growth rate for each forest site types. We are going to present a new machine learning based method to replace the former spreadsheet. We took into great consideration of various methods, such as maximum likelihood, Bayesian networks, Fuzzy logic. The method calculates distributions, setups classification, which can be validated and modified by experts if necessary. Projected climate change conditions makes necessary to include into this system an additional climate zone that does not exist in our region now, as well as new options for potential tree species. In addition to or instead of the existing ones, the influence of further limiting parameters (climatic extremes, soil water retention) are also investigated. Results will be

    12. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION IN HUNGARIAN DAIRY SECTOR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rozsa Andrea

      2014-07-01

      The preliminary sample for the analysis is framed on the basis of three criteria: amount of the subscribed capital, sales revenues and product structure. Those companies are regarded as competitors that have subscribed capitals in excess of HUF 250 million, consistently high levels of sales revenues and diversified product structures. The preliminary sample consists of 7 companies. In 2012, their total sales revenues were as high as about 50% of the overall amount of sales revenues in the sector. Three of the 7 companies are possessed by foreign owners in full or part, whereas 4 of them belong to Hungarian owners. In 2012, Hungarian-owned companies covered more than one-third of the combined sales revenues of the 7 leading companies. Hence, the competitive positions of these 4 companies based on their financial positions are examined. These calculations have relied on the annual reports for the period of 2008–2012 (balance sheets, income statements, cash flow statements. The research has implemented a comprehensive and comparative financial analysis. The main question is what the key financial characteristics of the Hungarian-owned companies are. Financial indicators are calculated and their time-series analysis is accomplished to describe the sample companies’ capital structures, liquidity and profitability. Using comparative analysis of the applied financial ratios the study determines (1 which company has the most advantageous financial conditions for the successful operation; (2 which companies have disadvantageous financial situation; and (3 which companies are in potential financial distress situation. Potential bankruptcy positions are examined by the applications of Altman and Springate models.

    13. Las medidas de seguridad en materia penal juvenil Security measures in juvenile criminal law

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mayra Campos Zuñiga

      2006-03-01

      Full Text Available En la actualidad existe una ardua discusión sobre las sanciones dentro del derecho penal juvenil, tema que cobra especial relevancia cuando nos enfrentamos a conductas delictivas cometidas por personas menores de edad en las cuales se ha determinado su condición de inimputables o toxicómanos a partir de las conclusiones de las pericias respectivas. El cuestionamiento nos lleva a dos posibles soluciones: una darle un abordaje como un problema de salud y excluirlo del derecho penal y otra, mantener la línea tradicional, en la cual se faculta al derecho penal sancionar la conducta delictiva, imponiendo una medida de seguridad. Si se admite la primera posición, la normativa aplicable lo constituye el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, el cual contempla la posibilidad de imponer medidas de protección para quienes están en una situación de vulnerabilidad, dentro de las que se ubican los casos de inimputables y toxicómanos, esto implica admitir medidas de "seguridad o protección" con una naturaleza jurídica de carácter administrativo. Posición que implicaría no sólo una vulneración de derechos sino que contraviene lo señalado por Sala Constitucional, la cual al desarrollar el alcance del artículo 39 de la Constitución Política, ha señalado que la imposición de las sanciones y por ende de las medidas de seguridad gozan de la garantía de la reserva de ley, destacando su naturaleza jurisdiccional y exclusivamente ante la comisión de delitos. La única solución posible en aras del respeto de esta reserva legal, es aplicar, conforme al artículo 9 de la Ley de Justicia Penal Juvenil la legislación penal de adultos y admitir la imposición de medidas de seguridad en la justicia penal juvenil.Currently, there has been an arduous discussion about penalties in juvenile criminal law, topic which becomes especially relevant when we are faced to criminal conducts from people who are underage, in which their condition of not guilty or

    14. Contextualizing History in Hungarian Films of the New Millennium

      OpenAIRE

      Clara Orban

      2016-01-01

      Hungarian films produced after the year 2000 build on the historical reality of the fall of communism and anticipate, or come to terms with, entry into the European Union.  This article will explore six films that deal with history through multiple perspectives to dramatize the dynamic between historical events and human responses to them.  These films reference history, or efface it, as a way of problematizing the relationship between human behavior and history.  Colossal Sensation [Világszá...

    15. Privatización de la acción penal: un concepto ajustado al derecho penal moderno

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mery Angélica Mantilla García

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito revisar el concepto de privatización de la acción penal, haciendo para ello un breve recuento histórico, explorando la reforma constitucional realizada al artículo 250 de la Carta Política, analizando las consideraciones hechas por la Corte Constitucional y revisando las críticas a esta posibilidad procesal. Ello, con la finalidad de construir un concepto moderno de privatización de la acción penal que haga viable su implementación en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano y pueda cumplir con el aspecto formal y material del Derecho Penal actual.

    16. Líneas para desarrollar un saber del derecho penal internacional de contención. En Molina, R. (Coord.). Lecciones de Derecho penal, procedimiento penal y política criminal. (pp. 99-141).

      OpenAIRE

      Martínez, Javier Botero

      2014-01-01

      El autor, luego de aludir a la paternidad y di­ferencias entre las locuciones derecho penal internacional e internacional penal (Völkerstra­frecht o Internacionales Strafrecht), y de indi­car que empleará el nombre de derecho penal Internacional (Völkerstrafrecht) para denotar lo que algunos llaman derecho internacional penal (Völkerstrafrecht o Internacionales Stra­frecht) procede, no sin antes hacer una breve historia en el ámbito colombiano del mismo, a diferenciar las nociones de poder pu...

    17. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

      2002-01-01

      The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

    18. Sobre la internacionalización de la justicia penal o el derecho penal como instrumento de guerra

      OpenAIRE

      Ariza Zapata, Daniel

      2009-01-01

      Hablar de Derecho Penal es, sin lugar a dudas, una labor compleja en la medida en que, como suele ser habitual en el ámbito jurídico, no resulta sencillo delimitar su horizonte de proyección. Dado que la ciencia jurídica se expresa por medio de convenciones lingüísticas, de ella pueden predicarse las mismas falencias y dificultades de que adolecen los términos y las palabras, razón suficiente para advertir que, si se quiere abordar un problema esencial del Derecho Penal en cualquier espacio a...

    19. Privatización de la acción penal: un concepto ajustado al derecho penal moderno

      OpenAIRE

      Mery Angélica Mantilla García

      2014-01-01

      Este artículo tiene como propósito revisar el concepto de privatización de la acción penal, haciendo para ello un breve recuento histórico, explorando la reforma constitucional realizada al artículo 250 de la Carta Política, analizando las consideraciones hechas por la Corte Constitucional y revisando las críticas a esta posibilidad procesal. Ello, con la finalidad de construir un concepto moderno de privatización de la acción penal que haga viable su implementación en el ordenamiento jurídic...

    20. Spanish Intonation of Hungarian Learners of Spanish: Yes or No Questions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kata Baditzné Pálvölgyi

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available The present dissertation is a comparative study of the intonation of yes-no questions in Hungarian and Spanish. Based especially on my own corpora, I examine the realization of the main accent in utterances, pitch range, and the intonational patterns applied. First, these aspects will be investigated in a Spanish corpus (Corpus 1 then in a Hungarian corpus (Corpus 2 and after that, I will make hypotheses about the ways Hungarians pronounce Spanish yes-no questions. These predictions then will be validated by means of a corpus containing Spanish yes-no questions produced by Hungarian learners of Spanish (Corpus 3. My predictions were the following: (a As the place of main accent in an utterance depends on lexical stress, and lexical stress placement obeys different rules in the two languages, it is predictable that Hungarian learners of Spanish will not produce Spanish main accents according to the Spanish norms. (b Hungarian uses a narrower pitch range than Spanish, thus, the Spanish yes-no interrogatives produced by Hungarian learners are expected to have a narrower pitch range. (c The intonation contours applied will be investigated in 3 subgroups of yes-no questions: ordinary yes-no questions, echo yes-no questions and yes-no questions followed by a vocative. Ordinary yes-no questions in Hungarian are typically accompanied by rising-falling contours, whereas in Spanish, by rising ones; Hungarian echo yes-no questions have several main accents, each triggering a rise-fall contour, while in their Spanish counterparts there is one main accent in these cases, with a characteristically rising pattern. Yes-no question + vocative sequences contain two intonation units in both languages, but in Hungarian the yes-no interrogative conserves its rising-falling melody, and the vocative is accompanied by a fall, unlike in Spanish, where both contours are rising, and the final vocative is given the higher rise. Based on these observations, the prediction

    1. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

      Science.gov (United States)

      Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

      2001-05-01

      We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

    2. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

      Science.gov (United States)

      Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

      2004-05-01

      We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

    3. The hatching results of indigenous Hungarian speckled hens

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ákos Benk

      2016-05-01

      Full Text Available In the pilot farm of Szeged University Faculty of Agriculture we keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the naked-neck type since 1977. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavor to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the hatching results of both type of speckled hens, during more than 20 generations.

    4. Effect of special Hungarian probiotic kefir on faecal microflora

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Mária Figler; Gyula Mózsik; Béla Schaffer; Beáta Gasztonyi; Pongrác (A)cs; Béla Szili; Regina Rab; Sándor Szakály

      2006-01-01

      AIM: To investigate the effect of a four-week consumption of a special Hungarian probiotic agent (Biofir(R)) on the faecal microflora in human healthy subjects.METHODS: The effect of Biofir(R) with 106/cm3 initial germs on the faecal microflora was studied in 120healthy volunteers (71 females, 49 males). The traditional Russian type kefir was used as control. The various germ groups and pH values were determined in wk 2, 4and 6.RESULTS: The number of all microbes increased during the 4-week probiotic treatment. The number of microbes increased 4.3-fold in the control group and 6.8-fold in Biofir-treated group. The probiotic kefir caused multiplication of the probiotic flora, meanwhile the undesired bacteria multiplied in the control group. No significant change of pH values of the faeces was found in both groups.CONCLUSION: The Hungarian probiotic kefir (Biofir(R)) is capable of promoting multiplication of probiotic bacterial flora in the large bowel.

    5. WEAKNESSES OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRADITIONAL HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITIES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gabriella KECZER

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available Transformation of the management of traditional higher education institutionsemerged in Hungary following the change of the political system in 1990,however, an appropriate answer has not been found to date. The first step inthe management of reform is identification of the issues that need to beresolved through the implementation of changes.The present research has been aimed at identifying the present weaknessesof the inner management system of traditional Hungarian universities, thusfind a solid starting point for reforming it. I conducted in-depth interviews inthe course of research, with 10 top university managers who represent 9institutions, thus the majority of traditional Hungarian universities. Such aresearch has not been made at least for the last decade.In my paper first I present the current legal framework of the system ofuniversity management. Then I give an assessment of it on the basis of theinterviews, analysing the deficiencies, the external and internal obstacles toefficient management I conclude that the present leaders of theuniversities can exactly identify those deficiencies of the system and therelated external and internal circumstances that lead to disturbed operationand low efficiency. The results obtained through the interviews suggest that areform of the internal management should rearrange intra-university powerrelations and harmonize scopes of responsibility and competence. A shifttoward a stronger central, rectoral and a more limited faculty- and bodyrelatedmanagement appears necessary.

    6. Hungarian Accounting Regulations: Exposed to the Cross-Fire

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rita Ambrus

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight two factors influencing Hungarian accounting regulations: the legislation of accounting in the last 25 years and the most important features of the taxation system. Both of them can influence the main requirement of the Hungarian Act on Accounting, the true and fair view. The research methods are based on a synthesis of the national and international literature. The authors examine the regulation system embedded in the legal and economic environment. The paper shows the accounting legislation in Hungary after the changing of the regime, its asymmetry, the attitude of the legislators and the current situation. The analysis of the tax system is connected to the provisions of accounting, highlighting the problems of the tax administration, the relation between corporate tax and the resultsof accounting and the intention to simplify it. The main conclusion is to make the system more flexible, in line with the legal and fiscal institutions, to fulfil its important requirements.

    7. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gábor Michalkó

      2006-06-01

      Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

    8. [Arterial hypertension in females engaged into penal system work].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tagirova, M M; El'garov, A A; Shogenova, A B; Murtazov, A M

      2010-01-01

      The authors proved significant prevalence of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis risk factors in women engaged into penal system work--so these values form cardiovascular risk caused by environmental parameters. Teveten and Nebilet were proved effective in the examinees with arterial hypertension.

    9. Education--Penal Institutions: U. S. and Europe.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kerle, Ken

      Penal systems of European countries vary in educational programs and humanizing efforts. A high percentage of Soviet prisoners, many incarcerated for ideological/religious beliefs, are confined to labor colonies. All inmates are obligated to learn a trade, one of the qualifications for release being evidence of some trade skill. Swedish…

    10. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiparametric additive hazards model

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

      . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

    11. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiprarametric additive hazard model

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

      2012-01-01

      . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

    12. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Russell, Carrie

      2004-01-01

      Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

    13. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Russell, Carrie

      2004-01-01

      Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

    14. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bin Wang

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

    15. Euthanasia in the Broader Framework of Dutch Penal Policies

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

      2006-01-01

      The authors have regarded euthanasia in the broader framework of Dutch penal policies. They present euthanasia as a typical example of the pragmatic - rather than dogmatic - way the Dutch try to tackle difficult moral problems in connection with the criminal justice system. Definitions, statutory la

    16. Euthanasia in the Broader Framework of Dutch Penal Policies

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

      2006-01-01

      The authors have regarded euthanasia in the broader framework of Dutch penal policies. They present euthanasia as a typical example of the pragmatic - rather than dogmatic - way the Dutch try to tackle difficult moral problems in connection with the criminal justice system. Definitions, statutory

    17. Analysis and discretization of the volume penalized Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions

      CERN Document Server

      Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai

      2014-01-01

      We study the properties of an approximation of the Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions using volume penalization. For the one-dimensional Poisson equation we compute explicitly the exact solution of the penalized equation and quantify the penalization error. Numerical simulations using finite differences allow then to assess the discretisation and penalization errors. The eigenvalue problem of the penalized Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions is also studied. As examples in two space dimensions, we consider a Poisson equation with Neumann boundary conditions in rectangular and circular domains.

    18. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

    19. Lexical Borrowing in the Speech of First-Generation Hungarian Immigrants in Australia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Anikó Hatoss

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available This article reports findings of a sociolinguistic project which investigated language contact phenomena in the speech of first-generation Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The research aimed to identify and analyze English lexical items borrowed into the spoken Hungarian of first-generation Hungarian–English bilinguals. This research had a mixed methods approach including a quantitative element (count of lexical manifestations by categories such as part of speech and a qualitative element in which the various lexical manifestations have been subjected to a linguistic analysis. The Hungarian National Corpus was used as a reference guide to determine the status of these phenomena in the lexicon of Standard Hungarian. The data were collected through semi-structured sociolinguistic interviews with 22 Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The findings demonstrate that (a first-generation Hungarians are highly creative language users and integrate a large number of English lexical items into their speech. Most lexical borrowings belong to the derivational blends with the highest proportion of the nominal group. Lexical borrowings from English are morphologically integrated with Hungarian-derivational suffixes and inflectional case markings. This research provides original empirical data to better understand the various inter-language lexical manifestations in Hungarian–English bilingual contexts. The study adds to the relatively small body of research on Hungarian–English bilingualism in diasporic context and contributes to understanding lexical borrowing from a contact linguistic perspective.

    20. Translating Welsh Drama Into Hungarian Through English: A Contextual Introduction to Sêra Moore Williams’ Crash in Hungarian Translation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Márta Minier

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available This article offers a predominantly contextual introduction to my translation of a contemporary Welsh play by Sêra Moore Williams, Crash (2004, into Hungarian. Williams' three-person drama for young people was written originally in the author's native language, Welsh, and translated into English by the playwright herself. In my translation process of the play from English to Hungarian the intermediary role played by English raises ethical concerns from a postcolonial perspective, while in a pragmatic sense it is almost a necessity to rely on it when communicating Welsh-language cultural production to the broader international public, including to other minor languages. The article will place the drama in its generic context, introducing the play as a Theater in Education piece, as Williams' work has been inspirational in the development of tantermi színház [classroom theater] in Hungary since the early 2000s. As a specific case study within the case study, the additional discussion of the translation of Williams' polysemic title will provide an insight into the role such a significant paratext plays in uprooting a dramatic text from one culture to another.

    1. [Suggestions of reshaping medical education (The Hungarian medical elite at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) 1947-1948].

      Science.gov (United States)

      N Szabó, József

      2017-03-01

      This study is part of the monograph entitled Scientific Elites and Politics (1945-1948) to be published soon. The relationships of political parties with several elite groups, such as groups of agronomic, human, economic, legal, technical and natural sciences, as well as the roles of these elites in scientific life, have been looked into and published in renowned periodicals. Using new sources, different specialist groups' and political powers' suggestions of reshaping medical education in 1947 and 1948, are presented. The medical elite's situation at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is also outlined. The study renders an account of the entire post-war medical elite. It will be stated who and based on what scientific achievement became member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, who was appointed to professor and who became a habilitated doctor. This study, which is a desideratum of research, may not only interest researchers but is aimed at a broader readership, including physicians. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(11), 432-437.

    2. Justicia penal en el Estado arbitrario. La reforma procesal penal durante el nacionalsocialismo, de Javier Llobet Rodríguez

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Camilo Ernesto Bernal Sarmiento

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available La obra del profesor Dr. Javier Llobet Rodríguez, catedrático de la Universidad de Costa Rica y abogado litigante, se inserta en una corriente de trabajos surgidos en los últimos diez años en Alemania, España y Latinoamérica relacionados con la identificación del papel que pudieron haber cumplido el derecho penal y la criminología, lo mismo que sus académicos y operadores judiciales, en el proceso de justificación, legitimación formal y aplicación práctica de la barbarie del régimen nacional socialista que lideró Adolf Hitler. En línea de continuidad con sus trabajos de investigación sobre la presunción de inocencia, la detención preventiva y las garantías procesales, Llobet nos propone en Justicia penal en el Estado arbitrario, la reforma procesal penal durante el nacionalsocialismo, analizar la importancia de las garantías del debido proceso estudiando para ello su antítesis, ejemplificada en la actuación meramente policial y la reforma procesal penal que se llevo a cabo durante el nacionalsocialismo   

    3. Los delitos sexuales: la ley y la práctica judicial en la Provincia de Buenos Aires durante el período de codifcación del derecho penal argentino (1877-1892.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gisela Sedeillan.

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available After the passage of the frst penal code in the Province of Buenos Aires in 1877, judges interpreted it in such a way so that the victims of rape and statutory rape had to press charges rather than the state directly seeking justice. This regulation of judicial procedure led to profound transformations in legal practice, operating more as an obstacle than a beneft to the protection of victim’s right by limiting their ability to take part in the legal proceedings as plaintiffs, which made it impossible to punish the accused. The reigning norm in the national Penal Code was reformed in order to reconcile the law with the social reality of the victims and make it possible to effectively protect the rights of those who fled the lawsuit with the state. We confine this work to the period from 1877-1892 in order to analyze the application and interpretation of the provincial penal code and the changes introduced with the sanction of the national Penal Code in the judicial branch.

    4. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zsolnay Eva M.

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

    5. O controle da pobreza operado através do sistema penal Poverty control and the penal system

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fernanda Kilduff

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Com o objetivo de refletir sobre criminalização/penalização, este artigo analisa a virada neoconservadora em relação à política criminal, como mais uma expressão do conjunto de mudanças operadas no marco do capitalismo contemporâneo. Em um contexto caraterizado pelo retrocesso das políticas sociais, discute a expansão do sistema penal como estratégia privilegiada pelos Estados capitalistas para conter e administrar em forma criminalizadora as crescentes e cada vez mais complexas manifestações da "questão social¹" atreladas a uma situação objetiva de desemprego maciço e estrutural. Para finalizar o debate, apresenta elementos tanto para refletir sobre a função histórica do direito penal burguês quanto para analisar seu papel fundamental na atual estratégia imperialista.To reflect on the criminalization and penalization of poverty, this article analyzes the neoconservative turn in criminal policy, as an expression of recent changes under contemporary capitalism. In a context characterized by a regression in social policies, the paper discusses the expansion of the penal system as a strategy used by capitalist States to contain and administer in a criminalizing form the growing and increasingly complex manifestations of the "social question" linked to an objective situation of massive and structural unemployment. To conclude the debate, it presents some elements to reflect on the historic function of bourgeois penal law and to analyze its fundamental role in current imperialist strategy.

    6. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

      2012-05-01

      Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

    7. Polymorphism of clotting factors in Hungarian patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shemirani, Amir-Houshang; Szomják, Edit; Balogh, Emese; András, Csilla; Kovács, Dóra; Acs, Judit; Csiki, Zoltán

      2011-01-01

      Patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon may have a genetically determined risk for clotting factors that predispose them to aberrant microvascular thrombosis. We investigated the prevalence of factor V substitution of G to A at position 1691 (FVLeiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in these patients. Two hundred (158 women, 42 men, mean age of 42.4 ± 13.7 years) consecutive patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and 200 age-sex-matched healthy controls of Hungarian origin were included in a case-control study. The prevalence of methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous among patients was significantly lower than in the control group (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9, P Raynaud's phenomenon and control subjects. FVLeiden, prothrombin G20210A, and polymorphism, prothrombin G20210A mutations have no apparent effect on the etiology of primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

    8. THE SHEEPSKIN EFFECT IN THE HUNGARIAN LABOUR MARKET 2010-2012: ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM THE HUNGARIAN GRADUATE TRACKING SYSTEM

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kun Andras Istvan

      2014-07-01

      Full Text Available The sheepskin effect is a wage increase connected to the attainment of a degree (or credential in addition to the wage gap connected to the completion of a schooling level (school years, exams passed etc.. This effect is often referred to as a phenomenon supporting the signaling (or screening hypothesis against human capital theory in the so called ‘signaling vs. human capital debate’ over the economic role of education. Many empirical studies in many countries have tested (mostly successfully this hypothesis during the last decades, but it has never been tested in Hungary. Therefore the main goal of the current study is to identify and measure the sheepskin effect in Hungarian higher education based on the country-wide, representative databases of the Hungarian Graduate Career Tracking System (HGCTS. The 2 databases used in the analysis are two HGCTS surveys from the years 2011 and 2012. The first part of the article is a literature review that summarises the results of the existing empirical sheepskin research and highlights their connections to the signaling vs. human capital debate. In the second part, empirical research is carried out based on the HGCTS data. This research has two phases. In the first phase subjective data are analysed (according to the perceived negative effect of not obtaining the degree in time, while in the second, mean differences are tested between net hourly wages of responder groups (1 who have the educational credential and (2 do not have it (even though they have finished all courses and passed all exams at the given educational level. The statistical analysis identified significant wage gaps between graduated responders and those who had not graduated but had passed the state exam (and so had finished all the exams in higher education before graduating on nearly all levels and in both samples (the only exemption was the post-Bologna master level in the 2011 sample. We can conclude that the existence of the

    9. Hungarian perspectives on emigration and immigration in the new European architecture.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Szoke, L

      1992-01-01

      After a brief review of Hungary's history as a receiving country, the author assesses projected changes in Hungarian migration policy designed to prevent a massive new influx of refugees and other migrants from eastern and central Europe.

    10. Penal managerialism from within: implications for theory and research.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cheliotis, Leonidas K

      2006-01-01

      Unlike the bulk of penological scholarship dealing with managerialist reforms, this article calls for greater theoretical and research attention to the often pernicious impact of managerialism on criminal justice professionals. Much in an ideal-typical fashion, light is shed on: the reasons why contemporary penal bureaucracies endeavor systematically to strip criminal justice work of its inherently affective nature; the structural forces that ensure control over officials; the processes by which those forces come into effect; and the human consequences of submission to totalitarian bureaucratic milieus. It is suggested that the heavy preoccupation of present-day penality with the predictability and calculability of outcomes entails the atomization of professionals and the dehumanization of their work. This is achieved through a kaleidoscope of direct and indirect mechanisms that naturalize and/or legitimate acquiescence.

    11. STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE HUNGARIAN MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY INFLUENCING THE QUALITY STRATEGY OF THE PIG SECTOR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kinga NAGYNÉ PÉRCSI

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available The Hungarian company structure in the meat industry is very different from the structures in the major meat industrial EU countries. While in the latter ones the concentration and specialization have strengthened, in Hungary these processes did not happen or in just a limited way. Therefore the Hungarian companies face handicaps concerning economies of scale and specialization compared to the EU companies.

    12. Macro-aspects affecting sport sponsorship: The case of Hungarian professional soccer clubs’ sponsors

      OpenAIRE

      Péter Berkes; Mihály Nyerges; János Váczi

      2007-01-01

      Hungarian soccer and sponsorship market is a relatively new and unexplored subject of research in the field of sports sponsorship in view of the fact that most studies have focused on the major European soccer leagues so far. This paper focuses on the Hungarian soccer sponsorship market, which gives a variety of comparisons to other studies (Chadwick — Thwaites 2005; Couvelaere — Richelieu 2005; Bühler 2006) on soccer sponsorship focusing on the major soccer markets. A comprehensive overview ...

    13. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

      OpenAIRE

      Kenesei, Zsófia; Gyulavári, Tamás; László SEER

      2013-01-01

      The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels an...

    14. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

      OpenAIRE

      Zsófia KENESEI; Gyulavári, Tamás; László SEER

      2013-01-01

      The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels an...

    15. The acquisition of Hungarian high front unrounded short vs. long vowels

      OpenAIRE

      Zajdó, K.; Wempe, T.G.; van der Stelt, J.; Pols, L.C.W.

      2011-01-01

      This study examined spectral properties of the Hungarian vowel pair /i/ vs. /i:/ with contrasting phonemic vowel lengths in 2;0 and 4;0 years old boys acquiring Hungarian as their native language. Results were obtained by an automated pitch-synchronous bandfilter analysis method that estimates the spectral envelope representation of vowels. Subsequent data reduction was achieved via principal component analysis. Examining the spectral differentiation of vowels with contrasting phonemic vowel ...

    16. American California penal code and our country penal code comparison%美国加州刑法典与我国刑法典的比较

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      黄小兰

      2006-01-01

      加利弗尼亚州刑法典结构严密,是美国州刑法的重要代表.本文首先介绍了美国法律的现状.接着简单阐述了该法典的体系,并且对犯罪构成进行了较为详细的论述.最后对具体类罪抢劫罪进行了比较分析.

    17. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Du Yang

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

    18. Lesiones deportivas: relevancia y tratamiento jurídico-penal

      OpenAIRE

      Ríos Corbacho, José Manuel

      2013-01-01

      The sport deals every day with criminal issues. Frequently there is not reaction from the respective authorities, and the sport infractions generally are solved by the administrative tribunals. This paper will try to point out different aspects related to the relationship between the sport field and the criminal law, and its use in those cases in wich it could be posible to aply it. El deporte profesional es objeto a diario de situaciones penales. Frecuentemente no se reacciona por parte d...

    19. HARMONIC MAPS AND CRITICAL POINTS OF PENALIZED ENERGY

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      周春琴; 许德良

      2003-01-01

      We discuss a sequence solutions uεfor the E-L equations of the penalized energy defined by Chen-Struwe. We show that the blow-up set of uε is a Hm-2 -rectifiable set and its weak limit satisfies a blow-up formula. Consequently, the weak limit will be a stationary harmonic map if and only if the blow-up set is stationary.

    20. Exact Penalization in Stochastic Programming—Calmness and Constraint Qualification

      OpenAIRE

      Martin Branda

      2014-01-01

      We deal with the conditions which ensure exact penalization in stochastic programming problems under finite discrete distributions. We give several sufficient conditions for problem calmness including graph calmness, existence of an error bound, and generalized Mangasarian-Fromowitz constraint qualification. We propose a new version of the theorem on asymptotic equivalence of local minimizers of chance constrained problems and problems with exact penalty objective. We apply the theory to a pr...

    1. Penalized Weighted Least Squares for Outlier Detection and Robust Regression

      OpenAIRE

      Gao, Xiaoli; Fang, Yixin

      2016-01-01

      To conduct regression analysis for data contaminated with outliers, many approaches have been proposed for simultaneous outlier detection and robust regression, so is the approach proposed in this manuscript. This new approach is called "penalized weighted least squares" (PWLS). By assigning each observation an individual weight and incorporating a lasso-type penalty on the log-transformation of the weight vector, the PWLS is able to perform outlier detection and robust regression simultaneou...

    2. Sistema oral en el Derecho Procesal Penal Ecuatoriano

      OpenAIRE

      Inga Yanza, Julio César

      2006-01-01

      Este trabajo contiene referencias de la oralidad en los procesos penales ecuatorianos. Primero constan comentarios sobre los principios constitucionales del debido proceso; luego comparamos el sistema inquisitivo y el acusatorio, sinónimos de los procedimientos escrito y oral respectivamente. Continuamos con una panorámica de las etapas procesales, para luego tratar la oralidad aplicada a la audiencia de formulación de cargos y a la preliminar. Finalmente, analizamos la audiencia de juicio, d...

    3. Stato di eccezione, istanze securitarie e diritto penale

      OpenAIRE

      Marchi, Ilaria

      2014-01-01

      Il presente lavoro si propone di approfondire il tema del rapporto tra sicurezza e diritto penale nelle situazioni di emergenza, attraverso l’analisi del terrorismo internazionale, utilizzato come case study. La disamina prende le mosse dallo stato di eccezione e dai meccanismi di “controllo” dell’emergenza interni al sistema giuridico, con il richiamo a quattro diverse fasi: l’individuazione del fatto emergenziale, la valutazione sulla instaurazione di un regime eccezionale, l’emanazione ...

    4. Lessons from Objects: Designing a Modern Hungarian Childhood 1890-1950

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Amber Winick

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Art and architecture assisted Hungary’s delivery into modern Europe, and many Hungarian designs of the early twentieth century invoked the child rather than the adult as the ideal citizen. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Hungarian designers, design reformers and the Ministry of Culture and Education expressed national identity through design, emphasizing objects and spaces for children as a key element in defining a national culture. This research unfolds a vital dimension of Hungarian culture by examining a selection of objects and spaces—nursery designs, children’s clothing, school architecture, the Budapest Zoo and book illustrations—made for Hungary’s children during different periods of the last century. Working in partnership with the Iparművészeti Múzeum—the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest—as well as several public and private collections across Hungary, I researched a number of important children’s designs that helped to shape the lives and experiences of twentieth century Hungarian children.  Central to my research is how social and political forces shaped designs and how these designs helped children identify as Hungarian citizens. Looking at five material case studies, I hope to demonstrate the ways in which designers negotiated issues of Hungarian identity, tradition, and modernity.

    5. Magyar Nemzeti Helynévtár [The Hungarian National Toponym Registry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hoffmann, István

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The website of the Hungarian National Toponym Registry was launched in October 2015 (www.mnh.unideb.hu. The Hungarian National Toponym Registry is a digital database designed to store and manage the complete synchronic and diachronic place name stock of the Hungarian language area. The database consists of two units: the Hungarian Names Archives (www.mna.unideb.hu, which stores place names in text and excel files (and incorporates approximately 450,000 data and the Hungarian Digital Toponym Registry (www.mdh.unideb.hu, the early and modern modules of which can be accessed as online databases (incorporating approximately 280,000 data. Data can be retrieved through a number of organisation and search options focusing on different features; the results can be projected to maps; detailed information is available with regard to each name form and indicated place. The paper presents the workings of the Hungarian National Toponym Registry, summarising the project’s progress, some further objectives, and the scientific and social significance of the research programme.

    6. Extreme differences in SLCO1B3 functional polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nagy, Agnes; Szalai, Renata; Magyari, Lili; Bene, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Melegh, Bela

      2015-05-01

      Variants in SLCO1B3 transporter are linked to disposition and uptake of drugs and show high degree of heterogeneity between populations. A total of 467 Roma and 448 Hungarian subjects were genotyped for SLCO1B3 c.334T>G and c.1683-5676A>G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of SLCO1B3 334GG (41.54% vs. 8.04%, pRomas and Hungarians. A significantly increased prevalence was found in SLCO1B3 1683-5676G allele frequency in Hungarians compared to the Roma population (15.07% vs. 3.43%, p≤0.001). The frequency of SLCO1B3 334G allele was significantly increased in Roma population compared to Hungarians (70.56% vs. 52.23%, p=0.001). The LD values between the examined SNPs were 80 and 90 in Roma and in Hungarian samples, respectively. Our results highlight notable pharmacogenetic differences between Roma and Hungarian populations, which may have therapeutic implications.

    7. La prolusione di rocco e le dottrine del processo penale

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Renzo Orlandi

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available L’articolo analizza le conseguenze del pensiero giuridico di Arturo Rocco, dal 1910 nella dottrina di procedura penale, ossia, il metodo tecnico-giuridico (esegesi, sistematica e critica. La dogmatica di procedura pena- le inizia con la monografia di Giovanni Conso, nel 1955. L’insoddisfazione con il tecnicismo giuridico e con la mancanza di maturità scientifica si è manifestata con Carnelutti nel 1946 (Cerenterola, sottolineando le peculiarità strutturali del procedimento penale. In questa prospettiva, il testo sottolinea la conferenza di Franco Cordero nel 1964 (Lecce, così come le lezioni da James Goldschmidt. Inoltre, negli anni sessanta, divennero importanti diritti fondamentali, di fronte alla Costituzione democratica, con un nuovo orientamento dottrinale. Il diritto processuale penale è stato considerato come diritto costituzionale applicato. Si segnalano gli insegnamenti di Amodio, Amato, Chiavario, Ferrua, Grevi, Iluminati, Massa e Nobili. Successivamente, l’articolo mette in evidenza il CPP del 1988, l’internazionalizzazione dei sistemi giuridici, l’importanza del diritto comparato e dei diritti fondamentali. Si conclude con il nuovo ordine mondiale dei diplomi internazionali e tribunali sovranazionali, con nuove esigenze, oltre il tecnicismo giuridico.

    8. Structured fusion lasso penalized multi-state models.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Kneib, Thomas

      2016-11-10

      Multi-state models generalize survival or duration time analysis to the estimation of transition-specific hazard rate functions for multiple transitions. When each of the transition-specific risk functions is parametrized with several distinct covariate effect coefficients, this leads to a model of potentially high dimension. To decrease the parameter space dimensionality and to work out a clear image of the underlying multi-state model structure, one can either aim at setting some coefficients to zero or to make coefficients for the same covariate but two different transitions equal. The first issue can be approached by penalizing the absolute values of the covariate coefficients as in lasso regularization. If, instead, absolute differences between coefficients of the same covariate on different transitions are penalized, this leads to sparse competing risk relations within a multi-state model, that is, equality of covariate effect coefficients. In this paper, a new estimation approach providing sparse multi-state modelling by the aforementioned principles is established, based on the estimation of multi-state models and a simultaneous penalization of the L1 -norm of covariate coefficients and their differences in a structured way. The new multi-state modelling approach is illustrated on peritoneal dialysis study data and implemented in the R package penMSM. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    9. [Guideline 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions'].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Westra, Michel; de Haan, Hein A; Arends, Marleen T; van Everdingen, Jannes J E; Klazinga, Niek S

      2009-01-01

      In the Netherlands, the policy on care for prisoners who are addicted to opiates is still heterogeneous. The recent guidelines entitled 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions' should contribute towards unambiguous and more evidence-based treatment for this group. In addition, it should improve and bring the care pathways within judicial institutions and mainstream healthcare more into line with one another. Each rational course of medicinal treatment will initially be continued in the penal institution. In penal institutions the help on offer is mainly focused on abstinence from illegal drugs while at the same time limiting the damage caused to the health of the individual user. Methadone is regarded at the first choice for maintenance therapy. For patient safety, this is best given in liquid form in sealed cups of 5 mg/ml once daily in the morning. Recently a combination preparation containing buprenorphine and naloxone - a complete opiate antagonist - has become available. On discontinuation of opiate maintenance treatment intensive follow-up care is necessary. During this period there is considerable risk of a potentially lethal overdose. Detoxification should be coupled with psychosocial or medicinal intervention aimed at preventing relapse. Naltrexone is currently the only available opiate antagonist for preventing relapse. In those addicted to opiates, who also take benzodiazepines without any indication, it is strongly recommended that these be reduced and discontinued. This can be achieved by converting the regular dosage into the equivalent in diazepam and then reducing this dosage by a maximum of 25% a week.

    10. A LONE code for the sparse control of quantum systems

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ciaramella, G.; Borzì, A.

      2016-03-01

      In many applications with quantum spin systems, control functions with a sparse and pulse-shaped structure are often required. These controls can be obtained by solving quantum optimal control problems with L1-penalized cost functionals. In this paper, the MATLAB package LONE is presented aimed to solving L1-penalized optimal control problems governed by unitary-operator quantum spin models. This package implements a new strategy that includes a globalized semi-smooth Krylov-Newton scheme and a continuation procedure. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the LONE code in computing accurate sparse optimal control solutions.

    11. Dr. Andras Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division, Budapest, Hungary

      CERN Multimedia

      Maximilien Brice

      2002-01-01

      Photo 01: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) and Barbara Vizkelety Secretary of the Hungarian CERN Committee visiting the ASACUSA experiment on the Antiproton Decelerator Photo 02: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) visiting the ASACUSA experiment on the Antiproton Decelerator with (from left to right) Dezso Horvath, Cecilia Jarlskog, Barbara Vizkelety Secretary of the Hungarian CERN Committee. Photo 03: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) and Barbara Vizkelety Secretary of the Hungarian CERN Committee visiting the ASACUSA experiment on the Antiproton Decelerator.

    12. Justicia penal restaurativa y justicia penal negociada, retórica y práctica. Estudio empírico del programa de mediación intrajudicial penal en Bizkaia

      OpenAIRE

      Igartua Laraudogoitia, Idoia

      2015-01-01

      633 p. El objeto de este trabajo de investigación se centra en el estudio de la significación de la reparación, compensación o restauración a la persona denunciante por parte de la denunciada en el contexto de la Administración de Justicia penal. Se trata de analizar la relevancia de tales conductas reparadoras para el Derecho penal, en cuanto pueda considerarse congruente con los fines propios de la tutela penal, así como su reflejo o efecto en la determinación individualizada de las pena...

    13. LÍNEA DE BASE DEL SISTEMA PENAL ECUATORIANO

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Miguel Angel Valarezo Tenorio

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available RESUMO En el año 2000, el Ecuador cambió su sistema procesal penal de tipo inquisitivo por uno de corte acusatorio. Para determinar el funcionamiento del mismo se debía levantar una línea de base recogiendo en una base de datos algunos indicadores del proceso penal. A partir de este conjunto de datos y variables iniciales, se hizo factible la elaboración de un sistema informático procesal penal ecuatoriano (SIPPE que permite elaborar un análisis de componentes principales. En nuestro caso, la componente de mayor importancia es la estacional, ella se puede interpretar como la existencia de tendencias estacionales que podrían intervenir en la ejecución de los delitos. Palavras- chave: Sistema procesal penal ecuatoriano, modelamiento matemático, estacionalidad de delitos. ECUADORIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE SYSTEM BASELINE ABSTRACT In 2000, Ecuador changed its system of criminal procedure by an inquisitive type of adversarial court. To determine the operation of the lift should be collecting baseline data in a database of some indicators of criminal proceedings. From this set of data and baseline variables was made feasible the development of a computer system of criminal procedure Ecuador (SIPPE that allows to develop a principal component analysis. In our case, the most important component is seasonal, and it can be interpreted as the existence of seasonal trends that could result in the execution of the crimes. Key-words: Ecuadorian criminal process system, mathematical model, seasonal of crimes. SUMÁRIO Introducción. 1. El Proyecto Línea de Base del sistema procesal penal ecuatoriano. 2. Información disponible en el SIPPE. 3. Análisis Estadístico Descriptivo de los datos. 4. Análisis de la Estacionalidad de los delitos. 5. Correlaciones entre los tipos de delitos. 6. Tipología social del delito. 7. Modelos de incidencia de variables sociales sobre el delito. 8. Conclusiones y recomendaciones.

    14. Delitos Internacionales en el Proyecto del Código Penal de Nicaragua

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Orlando Guerrero Mayorga.

      2000-08-01

      Full Text Available El autor de este artículo presenta de manera general la responsabilidad penal individual en Derecho Internacional y algunos aspectos fundamentales de los Delitos Internacionales, el Crimen de Genocidio, los Crímenes de Lesa Humanidad, los Crímenes de Guerra y el Crimen de Agresión, comprendidos en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional; y propone algunas modificaciones al actual Proyecto de Código Penal de Nicaragua.

    15. Religious and medical discourses at the core of the legitimization process of penal law. The management of homoerotic mores in Quebec (1892-1969

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Patrice Corriveau

      2009-12-01

      Full Text Available This article describes the evolution of two dominant discourses (the medical and the religious that interfered with the system of penal law in its conceptualization and management of homoerotic mores in Quebec from the creation of the first Canadian Criminal Code in 1892 until the adoption of the Omnibus Bill in 1969. The analysis of interactions between these discursive formations and the system of penal law shows that even if the viewpoints of law and religion as well as law and « science » on the « homosexual phenomenon » are sometimes in opposition, they are not always mutually exclusive. On the contrary, they often reinforce each other.

    16. Protección de la competencia a través del derecho penal

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      Grace García Gutiérrez

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available La libertad de competencia es una garantía constitucional de donde se desprende la legitimidad de intervención del derecho penal. Así, la tendencia del “nuevo” derecho penal económico está enfocada en sancionar aquellas conductas que atentan contra la economía (libertad de competencia inmersa y el orden que el mismo Estado ha erigido para permitir su correcto funcionamiento. Mediante este artículo se pretende demostrar la legitimidad del derecho penal para proteger la competencia y ejemplificar algunos eventos en los que concurren las sanciones de tipo administrativo y de tipo penal.

    17. Las negociaciones en el proceso penal: del procedimiento inquisitivo a la prisionizacion masiva

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Montanez Ruiz, Julio Cesar

      2013-01-01

      La presente investigacion plantea la problematica de la prisionizacion masiva que generan las negociaciones en el sistema procesal penal de tendencia acusatoria, con marcada influencia norteamericana...

    18. Pilot Course or Flying University? A University Course on Hungarian Language and History Taught in Wellington, New Zealand

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bálint Koller

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available The authors, a historian and a language-learning expert, recently devised an introduction to Hungarian history, language and culture for students in Wellington, New Zealand. We describe the origin and circumstances of New Zealand’s Hungarian community, why we thought to develop a Hungarian language course, and how the course relates to the interests of New Zealand students. After explaining our approach to historical and linguistic components of the course, we consider the future of Hungarian studies in New Zealand.

    19. Comparison of lactase persistence polymorphism in ancient and present-day Hungarian populations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nagy, Dóra; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Csányi, Bernadett; Bogácsi-Szabó, Erika; Czibula, Ágnes; Priskin, Katalin; Bede, Olga; Bartosiewicz, László; Downes, C Stephen; Raskó, István

      2011-06-01

      The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia varies ethnically and geographically among populations. A C/T-13910 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the lactase gene is known to be associated with lactase non-persistence in Europeans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lactase persistent and non-persistent genotypes in current Hungarian-speaking populations and in ancient bone samples of classical conquerors and commoners from the 10th-11th centuries from the Carpathian basin; 181 present-day Hungarian, 65 present-day Sekler, and 23 ancient samples were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by the dCAPS PCR-RFLP method. Additional mitochondrial DNA testing was also carried out. In ancient Hungarians, the T-13910 allele was present only in 11% of the population, and exclusively in commoners of European mitochondrial haplogroups who may have been of pre-Hungarian indigenous ancestry. This is despite animal domestication and dairy products having been introduced into the Carpathian basin early in the Neolithic Age. This anomaly may be explained by the Hungarian use of fermented milk products, their greater consumption of ruminant meat than milk, cultural differences, or by their having other lactase-regulating genetic polymorphisms than C/T-13910. The low prevalence of lactase persistence provides additional information on the Asian origin of Hungarians. Present-day Hungarians have been assimilated with the surrounding European populations, since they do not differ significantly from the neighboring populations in their possession of mtDNA and C/T-13910 variants.

    20. LA CARGA DINÁMICA PROBATORIA Y SU REPERCUSIÓN EN EL PROCESO PENAL DESDE LAS REGLAS DE MALLORCA Y LA TEORÍA DEL GARANTISMO PENAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sebastián Betancourt Restrepo

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende hacer algunos cuestionamientos en torno a la implementación de la teoría de la carga dinámica de la prueba en la actuación penal, a partir de los elementos brindados por las Reglas de Mallorca y la teoría del garantismo penal, defendida por el profesor Luigi Ferrajoli en Italia, y en Argentina por el profesor Adolfo Alvarado Velloso, desde la perspectiva de una sistemática procesal penal, reconocedora de garantías universales como el debido proceso.

    1. Contextualizing History in Hungarian Films of the New Millennium

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Clara Orban

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Hungarian films produced after the year 2000 build on the historical reality of the fall of communism and anticipate, or come to terms with, entry into the European Union.  This article will explore six films that deal with history through multiple perspectives to dramatize the dynamic between historical events and human responses to them.  These films reference history, or efface it, as a way of problematizing the relationship between human behavior and history.  Colossal Sensation [Világszám – Dodó és Naftalin] (2005 and Children of Glory [Szabadság, szerelem] (2006, for example, examine Hungarians’ moments of defiance during the 1956 uprising but shape historical events to fit human constructs.  Contemporary history provides satire of rising capitalism in The District! [Nyócker!] (2005 whose plot weaves historical figures into a modern rendition of Romeo and Juliette.  Miracle in Krakow [Csoda Krakkóban] (2004 also presents a book as its central metaphor, and, like The District!, the book allows some of history’s uglier moments to be erased.  Béla Tarr’s Werkmeister Harmonies [Werkmeister harmóniák] (2000 and Nimród Antal’s Control [Kontroll] (2003, films without overt historical markers, provide allegorical visions of societal unrest that can be read as allusions to millennial concerns.

    2. 'Should We Leave or Stay?' Notes on Recent Hungarian Outmigration

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      Eva V. Huseby-Darvas

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This preliminary study is based on Hungarian electronic media sources, informal interviews and similar personal communications, as well as statistical data provided by kind and cooperative colleagues in Hungary. Addressing the recent, massive outmigration from Hungary, the article explores some of the primary push-and-pull factors, and then discusses responses to the emigration phenomenon itself and its likely long-term demographic, social and economic implications, by scholars as well as by politicians from both the governing party and the opposition. To give the emic perspective, I cited and translated from my conversations with a few young emigrants, would-be-emigrants, and mothers’ of these young people, and thus illustrate the issue from those most involved. Then, by also citing scholars, authors, columnists, and politicians my aim was to offer the etic, or outsiders’ view, but – since for various reasons – they also appear to be involved in and concerned with the problem of outmigration, theirs is still an emic perspective, though of a different order. Realizing that the present attempt is merely a quick snapshot of an ongoing, potentially volatile and dynamic process, further research and a multidisciplinary attempt to interpret and analyze the recent emigration from Hungary are needed.

    3. Antiinflammatory activities of Hungarian Stachys species and their iridoids.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Balogh, Ágnes; Czigle, Szilvia; Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Blazsó, Gábor

      2012-04-01

      The antiinflammatory activities of aqueous extracts prepared from the aerial parts of ten Hungarian Stachys species were investigated in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test after intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats. Some of the extracts were found to display significant antiphlogistic effects when administered intraperitoneally and orally; in particular, the extracts of S. alpina, S. germanica, S. officinalis and S. recta demonstrated high activity following intraperitoneal administration. At the same dose of 5.0 mg/kg, these extracts exhibited similar or greater potency than that of the positive control diclofenac-Na. The main iridoids present in the investigated extracts, ajugoside, aucubin, acetylharpagide, harpagide and harpagoside, were also assayed in the same test, and high dose-dependent antiphlogistic effects were recorded for aucubin and harpagoside. These results led to the conclusion that most probably iridoids are responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of Stachys species, but other active constituents or their synergism must also be implicated in the antiinflammatory effect.

    4. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border

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      Varjú Viktor

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environmental diplomacy. Environmental cohesion across a border can be identified as soon as two regions - alongside the border - start to cooperate in order to improve environmental conditions and to ensure equal access to natural resources and environmental services. After a literature review environmental cohesion is evaluated in multidimensional way, using empirical quantitative and qualitative data and a two-pillar based methodological approach. The Croatian-Hungarian border area was closed for a long time. As a result, developments avoided the area, on the other, natural resources remained mainly untouched. However, the two countries have had different approaches towards the area, while, Croatia made efforts to build another water power plant, Hungary intended to preserve and extend a Natural Park. This contradiction remained until the accession process of Croatia. Finally the disagreement between the two countries was moderated by a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve that was created alongside the border in 2015. The post-2010 period has been characterised by an increasing number of environmental-related cooperations.

    5. PENENTUAN MATCHING MAKSIMUM PADA GRAF BIPARTIT BERBOBOT MENGGUNAKAN METODE HUNGARIAN

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Muchammad Abrori

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Matching is a part of graph theory that discuss to make a pair, that can be used to solve many problems; one of them is the assignment problem. The assignment problem is to make a pair problem for n as the employees and for n as the duties, therefore each employee gets one duty, and each duty is given exactly for each employee. The assignment problem can be solved by determining the matching in weighted bipartite graph through Hungarian Method. It can be determined from the alternating tree of a formed edge. If there is augmenting path, that augmenting path is used to form the more number of matching. If the formed path is alternating path, therefore the process is labeling the new node until finding the augmenting vertices. This matching is called as the perfect matching with the number of maximum weighed side in weighted bipartite graphs. The result matching is the solution for the assignment problem by giving an employee with a duty.

    6. Voting Patterns on Hungarian Parliamentary Elections in 2002–2006

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Barnabás Rácz

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available In the post–communist transitional era, Hungarian elections show diverse results among various areas, raising the question if there are firmly embedded differences between some parts of the country. In the light of the election returns between 1985–2006, it appears that there is a more or less definite pattern. This study will examine the 2006 legislative returns and compare the results with the previous trends and especially the 2002 data, testing the validity of the findings indicating the presence of some fairly constant regional standards of voting. As a main indicator of past trends we use mostly the territorial (party lists which provide more accurate picture of voting preferences that individual districts which in runoffs carry an indirect distortion of voters’ primary preferences by other considerations.2 For a deeper analysis of the recent 2002 and 2006 elections, we will compare the first run individual district voting outcomes, as they give the more accurate picture of the voters’ real preferences.

    7. Economics students’ migrations in the Hungarian higher education system

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      Réka Pusztai

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available The Hungarian Higher Education has faced several structural challenges since the regime change of 1990. The ‘golden age’ seems to be over and the government tends to impose severe limits on institutions regarding the number of state-financed students, the minimal application points and the institutions’ missions. These new aspects influence the application procedures, as students are eager to achieve the highest price-value combination on the education market, which leads to internal and external migrations. In this study, we focus on the former, by using the agglomeration analysis of higher education institutions. We apply a modified Universal Law of Gravity to gather information about social and/or economic phenomena. On the level of single individuals, these types of decisions are random, but on the collective level, they can be characterized by certain principles and rules. This study explores the changes in the agglomeration areas and the limiting factors related to colleges and universities, offering economic education between 2004 and 2014. This period is adequate, as to identify the peculiarities and different influences of the market, the government, and the global trends and to identify the new spatial roles of the institutions.

    8. El ethos de las decisiones penales: verdad real y consenso

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gabriela Rodríguez Fernández

      2005-11-01

      Full Text Available El presente artículo es una reflexión profunda sobre los principales fundamentos del Derecho penal. En concreto, se ocupa de esclarecer los criterios de verdad sobre los que se apoyan las decisiones de los jueces. Ello supone cuestionar las bases filosóficas y científicas más rígidas del mundo jurídico, que postulan su carácter objetivo, y exponerlas a la crítica sociológica y política.

    9. Debido proceso, sistemas y reforma del proceso penal

      OpenAIRE

      Armenta Deu,Teresa

      2015-01-01

      Este artículo se propone examinar los modelos de procesos penales de los movimientos de reforma que se establecieron en las últimas décadas del siglo XX, en los países iberoamericanos. Para ello, primero se enfatiza las características históricas de cada sistema, poniendo de relieve la importancia de no confundir el acusatorio con el adversarial, rechazando la coincidencia entre los sistemas actuales y mixto inquisitivo histórico. Apoya la importancia de la igualdad de armas y e del contradic...

    10. El Código penal Colombiano de 1890

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francisco Bernate-Ochoa

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available El Código Penal Colombiano de 1890 estuvo vigente hasta el año de 1936 y constituyó un paradigma en la historia jurídica nacional, debido a las circunstancias que rodearon tanto su expedición como sus sucesivos intentos de derogatoria, todos fallidos por diversas circunstancias. En el presente escrito se analiza este estatuto, comentando los procesos históricos que lo rodearon, así como el tratamiento que el mismo dispensaba a las diferentes instituciones dogmáticas.

    11. ADN: huellas genéticas en el proceso penal

      OpenAIRE

      Ramallo Machín, Andrea Cristina

      2016-01-01

      [Resumen] El trabajo de investigación hace referencia a la aplicación de la identificación por el ADN de presuntos delincuentes en una investigación criminal como objeto de una prueba pericial en un proceso penal. Destacando las díferencias sustanciales que existen entre la aplicación de un método científico en circunstancias controladas en un laboratorio y su utilización en escenarios muy distintos, como puede ser el lugar donde se ha cometido un delito. Reconociendo su gra...

    12. Penalized interior point approach for constrained nonlinear programming

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      LU Wen-ting; YAO Yi-rong; ZHANG Lian-sheng

      2009-01-01

      A penalized interior point approach for constrained nonlinear programming is examined in this work. To overcome the difficulty of initialization for the interior point method, a problem equivalent to the primal problem via incorporating an auxiliary variable is constructed. A combined approach of logarithm barrier and quadratic penalty function is proposed to solve the problem. Based on Newton's method, the global convergence of interior point and line search algorithm is proven.Only a finite number of iterations is required to reach an approximate optimal solution. Numerical tests are given to show the effectiveness of the method.

    13. Arte y derecho penal: El caso Han Van Meegeren

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      Ricardo Medina Moyano

      1968-01-01

      Full Text Available La temática que abarcan las palabras que sirven de título a estas notas, es ciertamente de inasible amplitud, ya por lo proteíco de la conducta humana, de quienes se colocan al margen de la ley, ora por la riqueza inconmensurable del fenómeno estético. Cabría, pues, en primer término, plantear como hipótesis de trabajo, los muy diversos enfoques desde los cuales sería dable la investigación de las relaciones entre el Arte y el Derecho Penal.

    14. La justicia restaurativa en el ámbito penal

      OpenAIRE

      Mérida Abia, Blanca

      2017-01-01

      El presente trabajo aborda el concepto de Justicia restaurativa como nueva corriente surgida en el ámbito europeo, analizando algunas de sus incipientes manifestaciones en el ordenamiento jurídico penal español. Se lleva a cabo un resumen de las principales características con las que contaría nuestro sistema, tomando como base las experiencias en otros ordenamientos jurídicos de nuestro entorno. Se muestra una serie de problemas y las correlativas respuestas que la Justicia...

    15. Justicia penal y medios de comunicación

      OpenAIRE

      Lic. Iván Gustavo Lello

      2001-01-01

      Plantearse como objeto de estudio la difusión por la prensa de procesos judiciales penales implica asumir un punto de vista multidisciplinario y multilateral. En un sistema democrático, solo en el cual es posible problematizar acerca de esta cuestión, el principio es la división de poderes y la publicidad de los actos de gobierno. En él, además, la prensa tiene una función tradicionalmente definida en la historia constitucional recogida por la tradición argentina y latinoamericana en general....

    16. La objetividad del fiscal en el Sistema Penal Acusatorio

      OpenAIRE

      Vaca Nieto, Patricio Ricardo

      2009-01-01

      El fiscal en sus actuaciones debe ser lo más objetivo posible para ello debe extender la investigación no sólo a las circunstancias de cargo sino también a las que sirvan de descargo del procesado y si éstas, determinan su inocencia deberá abstenerse de acusarlo. La objetividad del fiscal se da también en la etapa del juicio, en la audiencia de juzgamiento, ante el tribunal de garantías penales, donde se presenta la prueba, que debió ser anunciada previamente en la audiencia...

    17. Debido proceso, sistemas y reforma del proceso penal

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Teresa Armenta Deu

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Este artículo se propone examinar los modelos de procesos penales de los movimientos de reforma que se establecieron en las últimas décadas del siglo XX, en los países iberoamericanos. Para ello, primero se enfatiza las características históricas de cada sistema, poniendo de relieve la importancia de no confundir el acusatorio con el adversarial, rechazando la coincidencia entre los sistemas actuales y mixto inquisitivo histórico. Apoya la importancia de la igualdad de armas y e del contradictoria en la búsqueda de un equilibrio entre los modelos de procedimiento.

    18. The Poetry of 1.5 and Second-Generation Israelis of Hungarian Origin

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      Ilana Rosen

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available This article continues my 2014 article in this journal, in which I presented a beginning of work on contemporary Israeli prose writers of Hungarian origin. My analysis of those works showed that they are governed by recurring concerns, or literary themes, such as: the memory or post-memory of the Holocaust; Hungarian-to-Hebrew language and translation peculiarities; preoccupation with the family's past, including that of remote relatives; and fascination with home objects, dishes, and recipes representing the family's Hungarian past. Following my work on those prose works, in this article I focus on the works and worlds of 1.5 and second-generation Hungarian-Israeli poets and explore, first, the presence of the concerns or themes governing this group's prose works, and, second, issues of identity through the poets' depictions of experiences such as persecution, displacement, emigration, and re-settlement in Israel. My present discussion of the 1.5 and second-generation Hungarian-Israeli poets is divided into four themes: the Holocaust as an epitome of catastrophe, the Holocaust as memory and post-memory, co-fusion of languages and cultures, and the eternal mental displacement of the poets' parents.

    19. Hungarian Pig Sector: Actual Problems and Prospects for the Future Development

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      Anna Dunay

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Over the past decades, the Hungarian pig sector has undergone remarkable changes. In the 1980s, the Hungarian pig sector was the main pork product provider of the Eastern bloc, but after the political and economic transition, the sector lost its main markets and the size of pig herds decreased radically. The economic changes have brought negative impacts for all the players of the pork supply chain: the producers have been mostly affected, but slaughterhouses and the processing industry had to face new circumstances as well. The goal of this paper is to review the present situation and the current problems of the Hungarian pig-producing sector and to draw up the main prospects and favourable directions of the future by the findings of the SWOT analysis of the Hungarian pig sector and based on the proposed directions of the government’s new pork strategy. As the pig sector is an important pillar of the Hungarian agriculture and the rural communities, it is worth to summarize the sector’s present market position and to set those opportunities, which could give advantages for Hungary in the international competition. The paper concluded that the most prominent problems of the pig sector are caused by the economic and structural problems of the sector, based on the problem tree and sector’s SWOT analysis the main external and internal factors were detected, and the results were compared to some measures of the government’s pork strategy.

    20. The Austro-Hungarian occupation regime in Serbia and its break-down in 1918

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      Đorđević Dimitrije

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper discusses the occupation of Serbia during the First World War by Austro-Hungarian forces. The first partial occupation was short-lived as the Serbian army repelled the aggressors after the Battle of Kolubara in late 1914, but the second one lasted from fall 1915 until the end of the Great War. The Austro-Hungarian occupation zone in Serbia covered the largest share of Serbia’s territory and it was organised in the shape of the Military Governorate on the pattern of Austro-Hungarian occupation of part of Poland. The invaders did not reach a clear decision as to what to do with Serbian territory in post-war period and that gave rise to considerable frictions between Austro-Hungarian and German interests in the Balkans, then between Austrian and Hungarian interests and, finally, between military and civilian authorities within Military Governorate. Throughout the occupation Serbia was exposed to ruthless economic exploitation and her population suffered much both from devastation and from large-scale repression (including deportations, internments and denationalisation on the part of the occupation regime.

    1. Tripping over the Dead: Hungarian-Israeli Holocaust Survivor Women's Narratives of Immigration, Restoration, and Remembrance

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      Ilana Rosen

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This essay focuses on the post-Holocaust, Israeli life of five female narrators of Hungarian origin as expressed in their inclusive life histories. A close reading of the later period in the life histories of the five women exposes how they experienced and view their post-Holocaust life as Holocaust survivors and new immigrants in a newly founded State. The women's narratives of finding housing, work, and starting new families show that despite practical hardship they look back on it all with humor, acceptance, and optimism. The women's narratives about the recurrence of Holocaust-related bad memories, nightmares, fears, and worries illustrate that the past is always present and shakes the stability of their post-Holocaust, seemingly rehabilitated lives. This instability or proneness to belated agony is even stronger for two women, who embark on journeys to their past Hungarian hometowns (accompanied by their husbands, likewise of Hungarian origin. The hometown visit narratives are compelling, bothering, and carry a nightmarish quality. Seen against the background of the five women's former Hungarian lives and identity, the narratives of emigration, remembering, and re-visiting clarify that all these experiences are shadowed by the women's Holocaust experiences. Yet, while their later lives offer them some consolation, the memory of the Nazi camps as that of the Hungarian scenes/sites of deportation to Auschwitz, are forever painful and poignant.

    2. Cultures unfolding: experiences of Chinese-Hungarian mixed couples in Hungary

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      Nóra Kovács

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Background The research outlined in this paper focuses on a subfield related to Chinese migrants’ integration in Hungary: Chinese-Hungarian mixed partner relationships. I present some findings of an anthropological study on Chinese-Hungarian couples in Hungary, although other localities may also be involved in some of these couples’ lives. Participants and procedure Based on interviews conducted with members of Chinese-Hungarian married, cohabiting and dating, separated or divorced couples, and on data gathered through predominantly online fieldwork, this research explores notions and values that are at play in shaping the dynamics of these relations. Results The sample of thirty-seven couples features two characteristically different types of relationships: those referred to as “student love”, and the relationships of “typical” Chinese migrants with Hungarians. The former tend to be much more successful and persistent in time, with two cases of divorce or separation out of sixteen, whereas the latter are considerably less persistent, with eight cases of divorce or separation and two cases of crises out of thirteen bonds. Another notable finding is that Chinese-Hungarian marriages are much more persistent in time if the Chinese partner is female. Conclusions The paper consists of the following consecutive parts: an introduction to the Chinese migrant context and inter-ethnic partner relations in Hungary; a review of relevant literature; presentation of research methods and fieldwork; presentation and discussion of the research sample; presentation of some results from the interviews; and conclusions.

    3. Aplicabilidade do princípio da insignific´ncia penal ao delito de descaminho à luz do direito penal mínimo

      OpenAIRE

      2013-01-01

      Este trabalho monográfico destina-se a apreciar de forma crítica o princípio da insignificância no direito penal, especificamente sua aplicabilidade ao delito de descaminho, sob a ótica do direito penal mínimo. O princípio da insignificância é um instrumento de maior força do direito penal contemporâneo para a correção dos desvios oriundos da aplicação das leis penais ao longo do tempo e compõe a base de sustentação do direito penal democrático. É também um instrumento político-criminal siste...

    4. Protección de la competencia a través del derecho penal

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Grace García Gutiérrez

      2012-01-01

      La libertad de competencia es una garantía constitucional de donde se desprende la legitimidad de intervención del derecho penal. Así, la tendencia del “nuevo” derecho penal económico está...

    5. 27 CFR 19.957 - Instructions to compute bond penal sum.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-04-01

      ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions to compute bond penal sum. 19.957 Section 19.957 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Bonds § 19.957 Instructions to compute bond penal sum. (a) Medium plants. To find the...

    6. Penal stress and its manifestations in the convicts, suspects and accused persons

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      Melnikova D.V.

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available The paper is devoted to penal stress and its manifestations at the convicts, suspects and accused persons. This topic has been poorly studied. It is necessary to identify the groups of people especially most in need of prevention and correction of stress state and to define the target effects. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concepts of biological and psychological stress. Our theoretical work is mainly devoted to phenomenon of penal stress and factors affecting its formation. We suggested the definition of penal stress concept on the basis of the analyzed literature. The sample included 69 male persons (31 from predetention center, 38 from penal colony, aged 19 to 47 years old. Experimental psychological method of research was mainly used. In the practical part of the paper presents data on the prevalence of the penal stress in predetention centers and penal colonies. In addition, we have studied the relationship of penal stress with punishment stage, the crime characteristics of subjects, individual psychological characteristics, current state. The study allows us to reveal the groups of people in need of the prevention and correction of the penal stress state. We identified some target corrective action also.

    7. 49 CFR 26.47 - Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall goals?

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-10-01

      ... overall goals? 26.47 Section 26.47 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION... Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.47 Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall goals? (a) You cannot be penalized, or treated by the Department as being in noncompliance with...

    8. Multilingualism in the Transleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918): policy and practice

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      L. Marácz

      2012-01-01

      With the Compromise of 1867, the Hungarian Kingdom received an equal status within the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Hungary be-came a sovereign entity within the Habsburg Monarchy. Next to a common mon-arch from the House of Habsburg who had the title of ‘emperor’ in Austria

    9. The Outsider Within: Béla Tarr and Hungarian National Cinema

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      Lilla Tőke

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available Béla Tarr is probably the most paradoxical figure in contemporary Hungarian cinema. His artistic trajectory shows a movement from documentary style realism (Family Nest, 1979 towards more modernist cinematic practices (Satan’s Tango, 1994, Werckmeister Harmonies, 2000, and The Man from London, 2007. A major celebrity in the global film culture that prides itself in being transnational, international, and in crossing linguistic and ethnic boundaries, Tarr has consistently found himself on the fringes of the Hungarian cultural and political establishment. In this study Tőke considers Tarr’s films and public persona as catalysts in the debates about what constitutes “Hungarian cinema” in a globalizing world from the 1970s until today.

    10. Porphyrogenitus` borders on Ister and Hungarian conquest period finds in Vojvodina

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      Radičević Dejan

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Data from De administrando imperio covers Hungarian conquest, right after their arrival to the Carpathian plain and to the territories they settled. In order to describe the area of their inhabitance, author used well known facts and clear geographical marks. Territory defined in that manner encompassed modern Vojvodina, so an opinion was brought out in scientific literature that it was also included in the area of early Hungarian inhabitance. However, it appeares that in those speculations the archaeological data were not adequatelly used, so it is important to give more precise insight into the available archaeological material that can be tied to the earliest presence of Hungarian population in Vojvodina. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Društvo, duhovno-materijalna kultura i komunikacije u praistoriji i ranoj istoriji Balkana i br. 177021: Procesi urbanizacije i razvoja srednjovekovnog društva

    11. Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Költő, András; Gősi-Greguss, Anna C; Varga, Katalin; Bányai, Éva I

      2015-01-01

      Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) are presented. The Hungarian translation of the HGSHS:A was administered under standard conditions to 434 participants (190 males, 244 females) of several professions. In addition to the traditional self-scoring, hypnotic behavior was also recorded by trained observers. Female participants proved to be more hypnotizable than males and so were psychology students and professionals as compared to nonpsychologists. Hypnotizability varied across different group sizes. The normative data-including means, standard deviations, and indicators of reliability-are comparable with previously published results. The authors conclude that measuring observer-scores increases the ecological validity of the scale. The Hungarian version of the HGSHS:A seems to be a reliable and valid measure of hypnotizability.

    12. Selected English-Language Bibliography of Interest for Hungarian Cultural Studies: 2014-2015

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      Louise O. Vasvari

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2014-2015, covering the period since the publication in the fall of 2014 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items, which were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included. For a more extensive bibliography of Hungarian Studies from about 2000 to 2010, for which this is a continuing update, see Louise O. Vasvári, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, and Carlo Salzani. “Bibliography for Work in Hungarian Studies as Comparative Central European Studies.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Library (2011:  http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/clcweblibrary/hungarianstudiesbibliography.

    13. Collecting money at a global level. The UN fundraising campaign for the 1956 Hungarian refugees

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      Gusztáv D. KECSKÉS

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available The present study examines the role that the UN played in providing the financial means for the international reception of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. According to the author’s conclusions, through the coordination of moneyraising efforts, authorised by international law (that is, by the UN General Assembly’s decisions and the professional and trustworthy documentation of humanitarian needs and activities, the institutional network of the UN contributed considerably to the formation and practical implementation of Western governments’ international humanitarian action aimed at solving the crisis of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. This study is based on documents in the UN archives (New York, Geneva, the Swedish National Library (Stockholm, the UNHCR Archives, the Archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, (Geneva and the NATO Archives (Brussels, and in the Diplomatic Archives Center (La Courneuve, Nantes, Diplomatic Archive (Brussels and the Hungarian National Archives (Budapest.

    14. The position of the Hungarian national minority in Vojvodina: Sociological and legal aspects

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Manić Željka

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The text is about sociological and legal analysis of the position of the Hungarian national minority in Vojvodina, with special regard to the period between 2002 and 2007. It is believed that ethnic relations have a significant role in establishing national identity, and that collective rights represent the legitimate effort to preserve the language, writings and culture of those ethnic groups. The position of the Hungarian national minority is the position that is guaranteed by the constitution of the Republic of Serbia in the section regarding the collective rights: the right to the education in their first language, official use of language and writing, media information's in first language, preservation of culture and the right to participate in public activities. The position of Hungarian minority is regarded in two dimensions: the level of legal regulations and the level of actual problems that the members of minority are facing when practicing their rights.

    15. Os indesejáveis no Direito Penal moderno

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      Patrícia Graziela Gonçalves

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available

      Este trabalho propõe a fazer uma breve aborfagem da obra "O inimigo no Direito Penal", de Eugênio Raul Zafforni, um dos maiores penalistas da América Latina. Neste obra, o autor ressalta que o poder punitivo sempre classificou e reconheceu um hostis, um estranho ou indesejável, sobre o qual se aplicou um tratamento discriminatório, neutralizante e eliminatório, negando-lhe a sua condição de pessoa e considerando-o em função da sua condição de coisa ou ente perigoso. E mais, tanto as leis quanto a doutrina legitimam esse tratamento, baseadas em saberes pretensamente empíricos sobre a conduta humana. Tal doutrina-penal contradiz os princípios constitucionais do Estado de Direito e mais se aproxima do modelo de Estado absoluto.

    16. Classification of microarray data with penalized logistic regression

      Science.gov (United States)

      Eilers, Paul H. C.; Boer, Judith M.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; van Houwelingen, Hans C.

      2001-06-01

      Classification of microarray data needs a firm statistical basis. In principle, logistic regression can provide it, modeling the probability of membership of a class with (transforms of) linear combinations of explanatory variables. However, classical logistic regression does not work for microarrays, because generally there will be far more variables than observations. One problem is multicollinearity: estimating equations become singular and have no unique and stable solution. A second problem is over-fitting: a model may fit well into a data set, but perform badly when used to classify new data. We propose penalized likelihood as a solution to both problems. The values of the regression coefficients are constrained in a similar way as in ridge regression. All variables play an equal role, there is no ad-hoc selection of most relevant or most expressed genes. The dimension of the resulting systems of equations is equal to the number of variables, and generally will be too large for most computers, but it can dramatically be reduced with the singular value decomposition of some matrices. The penalty is optimized with AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion), which essentially is a measure of prediction performance. We find that penalized logistic regression performs well on a public data set (the MIT ALL/AML data).

    17. Una discusión dogmático-procesal acerca de la absolución perentoria en el proceso penal acusatorio

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      Edwing Arteaga Padilla

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available This paper sets forth a preliminary result of a research project aiming to bring the most relevant discussions of the Legal and Criminal Dogmatic to Criminal Law, that is to say, it seeks to intertwine Derecho Penal Material –Criminal Law regarding the criminal code-, and Derecho Procesual Penal –in charge of establishing the way in which the latter should be applied. Preliminary results about the discussion on Derecho Penal Material are presented. Additionally, an analysis of Decisive Acquittal -a procedural figure likely to appear during an oral and public trial- is presented. The study corresponds to the procedural aspects of it, as well as to the dogmatic implications of the expression “hechos ostensiblemente atípicos”, this is, when the facts in which the accusation is based upon -and after the evidence has been expounded in the oral hearing-, visibly do not coincide with the criminal behavior, hence the initial need of continuing with the case changes since it is a visibly atypical behavior. The analysis is a critical approach to Colombian jurisprudence; it develops some conceptions about unfairness, and proposes a coherent application consistent with constitutional parameters

    18. L2 Romanian Influence in the Acquisition of the English Passive by L1 Speakers of Hungarian

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      Tankó Enikő

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available The main question to be investigated is to what extent native speakers of Hungarian understand and acquire the English passive voice, as there is no generalized syntactic passive construction in Hungarian. As we will show, native speakers of Hungarian tend to use the predicative verbal adverbial construction when translating English passive sentences, as this construction is the closest syntactic equivalent of the English passive voice. Another question to be investigated is whether L2 Romanian works as a facilitating factor in the process of acquiring the L3 English passive voice. If all our subjects, Hungarian students living in Romania, were Hungarian-Romanian bilinguals, it would be obvious that knowledge of Romanian helps them in acquiring the English passive. However, as it will be shown, the bilingualism hypothesis is disconfirmed. Still, passive knowledge of Romanian influences to some extent the acquisition of the English passive voice.

    19. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

      Science.gov (United States)

      Süli, Áron

      2011-06-01

      The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

    20. Schrödinger's code-script: not a genetic cipher but a code of development.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Walsby, A E; Hodge, M J S

      2017-06-01

      In his book What is Life? Erwin Schrödinger coined the term 'code-script', thought by some to be the first published suggestion of a hereditary code and perhaps a forerunner of the genetic code. The etymology of 'code' suggests three meanings relevant to 'code-script which we distinguish as 'cipher-code', 'word-code' and 'rule-code'. Cipher-codes and word-codes entail translation of one set of characters into another. The genetic code comprises not one but two cipher-codes: the first is the DNA 'base-pairing cipher'; the second is the 'nucleotide-amino-acid cipher', which involves the translation of DNA base sequences into amino-acid sequences. We suggest that Schrödinger's code-script is a form of 'rule-code', a set of rules that, like the 'highway code' or 'penal code', requires no translation of a message. Schrödinger first relates his code-script to chromosomal genes made of protein. Ignorant of its properties, however, he later abandons 'protein' and adopts in its place a hypothetical, isomeric 'aperiodic solid' whose atoms he imagines rearranged in countless different conformations, which together are responsible for the patterns of ontogenetic development. In an attempt to explain the large number of combinations required, Schrödinger referred to the Morse code (a cipher) but in doing so unwittingly misled readers into believing that he intended a cipher-code resembling the genetic code. We argue that the modern equivalent of Schrödinger's code-script is a rule-code of organismal development based largely on the synthesis, folding, properties and interactions of numerous proteins, each performing a specific task. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    1. AMENDAMENTELE OPERATE ÎN CODUL CONTRAVENȚIONAL PRIN LEGEA NR. 208/2016: IMPLICAȚII JURIDICO-PENALE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sergiu BRÎNZA

      2017-07-01

      Full Text Available Scopul investigației de față îl constituie analiza implicațiilor juridico-penale ale amendamentelor operate prin Legea nr.208/2016. Analiza efectuată arată că modificarea operată în alin.(6 art.16 din Codul contravențional a îndepărtat în plan terminologic Codul contravențional de Codul penal. Din aceleași considerente, este inoportună modificarea alin.(4 art.17 din Codul contravențional. În același timp, se prezintă ca oportună modificarea art.18 din Codul contravențional. De asemenea, se justifică modificarea cu caracter de precizare a art.541 din Codul contravențional. La fel, este salutară modificarea alin.(1 și (2 art.96, art.97, alin.(1 și (2 art.971, art.972, art.99-103, art.149, alin.(2 art.155 și a art.243 din Codul contravențional. Totuși, acestea nu sunt singurele norme contravenționale care se află într-o relație de comple­men­­taritate cu anumite norme penale. De aceea, legiuitorul ar trebui să dea dovadă de mai multă consecvență și să abordeze uniform ipotezele similare care vizează complementaritatea dintre ilicitul penal și ilicitul contravențional. Este oportună completarea dispoziției alin.(10 art.157 din Codul contravențional, în final, cu textul „ , dacă fapta nu constituie infrac­țiune,”. Aceasta va permite delimitarea mai precisă a faptei contravenționale prevăzute de această normă de unele infrac­țiuni. Se justifică completarea Codului contravențional cu art.1991-19912, 2201-2205. Aceste norme au completat lista de norme contravenționale care sunt complementare față de art.263 CP RM. Este oportună excluderea sintagmei „încalcă normele morale,” din dispoziția art.354 din Codul contravențional.THE AMENDMENTS MADE TO THE CONTRAVENTION CODE BY LAW NO.208/2016: JURIDICAL-PENAL CONSIDERATIONSThe purpose of the investigation is to analyze the juridical-penal considerations of the amendments made by Law No.208/2016. As a result of the analysis there

    2. Producing Just Papers or Creating Added Value? Snap-Shot about Quality Systems at Hungarian SMEs

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Emil NYERKI

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available In this paper, a short historical review and the research results are presented, which are focused on the quality management systems used by the Hungarian SME’s. The research was based on an original empirical survey, conducted using a random sample of fifty managers from small and medium sized Hungarian enterprises. All of them use certified quality management systems. The paper presents their current state in the light of their responses, under several aspects. In conclusion, suggestions are given for the problems, such as measurement, development, and education on the research topic.

    3. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vukin Marina

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

    4. Abstracts of the “26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production”

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Prod Kaposvár, Hungary, May 31, 2014

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available About 100 participants attended the 26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Twenty papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

    5. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zsófia KENESEI

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels and promotional activities. The results confirm that sophisticated marketing practice leads to higher business performance.

    6. Las adolescentes en el sistema penal. Cuando la invisibilización tiene género

      OpenAIRE

      Aedo Rivera, Marcela

      2014-01-01

      El objetivo de la presente investigación es caracterizar el tratamiento que los sistemas penales han otorgado a las niñas y adolescentes infractoras, en el contexto español y latinoamericano, centrándome particularmente en el chileno. Cuando nos referimos a los sistemas penales, entendemos en éstos tanto a los sistemas penales propiamente tales como a las denominadas formas alternativas de sistema penal o subsistemas penales paralelos. En este sentido, seguimos la distinción efectuada por Eug...

    7. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO Documented proof in the new Mexican criminal justice system

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Benavente Chorres Hesbert

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su voluntad.This study analyzes the cases of the documented proof in those codes regulated the Mexican states that have appropriate criminal proceedings prone to adversarial system. In that sense, it is understood by those measures documented evidence, primarily statements made during the investigation stage that the law gives the probative value could not attend the court hearing to test the trial for reasons beyond their control.

    8. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

      2014-04-01

      In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

    9. Survey evidence fights in criminal matters in accordance with the Islamic Penal Code Act 2013

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Saeid Darougari

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available Sets lawsuit is evidence to prove the claim in the courts, used and Article 166 of the Constitution, emphasizes this is a criminal trial evidence, as one of the most important issues of criminal justice, there has been a dramatic transformation. Throughout history, testimony and confession, the crime proved a major role, and often inevitable, especially in the period legal reasons played. Basically, though, some common evidence in criminal and civil, but there is evidence of criminal, has unique characteristics that distinguish it from civil evidence. Provided out evidence in criminal proceedings, should be in terms of its relation to crime and punishment, and dealing with the rights and freedoms of the individual and society, the legislator should be. The lack of exposition, in the form of rules Iran, particularly in the Procedures Public and Revolutionary Courts in criminal matters in the plant ambiguity remains is perhaps for this reason that legislators and place less importance because, in criminal matters have noticed. While the fundamentals of a subject makes legislators, compared to those rules, it wrote. In this paper an attempt has been subject to criminal evidence, the definition and its history, discussed and reviewed. In this paper analyzes the status and importance of criminal evidence, the Iranian legal system explains.

    10. Investigation of Nasal Bone Fractures in the Framework of the Turkish Penal Code

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hüseyin Kafadar

      2014-06-01

      Becauseofalltraumaticnasalinjuries areconsidered judicial cases that whith the goal of determination types of nasal bone fracture, x-Ray wiew and computerized tomography should investigate. We have considered that if it is clearly writen type of nasal bone fracture in foresic reports, recurrent correspondence would not have and judiciary process would not extend. Key words: Forensic medicine, nasal fracture, trauma.

    11. EL ERROR DE COMPRENSIÓN CULTURALMENTE CONDICIONADO, REGULADO EN EL ARTÍCULO 15° DEL CÓDIGO PENAL Y LA VULNERACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS DE LAS COMUNIDADES NATIVAS E INDÍGENAS

      OpenAIRE

      GONZÁLEZ DE LA CRUZ, MANUEL ANIBAL

      2016-01-01

      The present investigation originates before the need to determine if the article 15 ° of the Penal Peruvian Code, which regulates the institution of the mistake of comprehension culturally determined, damages the fundamental rights to the equality of the human person and the recognition of the cultural diversity dedicated in the clauses 2 and 19 of the article 2 ° of the Constitution. Opposite to the raised problem the following hypothesis of work was formulated: " The article 15 º of the...

    12. Arc View/Avenue: Coding styles and utility scripts for efficient development

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ganter, J.

      1996-05-07

      Effectiveness and efficiency of software development can be greatly increased by writing modularized code using informal (styles) and formal (standards) work approaches. Software development is about connecting pieces into a coherent whole. Thus consistent work approaches provide a structure that allows individuals and teams to minimize the time and thought put into making these connections. These investments in structure return even more benefits in the maintenance phase when old code has to be examined by new programmers, or after time has passed. We present some examples of coding style for Avenue: a simplified form of Hungarian notation (notationHungarian, stringCustomerName, etc.), script naming prefixes and suffixes, and options in script headers. We demonstrate several modular, object-like utility scripts that can be used alone or combined into other utilities. These include developer tools such as a System.Echo substitute for Windows, a Window inspector, and a script for detecting and dealing with multiple display resolutions.

    13. DERECHOS LINGÜÍSTICOS Y PROCESO PENAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Claudio Aguero San Juan

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es sostener que el derecho a usar la propia lengua en juicio es un derecho fundamental resguardado por la legislación chilena, intrínsecamente vinculado al debido proceso y a la igualdad.Se argumenta en torno a la valoración de la cultura en una sociedad multicultural y a la justificación de un trato diferenciado para las personas que pertenecen a minorías indígenas.Las conclusiones reflexionan sobre la noción de comunidad multicultural y sobre los estándares que los juicios orales deben satisfacer para respetar los derechos fundamentales de talante lingüístico de los indígenas que intervienen en un proceso penal.

    14. tortura carcerária : sobrepena do sistema penal brasileiro

      OpenAIRE

      2013-01-01

      Essa dissertação é um estudo multidisciplinar que consiste na revisão de literatura-bibliográfica acerca do objeto: tortura carcerária e a analisa como sobrepena privativa de liberdade do subterrâneo sistema penal brasileiro. Donde mantém relações particulares, próprias e específicas com as agências que fazem e movem de modo desarmônico tal sistema: as agências políticas promovem a programação constitucional e legal que definem o contorno do crime de tortura, as judiciárias enclausuradas e...

    15. ESTUDIO SOBRE EL DERECHO AL RECURSO EN EL PROCESO PENAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carlos del Río Ferretti

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Esta investigación examina el derecho al recurso en el proceso penal. En lo sustancial se mantiene que estando el proceso, dentro de una concepción cognoscitivista de jurisdicción, orientado a la correcta aplicación del derecho, el derecho al recurso aparece también como una regla epistemológica que propicia justamente dicha orientación. En segundo término, se perfilan precisamente los contenidos y exigencias normativos específicos que derivan del denominado derecho al recurso y se realiza un cotejo con la regulación legal del recurso de nulidad y su realidad aplicativa, con el propósito de poner en evidencia las inconsistencias normativas y jurisprudenciales con los contenidos comprendidos en aquél.

    16. Biopirataria: reflexões sobre um tipo penal

      OpenAIRE

      Ivanira Pancheri

      2013-01-01

      O foco do presente Doutorado cinge-se ao tema Biopirataria reflexionando sob a criação de um respectivo tipo penal. Não obstante a ausência de uma conceituação jurídica uníssona sobre Biopirataria parte-se da concepção primordial de um acesso irregular ao Patrimônio Genético e ainda, aos Conhecimentos Tradicionais associados. Não se olvide todavia que, ao lado destes dois grandes nortes, comportamentos outros igualmente conformam a problemática, demandando coibição, ad exemplum, a não reparti...

    17. $\\ell_0$-penalized maximum likelihood for sparse directed acyclic graphs

      CERN Document Server

      van de Geer, Sara

      2012-01-01

      We consider the problem of regularized maximum likelihood estimation for the structure and parameters of a high-dimensional, sparse directed acyclic graphical (DAG) model with Gaussian distribution, or equivalently, of a Gaussian structural equation model. We show that the $\\ell_0$-penalized maximum likelihood estimator of a DAG has about the same number of edges as the minimal-edge I-MAP (a DAG with minimal number of edges representing the distribution), and that it converges in Frobenius norm. We allow the number of nodes $p$ to be much larger than sample size $n$ but assume a sparsity condition and that any representation of the true DAG has at least a fixed proportion of its non-zero edge weights above the noise level. Our results do not rely on the restrictive strong faithfulness condition which is required for methods based on conditional independence testing such as the PC-algorithm.

    18. LA CORTE PENAL INTERNACIONAL UN AVANCE CONTRA LA IMPUNIDAD

      OpenAIRE

      Ibáñez Guzmán, Augusto J.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

      2004-01-01

      SUMARIOI. UNA CORTE GLOBAL: DEL ESCEPTICISMO ALESTABLECIMIENTO. UNA POLÍTICA CRIMINALINTERNACIONAL CONTRA LA IMPUNIDAD1.1. Una aspiración antigua1.2. Una idea que con anterioridad a Roma era compleja en demasía1.3. De la posibilidad a la configuración1.4. Una observación: una política criminal1.5. En sumaII. LA RESPONSABILIDAD INDIVIDUAL O PERSONAL2.1. Una ruta2.2. Un conceptoIII. DE LA CULPABILIDAD Y EL ‘SISTEMA PENAL DE ACTO’3.1. Presentación3.2. De la norma3.3. Contenido y alcance3.4. De l...

    19. Three penalized EM-type algorithms for PET image reconstruction.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Teng, Yueyang; Zhang, Tie

      2012-06-01

      Based on Bayes theory, Green introduced the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm to obtain a smoothing reconstruction for positron emission tomography. This algorithm is flexible and convenient for most of the penalties, but it is hard to guarantee convergence. For a common goal, Fessler penalized a weighted least squares (WLS) estimator by a quadratic penalty and then solved it with the successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm, however, the algorithm was time-consuming and difficultly parallelized. Anderson proposed another WLS estimator for faster convergence, on which there were few regularization methods studied. For three regularized estimators above, we develop three new expectation maximization (EM) type algorithms to solve them. Unlike MAP and SOR, the proposed algorithms yield update rules by minimizing the auxiliary functions constructed on the previous iterations, which ensure the cost functions monotonically decreasing. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

    20. The history of penal cultures – a culturally integrated perspective

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jarosław Utrat-Milecki

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available The article shows historical and cultural determinants of understanding punishment and the rules of criminal responsibility. In the first part the relations of these research with classical research on penal law and related science is shown. Their meaning to the modern law culture in Europe is also shown. In the second part the basis for the culturally integrated research done is explained. In the third part the cultural categories that shape our understanding of punishment, related with the legacy of European civilization are shown. In the final part issues important for interdisciplinary research on criminal punishment are shown as a part of a broad definition of criminal punishment. It is noticed that raising those issues is important in every society regardless of its history, because they refer to issues crucial for social order and entities’ rights.

    1. Penalized maximum likelihood estimation for generalized linear point processes

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hansen, Niels Richard

      2010-01-01

      A generalized linear point process is specified in terms of an intensity that depends upon a linear predictor process through a fixed non-linear function. We present a framework where the linear predictor is parametrized by a Banach space and give results on Gateaux differentiability of the log-likelihood....... Of particular interest is when the intensity is expressed in terms of a linear filter parametrized by a Sobolev space. Using that the Sobolev spaces are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we derive results on the representation of the penalized maximum likelihood estimator in a special case and the gradient...... of the negative log-likelihood in general. The latter is used to develop a descent algorithm in the Sobolev space. We conclude the paper by extensions to multivariate and additive model specifications. The methods are implemented in the R-package ppstat....

    2. Da cláusula penal em contratos relacionais

      OpenAIRE

      2016-01-01

      A cláusula penal é um instituto tradicional. Consolidou-se na experiência brasileira sua compreensão como dispositivo que desempenha o papel de proposta de substituição da obrigação avençada pela indenização prefixada, na hipótese de sua inexecução total, ou incide por ocasião da tipificação do atraso, concorrendo com o cumprimento da obrigação. Em ambas as hipóteses, haverá o controle de redução equitativa da multa fixada, evitando-se o enriquecimento sem causa do credor. O...

    3. Protección de la competencia a través del derecho penal

      OpenAIRE

      Grace García Gutiérrez

      2012-01-01

      La libertad de competencia es una garantía constitucional de donde se desprende la legitimidad de intervención del derecho penal. Así, la tendencia del “nuevo” derecho penal económico está enfocada en sancionar aquellas conductas que atentan contra la economía (libertad de competencia inmersa) y el orden que el mismo Estado ha erigido para permitir su correcto funcionamiento. Mediante este artículo se pretende demostrar la legitimidad del derecho penal para proteger la competencia y ejemplifi...

    4. Aspectos del revisionismo penal y penitenciario de la Ilustración española

      OpenAIRE

      Llorente de Pedro, Pedro-Alejo

      2007-01-01

      Introducción. 1. La denuncia de D. Jorge Juan relativa a las fugas de los presidiarios del norte de África, agente provocador del debate de la cuestión penal y penitenciaria. 2. La cuestión penal y penitenciaria analizada por los fiscales del Consejo de Castilla, Campomanes y Floridablanca. 3. La Consulta del Consejo de Castilla de 25 de septiembre de 1770, el instrumento jurídico del cambio penal y penitenciario de la Ilustración. 3.1. Los primeros intentos de diseño ...

    5. Interpolation/penalization applied for strength design of 3D thermoelastic structures

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels L.

      2012-01-01

      illustrated with examples. In compliance minimization for thermoelastic structures it may be advantageous to decrease the total volume, but for strength maximization it is argued to keep the total permissible volume. Linear interpolation (no penalization) may to a certain extent be argued for 2D thickness...... optimized designs, but for 3D design problems interpolation must be included and not only from the penalization point of view to obtain 0-1 designs. Three interpolation types are presented in a uniform manner, including the well known one parameter penalizations, named SIMP and RAMP. An alternative two...

    6. Penal harm medicine: state tort remedies for delaying and denying health care to prisoners.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vaughn, M S

      1999-01-01

      In prison and jail subcultures, custodial personnel are committed to the penal harm movement, which seeks to inflict pain on prisoners. Conversely, correctional medical personnel are sworn to the Hippocratic Oath and are committed to alleviating prisoners' suffering. The Hippocratic Oath is violated when correctional medical workers adopt penal harm mandates and inflict pain on prisoners. By analyzing lawsuits filed by prisoners under state tort law, this article shows how the penal harm movement co-opts some correctional medical employees into abandoning their treatment and healing mission, thus causing denial or delay of medical treatment to prisoners.

    7. Las negociaciones en el proceso penal: del procedimiento inquisitivo a la prisionización masiva

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Julio César Montañez Ruiz

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available La presente investigación plantea la problemática de la prisionización masiva que generan las negociaciones en el sistema procesal penal de tendencia acusatoria, con marcada influencia norteamericana; aquí se sostiene que ese mecanismo, mediante el cual la Fiscalía busca la declaratoria masiva de culpabilidad de los imputados en plan de descongestionar el sistema represivo penal, tiene las caraterísticas más inquisitivas de un sistema de enjuiciamiento penal.

    8. Delito de violación en el Código Penal Ecuatoriano

      OpenAIRE

      Machuca Carpio, Alberto

      2011-01-01

      El delito de violación, según la doctrina penal, es el atentado más grave que puede concebirse contra la libertad sexual individual, pues constituye el delito más típico entre aquellos de este orden. El bien jurídico protegido en el artículo 512 del Código Penal Ecuatoriano es el referente a la libertad sexual. La conducta social del hombre se encuentra restringida por la ley penal. Cuando una persona distorsiona el sentido de la normalidad de la función sexual acompañada de la aceptación, y ...

    9. Minoría gitana, Derecho penal y teorías republicanas del castigo

      OpenAIRE

      Pérez de la Fuente, Oscar

      2013-01-01

      En primer lugar, este artículo plantea argumentos contra el prejuicio antigitano. En especial, los diversos intentos  de mezclar biología y Derecho penal.   En segundo lugar,  analiza tres elementos que explican mejor la relación entre minoría gitana y justicia penal: a) El prejuicio como una profecía que se autocumple; b) El Derecho penal como un caso de discriminación indirecta; c) El prejuicio como falacia de la generalización.  En tercer lugar, se estudian las teoricle ly this artetribuci...

    10. Las negociaciones en el proceso penal: del procedimiento inquisitivo a la prisionización masiva

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Julio César Montañez Ruiz

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available La presente investigación plantea la problemática de la prisionización masiva que generan las negociaciones en el sistema procesal penal de tendencia acusatoria, con marcada influencia norteamericana; aquí se sostiene que ese mecanismo, mediante el cual la Fiscalía busca la declaratoria masiva de culpabilidad de los imputados en plan de descongestionar el sistema represivo penal, tiene las caraterísticas más inquisitivas de un sistema de enjuiciamiento penal.

    11. Prime note sulla tutela penale dei culti nei Paesi dell’Est Europa

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Giovanni Cimbalo

      2011-05-01

      Full Text Available Testo della relazione tenuta al Convegno “La Carta e la Corte” (Ferrara, 27 ottobre 2007 destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. Alcune considerazioni preliminari sullo status delle Confessioni religiose nei paesi dell’Est Europa - 2. I nuovi orientamenti del diritto penale nell’Est Europa - 3. Le norme statali in materia di tutela penale dei culti e del sentimento religioso. 3. Le norme penali relative ai culti e a al sentimento religioso prima del 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 4. Tipologie e tecniche legislative di tutela penale dei culti dopo il 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 5. Alcune sommarie considerazioni.

    12. El marco penal de la pequeña delincuencia patrimonial y perspectivas de reforma

      OpenAIRE

      CORTINA ZAPICO, IVAN

      2014-01-01

      El presente estudio pretende un acercamiento a la figura del hurto, a través de un análisis de los elementos caracterizadores del tipo penal a la luz de la evolución doctrinal y jurisprudencial, exponiendo el marco normativo vigente tras las sucesivas reformas del Código Penal de 1995 y analizando las novedades planteadas en la futura reforma penal que se encuentra actualmente en tramitación parlamentaria. En este sentido, el trabajo gira en torno a una triple comparativa entre el tratamie...

    13. ALGUNOS ASPECTOS DEL DERECHO PENAL HISTÓRICO ESPAÑOL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carlos Merchán Aparicio

      2017-06-01

      Full Text Available Este artículo analiza dos aspectos distintos del Derecho Penal del Antiguo Régimen. En primer lugar un estudio del marco global de la cuestión y las categorías y tipos penales de la época, pero sobre todo y en segundo lugar el análisis de un caso penal paradigmático a principios del siglo XVII, como fue el llamado “proceso Ezpeleta”, asesinato entre cuyos testigos procesales figura Miguel de Cervantes y su familia, lo que da al caso un valor especial.

    14. Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor

      2016-01-01

      Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible.

    15. REFLEXÕES SOBRE O TRATAMENTO JURÍDICO-PENAL DO FENÔMENO DA CORRUPÇÃO NO BRASIL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rebecca Cerqueira Rocha

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available RESUMOA história da corrupção confunde-se com a própria história da humanidade. Considerada como um fenômeno altamente complexo e fluído, a corrupção foi, ao longo do tempo, assumindo novos contornos, o que tem gerado sérios entraves ao seu adequado enquadramento legal. Dotada de alto grau de nocividade aos valores e instituições democráticas, a corrupção desperta a necessidade de ser exercida uma política ostensiva de combate e repressão. O Direito Penal, por sua vez, constitui, através da incessante edição de normas penais, o principal instrumento de resposta às práticas corruptivas, de modo que para atingir à finalidade de serem cessados os efeitos danosos da corrupção é submetido a profundas transformações na sua feição legitimadora. Isto é, o Direito Penal fundado em premissas liberais, orientado pelos princípios da ultima ratio, proporcionalidade e dignidade da pessoa humana, dá lugar à larga intervenção jurídico-penal de cunho simbólico, preventivo e emergencial, numa franca violação às estimas de um Estado Democrático de Direito.Palavras- chave: Corrupção; Hiperinflação legislativa; Direito penal simbólico. JURIDICAL AND CRIMINAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE CORRUPTION IN BRASIL ABSTRACTThe history of corruption become mixed up with the history of the humanity itself. Taking in consideration that the corruption is a phenomenon highly complicated it was, along the time, getting new shapes which has generated serious obstacles to its legal and appropriate fitting. With high level of harmfulness against the values and democratics institutions, the corruption stimulates the necessity to be performed a severe politic of action and repression. The Penal Code, for the time being, establish through the incessantly editions of penals rules, the main instrument of response for corruptible practices, in order to reach the target to stop the prejudicial effects of the corruption it is submitted to a deep

    16. Quality Management in Hungarian Higher Education: Organisational Responses to Governmental Policy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.

      2008-01-01

      This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…

    17. Demographic Processes in the Southern Part of the Hungarian – Romanian Border

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      EGON NAGY

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper is a demographic comparative study of two neighboring regions along the southern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which serves as a fundament for further analyses concerning the verification of cohesion between the two parts of the border. We have concluded our study with the statement that in spite of its traditionally low population increase, the Romanian Timiş and Arad counties have a more advantageous demographical condition than the neighboring Hungarian Békés and Csongrád counties, which can be described as having a generalized demographical decline. Though in Romania the Banat region for many decades is classified as a crisis-zone from a demographical point of view, it can show off an impressive attractiveness in terms of inner-migration in contrast to its Hungarian neighbors. In contrast with the northern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border, in this region the border strip does not overlap with a socio-economic periphery, because this phenomenon is more scattered in space.

    18. American Policy toward Eastern Bloc Countries Influencing the Hungarian Revolution of 1956

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-06-13

      terror arrests and executions against the Hungarian revolutionaries. In some instances young teens were sentenced with the death penalty to be executed on...in jeopardy. Leaders not wanting to offend their capable subordinates, not feeling sure of their understanding of the problem, focused elsewhere, or

    19. Quality Management in Hungarian Higher Education: Organisational Responses to Governmental Policy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.

      2008-01-01

      This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…

    20. A Retrospective Appraisal of 15 Years' Proceedings of the Hungarian Research Student Association

      Science.gov (United States)

      Revesz, Tamas; Olah, Mate

      2013-01-01

      In 1996 the Hungarian Research Student Association (HRSA) was founded. Since then more than 6000 young, talented researchers have belonged to the Association. The founders set two principal aims: (1) to support the gifted and the most promising high school students and (2) to establish an active community. The movement has grown through the work…

    1. The Hungarian Patient: Museum Education in Hungary and the Challenges of Democratic Transition

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vasarhelyi, Tamas

      2012-01-01

      This article outlines the changes, developments, activities, and challenges faced by Hungarian museums over the last few decades. It shows that there was life behind the "Iron Curtain," with museums enjoying relative financial stability. While the political and economic changes associated with the transition from a communist to a…

    2. Teaching the Romanian Neighbors Hungarian: Language Ideologies and the Debrecen Summer School

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kiss, Attila Gyula

      2016-01-01

      This article is a contribution to the hitherto scant literature on learning a historical minority language and on language ideologies in the context of a study abroad program in Hungary, Debrecen. I analyse the language ideologies of the decision makers in Hungary and in the Debrecen Summer School in relation to the teaching of Hungarian to the…

    3. A Comparative Study of Learning Strategies Used by Romanian and Hungarian Preuniversity Students in Science Learning

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lingvay, Mónika; Timofte, Roxana S.; Ciascai, Liliana; Predescu, Constantin

      2015-01-01

      Development of pupils' deep learning approach is an important goal of education nowadays, considering that a deep learning approach is mediating conceptual understanding and transfer. Different performance at PISA tests of Romanian and Hungarian pupils cause us to commence a study for the analysis of learning approaches employed by these pupils.…

    4. The Relationship of Intercultural Contact and Language Learning Motivation among Hungarian Students of English and German

      Science.gov (United States)

      Csizer, Kata; Kormos, Judit

      2008-01-01

      In this paper we report the results of a questionnaire survey conducted with 1777 Hungarian primary school children aged between 13 and 14 studying English and German. In our research we investigated the differences in the motivational and intercultural contact measures as well as determinants of motivated behaviour between learners of English and…

    5. Quality management and patient safety: survey results from 102 Hungarian hospitals.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Makai, P.; Klazinga, N.; Wagner, C.; Boncz, I.; Gulácsi, L.

      2009-01-01

      OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the development of quality management systems in Hungarian hospitals. It also aims to answer the policy question, whether a separate patient safety policy should be created additional to quality policies, on national as well as hospital level. METHOD:

    6. The 1956 Hungarian refugee emergency, an early and instructive case of resettlement

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Zieck, M.Y.A.

      2013-01-01

      The Soviet repression of the Hungarian uprising in 1956 caused an exodus of 200,000 refugees. Most of the refugees fled to Austria. Austria immediately called on states to help both financially and by physically sharing the refugees by means of resettlement. As a result, most of the refugees were re

    7. An Optimality Theoretic Account of Hungarian ESL Learners' Acquisition of /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bunta, Ferenc; Major, Roy C.

      2004-01-01

      This paper provides an Optimality Theoretic account of how Hungarian learners of English acquire /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/. It is hypothesized that as the learners' pronunciation becomes more nativelike, L1 transfer substitutions will diminish; non-transfer substitutions will be especially prevalent in the intermediate stages, and that all learners…

    8. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Andrea Dénes

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

    9. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

      2011-01-01

      The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

    10. Quality management and patient safety: survey results from 102 Hungarian hospitals.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Makai, P.; Klazinga, N.; Wagner, C.; Boncz, I.; Gulácsi, L.

      2009-01-01

      OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the development of quality management systems in Hungarian hospitals. It also aims to answer the policy question, whether a separate patient safety policy should be created additional to quality policies, on national as well as hospital level. METHOD:

    11. Cross-Validation of a PACER Prediction Equation for Assessing Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian Youth

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Finn, Kevin J.; Kaj, Mónika

      2015-01-01

      Purpose: The purpose of this article was to evaluate the validity of the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run (PACER) test in a sample of Hungarian youth. Method: Approximately 500 participants (aged 10-18 years old) were randomly selected across Hungary to complete both laboratory (maximal treadmill protocol) and field assessments…

    12. Pre-peer review of Hungarian research and innovation system : Horizon 2020 policy support facility

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Ranga, Liana Marina; Anthony, Bartzokas

      2015-01-01

      This Report provides the outcome of the Pre-Peer Review of the Hungarian research and innovation system, carried out by a panel of experts under the Horizon 2020 Policy Support Facility. The expert panel arrived at a first assessment of strengths and weaknesses including key bottlenecks as well as a

    13. La reforma del proceso penal en España

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Isabel Hernández Gómez

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available El presente artículo trata de la reforma de la justicia penal española, comenzada hace casi 20 años, a partir de la llegada de la democracia y de la vigencia del Texto Constitucional de 1978, y que ha sido una reivindicación mayoritaria de la doctrina especializada y de la propia sociedad. Nadie que se aproxime con un mínimo de objetividad a la situación de nuestra justicia criminal puede discrepar de la necesidad de la reforma del sistema que, de manera parcial, se ha llevado a cabo en las últimas iniciativas legislativas modificadoras de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal, con soluciones técnicas que casi resultan evidentes por sí mismas. Quizá mejor que ninguna otra iniciativa legislativa de cuantas han surgido del Pacto de Estado para la Reforma de la Justicia, la denominada Ley de Juicios Rápidos (Ley 38/2002 de 24 de octubre de Reforma de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal, y su complementaria la L. O. 8/2002, resume los dos grandes objetivos trazados por el Ministerio de Justicia: Por una parte, modernizar la administración de justicia española, haci éndola más ágil, eficiente, transparente y cercana a los ciudadanos, y por otra, fortalecer el sistema judicial en su conjunto como instrumento básico de la lucha contra la criminalidad. Desde algunos sectores se ha pretendido transmitir a la comunidad jurí- dica que la lentitud en la instrucción penal aporta garantías para el imputado. Sin embargo, entendemos que la tardanza de varias semanas o meses en realizar la instrucción, nada tiene que ver con las garantías procesales inherentes al due process of law, cuyo íntimo valor constitucional (el llamado principio de procedimiento, que construye laboriosamente la doctrina del Tribunal Supremo estadounidense a partir de la XVI Enmienda no debemos pervertir. Tampoco creemos que aporte ninguna ventaja al imputado ni a las víctimas ni a los terceros que hayan de participar en el proceso penal, la prolongación indefinida de

    14. Cultura Política republicana e o Código Penal de 1890 * Cultura Política republicana y el Código Penal de 1890

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      PAULO HENRIQUE MIOTTO DONADELI

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo buscar estabelecer o conceito de Cultura Política, para compreender a dinâmica da Cultura Política Republicana que se instaurou no Brasil no final do século XIX, como meio de analisar as novas tendências penais da Primeira República (1889-1930, que se codificam no Código Penal de 1890. Ao analisar as condições e contradições desse diploma penal, o artigo convida a fazer uma reflexão sobre a sociedade da época, mostrando que a lei penal é o resultado dos interesses e conflitos que permeia a implantação e consolidação de uma cultural política republicana. A tese central do artigo é mostrar que a elite republicana aproveitou das concepções penais para implantar e justificar mecanismos de repressão e de controle do crime, como uma das formas de dominação e manutenção de poder.Palavras-chave: Cultura Política; República Velha; Direito Penal.Resumen: En este trabajo se busca establecer el concepto de cultura política, para entender la dinámica de la cultura política republicana en Brasil que surgieron a finales del siglo XIX, como una forma de analizar las nuevas tendencias criminales de la Primera República (1889-1930, que están codificadas en el Código Penal de 1890. Al analizar las condiciones y contradicciones de esta ley penal, el artículo llama a una reflexión sobre la sociedad de la época, lo que demuestra que el derecho penal es el resultado de intereses y conflictos que se respira en la implementación y consolidación de una cultura política republicana. La tesis central del artículo es mostrar que la élite republicana aprovechó concepciones penales para implementar y justificar los mecanismos de represión y control de la delincuencia, como una forma de dominación y mantenimiento del poder.Palabras clave: Cultura Política; República Vieja; Derecho Penal.

    15. Dr. Andras Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division, Budapest, Hungary

      CERN Document Server

      Maximilien Brice

      2002-01-01

      Photo 01: Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division (right) visiting the ALICE data acquisition laboratory with Ervin Denes. Photo 02: Ervin Denes in the ALICE DAQ (data acquisition) laboratory on the occasion of the visit of Dr András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division. Photo 03: Detector Data Link and data generator used for data acquisition system of the ALICE experiment photographed on the occasion of the visit of Dr. András Siegler, President of the Hungarian CERN Committee, Ministry of Education, Research and Development Division.

    16. OBSERVAŢII REFERITOARE LA AMENDAMENTELE OPERATE ÎN CODUL PENAL PRIN LEGEA NR.60/2016

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vitalie STATI

      2016-11-01

      Full Text Available Obiectul prezentului studiu îl constituie modificările şi completările operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. Acestea vizează: persoana juridică în calitate de subiect al infracţiunii; confiscarea specială; spălarea banilor; actul terorist; finanţarea terorismului; abuzul de putere sau abuzul de serviciu. În procesul analizei, sunt examinate proiectul care se află la baza Legii nr.60/2016, Nota informativă la acest proiect şi alte asemenea acte preparatorii. De asemenea, se face referire la Convenţia privind spălarea, descoperirea, sechestrarea şi confiscarea produselor infracţiunii şi finan­ţarea terorismului, adoptată la Varşovia la 16.05.2005, precum şi la raportul explicativ la această Convenţie. Scopul prezentului studiu constă în stabilirea efectelor pozitive şi a celor negative ale adoptării modificărilor şi completărilor operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. În rezultatul investigaţiei efectuate se ajunge la concluzia că nu toate amendamentele operate prin legea amintită au tangenţă cu domeniile ce ţin de prevenirea şi combaterea spălării banilor şi a finanţării terorismului. Nu toate aceste amendamente pot asigura armonizarea legislaţiei naţionale penale cu stan­dardele stabilite de Curtea Europeană pentru Drepturile Omului. Unele din aceste amendamente sunt îndoielnice sub aspectul calităţii lor tehnico-legislative şi/sau în ce priveşte aportul lor în planul eficientizării apărării ordinii de drept. Impresia de ansamblu este că nu preocuparea pentru interesul social a constituit scopul principal al adoptării Legii nr.60/2016.SOME REMARKS ON THE AMENDMENTS OPERATED TO THE PENAL CODE BY LAW No.60/2016The object of this study is formed by the modifications and additions operated to the Penal Code by Law No.60/2016. The content of the respective initiatives addresses the following elements: the legal person as the subject of the offence; special confiscation

    17. Playing the Part: Hungarian Boy Scouts and the Performance of Trauma in Interwar Hungary

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Steven Jobbitt

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available In 1920, the historic Kingdom of Hungary was dismembered according to the dictates of the Treaty of Trianon. Resulting in the loss of two-thirds of the nation’s pre-World War I territory, and one-third of its prewar population, Trianon has long stood as a symbol for Hungarian suffering and trauma in the twentieth century. Historians of modern Hungary have given much consideration to Trianon, with serious attention being paid to what some have called the Trianon syndrome, or the Trianon trauma. Arguing that interwar Hungarian culture and politics need to be understood in light of the menacing psychological shadow cast by Trianon, a number of historians have suggested that the people of Hungary were traumatized spontaneously and universally by the dismemberment of the nation and the suffering that followed. This paper argues that, though this may indeed have been the case on a raw emotional level, careful consideration needs to be given to the overlapping political and pedagogical functions of the Trianon trauma, especially as this trauma found expression in repeated public “performances” of the Trianon tragedy. Focusing on the revisionist performances of Hungarian boy scouts between the wars, and in particular on the personal papers of the Hungarian geographer and boy scout leader Ferenc Fodor, this paper draws a direct link between trauma and performance in the interwar period, and argues that, though trauma was indeed central to Hungarian cultural politics, it functioned as much as a pedagogical strategy as it did a psychological reality.

    18. [Mental illness in Brazilian penal law: legal irresponsibility, potentiality for danger/aggressiveness and safety policies].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Nery Filho, Antônio

      2002-01-01

      Psychiatric information and practice are closely related with the field of criminal law, questioning classical penal law premises, such as responsibility and freewill. We have analyzed the articles related to mental health in Brazilian penal laws, since Código Criminal do Império do Brazil (Brazilian Empire criminal laws) from 1830. Our objective is to describe the structuring of a legal status for the mentally ill in Brazil, as well as the model of penal intervention in the lives of those considered as 'dangerous' and 'irresponsible'. In order to do so, we have analyzed not only specific articles on penal law, but also texts by specialized analysts. In addition, we have discussed the concepts that keep mentally-ill criminals in a rather ambiguous situation, i.e. legal irresponsibility, potential aggressiveness and safety policies.

    19. A penalization method for calculating the flow beneath travelling water waves of large amplitude

      CERN Document Server

      Constantin, Adrian; Scherzer, Otmar

      2014-01-01

      A penalization method for a suitable reformulation of the governing equations as a constrained optimization problem provides accurate numerical simulations for large-amplitude travelling water waves in irrotational flows and in flows with constant vorticity.

    20. Feasibility of using Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method for Shape and Topology Optimization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

      2009-11-01

      In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape and topology optimization of fluid flows. Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid in complex geometries (where grid resolution varies both in space and time time), while Brinkman volume penalization allows easy variation of flow geometry without using body-fitted meshes by simply changing the shape of the penalization region. The use of Brinkman volume penalization approach allow seamless transition from shape to topology optimization by combining it with level set approach and increasing the size of the optimization space. The approach is demonstrated for shape optimization of a variety of fluid flows by optimizing single cost function (time averaged Drag coefficient) using covariance matrix adaptation (CMA) evolutionary algorithm.

    1. El Estado en la gestion del conflicto: la reforma del proceso penal en Latinoamerica

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Mercado Maldonado, Asael; Benavente Chorres, Hesbert

      2010-01-01

      ... facultades al juez, pasa al paradigma del sistema de justicia penal como marco de discusion y gestion de un conflicto de intereses surgido a consecuencia de la comision de un delito, donde las partes, como...

    2. LA MEDIACIÓN PENAL Y EL NUEVO MODELO DE JUSTICIA RESTAURATIVA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mª Auxiliadora García Fernández

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available The paper deals with the intersubjective conflict that occurs between two people, perpetrator and victim, and the need to offer a solution to both the conflict itself and those involved in it through penal mediation

    3. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino (México)

      2014-01-01

      .... Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión...

    4. PENALIZED SPLINE: A GENERAL ROBUST TRAJECTORY MODEL FOR ZIYUAN-3 SATELLITE

      OpenAIRE

      Pan, H; Zou, Z

      2016-01-01

      Owing to the dynamic imaging system, the trajectory model plays a very important role in the geometric processing of high resolution satellite imagery. However, establishing a trajectory model is difficult when only discrete and noisy data are available. In this manuscript, we proposed a general robust trajectory model, the penalized spline model, which could fit trajectory data well and smooth noise. The penalized parameter λ controlling the smooth and fitting accuracy could be estimated by ...

    5. Transfrontier environmental protection and German penal law. Grenzueberschreitende Umweltbelastungen und deutsches Strafrecht

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Forkel, H.W.

      1988-01-22

      The author investigates the problem of how far German penal law is valid in case of transfrontier environmental pollution. He distinguishes between cases in which the interests of Germany and the neighbour state are congruent, and cases in which they are not congruent. According to the author, German law should be applied in cases where the other country has no environmental penal legislation, and where the emissions exceed the limits set by German and foreign law. (orig./HSCH).

    6. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maheshkumar P. Joshi

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research

    7. CAPACIDAD DE CULPABILIDAD PENAL Y LIBERTAD DE DECISIÓN. ACERCA DEL DEBATE ENTRE LAS NEUROCIENCIAS, LA FILOSOFÍA DE LA MENTE Y EL DERECHO PENAL

      OpenAIRE

      Chan Mora, Gustavo

      2013-01-01

      En el artículo se analiza, de manera crítica, el concepto de capacidad de culpabilidad penal tradicionalmente formulado por la dogmática penal alemana. Así, se le cuestiona desde una perspectiva metodológica realista y desde un enfoque sociojurídico, para luego confrontarlo con los más recientes descubrimientos de la neurociencia y con algunas posiciones de la filosofía de la mente. Frente a la afirmación realizada desde un enfoque neurocientífico fisicalista-determinista, en el sentido de qu...

    8. La especialidad del Derecho penal de adolescentes: Fundamentos empíricos y normativos, y consecuencias para una aplicación diferenciada del Derecho penal sustantivo

      OpenAIRE

      Couso,Jaime

      2012-01-01

      A la luz de los conocimientos empíricos aportados por la psicología del desarrollo y la criminología, y de los principios de derecho internacional que exigen dar un tratamiento jurídico especial a los adolescentes en materia penal, distinto del que reciben los mayores de edad, el artículo identifica una serie de estándares de juzgamiento diferenciado que deberían ser tenidos en cuenta en la aplicación del derecho penal sustantivo por parte de los tribunales. Para determinar con mayor precisió...

    9. La pericia medico-legal en materia penal juvenil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ronald Salazar Murillo

      1999-09-01

      Full Text Available La reforma recién ocurrida en materia penal juvenil en Costa Rica reconoce al menor su personalidad jur{idica, le hace justicia, le otorga responsabilidad por sus acciones, para lo cual se ha diseñado un Sistema Penal Juvenil de fin pedagógico, educativo y formativo delmenor infractor y por ello puede ser objeto de peritación médicolegal, pericias físicas sobre su cuerpo y exámenes psicosociales. Interesa en la pericia f{isica establecer laedad del menor, especialmente en un país de alta inmigración indocumentada comoel nuestro donde diferencias de tan solo un mes pueden producir la aplicación o no de la Ley. Toda pericia debe respeta el pudor, evitar la revictimización y ser realizada por peritos forenses deseablemente. Es de interés también la constatación de la capacidad de culpabilidad, el grado de desarrollo y responsabiliadad de dirigir sus acciones e ilustrar al Juez y a las partes aacerca de las eventuales sanciones a imponer.The new reformation made in the Costa Rican Juvenile Law recognizes the legal personality of the minor, it makes him justice and gives him more responsability for his actions .For all these it has been design a Juvenile Law System with pedagogic, educative and formative ends for the minor transgressor , therefore it can be the object of medico-legal expertize, physical aspects like his body, his tests and psicoanalisis. The porpouse of physical expertize is to establish the age of the minor specially in a high undocumented migration country like ours, where differences of only a months can produce the aplication or not of the law. All the expertizes must respect the dignity, avoid the victimazation once again and be done by forensic experts by their own will. It is also important in medico-legal expertize the constation of capacity of guiltiness, the degree of development and responsability to direct their actions , and ilustrate to the judge and the parties, about the eventuals sanctions to impone.

    10. Importance of the Hungarian phytosociological school established at the University of Debrecen in development of current field botany.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva

      2010-01-01

      The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.

    11. From easel to professorship. The creation and consolidation of Hungarian professional fine arts education in Transylvania

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      János Kristóf Murádin

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available The study encompasses the history of fine arts education in Hungarian language from Transylvania, beginning from the end of the 19th century to recent times, placing special emphasis on the period between 1944 and 1948, when the number of fine arts educational institutions in Transylvania was the highest. Beside the Hungarian civil organisations from Transylvania (the Free Painting School from Baia Mare, the Barabás Miklós Guild and the Józsa Béla Athenaeum Fine Arts Free School from Cluj the state-run educational institutions (the Hungarian Art Institute from Cluj, the Ion Andreescu Fine Arts Institute that were attended by many students are also presented. With this, the study aims to offer a comprehensive perspective on the education of the succesive generations of Hungarian fine artists from Transylvania. Keywords: Hungarians of Romania, demographic dynamic of the Hungarian mi-nority in Transylvania, demographic changes, assimilation, ethnic classification. __________________ Este estudio abarca la historia de la educación de bellas artes de Transilvania en lengua húngara, empezando con el fin del siglo 19 hasta los últimos tiempos con énfasis especial en el período 1944–1948 cuando el número de las instituciones educativas de bellas artes fue lo más alto en Transilvania. Junto a las organizaciones civiles húngaras de Transilvania (La Escuela de Pintura Libre de Baia Mare, El Gremio Barabás Miklós y La Escuela Libre de Bellas Artes Józsa Béla de Cluj también se presentan las instituciones educativas estatales (Instituto Húngaras de Artes de Cluj, Instituto de Bellas Artes Ion Andreescu asistidas por muchos estudiantes. Con esto, el estudio tiene el objetivo de ofrecer una perspectiva exhaustiva sobre la educación de generaciones sucesivas de artistas plásticos húngaros de Transilvania. Palabras clave:Húngaros de Rumania, dinámicas demográficas de las minorías húngaras en Transilvania, cambios demogr

    12. ¿ES LEGÍTIMA LA PROTECCIÓN PENAL DE LOS DERECHOS MORALES DE AUTOR?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      César Alejandro Osorio Moreno

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available En el contexto del derecho penal moderno y desde una perspectiva comparada entre el derecho penal español y el derecho penal colombiano en cuanto a la protección penal de los derechos morales de autor, se pone en discusión si es necesaria la intervención penal o no, a partir de cuestionar si en verdad se protege un bien jurídico relevante que ameritaría el mecanismo de control social más grave del que dispone el Estado que es el derecho penal, o cómo se planteará, si a partir de la protección de los derechos patrimoniales de autor se cobijan los morales tal como acontece en España en la actualidad.

    13. Pseudo-realia in the Romanian Translations of Various Hungarian Institutions and in the Hungarian Translations of Romanian Public Administration Terms

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zopus Andras

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available My presentation addresses an issue translators of Romanian–Hungarian legal and economic texts encounter almost day by day. Each field of translation is special in its kind, but translating legal/economic texts requires an especially accurate knowledge of the acts, laws, and concepts of both the source and target language since this is essential for the translated text to be really a quality, professional, and – last but not least – an intelligible one to the target-language audience, i.e. the customers.

    14. [Assisted reproduction and artificial insemination and genetic manipulation in the Criminal Code of the Federal District, Mexico].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brena Sesma, Ingrid

      2004-01-01

      The article that one presents has for purpose outline and comment on the recent modifications to the Penal Code for the Federal District of México which establish, for the first time, crimes related to the artificial procreation and to the genetic manipulation. Also one refers to the interaction of the new legal texts with the sanitary legislation of the country. Since it will be stated in some cases they present confrontations between the penal and the sanitary reglamentation and some points related to the legality or unlawfulness of a conduct that stayed without the enough development. These lacks will complicate the application of the new rules of the Penal Code of the Federal District.

    15. pPXF: Penalized Pixel-Fitting stellar kinematics extraction

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cappellari, Michele

      2012-10-01

      pPXF is an IDL (and free GDL or FL) program which extracts the stellar kinematics or stellar population from absorption-line spectra of galaxies using the Penalized Pixel-Fitting method (pPXF) developed by Cappellari & Emsellem (2004, PASP, 116, 138). Additional features implemented in the pPXF routine include: Optimal template: Fitted together with the kinematics to minimize template-mismatch errors. Also useful to extract gas kinematics or derive emission-corrected line-strengths indexes. One can use synthetic templates to study the stellar population of galaxies via "Full Spectral Fitting" instead of using traditional line-strengths.Regularization of templates weights: To reduce the noise in the recovery of the stellar population parameters and attach a physical meaning to the output weights assigned to the templates in term of the star formation history (SFH) or metallicity distribution of an individual galaxy.Iterative sigma clipping: To clean the spectra from residual bad pixels or cosmic rays.Additive/multiplicative polynomials: To correct low frequency continuum variations. Also useful for calibration purposes.

    16. Justicia penal y medios de comunicación

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lic. Iván Gustavo Lello

      2001-01-01

      Full Text Available Plantearse como objeto de estudio la difusión por la prensa de procesos judiciales penales implica asumir un punto de vista multidisciplinario y multilateral. En un sistema democrático, solo en el cual es posible problematizar acerca de esta cuestión, el principio es la división de poderes y la publicidad de los actos de gobierno. En él, además, la prensa tiene una función tradicionalmente definida en la historia constitucional recogida por la tradición argentina y latinoamericana en general. Pero el espacio real de la comunicación a través de los medios de este tipo de hechos está enmarcada por tratados internacionales, la constitución y leyes positivas, e incluso con mayor minuciosidad en los códigos de procedimiento, y, en menor medida, por la deontología periodística.

    17. Diritto penale, vittimizzazione e “protagonismo” della vittima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Désirée Fondaroli

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available The notion of a « victim » of crime is unknown in both the Italian Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Law, with the exception of the transposed provisions of the Community acts into our national legislation and those regarding the creation of “solidarity funds” (for example, the funds to assist the victims of terrorism, of mafia, or road accidents. However, a definition is present in Article 2 of the EU Directive 2012/29/UE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25th October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, and replacing the Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA. In place of the term “victim”, our legal system uses the traditional figure of a “person damaged as the result of crime” (Article 185 of the Penal law, who joins the proceedings as a private party to claim damages (Article 74 of the Criminal Procedure Law, the figure of the “injured party” and the associations representing the interests offended by the crime (Article 91 of the Criminal Procedure Law. The irruption of the victim into the criminal trial beyond the confines of our legal traditions produces an explosive effect. Indeed, these confines are already very large with regard to the experience of some foreign countries where often extra procedural methods of victim-offender mediation are provided.

    18. CONSECUENCIAS JURÍDICO-PENALES DEL ABSENTISMO ESCOLAR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carlos Vázquez González

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available El absentismo y/o el abandono escolar no son tan sólo uno de los principales problemas a los que se debe enfrentar cualquier sistema educativo, sino también un problema social relacionado con la exclusión social, la marginación y la delincuencia, ya que la investigación criminológica ha comprobado como el fracaso escolar o un temprano abandono de los estudios opera como un facilitador de la delincuencia juvenil. Cuando el absentismo o abandono escolar se produce debido a un incumplimiento injustificado por parte de los padres del deber de educar y proporcionar una formación integral a sus hijos, deber legal de asistencia inherente a la patria potestad, el Estado deberá intervenir para garantizar el derecho a la educación de los menores, recurriendo incluso al Derecho penal, mediante la aplicación del delito de abandono de familia del art. 226.1 CP.

    19. Polygenic scores via penalized regression on summary statistics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mak, Timothy Shin Heng; Porsch, Robert Milan; Choi, Shing Wan; Zhou, Xueya; Sham, Pak Chung

      2017-09-01

      Polygenic scores (PGS) summarize the genetic contribution of a person's genotype to a disease or phenotype. They can be used to group participants into different risk categories for diseases, and are also used as covariates in epidemiological analyses. A number of possible ways of calculating PGS have been proposed, and recently there is much interest in methods that incorporate information available in published summary statistics. As there is no inherent information on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in summary statistics, a pertinent question is how we can use LD information available elsewhere to supplement such analyses. To answer this question, we propose a method for constructing PGS using summary statistics and a reference panel in a penalized regression framework, which we call lassosum. We also propose a general method for choosing the value of the tuning parameter in the absence of validation data. In our simulations, we showed that pseudovalidation often resulted in prediction accuracy that is comparable to using a dataset with validation phenotype and was clearly superior to the conservative option of setting the tuning parameter of lassosum to its lowest value. We also showed that lassosum achieved better prediction accuracy than simple clumping and P-value thresholding in almost all scenarios. It was also substantially faster and more accurate than the recently proposed LDpred. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

    20. The degrees of freedom of penalized l1 minimization

      CERN Document Server

      Dossal, Charles; Fadili, Jalal M; Peyré, Gabriel; Chesneau, Christophe

      2011-01-01

      In this paper, we study the degrees of freedom (df) of penalized l1 minimization (also known as the Lasso) for linear regression models. We give a closed-form expression of the degrees of freedom of the Lasso response. Namely, we show that for any given Lasso regularization parameter \\lambda and any observed data y belongs to a set of full measure, the cardinal of the support of a particular solution of the Lasso problem is an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of the Lasso response. This is achieved without any assumption on the uniqueness of the Lasso solution. Thus, our result remains true for both the underdetermined and the overdetermined case studied originally in Zou et al.. We also prove that a key result in Zou et al. is not true by providing a simple counterexample. An effective estimator of the number of degrees of freedom may have several applications including an objectively guided choice of the regularization parameter in the Lasso through the SURE framework.

    1. LIBERTAD DE VOLUNTAD, INVESTIGACIÓN SOBRE EL CEREBRO Y RESPONSABILIDAD PENAL APROXIMACIÓN A LOS FUNDAMENTOS DEL MODERNO DEBATE SOBRE NEUROCIENCIAS Y DERECHO PENAL

      OpenAIRE

      Demetrio Crespo, Eduardo

      2015-01-01

      El artículo versa sobre los fundamentos de la reciente polémica acerca de las repercusiones que la moderna investigación sobre el cerebro llevada a cabo en el ámbito de las Neurociencias podría acarrear en lo concerniente a la responsabilidad penal.

    2. From new clones to flowers – innovative business models in the Hungarian wine economy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kismarjai Balázs

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available Due to the ovestocked Hungarian wine sector wineries often need to find entirely new ways that enable them to increase their market share. These opportunities are determined by the current market potentials, the geographic location and of course the wine district itself. In this study I examined some examples of outbreak opportunities for producers in this difficult economic situation. Young winemakers from different Hungarian wine districts unite to open wine bars - these are now present in several towns all over the country. Other winemakers have been experimenting with new clones in less recognized wine districts. A small winery from a historic wine district recommends its wines with flowers in a new shop.

    3. Cultivating a Symbolic Ethnicity and Resisting Assimilation: Identity Work Among Hungarian Immigrants

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Orsolya Kolozsvari

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available Upon arrival in a host country with considerable ethnic diversity, such as the United States, immigrants are frequently confronted with various different perceptions of local, ethnic, and racial categories and identities. Living in the United States often challenges immigrants to reconsider, modify, or reconstruct their previous identities. This has happened, for example, to Eastern and Southern European immigrants in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and more recently to Korean, Filipino, Mexican and African immigrants from Ghana and Cape Verde, who all have had to reinterpret their identities upon arrival in the United States. Many new immigrants start thinking about themselves in ethnic terms for the first time and (rediscover their ethnicity. Through 20 in-depth interviews with Hungarian immigrants this study explores ethnic identity construction among Hungarians in the United States.

    4. HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTS OF DANUBE FLOOD 2013 BY THE HUNGARIAN HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTING SERVICE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. CSÍK

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available The significant lead time resulting from the use of the OLSER system of the Hungarian Hydrological Forecasting Service is of key importance in making timely preparations for flood defence. Due to continuous improvements to the quantitative meteorological forecast models (primarily the generally used ECMWF model and the OLSER system over the past years, we have by now reached a point where the previously separately managed flood peak forecasting and continuous forecasting can no longer be interpreted independently. Continuous forecasting taking into account precipitation forecasts and monitoring spatial changes of the complex physics-based concentration process also offers a level of accuracy suitable to identify peak values. The flood wave of June 2013 along the Hungarian Danube section exceeded the ever observed highest high water levels everywhere (except for gauge Mohács. The forecasts prepared by HHFS played a crucial role both in terms of lead time and the forecasted water levels.

    5. The Representation of the Hungarian Towns in Domenico Zenoi's and Paolo Forlani's Cartographic Work

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      Béla Szalai

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available In the mid-16th century Venice was the European center of cartography. The two most distinguished representatives of the Venetian school of cartography, which included their close collaborators, Natale Bonifacio and Martin Rota Kolunic from Šibenik in Dalmatia, were Domenico Zenoi and Paolo Forlani. The study deals with their cartographic and publishing activity, their relationship and rivalry within the context of the Venetian cartographic production and analyzes in detail their engravings of the Hungarian towns at the time of the Ottoman conquests, including the siege and the fall of the fortress Sziget during the command of Nikola Šubić Zrinyi. The analysis is based on the five extant copies of Zenoi's and Forlani's collections of views, two of which have been unknown until discovered by the author in the Budapest National Library.Keywords: Cartography; Venice; Zenoi; Forlani; Hungarian towns; Ottoman conquests

    6. DISC BROOCHES WITH ANTHROPOMORPHIC DEPICTION GLASS INTAGLIOS IN THE SARMATIAN ENVIRONMENT OF THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN

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      Lavinia Grumeza

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available A special category of brooches present in the Sarmatian graves of the Carpathian Basin is represented by disc brooches made of silver or bronze plate with central anthropomorphic depiction glass intaglios. They were found in 11 burial assemblages, together with the fashion brought by new ethnic groups arriving towards the end of the 3rd c. AD in the Great Hungarian Plain. Disc brooches with central glass intaglios are rare in Antiquity. They appear exclusively only in the German and Sarmatian Barbaricum (from the South and Central Hungarian Plain. Their bearers were children and women, especially the rich Sarmatian women, during the second half/end of the 3rd c. – early-4th c. AD (stages C2-C3 in the Central European chronology.

    7. Introduction. The formation of the Hungarian Information Society in the last ten years

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Róbert Sinka

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available Hungary was an example to follow as one of the initiators of the change that ultimately resulted in the elimination of the Soviet dependence, as well as in the democratization of Eastern-Central European countries. The iron curtain pulled down in 1989 opened up the country to the world. The comfortable protection was suddenly replaced by the new challenges of the global market economy and culture. The forming of the Hungarian information society could have brought one of the most radical changes among these. The present paper studies the successes and failures of the development of the Hungarian information society in the last decade on the basis of the research report (MITJ, 2008 prepared by ITTK (Information Society and Trend Research Centre

    8. LA EJECUCIÓN DE LAS SANCIONES ALTERNATIVAS DEL MODELO DE JUSTICIA PENAL JUVENIL EN COSTA RICA

      OpenAIRE

      Fernández Lépiz, Cinthya

      2013-01-01

      Es muy común encontrar análisis del sistema penal juvenil desde la óptica del Derecho y del Trabajo Social, pero no desde la Ciencia Política. El presente artículo muestra una perspectiva diferente que expone, describe y analiza cómo las sanciones alternativas establecidas en la Ley de Justicia Penal Juvenil y en la Ley de Ejecución de las Sanciones Penales Juveniles son implementadas por el Programa Nacional de Atención a la Población Penal Juvenil, como ente encargado de hacerlo dentro de l...

    9. Coding Partitions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fabio Burderi

      2007-05-01

      Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

    10. El delito de defraudación tributaria con especial referencia a la responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídicas

      OpenAIRE

      Diego Silva Forne

      2015-01-01

      Según entiende Reta, el Derecho Penal Tributario es el desarrollo de la tutela penal del derecho del Estado a percibir los tributos que le permiten cumplir con sus fines constitucionales; protegen estas normas penales la Hacienda Pública y de consiguiente el orden económico, por lo que el Derecho Penal Tributario no es más que un capítulo del Derecho Penal Económico. En igual sentido, para Cairoli no es un derecho autónomo, sino una parte especial del Derecho Penal (...)Contenido: El Derecho ...

    11. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Standing Broad Jump among Hungarian Youth

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

      2015-01-01

      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex trends in anaerobic power assessed by a standing broad jump and to determine norm-referenced values for youth in Hungary. Method: A sample of 2,427 Hungarian youth (1,360 boys and 1,067 girls) completed the standing broad jump twice, and the highest distance score was recorded. Quantile…

    12. Aggressive Neighborhood Watch or Unconventional Threat? The Hungarian Extreme Right-Wing Self-Defense Movements

      Science.gov (United States)

      2014-12-01

      as ideologically motivated physical exercise. Vandalism Any event where the nature of the attack appears to be based on racist/antisemitic...gyorgy-gyulat.html. 35 9. 10/07/2012 Disruption of the Hungarian National Front.90 Gyula Thurmer, leader of the (Communist) Labour Party and the...conditions of Hungary. The analysis suggests their potential threat is far beyond Roma human right issues. Their network is able to motivate the ideologically

    13. Bilingualism and Diglossia as Sociocultural Phenomena in Romanian–Hungarian Translations in Transylvania

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      Zopus András

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available My study aims to scrutinize the extent to which bilingualism and diglossia influence Transylvanian translators’ texts when the target language is Hungarian. While studying the narrower and wider interpretations of these linguistic phenomena, we may find that all the conditions are given that are required for us to say: Transylvanian translators’ bilingualism and diglossia may be considered as facts, and socio-lingual effects become tangible in various translations.

    14. HUNGARIAN PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATABASE (COENODATRE F): SAMPLING METHODOLOGY, NOMENCLATURE AND ITS ACTUAL STAGE

      OpenAIRE

      J CSIKY; F. HORVATH; Z. BOTTA-DUK; K LAJER

      2007-01-01

      The article contains the methodological guide of the national phytocoenological database, called CoenoDat Reference Database, which was prepared to build up the first Hungarian reference databank of the natural and semi-natural vegetation types in 2003. Nomenclature of plants follows Dobolyi (2002). Syntaxonomical nomenclature follows Borhidi & Sánta (1999) and Borhidi (2003). For databasing the authors used TurboVeg for Windows. Up to now, CoenoDatRef contains some 9,000 r...

    15. Evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy in a population-based Hungarian study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Czeizel, A E; Bod, M; Halász, P

      1992-01-01

      The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies, from 1980-1987, involved 10,698 malformed cases and 21,546 non-malformed controls. Ninety-five pregnant women were treated by 144 anticonvulsants excluding diazepam and barbiturates. The rate of anticonvulsant use was 2.9 times higher in pregnant women having malformed offspring than in control mothers and this difference was greater in polytherapy than in monotherapy.

    16. [The role of pharmacists, members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, in the history of chemistry].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Majoros, Krisztina; Mazák, Károly

      2010-01-01

      In this study we present the role of Hungarian academic pharmacists in the history of chemistry and in university education since the formation of the first chemistry department until today. After a short resume we summarize the teaching activity and main research fields of each scholar. Pictures, chemical formulas, interesting and personal moments based on recollections of students and colleagues make the discussion more colorful.

    17. Challenges of regionalism: Development and spatial structure of the hungarian banking system section: Financial issues

      OpenAIRE

      Gál, Zoltán

      2001-01-01

      KEY WORDS: Hungarian banking system, transitional financial markets, banking network, global-local dichotomy, and uneven regional development. ABSTRACT: The growing literature on regional finance suggests that credit allocation in regional banking system and the different national banking systems are different according to their stage of development, and frictions also exist across regions within national economies, resulting in different availability of capital. Less developed banking system...

    18. Analysis of the Relationship between Market Orientation and Leadership Style in Hungarian SMEs

      OpenAIRE

      Dr. Agnes Hofmeister-Tóth; Kinga Kopfer-Rácz; Dóra Sas

      2015-01-01

      SMEs’ relation towards marketing and their marketing practices are as yet unexplored research areas in Hungary. This study focuses on the market orientation of Hungarian small and medium-sized companies, with a special focus on the interrelation between market orientation and leadership style. Since previous research (e.g.: Blankson et al., 2006, Smart and Conant, 1994) has shown a significant, positive correlation between market orientation and marketing competencies, we have also examined w...

    19. Keeping your secrets public? Open versus closed innovation processes in the Hungarian wine sector

      OpenAIRE

      Dries, L.K.E.; Pascucci, S.; A. Torok; Toth, J.

      2014-01-01

      An effective innovation system is crucial for food companies to cope with competitive pressure. An important issue is whether to innovate by cooperating and sharing ideas or to innovate in-house. Thus the question is how to arrange external ties without compromising unique knowledge and assets. This is particularly controversial in the wine sector, where innovative marketing strategies have to be combined with “exclusive” and “secret” recipes. We use primary data on the Hungarian wine industr...

    20. El acoso sexual infantil a través del código penal peruano/Child sexual harassment through the peruan penal code

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daniel Ernesto Peña Labrin

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available El medio cibernético es un escenario idóneo para que se presenten diversas conductas criminógenas, aunque no necesariamente delictivas. El acoso sexual infantil es un ejemplo, ya que aprovecha el anonimato de la red para lograr ciertas conductas. La legislación tiene como reto avanzar de tal manera que la sociedad se sienta resguardada.

    1. El acoso sexual infantil a través del código penal peruano/Child sexual harassment through the peruan penal code

      OpenAIRE

      Daniel Ernesto Peña Labrin (Perú)

      2011-01-01

      El medio cibernético es un escenario idóneo para que se presenten diversas conductas criminógenas, aunque no necesariamente delictivas. El acoso sexual infantil es un ejemplo, ya que aprovecha el anonimato de la red para lograr ciertas conductas. La legislación tiene como reto avanzar de tal manera que la sociedad se sienta resguardada.

    2. Allowance officers Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies on the eve of the First World War

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alexander P. Abramov

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available On the basis of historical material provides information on measures of state and military administration on the eve of the First World War to improve the welfare of Russian officers and Austro-Hungary, through various forms of material incentives, which are reflected in the cash payments, promotions, awards and social guarantees. On the basis of archival materials of the study period, open scientific publications and Internet resources there are disclosed the features of the destination of salaries, various allowances and compensations Russian army in comparison to the Austro-Hungarian army, who spoke Russian opponent in the First World War. The author notes that the existing system of money allowances in the Russian army was more advantageous than in the Austro-Hungarian army. However, neither one nor the other could not fully meet the needs of the majority of officers of both armies, entered as opponents in the First World War. One of its major shortcomings, both in Russia and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was a wide gap in the amounts of all kinds of money allowances between chief officers, staff officers and generals.

    3. Playing with anthems: The formation of the cult of empress Elisabeth in Hungarian music

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      Windhager Ákos

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available In this paper I reveal how the cult of Empress Elisabeth affected the reception of three different volumes of Hungarian music. These three works are: Erzsébet-emlény (Elisabeth Memorial Album, 1854 edited by Kornél Ábrányi; Erzsébet (Elisabeth, 1854 opera by Károly Doppler, Ferenc Doppler and Ferenc Erkel; and Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth (The Legend of Saint Elisabeth, 1865 by Franz Liszt. In spite of their high artistic level, the first two works were banned by the cultural elite who interpreted them as Habsburgian political music after the downfall of the dual state. On the other hand, the intentionally apolitical oratorio by Franz Liszt was regarded by the same cultural elite as the highest standard of artistic representation of the Empress. As a consequence of parallel distribution of both imperially and nationally constructed memories, a strange diffusion appeared in the social sphere, especially in Hungarian cultural memory. Conflicting memories emerged due to the discrepancy between the original Hungarian political myth (Kossuth-myth and Empress Elisabeth’s cult. Using the terminology introduced by Claude Lévi-Strauss, I have labeled this situation as the clash of the cold and hot society in Hungary during the 19th century.

    4. [Pediatric pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Párniczky, Andrea; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szabó, Flóra; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Veres, Gábor; Szücs, Ákos; Lásztity, Natália

      2015-02-22

      Pediatric pancreatitis is a rare disease with variable etiology. In the past 10-15 years the incidence of pediatric pancreatitis has been increased. The management of pediatric pancreatitis requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. In 8 clinical topics (diagnosis; etiology; prognosis; imaging; therapy; biliary tract management; complications; chronic pancreatitis) 50 relevant questions were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinical statements were accepted with total (more than 95%) agreement. The present Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group guideline is the first evidence based pediatric pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The present guideline is the first evidence-based pancreatic cancer guideline in Hungary that provides a solid ground for teaching purposes, offers quick reference for daily patient care in pediatric pancreatitis and guides financing options. The authors strongly believe that these guidelines will become a standard reference for pancreatic cancer treatment in Hungary.

    5. The statistical signature of morphosyntax: a study of Hungarian and Italian infant-directed speech.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gervain, Judit; Guevara Erra, Ramón

      2012-11-01

      Does statistical learning (Saffran, Aslin, & Newport, 1996) offer a universal segmentation strategy for young language learners? Previous studies on large corpora of English and structurally similar languages have shown that statistical segmentation can be an effective strategy. However, many of the world's languages have richer morphological systems, with sometimes several affixes attached to a stem (e.g. Hungarian: iskoláinkban: iskolá-i-nk-ban school.pl.poss1pl.inessive 'in our schools'). In these languages, word boundaries and morpheme boundaries do not coincide. Does the internal structure of words affect segmentation? What word forms does segmentation yield in morphologically rich languages: complex word forms or separate stems and affixes? The present paper answers these questions by exploring different segmentation algorithms in infant-directed speech corpora from two typologically and structurally different languages, Hungarian and Italian. The results suggest that the morphological and syntactic type of a language has an impact on statistical segmentation, with different strategies working best in different languages. Specifically, the direction of segmentation seems to be sensitive to the affixation order of a language. Thus, backward probabilities are more effective in Hungarian, a heavily suffixing language, whereas forward probabilities are more informative in Italian, which has fewer suffixes and a large number of phrase-initial function words. The consequences of these findings for potential segmentation and word learning strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    6. The Hungarian Version of Sociosexual Orientation Inventory Revised (SOI-R: Sex and Age Differences

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      Norbert Meskó

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Affectionless, uncommitted sexual behavior was formerly interpreted in psychology as a function of individual decisions, a kind of intrapsychic variable. Sociosexual orientation is directly linked to reproductive success, so among other issues, measuring sociosexual orientation has been of great interest for evolutionary scientists. Most recently Penke and Asendorpf (2008 prepared the revised version of Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R, which has been used in dozens of studies since its publication. The aim of the current study was to test the usability of the Hungarian version and to analyze the factor structure and internal reliability of the inventory. It was translated and the structure was analyzed on a Hungarian sample (n = 1345, females = 832, males = 513; age: M = 26.37 years, SD = 8.75, range: 16-74. Our results show that the Hungarian version has the same three-factor structure as proposed by Penke and Asendorpf (2008 and is a reliable inventory for further studies of sociosexuality. The sociosexual scores of the two sexes statistically differ in the expected direction: women show lower SOI scores than men. Sociosexual desire decreases with age, whereas older participants report less restricted sociosexual behavior. Sociosexual attitude is uneffected by age. Results are discussed from both evolutionary and life-span developmental points of view.

    7. A project of upgrading the operations control system of the Hungarian electric power system

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Oroszki, L.; Kovacs, G.

      1998-07-01

      About 20 years ago an on-line EMS/SCADA system replaced the previously used off-line control system in the Hungarian power system. The system that has met the technological requirements of that time now became obsolete. A project started in 1995 by the Hungarian Power Companies, Ltd. (MVM Rt.), the regional utility companies and the power plant companies, with funding through a World Bank loan to cover international procurement, aims to upgrade that system into a complex, intelligent and state-of-the-art process control system. The new hierarchical system will rely on a distributed computer network structure, universally accepted hardware/software interface standards and communication protocols and use hardware platform independent software. The automatic generation control, performed from the National Dispatch Centre, will have expanded functionality, the most important single item of this will be the inclusion of automatic voltage/var control. The upgrading project includes the replacement of the substation and power plant remote terminal units and the installation of a telecommunication network to provide this telecontrol system with the necessary communications links. The supply contracts for both the master station and the remote terminal unit parts were awarded to the winners of open international bidding processes. In the project implementation MVM has the overall responsibility and works with assistance from international and Hungarian engineering firms.

    8. Nostalgia and Sentimentality Among Minority Elderly People (Bulgarian Roma People and Hungarians Living in Romania

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Stanislava Stoyanova

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Nostalgia and sentimentality are very typical for the old age. There are some characteristics that are perceived as typical for the elderly people in the different cultures, such as being dependent, and needing long-term care. There are also some similarities between the population tendencies in Bulgaria and Romania. The simultaneously acceptance in European Union of both countries also suggests the existence of some similar attitudes towards the past among elderly minority people in both countries. The hypothesis of the study was that together with some similarities, the elderly people from both ethnic minorities in the two countries would differ cross-culturally in their sentimentality and nostalgia related to the past. Sentimentality and nostalgia in elderly minority people (26 Roma people in Bulgaria and 21 Hungarians in Romania were measured by means of a questionnaire created by Gergov & Stoyanova (2013. The results indicated that the Hungarian minority in Romania was more sentimental and nostalgic than the Roma minority in Bulgaria. More thoughts about the past reported the minority young elders than the minority oldest old. The females from the minority groups were more sentimental than the males from the minority groups. Higher sentimentality and nostalgia among elderly Hungarians could be explained by their higher conservatism and more satisfaction with the hystorical past than Roma people. Roma people living in institutions felt a sense of stability in their present and they shared some positive expectations for the future.

    9. Exiled Hungarians in Argentina 1948-1968: The Formation of a Community

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      Judith Kesserű Némethy

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents the cultural activism of a group of Hungarian émigrés who fled their homeland following Soviet occupation at the end of World War II and arrived in Argentina around 1948. It deals with the intellectual activity of these exiles, especially through their cultural and educational institutions. Within five years of their arrival as dispossessed “D.P.’s,” they founded a Hungarian Center (“Centro Húngaro” that housed, among others, a theater group, a free university, a cultural and scientific academy, a weekend school, and scout troops. At the same time, new periodicals appeared, and a substantive number of books banned in Hungary were published. I argue that it is due to the work of these institutions that the community flourished and is vital to date, in spite of its isolation and lack of reinforcement through new emigrant waves, and in spite of its hostile relationship with the government of the People’s Republic of Hungary and of a series of Argentine economic crises that forced many of its members to re-emigrate. I also discuss the impact the exiles had on their descendants, contending that as a result of the strong cultural foundations laid by them during their first twenty years of emigration, third- and fourth-generation Hungarian-Argentines have maintained to this day a strong cultural and ethnic identity, while fully integrating into Argentine society at large.

    10. Magic Realism, Minimalist Realism and the Figuration of the Tableau in Contemporary Hungarian and Romanian Cinema

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pieldner Judit

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available The paper surveys two modes of representation present in contemporary Hungarian and Romanian cinema, namely magic realism and minimalist realism, as two ways of rendering the “real” in the Central Eastern European geocultural context. New Hungarian Film tends to display narratives that share the features of what is generally assumed as being magic realist, accompanied by a high degree of stylization, while New Romanian Cinema is more attracted to creating austere, micro-realistic universes. The paper argues that albeit apparently being forking modes of representation that traverse distinct routes, magic realism and minimalist realism share a set of common elements and, what this study especially focuses on, converge in the preference for the tableau aesthetic. The paper examines the role of tableau compositions and tableaux vivants in representative films of the Young Hungarian Film and the Romanian New Wave, namely Szabolcs Hajdu’s Bibliothèque Pascal (2010 and Cristian Mungiu’s Beyond the Hills (După dealuri, 2012. An excessive use of the tableau can be detected in both films, with many thematic connections, in subtle interwovenness with female identiy and corporeality performed as a site of traumatic experiences, upon which (institutional, colonial power relations are reinscribed. The tableau as a figuration of intermediality performs the tension between the sensation of the “real” and its reframed image, and proves especially suitable for mediating between low-key realism and highly stylized forms.1

    11. Penalized Spline: a General Robust Trajectory Model for ZIYUAN-3 Satellite

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pan, H.; Zou, Z.

      2016-06-01

      Owing to the dynamic imaging system, the trajectory model plays a very important role in the geometric processing of high resolution satellite imagery. However, establishing a trajectory model is difficult when only discrete and noisy data are available. In this manuscript, we proposed a general robust trajectory model, the penalized spline model, which could fit trajectory data well and smooth noise. The penalized parameter λ controlling the smooth and fitting accuracy could be estimated by generalized cross-validation. Five other trajectory models, including third-order polynomials, Chebyshev polynomials, linear interpolation, Lagrange interpolation and cubic spline, are compared with the penalized spline model. Both the sophisticated ephemeris and on-board ephemeris are used to compare the orbit models. The penalized spline model could smooth part of noise, and accuracy would decrease as the orbit length increases. The band-to-band misregistration of ZiYuan-3 Dengfeng and Faizabad multispectral images is used to evaluate the proposed method. With the Dengfeng dataset, the third-order polynomials and Chebyshev approximation could not model the oscillation, and introduce misregistration of 0.57 pixels misregistration in across-track direction and 0.33 pixels in along-track direction. With the Faizabad dataset, the linear interpolation, Lagrange interpolation and cubic spline model suffer from noise, introducing larger misregistration than the approximation models. Experimental results suggest the penalized spline model could model the oscillation and smooth noise.

    12. ALGUNOS APUNTES SOBRE LAS RAZONES DE LA REFORMA DEL PROCEDIMIENTO PENAL EN AMÉRICA LATINA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pierre Gilles Bélanger

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Actualmente en Latinoamérica, la mayor parte de los países han modificado sus códigos penales con el objeto de tener una mejor salud procesal. En esta transición, hace falta ayuda internacional real, apoyo, colaboración e intercambio de ideas, programas, experiencias, grupos de trabajo, capacitación a nivel bilateral y multilateral dirigida por expertos para los actores en el sistema penal y para la sociedad. Todos los países de Latinoamérica, han tenido éxitos y todos tienen fallas en las reformas procesales desarrolladas en materia penal. Parece entonces oportuno, empezar el dialogo y la colaboración para contribuir a una mejor comprensión y edificación de los sistemas penales y su evolución. Para ello se requiere compartir las experiencias que han funcionado en otros países, adaptándolas al marco jurídico de cada contexto en particular. Por un lado, esto ayuda a mejorar la comprensión operacional del procedimiento penal y por otro lado, el respeto de las garantías jurídicas establecidas en las Cartas Magnas de cada país y por ende estabilidad institucional, seguridad y desarrollo económico para la sociedad.

    13. [Extramural research funds and penal law--status of legislation].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ulsenheimer, Klaus

      2005-04-01

      After decades of smooth functioning, the cooperation of physicians and hospitals with the industry (much desired from the side of the government in the interest of clinical research) has fallen in legal discredit due to increasingly frequent criminal inquires and proceedings for unduly privileges, corruption, and embezzlement. The discredit is so severe that the industry funding for clinical research is diverted abroad to an increasing extent. The legal elements of embezzlement assume the intentional violation of the entrusted funds against the interest of the customer. Undue privileges occur when an official requests an advantage in exchange for a service (or is promised one or takes one) in his or somebody else's interest. The elements of corruption are then given when the receiver of the undue privilege provides an illegal service or takes a discretionary decision under the influence of the gratuity. The tension between the prohibition of undue privileges (as regulated by the penal law) and the granting of extramural funds (as regulated by the administrative law in academic institutions) can be reduced through a high degree of transparency and the start of control possibilities--public announcement and authorization by the officials--as well as through exact documentation and observance of the principles of separation of interests and moderation. With the anti-corruption law of 1997, it is possible to charge of corruption also physicians employed in private institutions. In contrast, physicians in private practice are not considered in the above criminal facts. They can only be charged of misdemeanor, or called to respond to the professional board, on the basis of the law that regulates advertising for medicinal products (Heilmittelwerbegesetz).

    14. El cuerpo, el gueto y el Estado penal

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Loïc Wacquant

      2010-07-01

      Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el enfoque del autor sobre la etnografía, la teoría social, y la política del conocimiento a través de un diálogo que vuelve sobre su trayectoria intelectual y los vínculos analíticos entre sus investigaciones sobre el cuerpo, la marginalidad urbana comparada y el Estado penal. Resalta las conexiones prácticas y fundamentos epistemológicos detrás de sus principales proyectos de investigación, explica las distintas maneras en que se despliega el trabajo de campo de observación en cada uno de ellos, y examina el papel de los intelectuales en las sociedades avanzadas de la era del neoliberalismo hegemónico. Rechazando tanto el empirismo de Hume como el neo-cognitivismo kantiano, el autor aboga por el uso de la etnografía como un instrumento de ruptura y construcción, la potencia del conocimiento carnal, el imperativo de la reflexividad epistémica y la necesidad de ampliar los géneros textuales y estilos con el fin de captar mejor el sabor y el dolor de la acción social. En la esfera pública, propone que las ciencias sociales pueden actuar como un disolvente de la doxa y un faro que arroja luz sobre las propiedades latentes y las tendencias desapercibidas en las transformaciones sociales a fin de generar rupturas y ampliar el debate cívico.

    15. Penalized differential pathway analysis of integrative oncogenomics studies.

      Science.gov (United States)

      van Wieringen, Wessel N; van de Wiel, Mark A

      2014-04-01

      Through integration of genomic data from multiple sources, we may obtain a more accurate and complete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. We discuss the integration of DNA copy number and mRNA gene expression data from an observational integrative genomics study involving cancer patients. The two molecular levels involved are linked through the central dogma of molecular biology. DNA copy number aberrations abound in the cancer cell. Here we investigate how these aberrations affect gene expression levels within a pathway using observational integrative genomics data of cancer patients. In particular, we aim to identify differential edges between regulatory networks of two groups involving these molecular levels. Motivated by the rate equations, the regulatory mechanism between DNA copy number aberrations and gene expression levels within a pathway is modeled by a simultaneous-equations model, for the one- and two-group case. The latter facilitates the identification of differential interactions between the two groups. Model parameters are estimated by penalized least squares using the lasso (L1) penalty to obtain a sparse pathway topology. Simulations show that the inclusion of DNA copy number data benefits the discovery of gene-gene interactions. In addition, the simulations reveal that cis-effects tend to be over-estimated in a univariate (single gene) analysis. In the application to real data from integrative oncogenomic studies we show that inclusion of prior information on the regulatory network architecture benefits the reproducibility of all edges. Furthermore, analyses of the TP53 and TGFb signaling pathways between ER+ and ER- samples from an integrative genomics breast cancer study identify reproducible differential regulatory patterns that corroborate with existing literature.

    16. Limites do direito penal: princípios e desafios do novo programa de pesquisa em direito penal no Instituto Max-Planck de direito penal estrangeiro e internacional The limits of criminal law

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ulrich Sieber

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available Este texto contém o programa de pesquisa que irá orientar as atividades do instituto Max-Planck de direito penal estrangeiro e internacional de friburgo nos anos que seguem. O programa funda-se num diagnóstico abrangente dos principais problemas penais enfrentados pelo direito no mundo de hoje e, por esta razão, além de norte para um dos principais centros de pesquisa em direito penal no mundo, o texto é um mapa preciso das mais relevantes questões penais contemporâneas. Ele tem três objetivos principais: (a analisar alterações nos riscos à segurança e as idéias sobre segurança numa sociedade marcada pela globalização e por mudanças técnicas e econômicas; (b analisar a criticar as alterações legais que acompanham as mudanças mencionadas e suas causas, (iii desenvolver novas respostas para os desafios postos pela necessidade de efetivar as leis. Três assuntos merecem maior destaque: o crime organizado internacional, o terrorismo e os crimes cometidos pela internet.This paper describes the research program implemented by the current director of the Max-Planck-Institute for foreign and international penal law, which has its focus directed to the current challenges posed to penal law by contemporary social, economic and political changes. This program has three goals: (i to analyze the real alterations to security risks and the ideas regarding security in a society branded by globalization and technical, economic and political changes; (ii to analyze and critically evaluate the legal changes that accompany said changes and their causes; (iii the development of new answers to the challenges posed to law enforcement policies. In this context, the following aspects are highlighted: international organized criminality, terrorism and crimes committed over the internet.

    17. Reseñas y Recensiones: Lenis, Karin. (2014). El sistema de responsabilidad penal de menores. Un estudio de las legislaciones de España y Colombia desde la teoría del Derecho Penal del Enemigo.

      OpenAIRE

      Muñetones Rozo, Ingrid Bibiana

      2015-01-01

      Reseñas y Recensiones: Reseñas y Recensiones: Lenis, Karin. (2014). El sistema de responsabilidad penal de menores. Un estudio de las legislaciones de España y Colombia desde la teoría del Derecho Penal del Enemigo. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Ibañez, 644 p.

    18. Garantías constitucionales de carácter penal en el Sistema de Justicia Penal de Adolescentes del Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sergio J. Cuarezma Terán

      1999-06-01

      Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo destacar los principales aspectos relacionados a las garantías penales integradas en la Justicia Penal Especializada del Adolescente y analizar comparativamente éstas con la Ley Tutelar de Menores y su reglamento (ambas derogadas, los instrumentos internacionales y la Constitución Política.

    19. INFRACŢIUNEA DE HULIGANISM (art.287 CP RM: ANALIZĂ DE DREPT PENAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sergiu BRÎNZA

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available În cadrul studiului de faţă se relevă că lipsa sau prezenţa scopului de cupiditate este acel criteriu care permite delimi-tarea infracţiunii de huliganism (care presupune luarea ilegală şi gratuită din motive huliganice a bunurilor străine de infracţiunile prevăzute la art.186-188, 190-192 CP RM. De asemenea, se ajunge la concluzia că întotdeauna infracţiunea prevăzută la art.287 CP RM presupune ipostaze cu implicaţii publice. Dar numai în unele cazuri această infracţiune este săvârşită în locuri publice. Se argumentează că omorul intenţionat, ca şi vătămarea intenţionată gravă ori medie a inte-grităţii corporale sau a sănătăţii, pot să reprezinte violenţa care este aplicată tocmai în legătură cu încălcarea grosolană a ordinii publice. În acest caz, calificarea trebuie făcută conform art.145, 151 sau 152 CP RM şi art.354 „Huliganismul nu prea grav” din Codul contravenţional. În cazuri de acest gen, nu este admisibilă aplicarea răspunderii în baza art.145, 151 sau 152 şi art.287 CP RM.THE OFFENCE OF HOOLIGANISM (art.287 PC RM: A PENAL LAW ANALYSISIn this study it is revealed that the absence or presence of the cupidity purpose is the criterion that allows the delimitation of the offence of hooliganism (which involves the illegal and gratuitous taking of foreign goods because of hooligan motives from the offences referred to at art.186-188, 190-192 PC RM. It is also concluded that the offence referred to at art.287 PC RM always implies situations with public implications. But only in some cases the offence actually is committed in public places. It is argued that the deliberate murder, as well as the intentional grave or ordinary battery or health harm may represent the violence that is applied because of the gross violation of public order. In this case, the classification must be made under art.145, 151 or 152 PC RM and art.354 "Average hooliganism" of the Contravention Code. At

    20. El delito de defraudación tributaria con especial referencia a la responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídicas

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Diego Silva Forne

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available Según entiende Reta, el Derecho Penal Tributario es el desarrollo de la tutela penal del derecho del Estado a percibir los tributos que le permiten cumplir con sus fines constitucionales; protegen estas normas penales la Hacienda Pública y de consiguiente el orden económico, por lo que el Derecho Penal Tributario no es más que un capítulo del Derecho Penal Económico. En igual sentido, para Cairoli no es un derecho autónomo, sino una parte especial del Derecho Penal (...Contenido: El Derecho Penal Tributario. El delito de defraudación tributaria. Antecedentes. El texto actual. Estructura. La responsabilidad penal de las personas jurídicas y ladefraudación tributaria

    1. Appartenenze/credenze di fede e diritto penale: percorsi di laicità

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Giuseppe Casuscelli

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Testo integrale della relazione al Convegno su "" (Messina, 13-14 giugno 2008, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, senza varianti e con il corredo dei richiami bibliografici e giurisprudenziali di base, destinatoalla pubblicazione negli Atti con le opportune aggiunte e modifiche.  SOMMARIO: 1. Laicità e diritto penale nella prospettiva dell’ecclesiasticista - 2.Laicità “neutrale” e laicità “religiosa”: un dilemma irrisolto – 3. Tutela penale delsentimento religioso e libertà di religione – 4. I risvolti promozionali della tutelapenale di “un” sentimento - 5. Tutela penale del sentimento religioso e dirittogiurisprudenziale - 6. L’esigenza di una riforma organica e profonda del dirittopenale “di religione”.Laicità e Multiculturalismo: Profilipenali ed extrapenali 

    2. From moral theory to penal attitudes and back: a theoretically integrated modeling approach.

      Science.gov (United States)

      de Keijser, Jan W; van der Leeden, Rien; Jackson, Janet L

      2002-01-01

      From a moral standpoint, we would expect the practice of punishment to reflect a solid and commonly shared legitimizing framework. Several moral legal theories explicitly aim to provide such frameworks. Based on the theories of Retributivism, Utilitarianism, and Restorative Justice, this article first sets out to develop a theoretically integrated model of penal attitudes and then explores the extent to which Dutch judges' attitudes to punishment fit the model. Results indicate that penal attitudes can be measured in a meaningful way that is consistent with an integrated approach to moral theory. The general structure of penal attitudes among Dutch judges suggests a streamlined and pragmatic approach to legal punishment that is identifiably founded on the separate concepts central to moral theories of punishment. While Restorative Justice is frequently presented as an alternative paradigm, results show it to be smoothly incorporated within the streamlined approach.

    3. Simulation of impulsively started flow past a sphere and a disc using iterative brinkman penalization

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

      We present an iterative Brinkman penalization scheme to enforce the no-slip condition onsolid boundaries in three-dimensional ow simulations. We use a high-order particle-meshvortex method, where the velocity field is obtained from the vorticity field by solving a Poisson equation on a Cartesian...... mesh as a convolution of the vorticity field with a regularized Green's function [2]. By doing this we can enforce free-space boundary conditions allowing us to consider a minimal computational domain. The Brinkman penalization method [1] is an immersed body method that allows the treatment of solids...... having complex geometries on a Cartesian mesh. Thereby we avoid the use of unstructured meshes that conventional ow solvers rely on. In the presented iterative scheme the penalization term is only active in the solid region and in its immediate neighborhood thus the computational costs required...

    4. La acción civil en el Nuevo Proceso Penal

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gonzalo Del Rio Labarthe

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available Este artículo pretende analizar algunas de las reglas del Nuevo Código Procesal Penal de 2004 (NCPP 2004, en adelante vinculadas a la regulación del ejercicio de la acción civil en el proceso penal. Se intenta demostrar que el NCPP «ataca» una vieja confusión vinculada a la idea de que la acción civil en el proceso penal deriva del delito interpretación que conduce a un supuesto interés público o de la sociedad en el pago de la reparación civil o en la reparación del daño que distorsiona, seriamente, su tratamiento procesal

    5. [download] (1035Coordinate Descent Methods for the Penalized Semiparametric Additive Hazards Model

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Anders Gorst-Rasmussen

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available For survival data with a large number of explanatory variables, lasso penalized Cox regression is a popular regularization strategy. However, a penalized Cox model may not always provide the best fit to data and can be difficult to estimate in high dimension because of its intrinsic nonlinearity. The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires no nonlinear optimization steps and offers excellent performance and stability. An implementation is available in the R package ahaz. We demonstrate this implementation in a small timing study and in an application to real data.

    6. Iterative Brinkman penalization for simulation of impulsively started flow past a sphere and a circular disc

      Science.gov (United States)

      Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honoré

      2017-05-01

      We present a Brinkman penalization method for three-dimensional (3D) flows using particle vortex methods, improving the existing technique by means of an iterative process. We perform simulations to study the impulsively started flow past a sphere at Re = 1000 and normal to a circular disc at Re = 500. The simulation results obtained for the flow past a sphere are found in qualitative good agreement with previously published results obtained using respectively a 3D vortex penalization method and a 3D vortex method combined with an accurate boundary element method. From the results obtained for the flow normal to a circular disc it is found that the iterative method enables the use of a time step that is one order of magnitude larger than required by the standard non-iterative Brinkman penalization method.

    7. La inimputabilidad y el tratamiento del disminuido psíquico en el proceso penal

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Manuel Rojas Salas

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available La Constitución Política colombiana proscribe cualquier tipo de responsabilidad objetiva; en consecuencia, es necesario que la persona a la que se sancione con una pena haya actuado con culpabilidad, cosa que no sucede con los inimputables, personas que no pueden comprender la ilicitud de su conducta o determinarse de acuerdo con dicha comprensión, por lo que el Código Penal establece dos regímenes diferenciados de responsabilidad penal: uno para imputables y otro para inimputables, para quienes no se prevén penas sino medidas de seguridad. Por el contrario, la Ley 906 de 2004 no contempla un tratamiento jurídico diferenciado para quienes no tienen la capacidad de comprender o decidir voluntariamente sobre sus derechos en el proceso penal, por lo que se propone un nuevo enfoque al respecto.

    8. 38 CFR 14.560 - Procedure where violation of penal statutes is involved including those offenses coming within...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure where violation of penal statutes is involved including those offenses coming within the purview of the Assimilative... where violation of penal statutes is involved including those offenses coming within the purview of...

    9. ¿Es el plagio una conducta reprimida por el derecho penal?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ernesto Rengifo García

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available ¿Será que el mensaje de la Sala Penal de la Corte Suprema es el de no activar la última ratio del sistema legal con conductas que deben ser materia de la jurisdicción civil, pero eso sí dependiendo de quién las acometa o ejecute? (se recuerda que el caso en análisis envuelve a una profesora universitaria y ¿será que la dificultad teórica y práctica de adecuación de la conducta a los tipos penales relacionados con el derecho de autor, hace que el derecho penal no sea el instrumento institucional más idóneo para reprimir la infracción a los derechos de esa particular área jurídica? La respuesta a estos interrogantes deben ser el comienzo para pensar o repensar si ese expansionismo del derecho penal que ha llegado al campo de la propiedad intelectual vale la pena revisarlo y mantenerlo. Señalaba Cesare Becaría: “Lo que impide el crimen, no es la cantidad de reprimendas penales, sino la garantía de su punición”. Si no hay certeza o garantía en el castigo, ¿valdrá la pena recurrir a la aplicación judicial de esos tipos penales?, este artículo busca abrir la discusión en este punto.

    10. ¿Es el plagio una conducta reprimida por el derecho penal?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ernesto Rengifo García

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available ¿Será que el mensaje de la Sala Penal de la Corte Suprema es el de no activar la ultima ratio del sistema legal con conductas que deben ser materia de la jurisdicción civil, pero eso sí dependiendo de quien las acometa o ejecute? (se recuerda que el caso en análisis envuelve a una profesora universitaria, y ¿será que la dificultad teórica y práctica de adecuación de la conducta a los tipos penales relacionados con el derecho de autor hará que el derecho penal no sea el instrumento institucional más idóneo para reprimir la infracción a los derechos de esa particular área jurídica? La respuesta a estos interrogantes deben ser el comienzo para pensar o repensar si ese expansionismo del derecho penal que ha llegado al campo de la propiedad intelectual vale la pena revisarlo y mantenerlo. Señalaba Cesare Becaría: “Lo que impide el crimen, no es la cantidad de reprimendas penales, sino la garantía de su punición”. Si no hay certeza o garantía en el castigo, ¿valdrá la pena recurrir a la aplicación judicial de esos tipos penales? Este artículo busca abrir la discusión en este punto.

    11. Holographic codes

      CERN Document Server

      Latorre, Jose I

      2015-01-01

      There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

    12. Genetic polymorphisms in promoter and intronic regions of CYP1A2 gene in Roma and Hungarian population samples.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Szalai, Renata; Magyari, Lili; Matyas, Petra; Duga, Balazs; Banfai, Zsolt; Szabo, Andras; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Melegh, Bela

      2014-11-01

      The purpose of this study was to determine the interethnic differences of four CYP1A2 drug metabolizing enzyme variants. A total of 404 Roma and 396 Hungarian healthy subjects were genotyped for -163C>A, -729C>T, -2467delT and -3860G>A variants of CYP1A2 by RT-PCR and PCR-RFLP technique. The -3860A and -729T allele were not detectable in Roma samples, while in Hungarian samples were present with 2.02% and 0.25% prevalence, respectively. There was a 1.5-fold difference in presence of homozygous -163AA genotype between Hungarian and Roma samples (49.5% vs. 31.9%, pRomas (p=0.025). The -2467delT allele frequency was 6.81% in Roma group and 5.81% in Hungarians. The most frequent allelic constellation was -3860G/-2467T/-729C/-163A in both populations. In conclusion, Hungarians have markedly elevated chance for rapid metabolism of CYP1A2 substrates, intensified procarcinogen activation and increased risk for cancers.

    13. Sharing code

      OpenAIRE

      Kubilius, Jonas

      2014-01-01

      Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

    14. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

      2010-05-01

      The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

    15. Destruyendo mitos. Derechos Fundamentales y esclarecimiento de hechos en el proceso penal

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ivan Diaz Garcia

      2010-07-01

      Full Text Available El interés en esclarecer los hechos y el interés por tutelar los derechos fundamentalesconstituyen, de acuerdo con la doctrina prevaleciente, pretensionesincompatibles en el ámbito procesal penal. Sin embargo, esa contraposiciónnecesaria es resultado de un inadecuado análisis respecto del modo en quese relacionan ambos intereses. En efecto, mientras la indemnidad de algunosderechos fundamentales puede perjudicar el esclarecimiento de los hechos,la indemnidad de otros puede favorecer una decisión procesal penal másajustada al modo en que realmente ocurrieron los hechos.

    16. Imputación objetiva y responsabilidad penal médica

      OpenAIRE

      Bernate-Ochoa, Francisco

      2010-01-01

      Esta obra busca plantear una tesis que permita explicar, de manera sistemática y dogmáticamente fundamentada, la atribución de responsabilidad penal a los profesionales de la salud, a partir del análisis de sentencias de diferentes países, aplicando la moderna teoría de la imputación objetiva. Un tratado de responsabilidad penal médica que explica la teoría de la imputación objetiva, su concepto, fundamentos, corrientes actuales, posibilidades de aplicación, la creación y realización de riesg...

    17. LA NECESIDAD DE IMPLEMENTAR EL CONTROL JUDICIAL DE LA ACUSACION EN EL PROCESO PENAL COLOMBIANO

      OpenAIRE

      Giraldo reyes, Oscar Horacio; Navas Mejia, Diego Fernando

      2016-01-01

      EN COLOMBIA, EL SISTEMA PROCESAL PENAL, SE ENCUENTRA CONTENIDO EN LA LEY 906 DE 2004: CÓDIGO DE PROCEDIMIENTO PENAL, EL CUAL CONSAGRA LO RELACIONADO CON LA AUDIENCIA DE FORMULACIÓN DE ACUSACIÓN, EN SUS ARTÍCULOS 336 AL 347, SIN EMBARGO, EN SU DESARROLLO, NO SE ESTABLECIÓ NINGÚN CONTROL AL ESCRITO DE FORMULACIÓN DE ACUSACIÓN, ES DECIR QUE ESTE CARECE DE IMPUTACIÓN, LO CUAL GENERA AFECTACIÓN DEL DERECHO A LA DEFENSA QUE TIENEN LAS PARTES (INTERVINIENTES) EN DICHA AUDIENCIA, POR SU INEXISTENCIA,...

    18. Prova ilícita por derivação no direito processual penal brasileiro

      OpenAIRE

      Camila Franchitto Cecarelli

      2011-01-01

      O presente trabalho versa sobre a ilicitude probatória por derivação (também chamada de teoria dos frutos da árvore envenenada) e suas mitigações no sistema processual penal brasileiro. A fim de viabilizar essa abordagem, contudo, é necessário rever alguns temas que se colocam como antecedentes lógicos à análise do assunto principal. Nesse sentido, aborda-se a relação existente entre busca da verdade, processo penal e provas. O direito à prova é estudado mediante a apresentação de distintos c...

    19. Réplica al Derecho Penal del Enemigo: Sobre personas, individuos y personas del Derecho

      OpenAIRE

      Heinz Gössel, Karl

      2014-01-01

      Un fantasma está circulando por el país del Derecho Penal: el fantasma del enemigo. Jakobs cree haber descubierto el enemigo, lo describió en varios artículos como realmente existente y recomendó cómo tratar esta situación. Pero, ¿existe realmente el enemigo en el Derecho Penal o se trata solamente de una ilusión? El mismo Jakobs dio el motivo para esta duda, ya que por un lado determina el concepto del enemigo de diversas maneras, con lo cual el concepto se hace confuso, y por otro lado su “...

    20. Feminicidio y derecho penal: herramientas para su mejor aplicación

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jhoanna Caterine Prieto Moreno

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available El numeral 11 del artículo 104 del Código Penal colombiano introdujo como causal de agravación del homicidio aquella acción que se comete contra una mujer en razón a su condición de género, pero que ello no llega a ser suficiente en razón al desconocimiento que se tiene por parte del aparato jurisdiccional penal para su debida aplicación, en razón a que no se tiene claridad sobre las motivaciones que llevaron al victimario a cometer dicho homicidio (feminicidio.

    1. Escuchar al imputado en el proceso penal / Listening to the accused in criminal proceedings

      OpenAIRE

      Brand, José Luis Eloy Morales

      2015-01-01

      Trabalho enviado em 02 de fevereiro de 2015. Aceito em 31 de março de 2015.DOI: 10.12957/rqi.2015.18825Resumen En un sistema penal acusatorio, el sujeto procesal acusador tiene la obligación de demostrar la culpabilidad de una persona. Así, la declaración que el imputado emita en el procedimiento penal, es un medio de defensa para contradecir todo argumento o prueba de acusación, pues es su derecho para ser escuchado, o negarse a declarar y no autoincriminarse. Si el acusador tiene la obligac...

    2. Intervenção Direito Penal em Migração Phenomena

      OpenAIRE

      Medeiros, Thamara Duarte Cunha

      2016-01-01

      El presente artículo tiene por objetivo analisar la legitimidad de la intervención penal en los actuales flujos migratórios. La premisa principal considera que la utilización del derecho penal como instrumento de gestión para controlar flujos migratório ratifica el discurso del miedo hacia la inmingración y fomenta la criminalidad organizada que se ha estructurado frente a las políticas tolerancia cero contra la inmigración, especialmente, la trata de personas y el contrabando de migrantes. E...

    3. En torno a la creación de un Derecho Procesal Penal Europeo

      OpenAIRE

      Gascón Inchausti,Fernando

      2016-01-01

      En la última década las instituciones europeas se han dedicado a la construcción de un espacio europeo de libertad, seguridad y justicia. El proceso penal es, necesariamente, uno de los sectores implicados en esta tarea, en especial en lo que se refiere a la cooperación judicial en materia penal. Para mejorar esta cooperación y hacerla más efectiva se ha optado por utilizar el principio de mutuo reconocimiento, que permite –siempre con condiciones y excepciones– otorgar eficacia directa en un...

    4. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

      OpenAIRE

      Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino

      2014-01-01

      El estudio y comprensión del nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales de Veracruz resulta ineludible, en virtud de las nítidas diferencias existentes entre las figuras jurídicas que contiene el actual ordenamiento, en comparación con el anterior. Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión. El contenido esquemático y sustancial del código, la visió...

    5. Proceso por aceptación de decreto: el nuevo monitorio penal

      OpenAIRE

      Blanco García, Ana Isabel; Montesinos García, Ana

      2016-01-01

      En el presente artículo vamos a analizar una de las importantes reformas introducidas por la nueva Ley 41/2015, de 5 de octubre, de modificación de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal para la agilización de la justicia penal y el fortalecimiento de las garantías procesales, la incorporación del denominado 'proceso por aceptación de decreto' que reúne las características propias de un proceso monitorio, pero ahora en el orden penal.

    6. Consideraciones político-criminales sobre las últimas reformas de la Ley Penal del Menor

      OpenAIRE

      Cuerda Aranau, María Luisa

      2008-01-01

      En el artículo se analizan críticamente las principales reformas que la LO 8/2006 ha introducido en la Ley orgánica de responsabilidad penal del menor (LORPM). Con ese objetivo se incide muy especialmente en las reformas penales sustantivas que, a juicio de la autora, evidencian de modo más claro que la LO 8/2006 es la culminación de un proceso de progresivo endurecimiento del modelo de justicia juvenil, que paulatinamente se aparta de los principios inspiradores de la LORPM convi...

    7. OBSERVACIÓN AL SENTIDO DE LOS PROCESOS PENALES MEXICANOS DESDE EL SISTEMISMO AUTORREFERENCIAL

      OpenAIRE

      Elias García Rosas; Luis Ávila Benítez

      2009-01-01

      El propósito del trabajo es determinar la finalidad perseguida por los procesos penales mexicanos, pues actualmente no existen referentes sustentables, teóricos ni prácticos, para ello. Se empleó la teoría de sistemas autorreferenciales luhmanniana y el método funcional, realizándose una indagación documental mediante la observación de segundo orden, al tenor de una postura constructivista sobre el conocimiento. Se alcanzó como conclusión que el sentido del proceso penal mexicano es exclusiva...

    8. El derecho penal y sus posibilidades sobre la ecología y el medio ambiente

      OpenAIRE

      Calvente, Raúl

      2006-01-01

      El derecho ambiental es un área del conocimiento jurídico integrada por un compendio de normas jurídicas que regula y tutela el conjunto de elementos naturales o artificiales que condicionan la vida del hombre y como tal penetra en diversas ramas del derecho como el Civil, el Administrativo, el Penal y el Constitucional, a través de la regulación específica de un objeto común a todas ellas. El derecho penal, una de dichas ramas, integra dicha área como una parte del orden jurídico cuya esp...

    9. Insignificância penal e significância social.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Ricardo Fernandes

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available O presente artigo pretendeu trazer à tona uma necessária discussão a respeito da insignificância penal e da insignificância social. Traçando-se um breve cotejo entre o princípio penal e os questionamentos sociológicos – amparando-se, para tanto, especialmente dos ensinamentos de Émile Drukheim em que trata do normal e do patológico, bem como da anomia –, buscou-se compreender as motivações de cada seara, bem como se apontar para a possibilidade de colaboração entre elas.

    10. El principio de oportunidad en el derecho procesal penal inglés

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rafael Velandia Montes

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available El propósito de este escrito es estudiar las diversas manifestaciones del principio de oportunidad en el derecho procesal penal inglés. Con tal fin se hace, en primer lugar, una presentación general del proceso penal inglés en sus dos vertientes, juicio sumario o juicio con resolución de acusación, para luego entrar a analizar en detalle diversos aspectos del principio de oportunidad, tales como sus requisitos, el funcionario competente y las diversas etapas procesales en las que puede ser aplicado

    11. Possible pressurized thermal shock events during large primary to secondary leakage. The Hungarian AGNES project and PRISE accident scenarios in VVER-440/V213 type reactor

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Perneczky, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budabest (Hungary)

      1997-12-31

      Nuclear power plants of WWER-440/213-type have several special features. Consequently, the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the behaviour of the PWRs of western design. The opening of the steam generator (SG) collector cover, as a specific primary to secondary circuit leakage (PRISE) occurring in WWER-type reactors happened first time in Rovno NPP Unit I on January 22, 1982. Similar accident was studied in the framework of IAEA project RER/9/004 in 1987-88 using the RELAP4/mod6 code. The Hungarian AGNES (Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety) project was performed in the period 1991-94 with the aim to reassess the safety of the Paks NPP using state-of-the-art techniques. The project comprised three type of analyses for the primary to secondary circuit leakages: Design Basis Accident (DBA) analyses, Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) study and deterministic analyses for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Major part of the thermohydraulic analyses has been performed by the RELAP5/mod2.5/V251 code version with two input models. 32 refs.

    12. Speaking Code

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Cox, Geoff

      Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

    13. Polar Codes

      Science.gov (United States)

      2014-12-01

      QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

    14. [German-Hungarian medical relationships during the Enlightenment; including an 18th century work on inoculation against plague].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schultheisz, E

      2001-09-01

      The influence of German science and medicine on the development of Hungarian medicine in the age of Enlightenment has been extraordinary strong. Many Hungarian medical students stayed in German medical faculties. The medical interrelationships between Germany and Hungary in the 18th century are discussed in an overview according to the following dimensions: education of protestant Hungarian medical students at German >Aufklaerungs-Universitaeten<, practical and theoretical resonance, membership of scientific societies, personal contacts and correspondence. Outstanding personalities of this area were Daniel Fischer, István Weszprémi, Abraham Vater. Special attention is given to a new idea: inoculation against plague was first described by A. Vater in his work Blattern-Beltzen (1721). Thirty years later I. Weszprémi published his original conception - independently from Vater - in the Tentamen de inoculanda peste (1755).

    15. The EU Accession's Impact on the Hungarian Nonprofit Sector, The Nonprofit Organisations' Role in the Accession Process

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      György JENEI

      2006-02-01

      Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the roles played by the Hungarian nonprofit organizations in the EU accession process. These roles are as follows:• To encourage and organize a dialogue and direct contacts between the “old” and “new” European citizens. • To assist people in becoming informed about and involved in European networks, to build solidarity and develop participative European citizenship. • To tackle the problems which constitute serious obstacles in the way of meeting European standards. The paper also tries to identify the very first impacts of the EU accession on the Hungarian nonprofit sector. The authors detect the implications of the regional approach for the co-operation between nonprofit organizations and analyze whether the Hungarian third sector and its governmental partner institutions are prepared for a prompt reaction to the accessibility of the EU structural funds.

    16. [Administrative and reporting tasks of family physicians in Europe. Comparison with the Hungarian system].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rurik, Imre; Kalabay, László

      2008-05-11

      Administrative tasks are continuously increasing in the different health systems worldwide and also in the primary care. The administrative and reporting tasks of family physicians in Hungary are regulated by laws and rules. The aim of the study was to compare the recent Hungarian administrative tasks to those of other European countries in the primary care. Family physicians from 22 countries of the European General Practice Research Network were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding their countries. The results of their answers were presented and analyzed. Doctors are paid by capitation or fee for services, sometimes by the combination of both. They are obliged to prepare reports which depend on the respective countries, contain identification data of patients, diagnoses to be set up, and treatments. Administrative duties and the national characteristics of drug-prescriptions, referral systems to specialist or hospital were also analyzed. Conclusions were made in comparison with the European and Hungarian regulations. Reports needed by the Hungarian authorities are more complex and detailed, with many overlaps. The reasons why data are needed are often not clear and do not fit for the purpose. The time available for medical treatment is decreased by administrative duties making the gate-keeper function ineffective. There is no time for real prevention. Without official (governmental) version of primary care softwares, family physicians use too many softwares with different quality, which are not compatible with each other. It is suggested to check and modify the data obliged in reporting systems. Only data relevant in epidemiological or economical points of view should be reported with more focus to personal protection of privacy rights.

    17. Association of an MHC class II haplotype with increased risk of polymyositis in Hungarian Vizsla dogs.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jonathan Massey

      Full Text Available A breed-specific polymyositis is frequently observed in the Hungarian Vizsla. Beneficial clinical response to immunosuppressive therapies has been demonstrated which points to an immune-mediated aetiology. Canine inflammatory myopathies share clinical and histological similarities with the human immune-mediated myopathies. As MHC class II associations have been reported in the human conditions we investigated whether an MHC class II association was present in the canine myopathy seen in this breed. 212 Hungarian Vizsla pedigree dogs were stratified both on disease status and degree of relatedness to an affected dog. This generated a group of 29 cases and 183 "graded" controls: 93 unaffected dogs with a first degree affected relative, 44 unaffected dogs with a second degree affected relative, and 46 unaffected dogs with no known affected relatives. Eleven DLA class II haplotypes were identified, of which, DLA-DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, was at significantly raised frequency in cases compared to controls (OR = 1.92, p = 0.032. When only control dogs with no family history of the disease were compared to cases, the association was further strengthened (OR = 4.08, p = 0.00011. Additionally, a single copy of the risk haplotype was sufficient to increase disease risk, with the risk substantially increasing for homozygotes. There was a trend of increasing frequency of this haplotype with degree of relatedness, indicating low disease penetrance. These findings support the hypothesis of an immune-mediated aetiology for this canine myopathy and give credibility to potentially using the Hungarian Vizsla as a genetic model for comparative studies with human myositis.

    18. Danilo Kiš and the Hungarian Holocaust: The Early Novel Psalm 44

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      John K. Cox

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Danilo Kiš's little known second novel, Psalm 44 (1962 is his first major prose work about the Holocaust. This novel was published for the first time in Hungarian translation in 1966 and English translation in 2012. The novel is quite different from Kiš's later works on the Holocaust, the autobiographical trilogy comprising Early Sorrows, Garden, Ashes, and Hourglass. The first difference is in setting. In Psalm 44, a number of important flashbacks take place in Újvidék/Novi Sad, the region of northern Serbia (then Yugoslavia under Hungarian occupation after 1941; much of the rest of the book takes place in Auschwitz and associated camps in Poland. The amount of Hungarian material is significant, but the inclusion of so much material from Auschwitz is not found elsewhere in Kiš 's oeuvre. The second difference is in the author's graphic portrayal of gruesome atrocities. For the literary historian, Psalm 44 is an important milestone in the development of Kiš 's thematic and stylistic inventory. For other historians, the novel functions in part as a microhistory of the Újvidék massacres (the "Cold Days" of early 1942. Kiš 's quest to find his own voice to attempt to convey the tragedy of the Holocaust—as important for the entire human family and the very region of Central Europe as it was for his own family—finds a parallel expression in the confusion, exhaustion, and skepticism of the characters in this novel.

    19. The impact of the language barrier on the success of Hungarian minority women in the higher education system of Serbia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lendák-Kabók Karolina

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available The subject of the paper is to analyze the impact of the language barrier faced by Hungarian minority female professors and students in the higher education sys­tem of Serbia. The aim of this paper is to propose measures which might allow Hungarian minority students to overcome the language barrier more easily and to raise awareness for the need of more Hungarian women in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM. The analysis is based on twenty four semi-structured interviews conducted with minority Hungarian female professors and students, who are working or studying at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Interviews were conducted with a pre-composed questionnaire between the end of 2014 and the beginning of 2015. Interviewees were chosen with a snowball sampling method. Results of analysis show that the majority of Hungarian women face a language barrier at the start of their studies, mostly because of their limited knowledge of the majority’s language. These barriers were more pronounced in Hungarian female students than with professor. This phenomenon can be attributed to the time in which they grew up, or to a different social environment of the twentieth century, when bilingualism was completely natural, from which, less segregation of the nations resulted and a better knowledge of the Serbian language. The professors particularly point out that being bilingual is a great advantage and that their knowledge of several languages was a key advantage in their academic careers. With the analysis of the interviews it was determined that the language barrier was mostly pronounced for students of social sciences and humanities (SSH, where language is the primary tool of communication. The language barrier was less important for the students studying in STEM sciences, where students and professors interact through formulas and written exams.

    20. Marked differences in frequencies of statin therapy relevant SLCO1B1 variants and haplotypes between Roma and Hungarian populations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nagy, Agnes; Sipeky, Csilla; Szalai, Renata; Melegh, Bela Imre; Matyas, Petra; Ganczer, Alma; Toth, Kalman; Melegh, Bela

      2015-09-03

      SLCO1B1 polymorphisms are relevant in statin pharmacokinetics. Aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability and haplotype profile of SLCO1B1 polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. Genotypes of 470 Roma and 442 Hungarian subjects for c.388A > G, c.521T > C and c.1498-1331T > C polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP assay. Using these SNPs eight different haplotypes could be differentiated. Differences were found between Roma and Hungarians in SLCO1B1 388AA (24.5 vs. 45.5 %), GG (33.4 vs. 17.9 %) genotypes, AG + GG (75.5 vs. 54.5 %) carriers, in G allele frequency (0.545 vs. 0.362), respectively (p Roma (43.6 %) and in Hungarian (59.1 %) samples. The ht6 (GCT) was not present in Roma population samples Haplotype analyses showed striking differences between the Roma and Hungarian samples in ht4 (ATT, 37.2 % vs 20.8 %), ht5 (GCC, 1.15 % vs. 3.62 %) and ht8 (GTT, 43.6 % vs. 59.1 %) haplotypes (p Roma the 388A was found to be the minor allele contrary to Indians (India). The minor allele frequency of 521T > C and 1498-1331T > C SNPs are almost three times higher in Romas than in Indians (Singapore and Gujarati, respectively). Observed allele frequency for 1498-1331T > C polymorphism reflects the measured average European rates in Hungarians. The results can be applied in population specific treatment algorithms when developing effective programs for statin therapy.