WorldWideScience

Sample records for hung keng pung

  1. Romania faces hung parliament after vote

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

      BUCHAREST: Romania faced the prospect of a hung parliament yesterday as inconclusive results emerged from general elections in the Balkan country, already struggling to keep its drive to join the European Union on track...

  2. Validação de marcadores moleculares associados à pungência em pimenta

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ítalo S; Barreto, Fernanda Z; Balsalobre, Thiago WA; Sala, Fernando C; Costa,Cyro P; Carneiro, Monalisa S.

    2015-01-01

    A pungência em frutos de pimenta do gênero Capsicum, devido à presença de capsaicinóides, é uma das características mais atrativas e muito valorizadas pela culinária mundial. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se validar e avaliar a eficiência de predição dos marcadores moleculares pun1¹, pun1³ e o SNP identificado pelo método tetra-primer ARMS-PCR para a determinação de pungência em acessos de Capsicum spp. Trinta e seis acessos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal de São Carlos foram aval...

  3. Geochemical Characterization of the Waste Rock Dump at the abandoned Geo-pung Mine, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Lee, H.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Park, H.

    2008-05-01

    To propose basic data for the establishment of the reclamation plan of the mine waste rock dumps, the geochemical studies including Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) test, water quality analyses of leachate and run-off waters, metal extraction test, and pot test were performed at the abandoned Geo-pung mine, located in the middle part of Korea. The acid generation capacities of the Geo-pung mine waste rocks (samples from ten points at the waste dump) showed high acid forming potential except for one point (G7). The maximum value of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential), which calculated by total sulfur (MPA, Maximum Potential Acidity, kg H2SO4/t) and ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), was 80.94 kg H2 SO4/t. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the leachate from the waste rock dump have high concentration of Al (56 mg/l), Mn (39 mg/l), Cu (26.3 mg/l), Zn (155.3 mg/l), SO42- (1430 mg/l) and low pH (3.19). Run-off waters (surface flow of waste dump when rain) were, although partly different, showed high concentration of Al (1.7 ~ 20.2 mg/l), Cu (1.8 ~ 14.7 mg/l), Zn (2.4 ~ 26.5 mg/l) and low pH (3.08 ~ 4.07). From the metal extraction test, concentration of zinc was showed high level, from 579 mg/kg to 3,934 mg/kg. The upper parts of the Geo-pung mine waste dump have very low nutrient which needed for plant growth. The organic content was 9 g/kg, bioavailable phosphate was 0.1 mg/kg, and the exchangeable cation (K, Na, Mg) content also under the limit value (1 mg/kg) for the plant growth. The result of pot test also showed that this waste dump is unsuitable for media for plant growth due to lack of nutrient components. So when establish the reclamation plan of the Geo- pung mine waste dump, the cover system which have the function of prevention of sulfide oxidation and provision of nutrient with neutralize materials for revegetation must be considered. key words : Abandoned Mine, Waste Rock Dump, Acid-Base Accounting, Cover System

  4. Hua Loo-Keng's Popularization of Mathematics and the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudeček, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    Before 1966, Chinese mathematician Hua Loo-Keng had singled out "Two Methods" as a way to truly applied and useful mathematics. The Overall Planning Method, based on the Critical Path Method widely used in USA, mostly appealed to middle and upper management. This limited its spread during the Cultural Revolution. The Optimum Selection Method, also of US origin, was more mass-oriented and ready for popularization. Nevertheless, Hua met resistance from leftist radicals, whose ideological objections sprang from an underlying power struggle. Hua built popularization teams, mostly from talented younger people whose careers were disrupted by the Cultural Revolution, and thus opened a path for many of them to important roles in China's scientific infrastructure after 1976. Hua Loo-Keng's efforts, while interrupted during the Cultural Revolution and the subsequent political campaigns, were also helped by the populist ethos of the movement, and by the lack of other non-political endeavors at that time. In this sense, the Cultural Revolution gave Hua Loo-Keng's popularization its importance and long-term impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStStYStY genome constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St1St2, similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R)269. All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as StY. Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and StY. According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  6. Characterization of the Airflow from a Bottom Hung Window under Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper describes the results of laboratory measurements of the airflow from a bottom hung window mounted near the ceiling of a ventilated room. In the laboratory set-up it was possible to control the temperature difference and the airflow rate through the window. The pressure drop through...

  7. Survey on heavy metals contaminated soils in Thai Nguyen and Hung Yen provinces in Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    In Vietnam, soil contamination with lead and cadmium at very high level was investigated anddiscovered in the surrounding areas of zinc-lead mining and processing factory in Tan Long (Dong Hy district, Thai Nguyen province) and around the lead-recycling smelter in Chi Dao (Van Lam district, Hung Yen province). The survey on soil contaminated by arsenic due to the tin mining and sifting activities in Ha Thuong (Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province) was also carried out. In Tan Long, the conc...

  8. Development and characterization of a Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng 7Ns chromosome addition line with leaf rust resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Du

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize a Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs disomic addition line 2-1-6-3. Individual line 2-1-6-3 plants were analyzed using cytological, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, EST-SSR, and EST-STS techniques. The alien addition line 2-1-6-3 was shown to have two P. huashanica chromosomes, with a meiotic configuration of 2n = 44 = 22 II. We tested 55 EST-SSR and 336 EST-STS primer pairs that mapped onto seven different wheat chromosomes using DNA from parents and the P. huashanica addition line. One EST-SSR and nine EST-STS primer pairs indicated that the additional chromosome of P. huashanica belonged to homoeologous group 7, the diagnostic fragments of five EST-STS markers (BE404955, BE591127, BE637663, BF482781 and CD452422 were cloned, sequenced and compared. The results showed that the amplified polymorphic bands of P. huashanica and disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 shared 100% sequence identity, which was designated as the 7Ns disomic addition line. Disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 was evaluated to test the leaf rust resistance of adult stages in the field. We found that one pair of the 7Ns genome chromosomes carried new leaf rust resistance gene(s. Moreover, wheat line 2-1-6-3 had a superior numbers of florets and grains per spike, which were associated with the introgression of the paired P. huashanica chromosomes. These high levels of disease resistance and stable, excellent agronomic traits suggest that this line could be utilized as a novel donor in wheat breeding programs.

  9. [Olaf Asendorf. Das Veto des Deutschen Ordens gegen die Erhöhung des Nikolaikirchturmes in Reval] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Olaf Asendorf. Das Veto des Deutschen Ordens gegen die Erhöhung des Nikolaikirchturmes in Reval. In: Asendorf: Mittelalterliche Türme im deutschordensland Preussen. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien: Lang 1998. S. 105-109. Niguliste kiriku torni ehitusloost

  10. Applikation von fermentierter Soja bei Krebspatienten zur Verminderung von Kachexie und Erhöhung der Apoptose - eine prospektive Pilotstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kachexie ist eine Begleiterkrankung von Krebs, Aids oder rheumatoider Arthritis. Andere Symptome dieser Erkrankungen sind Depression sowie chronische Erschöpfung. Für alle diese Begleiterkrankungen, die die Lebensqualität der schwererkrankten Patienten negativ beeinflussen, wird eine Erhöhung von Entzündungsmediatoren (z.B. IL-6 und TNF-α verantwortlich gemacht. Für Krebs wird eine Erniedrigung der Apoptose, ausgelöst durch eine Erhöhung von NFκB verantwortlich gemacht. Eine Gabe eines fermentierten Soja-Produktes, das in den USA seit 10 Jahren zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität von Krebspatienten eingesetzt wird, wurde in einer prospektiven Studie untersucht: Für je 5 Patienten, die unter Prostata-, Ovar- oder Brustkrebs litten, konnte eine signifikante Verminderung von Kachexie, Stress und Depression festgestellt werden. Gleichzeitig konnte man für Prostata- und Ovarkrebs-Patienten eine Erhöhung der Genexpression apoptotischer Marker disseminierter Tumorzellen feststellen. Zusätzlich wurde eine starke Erhöhung der Genexpression des Tumorsuppressorgens p21 festgestellt. Auch wenn die prospektive Studie präliminär ist und die Anzahl der untersuchten Patienten zu klein, so widerspricht sie nicht unserer Annahme, dass es einen direkten Zusammenhang zwischen Krebs und Begleiterkrankungen, besonders der Kachexie, gibt.

  11. Life hung by a thread: endurance of Antarctic fauna in glacial periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatje, Sven; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Mackensen, Andreas; Larter, Rob

    2008-03-01

    Today, Antarctica exhibits some of the harshest environmental conditions for life on Earth. During the last glacial period, Antarctic terrestrial and marine life was challenged by even more extreme environmental conditions. During the present interglacial period, polar life in the Southern Ocean is sustained mainly by large-scale primary production. We argue that during the last glacial period, faunal populations in the Antarctic were limited to very few areas of local marine productivity (polynyas), because complete, multiannual sea-ice and ice shelf coverage shut down most of the Southern Ocean productivity within today's seasonal sea-ice zone. Both marine sediments containing significant numbers of planktonic and benthic foraminifera and fossil bird stomach oil deposits in the adjacent Antarctic hinterland provide indirect evidence for the existence of polynyas during the last glacial period. We advocate that the existence of productive oases in the form of polynyas during glacial periods was essential for the survival of marine and most higher-trophic terrestrial fauna. Reduced to such refuges, much of today's life in the high Antarctic realm might have hung by a thread during the last glacial period, because limited resources available to the food web restricted the abundance and productivity of both Antarctic terrestrial and marine life.

  12. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  13. Analysing the characteristics of soil nematode communities at pepper (Piper nigrum L.) cultivation area in Loc Hung commune, Loc Ninh district, Binh Phuoc province

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Duc Hieu; Bui, Thi Thu Nga; Tran, Thi Diem Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Minh Phuong; Nguyen, Huu Hung; Nguyen, Vu Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a high economic value plant species that brings the main income to the people at Loc Hung commune. So the pepper’s yield plays a significant role in people’s life in this region. To assess the influence of environmental factors on the growth and development of pepper, we need to analyse the structural characteristics of soil nematode communities in order to promptly detect the levels of parasitic nematodes infection as well as assessment of soil environment status ...

  14. The Comanche and the Albatross: About Our Neck Was Hung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    later, the latter aircraft proved vulnerable to a surface-to-air-missile system that had reached initial operational capa- bility in 1959 , and we...Irak spelled backwards) was the French -built integrated air defense system pos- sessed by the Iraqis prior to Desert Storm. It was only partially...are migrated from the EA-18G Growler, just as the migration of EA-6B systems to the F-111 Aardvark created the EF-111A Raven . 20. The MQ-9, funded

  15. 75 FR 49955 - Hung Thien Ly, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... usual course of professional practice and for no legitimate medical purpose.'' Id. at 2; see also id. at... authority and is no longer authorized by State law to engage in the * * * dispensing of controlled... these provisions make plain, possessing authority under State law to handle controlled substances is an...

  16. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  17. Hanging Together, Together Hung? Career Implications of Interpersonal Ties Between CEOs and Top Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hilger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute to managerial succession research by underlining the ambivalence of interpersonal ties within top management teams.

  18. Caracterização agronômica e pungência em pimenta de cheiro Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina I Domenico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nove acessos de Capsicum chinense do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de pimentas do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram caracterizados e avaliados nas condições edafoclimáticas de Campinas (SP. O experimento foi realizado de janeiro a outubro de 2010, em blocos casualizados, com nove tratamentos, cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados altura da planta, hábito de crescimento da planta, antese da primeira flor, produtividade, massa fresca do fruto, comprimento do fruto, largura do fruto, conteúdo de capsaicina do fruto fresco, cor do fruto maduro, formato do fruto e superfície do fruto. Para a caracterização da planta e do fruto consideraram-se as quatro plantas centrais de cada parcela; para a extração da capsaicina, utilizaram-se três amostras de cinco frutos de cada acesso. A quantificação de capsaicina foi feita por meio de cromatografia líquida de ultra pressão. A altura das plantas variou de 1,13 a 0,85 m. Constatou-se hábito de crescimento compacto das plantas para a maioria dos acessos. Os acessos mais precoces para antese da primeira flor foram IAC 1644, IAC 1645 e IAC 1643, respectivamente. O acesso IAC 1646 apresentou alta produtividade e maiores largura e massa fresca do fruto e IAC 1641 apresentou os frutos mais longos. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' destacou-se com o maior conteúdo de capsaicina, superando IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' e IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', do tipo habanero. Observaram-se as cores amarela, laranja, salmão e vermelha para os frutos. Quanto ao formato do fruto, os acessos classificaram-se em alongados, redondos, triangulares campanulados e bloco. Quanto à superfície, caracterizaram-se os frutos como lisos, semi-rugosos e rugosos. Concluiu-se que, nas condições edafoclimáticas em que a pesquisa foi desenvolvida e considerando os acessos avaliados, existe alta variabilidade em pimenta de cheiro para características agronômicas e conteúdo de capsaicina. IAC 1552 destacou-se com o maior conteúdo de capsaicina, resultado inédito para uma pimenta de cheiro brasileira.Nine accessions of the Active Capsicum chinense Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronômico were characterized and evaluated in climate and soil conditions of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from January to October 2010. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with nine treatments, five replications and eight plants per plot. Evaluated traits were plant height, plant growth habit, first flower anthesis, fruit yield, fresh fruit weight, fruit height and width, capsaicin content, ripe fruit color, fruit shape and fruit surface. For fruit and plant characterization were considered the four central plants of each plot; for capsaicin content evaluation were used three samples of five fruits of each accession. Capsaicin content was measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Plant height ranged from 1.13 to 0.85 m. The most accessions presented compact growth habit of plants. Accessions IAC 1644, IAC 1645 and IAC 1643 were the earliest for anthesis of first flower. IAC 1646 showed high fruit yield, fruit width and fresh weight, and IAC 1641 showed the longest fruits. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' stood out with highest capsaicin content, outperforming IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' and IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', habanero types. Fruits presented yellow, orange, salmon and red colors. The fruits presented the elongated, round, triangular, campanulated and blocked shape. The fruit surface was characterized as smooth, semi-rough and rough. In the climate and soil conditions where the research was developed and, regarding the accessions evaluated, there was high variability in chili peppers for agronomic traits and capsaicin content. IAC 1552 stood out with highest capsaicin content, first result for a Brazilian chilli pepper.

  19. Die neue CSR-Richtlinie – Erhöhung der Unternehmenstransparenz in Sozial- und Umweltbelangen / Alexander Eufinger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eufinger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu direktiivist, mis käsitleb finantsteabe avalikustamist teatavate suurettevõtjate ja kontsernide poolt (2014/95) ning eriti ettevõtjate poolt esitatava sotsiaalse ja keskkonnaalase teabe läbipaistvusest

  20. Effects of Different Media, Type and Concentrations of Auxin on Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Young Inflorescences of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum(L.) Keng)

    OpenAIRE

    CAN, Ersin

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different media, auxin types and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration from young inflorescences of 15 ecotypes of yellow bluestem ( Bothriochloa ischaemum). The young inflorescences were cultured on two different basal media (LS and SH) containing different concentrations (2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/l) of two different auxins (2, 4-D and Dicamba). The results showed that the ecotypes were significantly different from each ot...

  1. 44-jährige Patientin mit unklarer Leberwerterhöhung und familiär gehäuftem Gallensteinleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopf, C.; Beuers, U.; Bikker, H.; Denk, G. U.; Rust, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Low phospholipid associated cholelithiasis" (LPAC) syndrome is an important differential diagnosis in younger patients with biliary symptoms after cholecystectomy and concomitant elevated serum liver tests. Typical symptoms include recurrence of biliary colics after cholecystectomy, echogenic

  2. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Pung Yen Sin. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details ...

  3. Test and Evaluation of an Image-Matching Navigation System for a UAS Operating in a GPS-Denied Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    OPERATING IN A GPS-DENIED ENVIRONMENT Keng Siew Aloysius Han Civilian, Defence Science and Technology Agency M.A., University of Cambridge, 2010 MPhil... ENVIRONMENT by Keng Siew Aloysius Han September 2017 Thesis Advisor Oleg Yakimenko Co-Advisor Ryan Decker Approved for public release. Distribution is... ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Keng Siew Aloysius Han 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey

  4. Milline saatus ootab Kehtna ametikooli? / Matis Song

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Song, Matis, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    ROL-i vallavanemate kogul tõi HTM-i kutse- ja täiskasvanute hariduse osakonna juht Andres Pung võimaliku tulevikuvariandina välja Kehtna Majandus- ja Tehnoloogiakooli Orissaare internaatkooli asendusena

  5. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... ischaemum (L.) Keng'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteninii Roem. and Schult.'', ``Brome, smooth--Bromus... ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult.'', ``Brome... considered pure seed. * * * * * (g) * * * Seed units of smooth brome, fairway crested wheatgrass, standard...

  6. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Vitm. var. gerardii'', ``Bluestem, yellow-- Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteinii Roem. and Schult.'', ``Brome, smooth--Bromus inermis Leyss.'', ``Corn, field--Zea mays L... ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum'', ``Brome, meadow--Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult.'', ``Brome...

  7. Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lafayette 9 1963–1964 Ballistic missile James Madison 10 1964 Ballistic missile Benjamin Franklin 12 1965–1967 Ballistic missile Sturgeon 37 1966–1975...work. 1 The survey instrument sent to vendors is reproduced in Appendix C . 2 See Mark V. Arena, Hans Pung, Cynthia R. Cook, Jefferson P. Marquis ...Hans Pung, Cynthia R. Cook, Jefferson P. Marquis , Jessie Riposo, and Gordon T. Lee, The United Kingdom’s Shipbuilding Industrial Base: The Next

  8. Training und Werkzeuge zu nicht-technischen Aspekten für Anbieter und Nutzer - Erhöhung der Nachhaltigkeit ländlicher Elektrifizierung mit PV-Systemen

    OpenAIRE

    Will, S.; Vogt, G.; Sauer, D.U.

    2003-01-01

    Der Ausbau der ländlichen Elektrifizierung mit dezentralen photovoltaischen Stromversorgungen in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern entwickelt sich mit zweistelligen Zuwachsraten. Ein wünschenswertes und mögliches erheblich stärkeres Wachstum wird durch eine Reihe von Problemen im nicht-technischen Bereich gebremst. Wesentlicher Grund dafür ist die mangelnde Anpassung der - weitgehend ausgereiften - PV-Technologien an bestehende soziale, kulturelle und sozio-ökonomische Strukturen.

  9. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....) Keng Bottlebrush-squirreltail—Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey Brome, field—Bromus arvensis L. Brome, meadow—Bromus biebersteinii Roem. and Schult. Brome, mountain—Bromus marginatus Steud. Brome, smooth...

  10. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Lim Jing Yi. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details ...

  11. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Yong Kong Hou. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details ...

  12. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Rong-Fuh Louh. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details ...

  13. Geok Bee Teh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geok Bee Teh. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  14. Post‐Secondary Students Prefer IM to E‐mail for Personal and Social Communication. A review of: Lancaster, Sean, David C. Yen, Albert H. Huang, and Shin‐Yuan Hung. “The Selection of Instant Messaging or E‐mail: College Students’ Perspective for Computer Communication.” Information Management & Computer Security 15.1 (2007: 5‐22.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Wilson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study investigates college students’ perceptions of instant messaging (IM and e‐mail for conveying emotions, aiding in relationship building, ease of use, and reliability.Design – A survey consisting of 59 questions was administered to 1,000 college students, resulting in 545 usable responses.Setting – The research took place at a midwestern university in the United States.Subjects – 1,000 Management Information Systems (MIS college students.Methods – A 59‐question survey was distributed to 1,000 MIS students during the 2005 academic year. 545 usable responses were returned. Participation was voluntary. During the pre‐phase of the research, four categories were determined: emotion, relationship, usage, and reliability. Questions were then written for a pilot study using Likert scaling. The post‐research phase involved evaluating the questions linguistically to ensure proper word usage, comprehension, and lack of bias. Main Results – The questions in the section on conveying emotion dealt with how well the two technologies (e‐mail and IM communicated feelings and emotions. While both technologies were acknowledged as being able to communicate more than merely text, IM was clearly preferred for expressing emotion. Fifty‐two percent of the respondents strongly agreed or agreed that they used emoticons (originally symbols created with letters and special characters; later evolving into graphical images produced and made available by IM companies to express emotion in IM, while fewer than 11% agreed or strongly agreed that they did so in e‐mail. More than 70% of the respondents strongly agreed or agreed that their friends used emoticons in IM,while fewer than 14% strongly agreed or agreed that their friends used emoticons in e‐mails. More than 75% of respondents agreed that it is easier to convey emotions in IM than via e‐mail. Analysis on the questions that dealt with the technologies as useful relationship builders again showed a preference for IM. IM was preferred by a greater number of respondents for fostering friendships, improving relationships with friends or team members, building relationships, social interaction, and social networking. This section also found that more than 75% of the respondents felt that IM was more useful than e‐mail when interacting with friends. However, when asked about interacting with co‐workers specifically, only 44% were in agreement. Nearly 32% were neutral on this point, while 24% were in disagreement. It appears that IM is preferred over e‐mail for fostering social and friendly relationships, but is not preferred when the interaction is work‐related and more professional. In terms of use, both technologies were considered easy to learn and use by more than 90% of respondents. In terms of preferred use, more than 60% of respondents use IM for personal and social interaction, while less than 1% uses IM for work‐related activities. Nearly 80% of respondents preferred using e‐mail for work, and nearly 75% preferred using IM for social interaction. Sixty‐three percent of respondents did not agree that IM is just as effective as face‐to‐face meetings, while nearly 75% did not agree that e‐mail can be as effective as meeting face‐to‐face. In the areas of reliability, security, and privacy of IM and e‐mail, respondents perceived e‐mail more favourably. Sixty-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that IM is very reliable, while 80% of respondents felt the same way about e‐mail. Just over 30% of those questioned agreed that IM is very secure, while more than 50% felt that way about email. However, the gap is narrower when users were queried as to whether or not they worry about security: 13% strongly agreedwith the statement that users do not worry about their security when using IM, while 15% strongly agreed with the statement as it pertained to e‐mail. The same types of questions were asked about perceived privacy. Nearly 50% agreed that their privacy is protected with e‐mail, while just under 35% had the same belief about IM. More than 60% of respondents reported that they do not worry about privacy when emailing, while about 53% of respondents do not worry about privacy with IM. Conclusion – IM was perceived more favourably than e‐mail in 3 of the 4 categories: conveying emotions, building relationships, and ease of use. In the reliability category, e‐mail was perceived more favourably. However, there is a division between social interaction and professional communication. IM is preferred for personal and social relationships, while e‐mail is preferred for work‐related communication. Neither of the technologies is as desirable as face‐to‐face meetings.

  15. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical. Constituents of Mimusops elengi. Faheem Amir1*, Keng Chong Wong1, Ibrahim Eldeen2,3, Mohammad Zaini. Asmawi2 and Hasnah Osman1. 1School of Chemical Sciences, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains ...

  16. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical. Constituents of Mimusops elengi. Faheem Amir1*, Keng Chong Wong1, Ibrahim Eldeen2,3, Mohammad Zaini. Asmawi2 and Hasnah Osman1. 1School of Chemical Sciences, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, ...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a group 3 LEA gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) protein is one of the components involved in desiccation tolerance (DT) by maintaining cellular structures in the dry state. In this study, a member of the group 3 LEA, MwLEA1, was cloned from Mongolian wheatgrass (Agropyron mongolium Keng) based on a homologous sequence from ...

  18. A mother with variant Turner syndrome and two daughters with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 2. A mother with variant Turner syndrome and two daughters with trisomy X: a case report. S. Ramachandram W. T. Keng R. Ariffin V. Ganesan. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 2 August 2013 pp 313-316 ...

  19. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in Regions with Cold Climate. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    equivalent) casement , single- or double-hung type? Window areas to the north, east and west are minimized. Windows allow sufficient natural summer...8217rame (-_- e.uiv3 entj’ casement , single- or doub’e-hung type?_______________ * Aindow areas to the north, east and 4est are 74imizea. ~ Windows allow...Windows are of double or triple-glazed wood-frame (or equivalent) casement , single- or double-hung type?_______________ Winow rea tothe north, east

  20. Role of IKK-alpha in the EGFR Signaling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Mien- Chie Hung1,4,6,7,* 1Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, 2Department of Experimental Therapeutics, and 3Department of Breast...Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan *Correspondence: Mien- Chie Hung, Department of...Ko1,5, Fuu-Jen Tsai6, Chang-Hai Tsai6, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi4, and Mien- Chie Hung1,5,7,8,* 1Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology

  1. Urologic Oncologic SurveyRobotic level III inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy: Initial series. Gill IS, Metcalfe C, Abreu A, Duddalwar V, Chopra S, Cunningham M, Thangathurai D, Ukimura O, Satkunasivam R, Hung A, Papalia R, Aron M, Desai M, Gallucci M. J Urol. 2015 Oct;194(4):929-938. [Epub 2015 Apr 6]. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.03.119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Max

    2017-05-01

    Level III inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy for renal cancer is one of the most challenging open urologic surgeries. We present the initial series of completely intracorporeal robotic level III inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy. Nine patients underwent robotic level III inferior vena cava thrombectomy and 7 patients underwent level II thrombectomy. The entire operation (high intrahepatic inferior vena cava control, caval exclusion, tumor thrombectomy, inferior vena cava repair, radical nephrectomy, and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy) was performed exclusively robotically. To minimize the chances of intraoperative inferior vena cava thrombus embolization, an "inferior vena cava-first, kidney-last" robotic technique was developed. Data were accrued prospectively. All 16 robotic procedures were successful, without open conversion or mortality. For level III cases (9), median primary kidney (right 6, left 3) cancer size was 8.5cm (range: 5.3-10.8) and inferior vena cava thrombus length was 5.7cm (range: 4-7). Median operative time was 4.9 hours (range: 4.5-6.3), estimated blood loss was 375ml (range: 200-7,000), and hospital stay was 4.5 days. All surgical margins were negative. There were no intraoperative complications and 1 postoperative complication (Clavien 3b). At a median 7 months of follow-up (range: 1-18) all patients are alive. Compared to level II thrombi the level III cohort trended toward greater inferior vena cava thrombus length (3.3 vs 5.7cm), operative time (4.5 vs 4.9h) and blood loss (290 vs 375ml). With appropriate patient selection, surgical planning and robotic experience, completely intracorporeal robotic level III inferior vena cava thrombectomy is feasible and can be performed efficiently. Larger experience, longer follow-up and comparison with open surgery are needed to confirm these initial outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Role of IKK-alpha in EGFR Signaling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    LaBaff1,5, Qingqing Ding1, How-Wen Ko1,5, Fuu-Jen Tsai6, Chang-Hai Tsai6, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi4, and Mien- Chie Hung1,5,7,8,* 1Department of...China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan 8Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan *Correspondence: Mien- Chie Hung

  3. Observation and manipulation of glial cell function by virtue of sufficient probe expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyo eNatsubori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of gene-encoded indicators and actuators to observe and manipulate cellular functions is being advanced and investigated. Expressing these probe molecules in glial cells is expected to enable observation and manipulation of glial cell activity, leading to elucidate the behaviors and causal roles of glial cells. The first step toward understanding glial cell functions is to express the probes in sufficient amounts, and the Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression (KENGE-tet system provides a strategy for achieving this. In the present article, three examples of KENGE-tet system application are reviewed: depolarization of oligodendrocytes, intracellular acidification of astrocytes, and observation of intracellular calcium levels in the fine processes of astrocytes.

  4. A new species of Chucallis Tao (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Calaphidinae) from China

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Yun Jiang; Jing Chen; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2011-01-01

    A new species in the aphid genus Chucallis Tao, Chucallis latusigladius Qiao, Jiang & Chen, sp. n. feeding on a species of bamboo, Indocalamus tessellatus (Munro) Keng f., is described. It differs from the only other known species in the genus byremarkably large marginal processes on abdominal tergite IV. A key to species, morphological descriptions, distributional data and host plant information are provided. The type specimens studied are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of C...

  5. Healthy latrine development model to achieve MDGs target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedjono, Eddy S.; Arumsari, Nurvita

    2014-03-01

    A case happened in Pungging sub-district was one example of low level healthy habits of East Java inhabitants. According to the data of Mojokerto district Health Service until the end of 2010, there are 219 families (or about 8% of total families in Pungging sub-district) which do not have their own latrine. Moreover, if we observe closely to their prosperity level, the percentage of disadvantaged families and prosperous level I is still adequately high about 29,54% of the total number of families in Pungging sub-district. Accordingly, comprehensive studies related to basic sanitation requirement need to be done, not only in the matter of quantity but also in the matter of quality. Furthermore, further studies on people's knowledge and understanding on healthy sanitation also needed in the effort to understand people's demand to own latrine (willingness to pay) and ability to pay. Consequently, the design of healthy latrine which agrees with people's demand and ability is needed in order to achieve the target of Open Defecation Free (ODF) in 2015. The research methodology includes literary study, data collection, data analysis, and healthy latrine design. Out of 75 respondents, only 32% of them who attended counselling program on healthy latrine and only 48% of them who have knowledge on healthy latrine, but in reality 96% of respondents stated that healthy latrine is important. Healthy latrine, according to the respondents, is a place of defecation (BAB) which has components like latrine bowl or septic tank. Estimation on WTP distribution which is divided in two categories; low category with range of willingness to pay from IDR 0 to IDR 200,000 is IDR 90,048,000. On the other hand, high category with range of willingness to pay more than IDR 1,000,000 is IDR 749,964,768. Estimation on respondents' ATP in the area of study on the sanitation maintenance service is from IDR 7,000 to IDR 30,000.

  6. OCORRÊNCIA DE INSETOS-PRAGA E INIMIGOS NATURAIS EM PLANTIO CONSORCIADO DE PIMENTA-DE-CHEIRO COM ADUBOS VERDES

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Fabiula dos Reis; de Castro, Marcelo Tavares

    2017-01-01

    O cultivo de pimenta contribui para a geração de renda para muitos produtores, principalmente os pequenos produtores. A pimenta-de-cheiro (Capcicum chinense) é muito apreciada por ter pungência baixa e vários tipos de coloração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de insetos (pragas e inimigos naturais) nas plantas durante a condução do plantio de pimenta de cheiro no Distrito Federal, em consorcio com adubos verdes. O experimento foi conduzido no Campus de Águas Claras – Distr...

  7. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  8. Promoting endothelial recovery and reducing neointimal hyperplasia using sequential-like release of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded biodegradable stents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee CH; Yu CY; Chang SH; Hung KC; Liu SJ; Wang CJ; Hsu MY; Hsieh IC; Chen WJ; Ko YS; Wen MS

    2014-01-01

    Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Chia-Ying Yu,2 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Chao-Jan Wang,3 Ming-Yi Hsu,3 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Wei-Jan Chen,1 Yu-Shien Ko,1 Ming-Shien Wen1 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Introduction: This wor...

  9. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in the Pacific Northwest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    or equivalent) casement , single- or double-hung type? Window areas to the north, east and west are minimized. Windows allow sufficient natural summer...glazed wood-frame (or equivalent) I casement , single- or double-hung type? poX qs- R u tAc Window areas to the north, east and west are minimized. ’I...are provided against winter and spring storms. Windows are of double or triple-glazed wood-frame (or equivalent) casement , single- or double-hung

  10. Dynamic Nanocomposite Self-Deactivating Fabrics for the Individual and Collective Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Yongwoo; Chadha, Suneet; Riecker, Andy; Mendum, Ted; Puglia, John P; Rastogi, Vipin

    2006-01-01

    .... The hung liner consists of beads of activated carbon laid down in adhesive form onto a non-woven front textile to provide a method of adsorbing threats such as nerve and mustard gases, and prevents...

  11. Facile fabrication of organobentonite–carboxymethyl chitosan hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. DAU HUNG ANH1 KANCHANA DUMRI2. Biogreen Material Research and Service Co. Ltd., Chiang Mai 50140, Thailand; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: transcobalamin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PH, Nordwall M, Hoffmann-Lücke E, Sorensen BS, Nexo E. Transcobalamin deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity for ... Hung C, Rupar T, Mühl A, Fowler B, Nexo E, Bodamer OA. Transcobalamin II deficiency at birth. ...

  13. Antioxidant properties of methanol extract of a new commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant properties of methanol extract of a new commercial gelatinous mushrooms (white variety of Auricularia fuscosuccinea) of Taiwan. Wen-Yuh Lin, Mars J. Yang, Lien-Tsung Hung, Liang-Chuan Lin ...

  14. Olympic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Veerabhadran Ramanathan, James Schauer, Hung Nguyen and colleagues found the Beijing Olympics to be conducive to international collaboration in science, as well as sport, as they attempted to assess the effect of emission restrictions on climate forcing.

  15. Toward a Theory of Strategic Communication: A Relationship Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Recent Challenges and New Research,” in Public Relations Research: An International Perspective, ed. Danny Moss , Toby MacManus, and Dejan Vercic...London: International Thomson Business Press, 1997), 9. 49 Ibid. 50 Chun-Ju Flora Hung, “Toward the Theory of Relationship Management in Public...Relationship Management in Public Relations: Dimensions of an Organization-Public Relationship,” 55-65. 70 Chun-Ju Flora Hung, “Toward the Theory of

  16. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 2. Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Electronics Corp. Seattle, WA Zhigang Xiang Assistant Professor Dept. of Computer Science Queen’s College ( CUNY ) New York, NY 1987 Michael J. Almeida...Tien Kingsbury, Linda A. Williams, Francine Delgado, Diane M. Liu, Paul C-W Wu, W-C Jevons Fenrich, Richard Menon, Rajeev Artificial Intelligence... Diane Milich, Gregory Zayan, Alime CS Other than Al (1984) Alsam, Javaid Izard, Thomas Oviedo, Enrique He, Hung Chyi Klee, Karl Welte, Martha Hung, Ring

  17. Pao-Lu Hsu (Xu, Bao-lu): The Grandparent of Probability and Statistics in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dayue; Olkin, Ingram

    2012-01-01

    The years 1910–1911 are auspicious years in Chinese mathematics with the births of Pao-Lu Hsu, Luo-Keng Hua and Shiing-Shen Chern. These three began the development of modern mathematics in China: Hsu in probability and statistics, Hua in number theory, and Chern in differential geometry. We here review some facts about the life of P.-L. Hsu which have been uncovered recently, and then discuss some of his contributions. We have drawn heavily on three papers in the 1979 Annals of Statistics (v...

  18. Sumber dan Kualitas Pakan Serta Produksi Kambing Peranakan Etawah Di Kotamadya Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Qudri

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. A study on source and quality of feed and production of Etawah goats was conducted from June to November, 1997. Nine respondents who raise Peranakan Etawah goats were interviewed. The goats were investigated and measured for body size. The respondents were live in three different villages, i.e, three from Ule Lheu, one from Lambung, two from Punge, one from Peulanggahan and two from Rukoh. The result showed that source of fed were obtained from grass in the back yart, native pasture, by product of banana, fruits, vegetables and palatable leaves. The quality of feed was relatively good due a relatively high content of protein. Ratio of male tp female was 1 : 1.65. Kid production was about 190 percent / yard. Body size were better than kids that are raised in villages in Aceh Barat regency.

  19. Role of anuria in the relationship between indoxyl sulfate and anemia in peritoneal dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jeng-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yang, Chih-Wei; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Jeng-Yi Huang,1,2 Ching-Wei Hsu,1,2 Chih-Wei Yang,1,2 Cheng-Chieh Hung,1,2 Wen-Hung Huang1,2 1Kidney Research Center, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Taipei, 2Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Experimental evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate (IS) is associated with chronic kidney disease-related anemia. However, clinical studies are limited, and few have explored the potential confounding effect of anuria. This st...

  20. Guidelines for the Sound Insulation of Residences Exposed to Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Frame: AL Single Joist. Heavy*. STI Jalousie: JA Exposed Ceiling. Light: ECL Casement : CA FLOOR: Basement: BA SIZE: Small: OK Crawlspace: CR Medium: 1K...Hung, Wood 30-35 Casement , Awning (I-inch separation 30-33 of glazing) Secondary Wbidows (STC 25-30 dB) Double-Hung, Aluminum 25-29 Horizontal Slider...VA WINDOW: Wood Frame: WD Single Joist. Light: SJL Alum. Frame: AL Single Joist, Heavy: SJH Jalousie: JA Exposed Ceiling. Light: ECL Casement : CA

  1. RAPD-PCR analysis and salt tolerance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Pesti M, Vagvolgyi CS, Papp T, Nagy A and Novak A (2001). Variation of isoenzyme and RADP patterns in Candida albicans morphological mutants with altered colony ultrastructure. Acta. Biol. Hung. 52(2-. 3):289-298. Rohlf FJ (1990). NTSYS-pc, Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system ...

  2. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbe.v5i2.4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Issues in Information Science and Information Technology,. (6). Ou, C. Hung, S. Yen, D. and Liu, F.2008. Can Automated Teller Machine. Investment Improve Bank Cost Efficiency? Proceeding of the Third. Workshop on Knowledge Economy and Electronic Commerce, 97-103. Pollak, R.A., Sickles, R.C. and Wales, T.J. 1984.

  3. Synchronization of two different chaotic systems via nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Int, J. Bifurcation and Chaos. 9:1465. Ho MC, Hung YC (2002). Synchronization of two different chaotic systems using generalized active network. Phys. Lett. A. 301:6424-8. Idowu BA, Vincent UE (2013). Synchronization and stabilization of chaotic dynamics in a quasi-1D. Bose-Einstein condensate. Journal of Chaos. 2013: ...

  4. Manashi Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Manashi Panda. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 119 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 3-9. Synthesis, structure, redox and spectra of green iridium complexes of tridentate azo-aromatic ligands · Manashi Panda Chayan Das Chen-Hsiung Hung Sreebrata ...

  5. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s hull. Fire Wire means a length of wire rope or chain hung from the bow and stern of a vessel in... the waterline, both on the off-shore bow and quarter of the ship. LNG vessels equipped with waterline...

  6. Observed variations in stratification and currents in the Zuari estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundar, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Michael, G.S.; Kankonkar, A.; Nidheesh, A.G.; Subeesh, M.P.

    , with a tail fin attached for stability, was hung from the anchored boat and the stern end of the boat was tethered to the nearby bridge to eliminate rotation of the survey boat around its anchor during the turn of the tide. The speed and direction...

  7. DWT-based blind and robust watermarking using SPIHT algorithm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOSHANLAL MEENPAL

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... A robust and blind image watermarking technique based on discrete wavelet transform is proposed in this paper. ... Keywords. Arnold transform; discrete wavelet transform (DWT); tele-medicine; Noise Visibility Function ...... [24] Seo Jung-Hee and Park Hung-Bog 2006 Data-hiding method using digital ...

  8. Development of In-Mold Assembly Methods for Producing Mesoscale Revolute Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    molded and the processing parameters. Schlatter et al [28] conducted a numerical investigation based on the transport equation to determine the...defects during injection molding in a complex part," Materiale Plastice. 44(3), pp. 180-184. 62. S.J. Liu, J.Y. Wu, J.H. Chang, and S.W. Hung, 2000

  9. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-2. How the Groll: nd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The instrument that measures earthquake shaking, a seismograph, has three compo- nents - the sensor, the recorder and the timer. The principle on which it works is simple and is explicitly reflected in the early seismograph (Figure 3) - a pen attached at the tip of an oscillating simple pendulum (a mass hung by a string from ...

  10. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yuan · Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang · Hull, JC · Hung, TI · Hussey, G ... Jani, I · Janse van Rensburg, E · Jarvis, JN · Jeenah, FY · John, M A · John, M-A · Johnson, Leigh F. Johnson, LF · Jones, L · Jones, PS · Jonsson, G · Joska, J

  11. Clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    squamous‐cell cancer of the uterine cervix. Cancer 6(6): 1200-1214. Surveillance Epidemiological and End Results. (2013) SEER stat fact sheets: cervix uteri. Vinh-Hung, V, Bourgain, C, Vlastos, G, Cserni, G,. De Ridder, M, Storme, G, Vlastos, A-T. (2007) Prognostic value of histopathology and trends in cervical cancer: a ...

  12. Finding the Density of a Liquid Using a Metre Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, K. N.

    2008-01-01

    A simple method, which is based on the principle of moment of forces only, is described for the determination of the density of liquids without measuring the mass and volume. At first, an empty test tube and a solid substance, which are hung on each side of a metre rule, are balanced and the moment arm of the test tube is measured. Keeping the…

  13. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 119, Issue 1. January 2007, pages 3-51. pp 3-9. Synthesis, structure, redox and spectra of green iridium complexes of tridentate azo-aromatic ligands · Manashi Panda Chayan Das Chen-Hsiung Hung Sreebrata ...

  14. Airborne Pseudolites in a Global Positioning System (GPS) Degraded Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    of the ION GPS 2000 Meeting. School of Geomatic Engineering University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia, September 2000. 95 12...56, July 2002. 35. Wang, Jinling and Hung-Kyu Lee. “Impact of Pseudolite Location Errors in Positioning”. Geomatics Research Australasia, 81–94

  15. Land Leeches of the g. Haemadipsa (Haemadipsoidea: Haemadipsidae). I. Conditions Essential to Laboratory Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    nor contact of the anterior sucker with freshly drawn blood have any effect (12). Variable responses to vibration have been reported (31,37). Membrane...Nov.) Acta Zool Acad Sci Hung 21:119-152, 1975 5. RINGUELET, R.A. Nuevos taxia hirudineos neotropicos con la re- definicion de Semiscolecidae y la

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 94 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  17. 75 FR 77671 - Expansion of the Scope of NRTL Recognition of MET Laboratories, Inc.; Correction of the Scope of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... and Marine Crafts UL 466 Electric Scales UL 561 Floor-Finishing Machines UL 1230 Amateur Movie Lights UL 1278 Movable and Wall or Ceiling Hung Electric Room Heaters UL 1594 Sewing and Cutting Machines UL 1795 Hydromassage Bathtubs UL 1951 Electric Plumbing Accessories UL 1996 Electric Duct Heaters UL 2021...

  18. 75 FR 44289 - MET Laboratories, Inc.; Application for Expansion of Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts UL 466 Electric Scales UL 561 Floor-Finishing Machines UL 1230 Amateur Movie Lights UL 1278 Movable and Wall or Ceiling Hung Electric Room Heaters UL 1594 Sewing and Cutting Machines UL 1795 Hydromassage Bathtubs UL 1951 Electric Plumbing Accessories UL 1996 Electric Duct...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter aceti Strain 1023, a Vinegar Factory Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, John E; Mill, Christopher P; Clifton, Sandra W; Magrini, Vincent; Bhide, Ketaki; Francois, Julie A; Ransome, Aaron E; Fulton, Lucinda; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Wilson, Richard K; Kappock, T Joseph

    2014-06-05

    The genome sequence of Acetobacter aceti 1023, an acetic acid bacterium adapted to traditional vinegar fermentation, comprises 3.0 Mb (chromosome plus plasmids). A. aceti 1023 is closely related to the cocoa fermenter Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B but possesses many additional insertion sequence elements. Copyright © 2014 Hung et al.

  20. A glimpse of the 'God particle'? Scientists pushed Europe's premier particle accelerator to the threshold of a fundamental breakthrough. Then they pulled the plug

    CERN Multimedia

    Morton, O

    2000-01-01

    The decision hung on the most slender of majorities; the data were recounted and reanalyzed exhaustively; tempers flared; appeals were made; committees few people have ever heard of had their say. But in the end the accelerator's fate was sealed and a chance for physicists to solve one of the basic mysteries of the universe was forgone (1 page).

  1. On complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hwa Ko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to establish the complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables satisfying the weak mean domination condition. The result is an improvement of complete convergence in Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund-type SLLN for negatively associated random variables in Kuczmaszewska (Acta Math. Hung. 128:116-130, 2010.

  2. Advanced Construction Technology Center Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-19

    M.S., Ceramic Engineering, May 1989 RESEARCH ASSISTANTS: 1 J.M. Bukowski Ph.D., Ceramic Engineering, August 1993* Hung-Yuan Hsieh M.S., Civil...Parallel Processing (St. Charles , IL, August 1988) 204-211 (1988). 97 U LO, T.M. Data modeling of three-dimensional objects. M.S. thesis, J. Liu, advisor U

  3. Women's Energy Tool Kit: Home Heating, Cooling and Weatherization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byalin, Joan

    This book is the first in a series of Energy Tool Kits designed for women by Consumer Action Now, a non-profit organization devoted to promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy resources. Information is provided in 16 sections: introduction, home energy survey; caulking; weatherstripping (double-hung and sliding windows, and casement,…

  4. Parametric Resonances of a Conductive Pipe Driven by an Alternating Magnetic Field in the Presence of a Static Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2012-01-01

    The parametric oscillations of an oscillator driven electromagnetically are presented. The oscillator is a conductive pipe hung from a spring, and driven by the oscillating magnetic field of a surrounding coil in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is an interesting case of parametric oscillations since the pipe is neither a magnet nor a…

  5. Market-Smart Deconstruction and Material Recovery at Brownfield Sites: How to Identify and Reuse Existing Materials Found at Brownfield Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    if it: • was built between 1955-1978 and has ceilings that are bumpy, as if coated with cottage cheese or popcorn • was built between 1940-1955 and...hardware is preferred. Single glazed, multi-lite double hung sashes are frequently sold as decorative or craft items and converted to other products

  6. anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Anolyte possesses antimicrobial activity against a variety of micro-organisms as a disinfectant used in agriculture, dentistry, medicine and the food industry. ..... Modification of denim garment with the treatment of bleaching powder. Canadian. Journal on Chemical Engineering & Technology. (2):30–36. KIM, C., HUNG, YC ...

  7. The impact of a grain of sand: increasing production speed in flexible risers generates significant savings in gas production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Blokland, H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea oil and gas production normally involves the use of flexible risers that comprise a metal carcass with a large number of enveloping layers that safeguard the integrity of the pipe system. The flexible risers are hung from a floating platform and may be supported by several floating buoys to

  8. Models in Insurance: Paradigms, Puzzles, Communications and Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    fact, this is region in which the credibility approach is most useful). Incidentally, the classical approach often gets hung up on whether or not it... Teoria della Credibilit&," Giornale dell’ Istituto degli Attuari, 27, 219-231 (1964). (D51 N. De Pril, "The Efficiency of a Bonus-Malus System," AB, 10

  9. Assessing environmental impacts associated with freshwater consumption along the life cycle of animal products: the case of Dutch milk production in Noord-Brabant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Hoving, I.E.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Gerber, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The assessment of water footprints of a wide range of products has increased awareness on preserving freshwater as a resource. The water footprint of a product was originally defined by Hoekstra and Hung (2002) as the sum of the volumetric water use in terms of green, blue and grey water

  10. Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are associated with liver function and inflammatory markers but not with obesity and insulin resistance. Chin-Jung Lin Nain-Feng Chu Yi-Jen Hung Dee Pei Chien-Hsing Lee Fone-Ching Hsiao Chieh-Hua Lu Chang-Hsun Hsieh. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 ...

  11. Tas pdf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... vitamin E on carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity in rainbow trout. (Oncorhynchus mykiss) erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Acta Vet. Hung. 52: 413-422. Balaydın HT, Gülçin İ, Menzek A, Göksu S, Şahin E (2010). Synthesis and antioxidant properties of diphenylmethane derivative bromophenols including a ...

  12. Trajectories of Trauma Symptoms and Resilience in Deployed US Military Service Members: Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Lehman DR, Tweed RG, Haring M, Sonnega J, et al. Resilience to loss and chronic grief : a prospective study from preloss to 18-months postloss. J Pers Soc...WWT, Bonanno GA, Mancini AD, Ho S, Chan M, Hung WK, et al. Trajectories of psychological distress among Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer

  13. The $578 Million School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The 24-acre site south of Wilshire Boulevard in the Koreatown section of Los Angeles signifies different things to different people. To those with fond memories of the golden era of Hollywood glamour, the site is where starlets were discovered, some of the first Academy Award ceremonies were held, and where the Rat Pack hung out. To those…

  14. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 79, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of soil properties under tropical Acacia hybrid plantation and shifting cultivation land use in northern Vietnam · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Trieu Thai Hung, Richard Doyle, Alieta Eyles, Caroline Mohammed, 9-18.

  15. The Practice of Eclectic Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honebein, Peter C.; Sink, Darryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Eclectic instructional design is the process whereby a designer blends ideas from multiple learning theories to construct a learning experience that works better than a course designed from only one theoretical influence. Eclectic instructional designers are those who do not get hung up or rely consistently on any one theory for their designs.…

  16. Analysis of Students' Online Learning Readiness Based on Their Emotional Intelligence Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether there is a significant relationship between the students' readiness in online learning and their emotional intelligence levels. Correlational research method was used in the study. Online Learning Readiness Scale which was developed by Hung et al. (2010) has been used and Trait Emotional…

  17. Who Took the "Judeo" out of "Judeo-Christian"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2007-01-01

    In late December, the question, Who took the "Judeo" out of "Judeo-Christian?" hung over Mishkenot Sha'ananim, Jerusalem's distinguished guest house. Inside the complex, more than 130 attendees from nine countries attended the colloquium on "Political Hebraism: Jewish Sources in the History of Political Thought."…

  18. Distribution of the three major species of fish in the Hartbeespoort ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-08-05

    Aug 5, 1985 ... Figure 1 Hartbeespoort Dam showing major shore-line regions and sampling stations. ... The nets hung to a depth of 2,5 m and were set in 3,5 -4 m of water at the two littoral stations. The occurrence of fish in the profundal zone was investi- ... distribution were the gradient, and degree of shelter from wave.

  19. E-Learning in Supplemental Educational Systems in Taiwan: Present Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Hung, Jui-Long

    2009-01-01

    As Taiwan's full-scale e-learning initiatives moved to the seventh year in 2009, the current status and challenges of e-learning development there are yet to be fully understood. Further extending Zhang and Hung's (2006) investigation on e-learning in all universities and colleges in Taiwan, this study investigated the after-school programs (ASPs)…

  20. Bislol'Y 01 Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-27

    Feb 27, 1971 ... year-old specimens possessed handles and were evidently meant to be hung around the neck. A single large open- ing permitted the insertion of some ..... in gold', 'the man who invented the dummy should be knighted', 'long live the dummy' and 'I couldn't have survived without dummies'. Most mothers ...

  1. Therapeutischer Effekt des Protein-Tyrosinkinasehemmers Imatinib (STI571) im Modell der Monocrotalin-induzierten pulmonalen Hypertonie der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Dony, Eva Maria Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Die pulmonalarterielle Hypertonie (PAH) ist eine schwere, lebensbedrohliche Erkrankung, die durch eine deutliche, anhaltende Erhöhung des pulmonalarteriellen Druckes, charakteristische Umbauprozesse der Pulmonalarterien (Remodelling) und der Entwicklung eines Cor pulmonale gekennzeichnet ist. Das Voranschreiten der pulmonalen Hypertonie ist unter anderem verbunden mit gesteigerter Proliferation und Migration glatter Gefäßmuskelzellen der Lunge. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) ist ei...

  2. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

  3. Becoming Curt Lemay: The Formative Experiences of an Air Force Icon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    provided by instruments in the cockpit. LeMay hung around after class and constantly peppered his instructors with questions. 25 Through his...According to Deaile, SAC leaders—specifically LeMay—actively cultivated these characteristics to optimize their organization‟s capability to counter

  4. Antioxidant properties of methanol extract of a new commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 1

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Wen-Yuh Lin1, Mars J. Yang2, Lien-Tsung Hung3 and Liang-Chuan Lin1*. 1Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, .... Since food composition in bioactive or potentially bioactive com-pounds is recognized as critical for throwing light upon the association ...

  5. Lamak : ritual objects in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkgreve, L.F.

    2016-01-01

    A lamak is a long narrow hanging that is an essential requirement at most rituals in Bali. Made usually of palm leaves, it is by nature ephemeral. Although permanent forms of lamak, made of cloth or coins, exist, the ephemeral palm leaf form must be present. Hung from altars and shrines, a lamak

  6. The Role of Family in Vocational Education and Training Choices: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormeier Freire, Alexandre; Giang, Hong Trinh

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of family in vocational education and training (VET) choices, using primary qualitative data collected in the commune of Hung An, Vietnam. The authors demonstrate that, next to issues relating to income, it is family characteristics that are the predominant influence on an individual's choice of the VET track,…

  7. Looking under Kachru's (1982, 1985 three circles model of World Englishes: the hidden reality and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Schmitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the pioneering model of World Englishes formulated by Kachru in the early 1980s that allocates the presence of English into three concentric circles: first of all, the inner circle (Great Britain, the USA where the language functions as an L1 (or native language; secondly, the outer circle (India, Nigeria where the language was forced upon the subjugated people by Britain; thirdly, the expanding circle (China, Brazil where English is studied as a foreign language. Researchers in the area of language studies tend to put too much store in Kachru's model expecting it to expose the different circles: (i the proficiency level of the speakers, (ii the variation that exists in the different dialects of the language, and (iii how the many users appropriate the language to perform their daily routine. Pung (2009 suggests "going beyond" the three circle model with his proposal of a Conical Model of English (CME, while Park and Wee (2009, p.402 state that models have no "magical efficacy in challenging dominant ideologies of English" and that change in the world is not brought about by models but my people. Based on Park and Lee's caution with regard to models, and in lieu of Pung's "going beyond" the well-known Kachruvian model, the thrust of this article is to look specifically under the inner circle, that is, the supposed "native speaker domain". It will be argued in this paper that the circles function as a palimpsest erasing and ignoring what happened in the past linguistically, historically and culturally before the appearance of English in the spaces that the language occupies at the present time in the inner, outer, and expanding circles. An examination of days gone-by, with a focus on Kachru's inner circle, can present a mirror to examine: (i bilingual (multilingual biases, (ii migration of peoples and treatment of immigrants, (iii respect (or lack of for the linguistic and cultural rights of minorities, and (iv the hegemony of

  8. O Monismo Físico e a opção dinâmica – ou, por um fisicalismo de forças ou interações como melhor opção na lida com o “Dilema de Hempel” [Physical monism and the dynamic option – or, for a physicalism of forces or interactions as a better option to deal with “Hempel’s Dilemma”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel José Corrêa Mograbi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo escrutina e critica duas das versões mais importantes da tese do monismo físico sustentadas por importantes autores do campo fisicalista ou materialista (Melnyk e Kim, principalmente, no que concerne às suas definições de “físico”. O objetivo é de primeiro problematizar essas versões da tese do monismo para, ao fim, apresentar uma original e própria que se mostra muito mais coerente com nossas atuais visões de mundo e livre de ontologias moribundas e suas versões contemporaneamente recauchutadas ou “reanimadas”. Além de mais consistente com nossa atual visão de mundo, a posição aqui apresentada acaba por ser mais viável ontologicamente, não só pela sua maior viabilidade científica mas, principalmente, pela sua consistência filosófica advinda da concisão axiomática, pungência e dinamismo e, assim, é mais hábil em lidar com o dito dilema de Hempel.

  9. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom: its cDNA and genomic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Kumar, Sanjeed Vijaya; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Fry, Bryan G; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2006-04-26

    Ohanin, from king cobra venom, is a novel protein which induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice [Pung, Y.F., Wong, P.T.H., Kumar, P.P., Hodgson W.C., Kini, R.M., 2005. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 13137-13147.]. It is weakly similar to PRY-SPRY domains (B30.2-like domain). Here we report the complete cDNA and genomic organization of ohanin. Interestingly, cDNA sequence does not show significant sequence similarity to any known sequences, including those of B30.2-like domain-containing proteins. Its full-length cDNA sequence of 1558 bp encodes for prepro-ohanin with a propeptide segment at the C-terminal. Ohanin is the first member of a new subfamily of proteins containing B30.2-like domain with short N-terminal segment. We named this subfamily as vespryns. There are two mRNA subtypes differing in their 5'-untranslated regions. Southern hybridization study shows that ohanin is encoded by a single gene. Its genomic sequence is 7086 bp with five exons and four introns, and the two types of mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing of exon 2. Our results indicate that ohanin and vespryns may have evolved from the same ancestral gene as B30.2 domain.

  10. 2154-IJBCS-Article-Gilbert Tite Layeye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    faire automatiquement par utilisation d'un algorithme mathématique (Hung et al., 2005). A la fin des filtrages, les images résultantes sont importées sous le fichier type du logiciel. PCI Géomatica. A l'aide de ce dernier, nous passons une à une les images sous l'outil regroupant les algorithmes des divers traitements.

  11. El Dia de la Independencia, September 16, 1810: El Grito de Dolores (Independence Day, September 16, 1810: The Cry of Dolores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Each year on the eve of September 16, when the President of the Republic of Mexico has rung the church bell that once hung in the belfry at the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows in the small town of Dolores Hidalgo, he has once more proclaimed Independence Day. When Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang that same bell on September 16, 1810, he rang it…

  12. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    oral presentations. Ap- Israel, Tunisia , Japan, Canada, and Mexico completed the proximately 180 poster contributions were hung for the rolls. As can be...tion mechanism are due to the presence of Ni contamina- around corner-holes) - in the 7x7 unit cell are not chemi- tion from the specimen heater . Dr. H...varistors. and solar energy absorbers and reflcc- was observed in accord with earlier published work. Hys- tors based on spectrally selective materials

  13. DETECT: A MATLAB Toolbox for Event Detection and Identification in Time Series, with Applications to Artifact Detection in EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    newborn infants [5] as well as the monitoring of fatigue in prolonged driving simulations [6]. In many of these settings, the experiments may last...and duration could be used to monitor subject performance during the task, as these features have been linked to drowsiness and fatigue [3]. Deviations...Shyh Lin, Shao-Hang Hung, Chih-Feng Chao, et al. (2010) A Real-Time Wireless Brain-Computer Interface System for Drowsiness Detection. IEEE Transactions

  14. An Experimental Investigation of Productivity Stratification and Knowledge Transfer in an Electronically Mediated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-23

    no learning.” This revision has been applied to language learning, as a “means for social co-ordination and adaptation” (Hung, 2001:282; Maturana ...An individual’s language is shaped by social upbringing and culture. As such, Maturana and Varela (1987) argued that in order to understand...of Information Systems. MIS Quarterly, 24(3), 23. Maturana , H., & Varela, F. (1987). The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Knowledge

  15. La pelle del selfie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Senft

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an essay about power and faces. Specifically, it about the faces that manifest in the global self-imaging practice referred to as “selfie culture.” More specifically still, it is about circulation of selfies featuring the face of Sandra Bland, an African American activist with the group Black Lives Matter, who police claim hung herself in a cell after being imprisoned after a routine traffic stop.

  16. Frequenzhaltung als Serviceleistung dezentraler Solarstromspeicher

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hollinger; Llerena Engesser, M.; Erge, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Zukunft werden bei Gebäuden mit PV-Anlagen zunehmend Stromspeicher installiert. Batterien mit rein lokalen Betriebsführungsvorgaben nutzen jedoch ihr technisches Potential nur teilweise aus. Sinnvoll ist auch die Nutzung freier Batteriekapazität hinsichtlich Leistung und Energie zur Erbringung von Systemdienstleistungen für das Energiesystem. Die Bereitstellung von Primärregelleistung in Kombination mit einer lokalen Erhöhung des Autarkiegrades wurde dabei als wirtschaftlich und technisch ...

  17. Lebensdaueroptimierung von Schweißverbindungen martensitischer Stähle für Hochtemperaturanwendungen

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Schweißverbindungen sind zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt sowohl beim Bau von Kraftwerken und Anlagen als auch für deren eventuelle Reparatur unverzichtbar. Eine Werkstoffentwicklung, mit dem Ziel der Erhöhung der Dampfparameter zur Wirkungsgradsteigerung bzw. zur Verringerung von Emissionen, muss daher zwingend die Qualifizierung geeigneter Schweißgüter und -verfahren sowie die Überprüfung geschweißter Komponenten auf deren Einsatztauglichkeit unter Hochtemperaturbeanspruchung beinhalten. Ein großer A...

  18. DOE ZERH Case Study: United Way of Long Island Housing Development Corporation, Patchogue, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that got HERS 40 without PV, -3 with PV, with 2x4 16: on center walls with R-13.5 dense packed cellulose and 1.5” polyiso rigid; basement with 2.5: polyiso on interior; unvented attic with R-48 ocsf under roof deck; ERV tied to wall hung boiler with hydro coil.

  19. Cultural Resource Investigation of the Grand Forks/East Grand Forks Urban Study and the East Grand Forks Flood Control Project,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    spacing due to the evolution of the building, but generally is four bays wide and two bays deep. Fenestration is two-over-two double hung win- dows...clear that the cornice has been removed since that date. The original fenestration has been altered on the ground floor. The following has been taken...reception attend-ed by the Crown Prince Olav and Princess Martha of Norway. Every governor of North Dakota from 1902 through 1954 was a guest in the

  20. When do Armed Revolts Succeed: Lessons from Lanchester Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Lanch- ester models include studies of the Battle of Britain (Johnson and MacKay, 2011), the Battle of Kursk (Lucas and Turkes, 2004), the Ardennes...London, UK. Lucas, T. W. and Turkes, T. (2004). Fitting Lanchester equations to the battles of Kursk and Ardennes. Naval Research Logistics (NRL), 51(1...Campaign (Hung et al., 2005), the Battle of Iwo Jima (Engel, 1954), and the Battle of Inchon (Hartley and Helmbold, 1995). For further information on the

  1. Effect of artificial nestboxes on the diversity of secondary cavity-nesting birds and the stability of breeding bird community

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhong Deng; Wen Liu; Liyuan Yang; Zhen Li

    2008-01-01

    Artificial nestboxes are widely used in ecological research and conservation practices. However, we know little about the effects of nestboxes on breeding bird communities and their actual conservationvalue to bird communities. We chose two sample plots with similar plant communities in Xiaolongmen National Forest Park, Beijing. Fifty artificial nest-boxes were hung in the experimental plot and the other plot as a control. From March to August in 2007, we monitored artificial nestbox use by s...

  2. 7th drug hypersensitivity meeting: part one

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Daniel F.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Jenkiins, Rosalind E.; Chaponda, Mas; Nwikue, Gospel; Cornejo Castro, Elena M; Antoine, Daniel J.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Wuillemin, Natascha; Dina, Dolores; Eriksson, Klara K.; Yerly, Daniel; Mckinnin, Elizabeth; Ostrov, David; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Oral Abstracts O1 Functionally distinct HMGB1 isoforms correlate with physiological processes in drug-induced SJS/TEN Daniel F. Carr, Wen-Hung Chung, Rosalind E. Jenkiins, Mas Chaponda, Gospel Nwikue, Elena M. Cornejo Castro, Daniel J. Antoine, Munir Pirmohamed O2 Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams, does the t cell recognition pattern influence the clinical picture? Natascha Wuillemin, Dolores Dina, Klara K. Eriksson, Daniel Yerly O3 Specific binding characteristics ...

  3. Investigations of Human Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIEDUNLIMITED [3 SAME AS RPT C DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 2,c viFFiCE Sr ,�L...in the Memphis area who answered the telephone and supplied cooperative answers. Answers were deleted and replaced if the person hung up the...Minneapolis, MN 55455-0344 Nuria Sebastian Dep. Psicologia Basica Dr. Lauren Resnick Univ. Barcelona Learning R & D Center Adolf Florensa s.n. University of

  4. Timing-Accurate Storage Emulation: Evaluating Hypothetical Storage Components in Real Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-13

    Instead of the cross, the Albatross About my neck was hung. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner , II. xiv xvii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This dissertation...15213-3890 United States of America A dissertation, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the ...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per

  5. Instructor-based Real-time Multimedia Medical Simulation to Update Concepts of Difficult Airway Management for Experienced Airway Practitioners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Pin-Tarng; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Yen, Chia-Rong; Yin, I-Wen; Huang, Ying-Che; Wang, Chao-Chun; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Yien, Huey-Wen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Chan, Kwok-Hon

    2008-01-01

    ...- form training has arguable drawbacks, such as patient ORIGINAL ARTICLE Instructor-based Real-time Multimedia Medical Simulation to Update Concepts of Difficult Airway Management for Experienced Airway Practitioners Pin-Tarng Chen 1,2 , Hung-Wei Cheng 1,2 , Chia-Rong Yen 1,2 , I-Wen Yin 3 , Ying-Che Huang 1,2 , Chao-Chun Wang 1,2 , Mei-...

  6. BRMS1 Suppresses Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone via its Regulation of microRNA-125b and Downstream Attenuation of TNF-alpha and HER2 Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    capabilities to metastasize to ovaries, liver, lungs, kidneys, and bones following intravenous injection. We also observed skull -restricted bioluminescent...MP, Shen J, Chang SS, Yu D, Steeg PS, and Hung MC. (2012) A novel model of breast cancer metastasis: killing two birds with one stone. AACR Annual...novel model of breast cancer metastasis: killing two birds with one stone Yekaterina B. Khotskaya1, Mariano Ponz Sarvice1, Jia Shen1,2, Shih-Shin

  7. Translations from Red Flag No. 9, 3 September 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-06

    the spring of 1964] [Text] It was only a short time, like several stones rolling by, Since men bade farewell to monkeys And mankind was still in...participate in various mourning activities. Standing beside the remains of Chairman Mao, who had for- ever closed his eyes, I saw a face filled with wisdom...people who participated in the mourning activities were stricken . with grief. Only the "gang of four" of Wang Hung-wen, Chang Chun-chiao, Chiang

  8. Mammalian Toxicology Testing: Problem Definition Study. Capability Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    proof. All tables will have hooded exhaust systems above them. 5. For animal watering, city water will be softened and passed through charcoal filters...will then pass through three charcoal filters to remove ozone and hydrogen peroxide generated by the ultraviolet light. An important aspect of the...Treatment Table wim - ink /F"--Cage Rack Sit Down Hood 1 STreatment Room FI Ncos Shower & Dress Work Table A nte Roo m E L kers j Wall Hung Cabinet

  9. Modellvorhaben „Verpflegung in Kindertagesstätten mit Bioprodukten“ (Nachhaltige Steigerung des Einsatzes von nach der EU-Verordnung 2092/91 zertifizierten Ökoprodukten in der Außer-Haus-Verpflegung von Kindern und Jugendlichen)

    OpenAIRE

    Buley, Marion; Piecha, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Ziel: Erhöhung des Anteils von Bioprodukten in der Kitaverpflegung auf 20% durch Erarbeitung und Anwendung von Arbeitsinstrumenten für die Praxis der verschiedenen Verpflegungssysteme: Öko-Speisenplaner, Beschaffungsleitfaden, Basiszutatenliste. Hypothesen: 1. Die Einführung von Bioprodukten muß in dem derzeit vorgegebenen Preisrahmen erfolgen, da hier keine/wenig Spielräume bestehen 2. Bioprodukte können bei bestehendem Preisrahmen bis zu einem gewissen Anteil eingeführt werden, we...

  10. Window Performance in Extreme Cold,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Casement windows-windows with sashes hinged on ATID difference between the indoor ambient and the side. indoor dewpoint temperatures ATIo difference...did. Installed casement windows (at 0.23 ft 3/ PREVIOUS WORK IN COLD min ft) were the only type of window with airtight- WEATHER WINDOW PERFORMANCE...to calculate air leakage hung sash unit to a casement or possibly adding another with no wind and with double the mean wind as latch to the casement

  11. Spiritual care may impact mental health and medication adherence in HIV+ populations

    OpenAIRE

    Oji VU; Hung LC; Abbasgholizadeh R; Terrell Hamilton F; EJ, Essien; Nwulia EA

    2017-01-01

    Valerie U Oji,1–3 Leslie C Hung,3 Reza Abbasgholizadeh,1,4 Flora Terrell Hamilton,5 E James Essien,6 Evaristus Nwulia7 1Lifefountain Center Ministries Inc, Houston, TX, USA; 2Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3University of Texas, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, USA; 4University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 5Administration, Family & Medical Counseling Service, Inc. (FMCS), Washington, DC, USA; 6University of Houston Institute ...

  12. short communication synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Pernak, J.; Błazej, M.; Józef, W. Synthesis 1994, 1415. 22. Hazai, L.; Deák, G. Acta Chim. Hung. 1986, 121, 237. 23. Rawalay, S.S.; Beam, C.F. J. Chem. Eng. Data 1982, 27, 475. 24. Shinde, P.V.; Sonar, S.S.; Shingate, B.B.; Shingare, M.S. Tetrahedron Lett. 2010, 51, 1308. 25. Harichandran, G.; Amalraj, S.D.; Shanmugam, ...

  13. Structural and biophysical analysis of interactions between cod and human uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and UNG inhibitor (Ugi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Netsanet Gizaw [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Niiranen, Laila [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Johnson, Kenneth A.; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti Schrøder; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Willassen, Nils Peder [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Moe, Elin, E-mail: elin.moe@uit.no [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da Republica (EAN), 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2014-08-01

    A structural and biophysical study of the interactions between cod and human uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and their inhibitor Ugi is presented. The stronger interaction between cod UNG and Ugi can be explained by a greater positive electrostatic surface potential. Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Atlantic cod (cUNG) shows cold-adapted features such as high catalytic efficiency, a low temperature optimum for activity and reduced thermal stability compared with its mesophilic homologue human UNG (hUNG). In order to understand the role of the enzyme–substrate interaction related to the cold-adapted properties, the structure of cUNG in complex with a bacteriophage encoded natural UNG inhibitor (Ugi) has been determined. The interaction has also been analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The crystal structure of cUNG–Ugi was determined to a resolution of 1.9 Å with eight complexes in the asymmetric unit related through noncrystallographic symmetry. A comparison of the cUNG–Ugi complex with previously determined structures of UNG–Ugi shows that they are very similar, and confirmed the nucleotide-mimicking properties of Ugi. Biophysically, the interaction between cUNG and Ugi is very strong and shows a binding constant (K{sub b}) which is one order of magnitude larger than that for hUNG–Ugi. The binding of both cUNG and hUNG to Ugi was shown to be favoured by both enthalpic and entropic forces; however, the binding of cUNG to Ugi is mainly dominated by enthalpy, while the entropic term is dominant for hUNG. The observed differences in the binding properties may be explained by an overall greater positive electrostatic surface potential in the protein–Ugi interface of cUNG and the slightly more hydrophobic surface of hUNG.

  14. Entwicklung eines physikalischen Modells der im Windpark generierten Turbulenz

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Windkraftanlagen werden zur besseren Ausnutzung der Landschaft in Windparks gruppiert. Neben der Abschattung der Windkraftanlagen untereinander und der damit reduzierten Parkeffizienz kommt es auch zu einer Erhöhung der Turbulenz im Windpark durch deren Nachlaufströmungen. Im Rahmen der Dissertation wurden zwei neue Ansätze zur Beschreibung der Turbulenzintensität in der Nachlaufströmung von Windkraftanlagen entwickelt. Zuerst wurde mit Hilfe von Leistungsspektren und Inkrementanalysen der Wi...

  15. Bilateral nekrose af caput femoris efter brug af arbejdssele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Nielsen, Reno E Tilgreen; Linnet, Jan A Rørgaard

    2002-01-01

    The case of a 42-year old man, who developed bilateral necrosis of the femoral head from traumatic causes is described. He hung in stirrups, working 4-6 hours a day decorating for three weeks, during which he complained of numbness, fatigue and radiating pain in both legs. X-rays and a bone scan...... were performed and bilateral femoral head necrosis was diagnosed, probably because of repeated temporary hypoxia of the femoral heads caused by the stirrups compressing the blood vessels....

  16. Gallium Nitride Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Using 0.25-micro m Qorvo Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    efficiently in continually crowded spectrums, with multiple purposes for communications, networking, and radar. This technical note briefly summarizes a... PDF ) INFORMATION CTR DTIC OCA 2 DIRECTOR ( PDF ) US ARMY RSRCH LAB RDRL CIO L IMAL HRA MAIL & RECORDS MGMT 1 GOVT PRINTG OFC... PDF ) A MALHOTRA 12 DIR USARL (10 PDF ) RDRL SER 2 P AMIRTHARAJ (HC) RDRL SER E R DEL ROSARIO (1 HC) A DARWISH A HUNG T

  17. Overview of Intelligent Power System for Future Aircraft (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Electrical Systems Branch Power and Control Division Luis Herrera and Bang-Hung Tsao University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) SEPTEMBER... obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0032 HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR...Chief Program Manager Electrical Systems Branch Electrical Systems Branch Power and Control Division Power and Control Division

  18. Dynamical Imaging using Spatial Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-29

    3. “Phase retrieval using nonlinear diversity” Chien-Hung Lu, Christopher Barsi, Matthew O. Williams , Nathan Kutz, and Jason W. Fleischer...condensation of classical waves, Nature Physics, 8 (2012) 471-475. [26] C.H. Lu, C. Barsi, M.O. Williams , J.N. Kutz, J.W. Fleischer, Phase...829- 832. [29] H. Faulkner , J. Rodenburg, Movable Aperture Lensless Transmission Microscopy: A Novel Phase Retrieval Algorithm, Physical Review

  19. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-11

    budo to develop the right personality type for the bourgeois society. This is the egocentric and socially indifferent individual who is firmly aware...reports of deaths at the front line which are hung up by the families of those killed. "There are virtually no adolescents or young people in the...following behind every car. At the front walk adolescents , virtually children. The automatic weapons over their shoulders look inordinately large

  20. Die Smart Library UB Hildesheim

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Ewald; Schrader, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Der Beitrag benennt die aufgrund überholter Gebäudetechnik erforderlichen Modernisierungsmaßnahmen auf der Grundlage netzbasierter Steuerungstechniken, umgesetzt im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojekts und in Zusammenarbeit mit Studierenden der Studiengänge "Umweltsicherung" und "Umweltwissenschaft und Naturschutz" der Universität Hildesheim und zwei mittelständischen Firmen. Ziel ist die Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und die Erhöhung der Lern- und Arbeitsqualität durch den Einsatz digit...

  1. Therapeutischer Effekt des Serotonin-Antagonisten Tergurid im Modell der monocrotalin-induzierten pulmonalen Hypertonie der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Kulisch, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Die pulmonale Hypertension stellt eine seltene, aber schwere, sehr stark einschränkende und lebensbedrohliche Erkrankung dar. Sie ist charakterisiert durch Vasokonstriktion, Umbauprozesse in den Pulmonalarterien und durch eine daraus folgende Erhöhung des pulmonalarteriellen Druckes. Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamin, 5-HT) spielt vor allem in der frühen Phase der Krankheitsentwicklung eine große Rolle, aber die pharmakologische Steuerung befindet sich momentan noch im präklinischen Bereich. ...

  2. Therapeutischer Effekt des Guanylatzyklasestimulators BAY 63-2521 im Modell der Monocrotalin-induzierten pulmonalen Hypertonie der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Kaulen, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Die pulmonalarterielle Hypertonie ist gekennzeichnet durch eine Erhöhung des pulmonalarteriellen Druckes, Umbauprozesse der Pulmonalarterien und Entwicklung eines Cor pulmonale. Sie stellt eine schwere, lebensbedrohliche Erkrankung dar, die die Lebensqualität der Betroffenen stark einschränkt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte gezeigt werden, dass BAY 63-2521 als Stimulator der löslichen Guanylatzyklase in der Lage ist, die pulmonale Hypertonie im Monocrotalinmodell der Ratte zu s...

  3. Die Behandlung tracheotomierter Patienten mit schwerer Dysphagie : eine explorative Studie zur Evaluation eines interdisziplinären Interventionsansatzes

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    In der neurologischen Rehabilitation werden in zunehmendem Maße tracheotomierte Patienten mit schweren Dysphagien behandelt. Daher sollte den hierzu bisher entwickelten Interventionsverfahren eine evidenzbasierte Grundlage gegeben werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein multidisziplinärer Behandlungsansatz zur Trachealkanülenentwöhung und Dekanülierung vorgestellt, der auf der Grundlage der relevanten Forschungsliteratur und klinischen Beobachtungen entwickelt wurde. Des Weiteren wird ers...

  4. Einfluss von organischen Umweltpartikeln auf die rBet v 1-induzierte Basophilenaktivierung birkenpollenallergischer Individuen

    OpenAIRE

    Belloni, Benedetta

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss von organischen Umweltpartikeln auf die allergeninduzierte Basophilenaktivierung untersucht. Als Maß für die Aktivierung wurden basophile Granulozyten mit Hilfe der Durchflußzytometrie auf ihre CD63-Expression analysiert. Es konnte eine Erhöhung der CD63-Expression birkenpollenallergischer Patienten bei Inkubation mit organischem Umweltextrakt und rBet v 1 (Hauptallergen der Birkenpollen) im Vergleich zu alleiniger Inkubation mit rBet v 1 beobacht...

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing: a review of international implementation and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Allyse M; Minear MA; Berson E; Sridhar.S; Rote M; Hung A; Chandrasekharan S

    2015-01-01

    Megan Allyse,1 Mollie A Minear,2 Elisa Berson,3 Shilpa Sridhar,3 Margaret Rote,3 Anthony Hung,3 Subhashini Chandrasekharan4 1Institute for Health and Aging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA, 2Duke Science & Society, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 3Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) is an adv...

  6. Cadmium(II) inhibition of human uracil-DNA glycosylase by catalytic water supplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokey, Trevor; Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.

    2016-12-01

    Toxic metals are known to inhibit DNA repair but the underlying mechanisms of inhibition are still not fully understood. DNA repair enzymes such as human uracil-DNA glycosylase (hUNG) perform the initial step in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In this work, we showed that cadmium [Cd(II)], a known human carcinogen, inhibited all activity of hUNG at 100 μM. Computational analyses based on 2 μs equilibrium, 1.6 μs steered molecular dynamics (SMD), and QM/MM MD determined that Cd(II) ions entered the enzyme active site and formed close contacts with both D145 and H148, effectively replacing the catalytic water normally found in this position. Geometry refinement by density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that Cd(II) formed a tetrahedral structure with D145, P146, H148, and one water molecule. This work for the first time reports Cd(II) inhibition of hUNG which was due to replacement of the catalytic water by binding the active site D145 and H148 residues. Comparison of the proposed metal binding site to existing structural data showed that D145:H148 followed a general metal binding motif favored by Cd(II). The identified motif offered structural insights into metal inhibition of other DNA repair enzymes and glycosylases.

  7. Medicated oils and severe salicylate poisoning: quantifying the risk based on methyl salicylate content and bottle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T Y

    1996-04-01

    In Hong Kong, medicated oils containing methyl salicylate account for 48% of acute salicylate poisoning cases treated in the general medical ward of the Prince of Wales Hospital. To quantify better the risk to average persons who have intentionally ingested these medicated oils, the methyl salicylate content and bottle size of 7 commonly available formulations were examined. Koong Yick Hung Far Oil had the highest methyl salicylate content (67%) and was available only in 60-ml bottles. If the entire bottle of this product were ingested, the equivalent of 184 adult 300-mg aspirin tablets would have been swallowed. Accidental ingestions of as little as 6 ml of Koong Yick Hung Far Oil by a child can be fatal. Six other products contained 15-40% methyl salicylate and their biggest bottle sizes range from 28-57 ml. Among medicated oils commonly found in Hong Kong, Koong Yick Hung Far Oil poses the greatest threat for severe salicylate poisoning if swallowed because of its high salicylate content and its availability in 60-ml bottles. The threat from medicated oils can probably be reduced by restricting their bottle size and methyl salicylate concentration. Physicians and clinical toxicologists should appreciate the toxic potential of these products.

  8. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.

  9. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae affected by environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY, collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15% and Y (22.22%, in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05. The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01. Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  10. The use of fondaparinux for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in a patient with heparin-induced thombocytopenia and thrombosis caused by heparin flushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C Spyropoulos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Alex C Spyropoulos1, Sharyl Magnuson1, Sei Keng Koh21Clinical Thrombosis Center, Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeAbstract: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT is an immunologic drug reaction characterized by paradoxical association with venous and arterial thrombosis. The syndrome is caused by IgG antibodies that are reactive against complexes of platelet factor 4 and heparin. Fondparinux does not bind to platelet factor 4, is structurally too short to induce an antibody response, and could in theory be a useful agent to treat HIT. A 69-year-old white female presented with a lower extremity extensive iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis after a right total knee arthroplasty and was subsequently found to have a pulmonary embolism. The patient was noted to have heparin flushes during her operation. Her platelet drop decreased >50% from baseline during initiation of antithrombotic therapy. She was started on subcutaneous fondaparinux 7.5 mg once daily injection. Her serotonin release assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for heparin antibodies were positive for HIT. Her platelet count nadir was 60 × 103/mm3 on day 5 and the platelet count rebounded after 8 days of fondaparinux therapy. No recurrent thrombotic or bleeding events were noted throughout her therapy. Anecdotal reports have shown that fondaparinux can be a useful agent to treat HIT with or without thrombosis.Keywords: fondaparinux, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (HITT

  11. Combining glyphosate with burning or mowing improves control of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S.; Hickman, Karen R.; Harmoney, Keith R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng) threatens native biodiversity, and its control is of interest to land managers involved in restoration of invaded grasslands. We used single, double, and triple applications of glyphosate (2.125 kg ai.ha-1.application-1) over the course of one growing season in combinations at different timings (early, middle, late season) with and without a mechanical treatment of mowing or burning to determine the most effective control method. One year after treatment, burning and mowing prior to a mid-season single or double early, middle, and/or late season herbicide application resulted in a similar level of control of yellow bluestem relative to a triple herbicide application, all of which had greater control relative to herbicide treatment alone. Reproductive tiller density and visual obstruction increased 2 yr after treatment with two herbicide treatments applied either early and middle season or early and late season, but it was prevented with burning and mowing prior to herbicide application. With the exception of three herbicide applications, combining burning or mowing with herbicide applications provided more effective control of yellow bluestem than any individual herbicide applications. Burning or mowing likely improves glyphosate effectiveness by altering the invasive grass structure so that plants are clear of standing dead and have shorter, active regrowth to enhance herbicide effectiveness. During restoration projects requiring control of invasive yellow bluestem, an effective management option is a combination of mechanical and chemical control.

  12. The Effects of Nitrogen Addition on the Uptake and Allocation of Macro- and Micronutrients in Bothriochloa ischaemum on Loess Plateau in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin Ai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen (N addition on the macro- and micronutrient concentrations, storage, and allocation of Bothriochloa ischaemum (L. Keng, a native forage plant on the Loess Plateau in China remain unclear. We studied the effects of N addition at 0 (CK, 2.5 (N1, 5.0 (N2, and 10.0 (N3 g N m-2 y-1. N addition significantly decreased the available copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and total Cu concentration, but significantly increased the available iron concentration in the soil. Cu, manganese (Mn, and sodium (Na concentrations in aboveground tissues and potassium (K, magnesium, and Zn concentrations in belowground tissues significantly increased with N addition. Calcium (Ca concentrations in belowground tissues decreased significantly. The ratios of above- to belowground Ca, Cu, Zn, and Mn significantly increased with N addition. The maximum ratios appeared at N2 for Cu, Zn, and Mn. The aboveground, belowground, and total biomass storage of studied nutrients significantly changed with N addition, and most attained maximum values under N2 treatment. The storage ratios of above- to belowground Cu, Zn, Mn, and Na attained maximum values at N2. We conclude that N addition significantly, but differentially influence the macro- and micronutrient concentrations and storage in B. ischaemum. B. ischaemum allocated and accumulated increased macro- and micronutrients to its aboveground tissues and exhibited high total storage when the amount of N addition reached 5 g N m-2 y-1.

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  14. The Ideological Struggle of Multicultural Nationalism: Cultural Identity in the 2014 Malaysian Top-Grossing Movie The Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discover how multiculturalism interacts with sub-state nationalism as portrayed in the Malaysian top-grossing film of 2014 – The Journey directed by Chiu Keng Guan. The nature of Malaysian society and its colonial history might suggest that cultural interaction among its three major races (Malays, Chinese, and Indians is a norm, but this study argues that the culture of these three major races as portrayed in the fictional film is made up of “systems of representations”; such systems of representations do not reflect the intentions of the subjects, but rather, actively construct meanings as conditions and instruments, signifying practice in reality. The application of in-depth interviews (e.g., the film director and the screenplay writer discovered cultural identity depicted in the film as always having a specific ‘positionality’ within their representation, and the ideological struggle of multicultural nationalism embedded in the film is considered ‘nonsubjective’. The authors believe that every culture is local, but no culture is autochthonous, and cultural identity illustrated in the film can be regarded as ‘uniqueness of the soil’.

  15. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Value of urban green spaces in promoting healthy living and wellbeing: prospects for planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee ACK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Chee Keng Lee,1 Hannah C Jordan,1 Jason Horsley2 1Section of Public Health, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield City Council, Sheffield, UK Abstract: There has been considerable work done in recent years exploring the value of urban green space for health and wellbeing. Urban green spaces provide environmental benefits through their effects on negating urban heat, offsetting greenhouse gas emissions, and attenuating storm water. They also have direct health benefits by providing urban residents spaces for physical activity and social interaction, and allowing psychological restoration to take place. Consequently, there is a real need to understand the mechanisms by which these benefits accrue. Previously, much of the focus has been on the characteristics of the urban green space that are likely to influence its use, such as its accessibility, quality, facilities, attractiveness, and security. This assumes a causal relationship, when in reality the relationship is more complex and multifactorial. It is more likely that it is the functionality of the green space, be it for exercise or sociocultural activities, rather than its character, which translates to the reported benefits. Challenges exist, such as competing urban planning priorities, economic considerations, and market forces. There is thus a need for urban planning to match the health benefits sought with the needs of the community and the functionality that the urban green space will serve. Keywords: urban green space, public open space, urban planning, public health 

  17. The Effects of Nitrogen Addition on the Uptake and Allocation of Macro- and Micronutrients in Bothriochloa ischaemum on Loess Plateau in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zemin; Wang, Guoliang; Liang, Chutao; Liu, Hongfei; Zhang, Jiaoyang; Xue, Sha; Liu, Guobin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) addition on the macro- and micronutrient concentrations, storage, and allocation of Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng, a native forage plant on the Loess Plateau in China remain unclear. We studied the effects of N addition at 0 (CK), 2.5 (N1), 5.0 (N2), and 10.0 (N3) g N m-2 y-1. N addition significantly decreased the available copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and total Cu concentration, but significantly increased the available iron concentration in the soil. Cu, manganese (Mn), and sodium (Na) concentrations in aboveground tissues and potassium (K), magnesium, and Zn concentrations in belowground tissues significantly increased with N addition. Calcium (Ca) concentrations in belowground tissues decreased significantly. The ratios of above- to belowground Ca, Cu, Zn, and Mn significantly increased with N addition. The maximum ratios appeared at N2 for Cu, Zn, and Mn. The aboveground, belowground, and total biomass storage of studied nutrients significantly changed with N addition, and most attained maximum values under N2 treatment. The storage ratios of above- to belowground Cu, Zn, Mn, and Na attained maximum values at N2. We conclude that N addition significantly, but differentially influence the macro- and micronutrient concentrations and storage in B. ischaemum. B. ischaemum allocated and accumulated increased macro- and micronutrients to its aboveground tissues and exhibited high total storage when the amount of N addition reached 5 g N m-2 y-1. PMID:28970839

  18. A Study of Phytolith-occluded Carbon Stock in Monopodial Bamboo in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Xu, Qiufang; Zhao, Peiping; He, Shanqiong

    2015-08-01

    Bamboo plants have been proven to be rich in phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) and play an important role in reducing atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The object of this paper was to obtain more accurate methods for estimation of PhytOC stock in monopodial bamboo because previous studies may have underestimated it. Eight monopodial bamboo species, widely distributed across China, were selected and sampled for this study in their own typical distribution areas. There were differences (P phytolith content (Phytolith/dry biomass) across leaves, branches and culm, and in PhytOC content (PhytOC/dry biomass) across leaves and branches between species, with a trend of leaf > branch > culm. The average PhytOC stored in aboveground biomass and PhytOC production flux contributed by aboveground biomass varied substantially, and they were 3.28 and 1.57 times corresponding dates in leaves, with the highest in Phyllostachys glauca McClure and lowest in Indocalamus tessellatus (Munro) Keng f. It can be concluded that it could be more accurate to estimate PhytOC stock or PhytOC production flux by basing on whole aboveground biomass rather than on leaf or leaf litter only. The whole biomass should be collected for more estimation of bamboo PhytOC sequestration capacity in the future.

  19. A Study of Phytolith-occluded Carbon Stock in Monopodial Bamboo in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Xu, Qiufang; Zhao, Peiping; He, Shanqiong

    2015-08-25

    Bamboo plants have been proven to be rich in phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) and play an important role in reducing atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The object of this paper was to obtain more accurate methods for estimation of PhytOC stock in monopodial bamboo because previous studies may have underestimated it. Eight monopodial bamboo species, widely distributed across China, were selected and sampled for this study in their own typical distribution areas. There were differences (P phytolith content (Phytolith/dry biomass) across leaves, branches and culm, and in PhytOC content (PhytOC/dry biomass) across leaves and branches between species, with a trend of leaf > branch > culm. The average PhytOC stored in aboveground biomass and PhytOC production flux contributed by aboveground biomass varied substantially, and they were 3.28 and 1.57 times corresponding dates in leaves, with the highest in Phyllostachys glauca McClure and lowest in Indocalamus tessellatus (Munro) Keng f. It can be concluded that it could be more accurate to estimate PhytOC stock or PhytOC production flux by basing on whole aboveground biomass rather than on leaf or leaf litter only. The whole biomass should be collected for more estimation of bamboo PhytOC sequestration capacity in the future.

  20. INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISKS IN THE TRANSMIGRATION AREA, WAY ABUNG III, LAMPUNG PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pemeriksaan secara laboratoris terhadap kesehatan transmigran yang berasal dari Jawa sebelum (1976 dan kurang lebih 2 tahun (1978 sesudah mereka menempati daerah transmigrasi Way Abung III, Lampung. Tujuan pemeriksaan ini adalah untuk mengetahui penyakit-penyakit yang mengancam mereka di daerah barunya. Pemeriksaan telah dilakukan terhadap sediaan darah yaitu untuk mengetahui adanya parasit malaria dan mikrofilaria, sedangkan pemeriksaan serologis untuk mengetahui adanya infeksi arbovirus, scrub dan murine typhus. Pemeriksaan tinja dilakukan hanya pada tahun 1976 untuk mengetahui adanya parasit usus. Dari hasil pemeriksaan tadi ditemukan bahwa prevalensi malaria meningkat dari 0,2% (1976 menjadi 10% (1978, sedangkan mikrofilaria rate sebelum dan sesudah pemindahan tetap 0. Hasil pemeriksaan tinja terhadap transmigran sebelum tiba di Lampung menunjukkan prevalensi Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang berturut-turut sebesar 46%,, 28%, dan 80%. Serologis hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody positive terhadap Japanese encephalitis (JE virus naik dari 43,3%, menjadi 74,2%, sedangkan prevalensi HI antibody positive terhadap chikungunya (CHIK virus tetap sama yaitu 3,5% sebelum dan 2,9% sesudah pemindahan. Prevalensi positif fluores-cent antibody test(FAT terhadap scrub dan murine typhus juga tidak ada perubahan yaitu 4,0% sebelum dan 3,4% sesudah pemindahan untuk scrub typhus dan 13,7%, sebelum dan 13,8% sesudah pemindahan untuk murine typhus. Dari hewan-hewan yang terdapat di Way Abung IH, serologis positif HI antibody kambing mempunyai prevalensi tertinggi (3% terhadap arbovirus Group A (alpha virus dan sapi ter­tinggi (35% terhadap arbovirus Group B (flavivirus. Vektor-vektor potensial malaria, filariasis, scrub dan murine typhus, dan arbovirus infeksi dapat dijumpai di daerah transmigrasi Way Abung III, Lam­pung. Kecuali malaria ditarik kesimpulan bahwa diperlukan paired data untuk prevalensi cacing

  1. Evaluating the use of male-produced pheromone components and plant volatiles in two trap designs to monitor Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, M E; Keena, M A; Zhang, A; Baker, T C; Xu, Z; Hoover, K

    2010-02-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as the Asian longhorned beetle, is a wood-boring invasive species introduced from Asia to North America and Europe in solid wood packing material. Efficient monitoring traps are needed to assess population density and dispersal in the field and to detect new introductions at ports of entry. For this purpose, we conducted field trapping experiments in China in the summers of 2007 and 2008. In 2007, we tested Intercept panel traps hung on poplar trees. In 2008, we used Intercept panel traps hung on poplar trees, screen sleeve traps wrapped around poplar trunks, and Intercept panel traps hung on bamboo poles 20 m away from host trees. Traps were baited with A. glabripennis male-produced pheromone alone or in different combinations with plant volatiles. Traps baited with the male-produced pheromone alone caught significantly more females than control traps in both years. The addition of a mixture of (-)-linalool, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool oxide, trans-caryophyllene, and trans-pinocarveol to the pheromone significantly increased trap catches of females, 85% of which were virgin. Screen sleeve traps baited with a combination of (-)-linalool and the pheromone caught the highest number of beetles overall in 2008, whereas traps placed on bamboo polls caught the lowest number. Although the logistics for the most effective implementation of a trapping program using a mixture of the pheromone and plant volatiles require additional studies, these results indicate that this pheromone has considerable promise as a monitoring tool for A. glabripennis in the field.

  2. A Global Approach to Parameter Estimation of Chaotic Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    and then the orbit under Newton’s ’- iteration scheme tends to this root. hi 1879 A. Cayley , in a one page paper [10]. sug- gested the extension of...the roots of f is an attracting fixed point of enter a neighborhood of one of the root:, say p, (where the Newton-Fourier iteration. ( Cayley suggestred...Stro- 7 Final Comments gatz, Elmer Hung, and George Verghese for many very useful discussions, as well as all the members of Project In this paper, we

  3. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  4. Remediation of PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) Contamination, Woodbridge Research Facility, Woodbridge, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Bandera , P.-E. Authorized Representative of David Hung the Contracting Officer U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, HUNTSVILLE DISTRICT Contracting Officer...southwest of Washington, D.C. between the Occoqudn and Belmont Bays which drain into the Potomac River (Figure 1-1). The installation comprises approximately...1 -l 2281 -02-05/0049K/FINAL A. . .4 4 . .Now Somom Um o MAYLN LOCAUIOOMA VIRGINI 0.2AL0 0.25 0.50 MILE v. 0.25 0 0.25 0.60KILOMETER BELMONT BAY s AM

  5. Innovation im Mittelstand am Beispiel Der Senkung Von Mobilitätskosten Durch Schwarmintelligenz"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hieronymus

    Die zunehmende Vernetzung von Einzelsystemen im Fahrzeug wird durch den Einsatz weiterer Kommunikationsverbindungen (CAR2X-Kommunikation) zu einer hierarchischen Struktur führen, die den Austausch von Informationen zwischen einer Vielzahl von verteilten heterogenen Subsystemen auf mobilen und stationären Plattformen ermöglicht. Die primären Ziele einer solchen Vernetzung von Cyber-Physical Systems sind die Bereitstellung neuer Dienste im Fahrzeug, die Erhöhung der Verkehrssicherheit sowie die effektive Steuerung der weiter wachsenden Verkehrsströme.

  6. RTO Meeting Proceedings 16, Aircraft Weapon System Compatibility and Integration held in Chester, United Kingdom, 28-30 September, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    automatic process. File. The dummy bomb, conveniently painted is hung up by four supporting arms of different length (adjustable) in The Tracking menu ... typographie << norniale ) et b. Mse djour deladsignation de Lobjectif pr~c~d 1 d’un " 0>’) sont regroup~es par "origine de b. r Mis Ao ioure de larm...contraintes"(en typographie «<gras soulign6 > et prdc~dd d’un". Cette phase correspond d la partie de la mission o6m larme en vol est en relation Aifin

  7. Noncyanide Stripper Placement Program. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Solubility in H20 Complete Appearance/Odor Clear, Colorless to Light Blue with an ammoniacal odor. Specific Gravity (H20=1) 1.000 Evaporation Rate Less...water to waste treatment system. 109 ENSTRIP C-38 Enstrip C-38 is a two-component, ammoniacal immersion stripper designed to remove copper from steel...solution, there is a danger of a localized drop in solution pH and etching of the steel. i11 OPERATION The parts to be stripped may be hung on coated hooks

  8. CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE), Fall 2006 R/V Oceanus Voyage 434, November 16, 2006-December 3, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    through a Gifford block hung from the A-frame and shackled to the bottom of the swivel. The SBE 37 and MMP bumper stop were clamped onto the wire at 3...jacketing. The bottom cowling covering the connectors was dangling by the deployment line when the MMP came to the surface against the bottom bumper . The...S _ 3 28 29 30 k _____ * 31 33 - 35 37 21 (0 38 Date/Time Comments N ~ ’-U___________________________ lip :~ ~ .1 A I . J’ * 95 PAGE G MOORED STATION

  9. A Reevaluation of the 60% Gradeability Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    HET requirement calls for a gradeability of only 15%. Only the M36A1 then, will exhibit nose-in failure, with the rear bumpers , on a 60% test slope...On a natural slope, however, this bumper v/ould probably clear the ground. The bumpers on any future military vehicle would probably be designed...not subject to hang-up failure, as the track will always contact the lip of the slope, and the vehicle cannot get hung u*>. Figure 5 16

  10. Anatomy of an illusion: the 'Alhazen' of Johann Hieronymus Schröter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshaw, N.

    2010-06-01

    Late in the 18th century, German magistrate & astronomer J. H. Schröter charted what he took to be a prominent crater on the eastern 'shoreline' of the Mare Crisium. Subsequent observers experienced some difficulties in recovering the feature, leading to a presumption of change which still hung over the matter at the dawn of the space age. The observational history of this episode and the controversy it engendered is discussed, and comparisons made with the visual appearance of the isolated mountain peak Alhazen Alpha in a small aperture telescope.

  11. A Survey of the Command Information Function in U.S. Army Maneuver Battalions during the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-10

    command information channels. These included satel- lite-linked telephone calls home, BBC shortwave radio news, and the CNN soundtrack over Armed...the U.S. Military History Institute surveyed approximately 8,000 I survivors of military campaigns in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine...23, 1993 1 hung so competi. beetn Wostihan was mae& in the, piev. OWd . a chaspl Of an- ldýl Pg. 2"it is indeed ironic that the United mis history of

  12. Practical Estimates of the Errors Associated with the Governing Shearography Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Namkung, M.; Melvin, L. D.

    1990-01-01

    In a series of papers Hung pioneered the development of shearography, an optical NDE technique that detects gradients of surface displacements. Its utility for qualitative flaw characterization has been demonstrated, and while there is a need for using shearography in NDE for quantitative analysis, a large amount of the research has concentrated on the qualitative evaluation of structures and materials. The purpose of this paper is to begin building upon a foundation for the newly emerging quantitative shearography. We begin the analysis by considering the approximations leading to the governing shearography equation.

  13. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 4 is

  14. The Long Term Upper Ocean Study (LOTUS). Cruise Summary and Hydrographic Data Report, ENDEAVOR 97, April 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Contract(C) or Grint (G) No. Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 (C) N00014-76-C-0197; (G) NR 083-400 12. Sonsorng Organization Name and Address J&. Type of...was designed to operate. Stations 2 and 3 are slightly shallower than planned due to a combination of winch problems , large wire angles and early...hung directly below the buoy while the remaining shots of wire formed a caten- * ary between the ship and the bottom of the instrumentation. The problem

  15. Multiple testing procedures for identifying desirable dose combinations in bifactorial designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchheister, Bettina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hung, Chi, and Lipicky proposed the AVE and MAX tests to analyse in a bifactorial design whether combinations of two drugs at several doses fulfil the desirable property of superiority to both their single drug components. These are global tests and do not identify the special combinations which are more effective than their respective single components. Here multiple testing procedures based on linear contrast tests and on the closed testing principle will be presented. They will be compared with simultaneous Min tests of Laska and Meisner. The performance of these approaches is investigated by simulation studies.

  16. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle.

  17. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 3. The Versatile Maintenance Expert System (VMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    College ( CUNY ) New York, NY 1987 Michael J. Almeida Assistant Professor Penn State University Dept. of Computer Science Whitmore Lab University Park...Tien Kingsbury, Linda A. Williams, Francine Delgado, Diane M. Liu, Paul C-W Wu, W-C Jevons Fenrich, Richard Menon, Rajeev Artificial Intelligence...He, Hung Chyi Liu, Peter (Sai-Ming) Su, Suyuan C. Hsu, An-Mei Lo, Yu Li Yang, Lien Jang Jou, Chen-Jye Lung, Hsi-Hong Yao, Jo-Lan Kellick, Diane

  18. Auswirkungen verschiedener Tränken auf Stewart-Parameter des Säuren-Basen-Haushaltes bei Kälbern mit experimentell induzierter metabolischer Azidose

    OpenAIRE

    Schwedhelm, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss unterschiedlich zusammengesetzter Tränken auf den Säuren-Basen-Haushalt bei Kälbern mit experimentell induzierter metabolischer Azidose zu untersuchen. Bei gesunden Kälbern konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Fütterung von milchbasierten ORL mit einer [SID3] ≥92 mmol/l eine Erhöhung der Plasma-[SID3] zur Folge hat (BACHMANN et al. 2009b) und damit eine alkalische Wirkung auf den SBS. Zu prüfen galt die Hypothese, ob es bei Kälbern mit experimentell...

  19. Satisfacción laboral: un estudio de sus potenciales predictores en una muestra de trabajadores santafesinos

    OpenAIRE

    Salessi, Solana

    2012-01-01

    Evidencias empíricas recientes demuestran que la productividad y el desempeño laboral están íntimamente relacionados con la satisfacción del empleado (Rehman & Waheed, 2011), y que cuando ésta aumenta se desarrollan actitudes positivas hacia la organización y hacia uno mismo (Li & Hung, 2009). La revisión efectuada por Mueller, Hattrup y Hausmann (2009) muestra que el estudio de la satisfacción laboral ha ido atravesando por distintas etapas. Inicialmente, los esfuerzos se concentraron en def...

  20. Alteration of Intensity Resolution and Loudness by Sounds Presented in Temporal Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Oberfeld-Twistel, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Formulierung eines Modells für drei Effekte, die ein in zeitlicher Nähe zu einem Zielton präsentierter Ton auf Intensitätsauflösung und Lautheit hat. Erstens verursacht ein lauter nicht-simultaner Maskierer eine deutliche Erhöhung der Differenzschwellen für Standards mittlerer Intensität, hat aber bei niedrigen und hohen Standardpegeln nur einen geringen Effekt. Zweitens bewirkt ein nicht-simultaner Maskierer eine systematische Verschiebung der Lautheit des Zieltons...

  1. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1 and 2 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 3 is fil

  2. Evolution of technology in teaching: Blackboard and beyond in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; Mendis, Susirith; JOHN, Lisha Jenny; Shanthakumari, Nisha; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Shaikh, Rizwana B

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning the passing of knowledge from one generation to another - has been in existence from the earliest times of human civilization. It began in 1801, with a large piece of slate hung on the wall in a school in Scotland to provide information to a large audience at one time. In the US by mid-19th century, every class room had a blackboard to teach students. The modern version of the blackboard is either green or brown board. This was introduced in late 1960s. The whiteboards c...

  3. Einfluss des Rev Proteins auf die Verpackung der genomischen RNA des Humanen Immundefizienzvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Blißenbach, Maik

    2010-01-01

    Obwohl es einen breiten Konsens für die wichtige Rolle des Rev Proteins in der Replikation des Humanen Immundefizienzvirus gibt, sind die Ausmaße der Einzeleffekte des Proteins nach wie vor unklar. In dieser Arbeit wurde der Export genomischer HIV-1 RNA in verschiedenen Zelllinien sowie primärer Zellkultur untersucht. Dabei zeigte Rev eine 3-12fache Erhöhung der Mengen an ungespleißter HIV-1 RNA im Zytoplasma. Zugleich stiegen die Verpackung der genomischen RNA um mehr als 800fach...

  4. Nanofiber-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Using Coaxial Electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nanometers to sev- eral micrometers. [ 36–38 ] This continuous process allows the production of an entangled, 3D, nonwoven fi ber network exhib- iting a high...P3HT:PCBM were obtained. While a novel process, the resulting nonwoven matrix of P3HT:PCBM fi bers yielded a power-conversion effi ciency (PCE) of...Chou , M.-C. Hung , K.-A. Chang , Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006 , 88 , 033106 . [ 57 ] N. M. Bedford , A. J. Steckl , ACS Appl. Mater

  5. The effect of daytime rain on the Indian Flying Fox (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae Pteropus giganteus)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Baskaran; Rathinakumar, A.; J. Maruthupandian; Kaliraj, P.; Marimuthu, G.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight.  Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day.  When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements.  After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb cl...

  6. Excel for Cost Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn C.

    2007-01-01

    Excel is a powerful tool with a plethora of largely unused capabilities that can make the life of an engineer cognizant of them a great deal easier. This paper offers tips, tricks and techniques for better worksheets. Including the use of data validation, conditional formatting, subtotals, text formulas, custom functions and much more. It is assumed that the reader will have a cursory understanding of Excel so the basics will not be covered, if you get hung up try Excel's built in help menus, or a good book.

  7. Patientens Kunstbibliotek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Karen; Jensen, Tanja Juhl; Holm Nyland, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Art as soothing factor is well known, and there is a growing awareness of sense impressions importance to patients. The aim was to explore, whether self-chosen art on the wards, affected hospitalized patients in a Danish somatic hospital, in a way that patients experienced well-being, pleasure....... Active involvement of patients in choosing the art to be hung by their bed, created for the majority of patients, increased pleasure and entertainment during hospitalization. Elective arts in the hospital ward had impact on patients' psychological resources, and it gave the experience that caregivers had...

  8. Complex of a Protective Antibody with its Ebola Virus GP Peptide Epitope: Unusual Features of a Vlambdalx Light Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Ioerger, T. R., McCoy, A. J. et al. (2004). Recent developments in the PHENIX software for automated crystallographic structure determination. J...Synchrotron Radiat. 11, 53–55. 48. Adams, P. D., Grosse-Kunstleve, R. W., Hung, L. W., Ioerger, T. R., McCoy, A. J., Moriarty, N. W. et al. (2002). PHENIX ...Afonine, P. D., Grosse-Kunstleve, R. W. & Adams, P. D. (July, 2005). The Phenix refinement framework. CCP4 Newsl. Contribution 8. 50. Winn, M. D., Isupov

  9. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volume 1 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 2 is filled wit

  10. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.

  11. A Digest of Reports Concerning the Toxic Effect of Phosgene on Man and the Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-05-01

    ratciDt; pru2ocoo. Qr1tio1;mu ~work an goats is revoo.to.d in c.·,!,. c •. 11. !!he d:l.tu given hora 1o vor;; meaire, espeoiaily that partsJ.llins...8217 dstectGd lJy Odo:’f .ftst no~o.able b7 ~at paper. Pal"tion at CloUd. remai110d behind azul hung eU.tJ.~7 OTOr crovnct.. (1400 JU’U from ~anahea ). At

  12. Selbstüberwachung differenzdruckbasierter Durchflussmessverfahren für Flüssigkeiten

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt das Thema der Selbstüberwachung von Sensoren. Nach grundlegenden Definitionen von Begriffen, die diese interdisziplinäre Thematik betreffen, werden die Ziele der Selbstüberwachung von Sensoren hergeleitet. Hauptziel der Selbstüberwachung ist eine Erhöhung der Verlässlichkeit. Die Zuverlässigkeit des Sensors kann durch die Integration einer reinen Selbstüberwachung nicht erhöht werden. Eine Einteilung der Verfahren zur Selbstüberwachung wird anhand einer Recher...

  13. Assessment of Animal Waste Treatment by Means of Biodigesters on Pig Farms in the Red River

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lai Thi, Cuc

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out at 12 pig farms in three provinces of Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Ninh. Results showed that the daily amounts of solid and liquid wastes were rather large (50 - 260 kg of solid wastes and 3 - 20 m3 of liquid wastes). The liquid waste treatment with biodigesters decreased the BOD5 and COD concentrations (BOD5 decreased by 75.0 - 80.8% at the sow houses and 75.89 – 80.36% at the growing–finishing pig houses; COD decreased by 66.85% and 64.94 - 69.73% at the sow...

  14. Studying on pig manure treatment to minimize environmental pollution and Use Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out on a pig farm in the HUNG YEN Province of Vietnam from October 2008 to August 2009. The farm had 36 sows, selling about 1.5 tons of weaned piglets and 33 tons of live weight pigs per year. The piglets (from weaning to 15 kg) consumed on average 0.42 kg of feed/head/day and produced on average 0.25 kg of solid waste/day. The ratio of solid waste to feed consumed was 0.59. Pigs (from 15 to 30 kg) consumed on average 0.76 kg of feed/head/day, and the ratio of solid ...

  15. The Beginnings of that Freedome

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Ross

    2015-01-01

    This project was a commissioned set of banners that hung in Westminster Hall, at the heart of the UK Parliament celebrating 800 years of Magna Carta and 750 years of the Simon de Montfort parliament with a series of events and exhibitions throughout 2015, alongside Ruth Ewan, Ross Birrell and others. (750,000 visitors)\\ud \\ud Commemorating an 800 year history since Magna Carta, the exhibition covered 18 themes related to the movements and moments which ‘made a difference’ in the journey to th...

  16. Effect of suspension method on meat quality and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Liang, Rongrong; Zhang, Yimin; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Han, Guangxing; Luo, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of suspension method under 12-18 °C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling on quality traits and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle M. Longissimus lumborum (LL). After slaughter, the right sides of carcasses were hung by the Achilles tendon (SA), while the left sides were hung from the pelvic bone (SP). Both sides went through the 12-18 °C pre-rigor muscle temperature controlled chilling. LL muscles were aged for 1, 7 or 14 days and then evaluated for quality traits and ultra-structure. SP had no significant effect on myofibril fragmentation index, but significantly decreased the purge loss during aging and the Warner-Bratzler shear force values after aging for 1 day. Electron microscopy and sarcomere length examination of LL showed that SP resulted in extended I-bands and sarcomere length. To conclude, applying SP under 12-18 °C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a potential method for the Chinese beef industry to improve tenderness especially after 1 day of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in the smallholder pig value chains in urban of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Unger, Fred; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Grace, Delia; Tran-Thi, Ngan; Barot, Max; Pham-Thi, Ngoc; Makita, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    To quantify salmonellosis risk in humans through consumption of boiled pork in urban Hung Yen Province, Vietnam, using a quantitative microbial risk assessment. We collected 302 samples along the pork value chain in Hung Yen between April 2014 and February 2015. We developed a model in @Risk, based on microbiological, market, and household surveys on cooking, cross-contamination and consumption, and conducted sensitivity analysis. Salmonella prevalence of pen floor swabs, slaughterhouse carcasses and cut pork were 33.3, 41.7 and 44.4%, respectively. The annual incidence rate of salmonellosis in humans was estimated to be 17.7% (90% CI 0.89-45.96). Parameters with the greatest influence risk were household pork handling practice followed by prevalence in pork sold in the central market. Wide confidence interval in the incidence estimate was mainly due to the variability in the degree of reduction in bacteria concentration by cooking, and pork consumption pattern. The risk of salmonellosis in humans due to boiled pork consumption appears to be high. Control measures may include improving the safety of retailed pork and improving household hygiene.

  18. LDL das böse, HDL das gute Fett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffens D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ein LDL-Cholesterin- (LDL-C- Spiegel oberhalb einer Konzentration von 70 mg/dl ist mit einem stetig steigenden kardiovaskulären Risiko verbunden. Dies gilt sowohl für Gesunde als auch für Patienten mit angeborenen Cholesterinstoffwechselstörungen und für Dyslipidämien bei Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 und metabolischem Syndrom. Zahlreiche Studien bestätigen die Bedeutung einer LDL-C-Senkung für die Verringerung des kardiovaskulären Risikos. Allerdings werden häufig selbst durch Therapie mit hochpotenten Statinen und Kombinationstherapien die von den Leitlinien geforderten LDL-Zielwerte nicht erreicht. Die Bedeutung des HDL-C zur Einschätzung des kardiovaskulären Risikos ist gut etabliert. Allerdings wurde der protektive Effekt einer pharmakologischen Erhöhung des HDL-Spiegels zur Senkung des kardiovaskulären Risikos bisher nicht nachgewiesen. Neue hochpotente Therapeutika werden derzeit in Phase-III-Studien auf ihre Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit im Rahmen der Therapie von Dyslipoproteinämien untersucht. Sie erreichen eine LDLC-Senkung bzw. HDL-C-Erhöhung und könnten sich bei Patienten mit persistierend hohen LDLC- Werten trotz ausdosierter Statintherapie zur Senkung des kardiovaskulären Risikos bewähren. Der Artikel fasst den aktuellen Kenntnisstand zum LDL- und HDL-Cholesterin inklusive der etablierten und innovativen Therapieansätze zusammen.

  19. Nebennierenkrisen und Hypoglykämien bei Kindern mit klassischem adrenogenitalem Syndrom (AGS // Adrenal crisis and hypoglycemia in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfig W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have a life-long risk for potentially leathal adrenal crisis. Toddlers and infants are also at risk for hypoglycemia. Especially infants with CAH have a higher seizure risk as a consequence of hyponatremia and hypoglycemia. Typical trigger situations for adrenal crisis are infectious diseases, especially gastroenteritis. Patients with CAH and their family members should be educated in terms of compliance with glucocorticoid medication, adequate stress dosing (usually triple to five fold elevated oral hydrocortisone dosage and intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone or prednisone. p bKurzfassung: /bPatienten mit klassischem adrenogenitalem Syndrom (AGS sind lebenslang für potentiell letale Nebennierenkrisen gefährdet. Bei Kleinkindern können außerdem Hypoglykämien auftreten. Als Folge von Elektrolytentgleisungen und Hypoglykämien haben besonders Kleinkinder auch ein erhöhtes Krampfanfallrisiko, wie erstmalig in einer deutschen Langzeitstudie berichtet wurde. Typische Triggersituationen für Nebennierenkrisen sind Infektionserkrankungen, vor allem Gastroenteritiden. Patienten mit AGS und deren Angehörige sollten im Umgang mit der Erkrankung regelmäßig geschult werden. Dies betrifft die Notwendigkeit der regelmäßigen Medikamenteneinnahme, die adäquate Glukokortikoiddosiserhöhung bei Stress (in der Regel dreifache bis fünffache Hydrokortison-Dosiserhöhung sowie die parenterale Verabreichung von Hydrokortison oder Prednison.

  20. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Lam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  1. The effect of short-range host odor stimuli on host fruit finding and feeding behavior of plum curculio adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkewich, S L; Prokopy, R J

    1993-04-01

    In laboratory assays, we investigated responses of female plum curculios (PCs),Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to host and nonhost fruit or leaf odor when PCs were crawling on experimental tree branchlets or twigs. In choice tests where test specimens were hung from the ends of a wooden crosspiece, PCs made significantly more visits to host plum fruit than to plum leaves, nonhost tomato fruit, wax models of plum fruit, or blanks (wire). In similar tests, PCs made significantly more visits to plum leaves compared to nonhost maple leaves or to blanks. PCs in test chambers that contained host or nonhost odor were significantly more prone to feed on wax plum models in the presence of odor from host fruit or host leaves compared to odor from nonhost fruit or leaves or a water blank. In choice tests offering alternating cluster types on an apple branchlet, PCs visited leaf clusters bearing a host apple fruit more than leaf clusters without a fruit. In tests to assay the distance at which PCs can detect an individual host fruit, PCs crawled from the central stem of an apple branchlet onto a side stem significantly more often when an apple fruit on a side stem was hung 2 cm from the central stem compared to 4 or 8 cm away. Our combined results suggest that PCs use host fruit odor to locate host fruit at close range.

  2. Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios as independent predictors of cervical stromal involvement in surgically treated endometrioid adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dan Wang, Jia-Xin Yang, Dong-Yan Cao, Xi-Run Wan, Feng-Zhi Feng, Hui-Fang Huang, Keng Shen, Yang Xiang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative inflammatory markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio and cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Methods: We studied 318 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent comprehensive surgical staging. We used univariate and multivariate analyses of cervical stromal involvement and receiver-operating curves to calculate optimal cutoff values for neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios to predict cervical stromal involvement. Results: The presence of cervical stromal involvement was associated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that higher neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios independently predicted cervical stromal involvement (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.10–8.76, P = 0.032, and odds ratio 5.27, 95% confidence interval 1.94–14.35, P = 0.001, respectively. At a threshold of 2.01, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was 71.0% sensitive and 63.8% specific for stromal involvement; at a 172.24 threshold, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio was 48.4% sensitive and 88.9% specific. Conclusion: Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios can help identify the risk of cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrial cancer. Evaluating these ratios may help select patients who should be particularly watched and tested for cervical stromal involvement. Keywords: neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, endometrioid adenocarcinoma

  3. Program Perceived Value and Program Satisfaction Influences on Store Loyalty: Insights from Retail Loyalty Progam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Omar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations to determine whether program perceived value could influence program satisfaction, program card loyalty and store loyalty are critical to elucidate the roles and significance of the constructs and advancing management practice. Accordingly, in line with this research direction, this study aims to assess the effects of program perceived value offered by few leading retail superstores and departmental stores in Malaysia on its members’ loyalty towards the store. The data set utilized in this study has been obtained via quota sampling technique, where a sample of 153 retail loyalty programs’ members was analyzed. An integrative conceptual model was developed and tested using Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS program. The results exemplify that program perceived value is a strong driver of program satisfaction and program card loyalty. Unexpectedly, program perceived value is not a significant predictor of store loyalty but, it has an indirect effect on store loyalty mediated by program satisfaction. Continuous plea in marketing management is to make marketing instruments more efficient. In recent years introduction of customer relationship marketing instruments is strongly advocated, both in marketing theory and practice. Several researchers (e.g., Berry 1983; Berry and Parasuraman 1991; and Gronroos, 1994 have changed the focus of a marketing orientation from attracting short-term, discrete transactional customers to retaining long-lasting, intimate customer relationships. In fact Roberts, Varki, Brodie (2003, further suggested that it is best to describe relationship marketing as the formation of “bonds” between the company and the customer. Achieving an effective relationship in a consumer context is considered to be even more challenging than it is in a business-to-business context, given the generally more polygamous character of consumers as opposed to business customers (Keng and Ehrenberger 1984; Pressey and

  4. Protective effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog on the ovarian reserve in rats receiving cyclophosphamide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ting Gui,1,* Guangwen Yuan,2,* Keng Shen,1 Dongyan Cao,1 Jiaxin Yang,1 Ming Wu,1 Jinghe Lang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the protective effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa against cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced gonadotoxicity.Methods: Eighty Fischer 344 rats were divided randomly into four groups (20 per group. One group received normal saline, one GnRHa, one CTX, and one GnRHa+CTX. Several parameters were used to observe the ovarian reserve, including ovary weight, follicle number and diameter, concentrations of estradiol (E2 and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and expressions of sex hormone receptors.Results: When treatment was finished, the number of small follicles in the GnRHa+CTX group was significantly higher than in the CTX-alone group. Thirty days after treatment, the ovary weight, percentage of small follicles, mean follicular diameter, and serum concentrations of E2 and FSH in the GnRHa+CTX group all recovered, approaching normal levels. Sex hormone receptors did not show significant differences between the four groups.Conclusion: Combination treatment with GnRHa could prevent CTX-induced damage to ovarian reserve.Keywords: gonadotoxicity, ovarian reserve, GnRHa, CTX, premature ovarian failure

  5. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Acri, Helen Creese, and Arlo Griffiths (eds, From Laṅkā Eastwards: The Rāmāyaṇa in the literature and visual arts of Indonesia (Dick van der Meij Michael Arthur Aung-Thwin and Kenneth R. Hall (eds, New perspectives on the history and historiography of Southeast Asia: Continuing explorations (David Henley Steven Farram, A short-lived enthusiasm: The Australian consulate in Portuguese Timor (Hans Hägerdal R. Michael Feener, Patrick Daly and Anthony Reid (eds, Mapping the Acehnese past (William Bradley Horton Geoffrey C. Gunn, History without borders: The making of an Asian world region, 1000-1800 (Craig A. Lockard Andrew Hardy, Mauro Cucarzi and Patrizia Zolese, (eds, Champa and the archaeology of Mỹ Sơn (Vietnam (William A. Southworth Jac. Hoogerbrugge, Asmat: Arts, crafts and people; A photographic diary, 1969-1974 (Karen Jacobs Felicia Katz-Harris, Inside the puppet box: A performance of wayang kulit at the Museum of international folk art (Sadiah Boonstra Douglas Lewis, The Stranger-Kings of Sikka (Keng We Koh Jennifer Lindsay and Maya H.T. Liem (eds, Heirs to world culture: Being Indonesian 1950-1965 (Manneke Budiman Trần Kỳ Phương and Bruce M. Lockhart, The Cham of Vietnam: History, society and art (Arlo Griffiths Krishna Sen and David T. Hill (eds, Politics and the media in twenty-first century Indonesia: Decade of democracy (E.P. Wieringa Andrew N. Weintraub (ed., Islam and popular culture in Indonesia and Malaysia (Andy Fuller Meredith L. Weiss, Student activism in Malaysia: Crucible, mirror, sideshow (Richard Baxstrom Widjojo Nitisastro, The Indonesian development experience: A collection of writings and speeches of Widjojo Nitisastro (J. Thomas Lindblad

  6. Influence of hang time and location on bacterial contamination of intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency and critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumin, Julien; Olp, Nichole M; Magnusson, Karissa D; Butler, Amy L; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of fluid and ports in intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU). Experimental model. Ninety intravenous fluid bags of lactated balanced-electrolytes solution (1 L) hung in a university hospital. Bags were hung in 2 different locations in the ER (sink and bins) and one location in the ICU (sink) for 11 days. Bags were punctured 3 times daily with a sterile needle to simulate clinical use. Injection ports were swabbed and 50 mL of fluid were collected in duplicates on days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Aerobic bacterial cultures were performed on the fluid and injection port. Contamination was defined as bacterial growth of a similar phenotype across 2 consecutive times. Increase in the fluid contamination rate from day 0 was tested using an exact binomial test. Port contamination rate between locations was tested using Fisher's exact test. Combined bacterial growth on injection ports reached a mean (95% confidence interval) of 8.1 (0.005-16.2) cfu/port on day 10. The combined port contamination was 3.3%, 11.1%, 17.8%, and 31.1% on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, respectively. Port contamination was similar between ER and ICU. However, port contamination was higher in the sink versus the bins area (38.3% vs 16.7%, P = 0.032). No fluid bag was contaminated at days 0 and 2. The contamination rate of fluid bag was 1.1% and 4.4% on days 4 and 7, respectively. All bags with contaminated fluid were in the ER (6.7%, 95% exact binomial confidence interval 1.9-16.2%). Injection port contamination reached 31.1% on day 7. Contamination was more likely when the bags were hung next to a sink. In our model of bag puncture, fluid contamination occurred between days 2 and 4. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  7. Acute stimulation effect of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum in patients with refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder – a double-blinded trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai HC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-Chi Tsai,1,2 Chun-Hung Chang,3,4 Jiann-I Pan,5 Hung-Jen Hsieh,6 Sheng-Tzung Tsai,7 Hsiang-Yi Hung,7 Shin-Yuan Chen1,71Institute of Medical Science, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien City, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Medical Informatics, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 6Nuclear Medicine, Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, Taiwan; 7Department of Neurosurgery, Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, TaiwanObjective: Deep-brain stimulation (DBS for treating refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD has shown positive results in small clinical trials. Ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS is one of the promising targets; however, whether or not acute stimulation test can provide substantial information for chronic stimulation is not yet known. We evaluated postoperative test stimulation and examined the relationship of acute simulation-induced smile/laughter and 15-month clinical outcome.Methods: Four adult patients with refractory OCD were implanted with Model 3387 leads bilaterally in an area of VC/VS. Postoperative test stimulation was performed at least 2 weeks after surgery. We performed double-blinded postoperative test stimulation with different contact and voltage. The relationship of stimulation-induced smile/laughter and chronic response was examined.Results: Patients presented smile, laughter, euphoria, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, smell, chest vibration, dizziness, nausea, heat, or increased sexual drive during acute stimulation. We found that the higher the percentage of smile/laughter (34.3%, 31.3%, 56.3%, and 12.5% for four cases, the greater the reduction in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (30.6%, 38.9%, 58.8%, and 7.7% respectively at 15-month DBS.Conclusion: This study showed that acute DBS

  8. World leaders surviving serious illness: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Pope John Paul II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kune, Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    The quality of medical care and the degree of transparency communicated to the world whilst President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Pope John Paul II were seriously ill, as well as the global consequences of critical decisions they made during this time, were examined from published studies and through personal communications. Franklin D. Roosevelt, in his last years, was secretive about his health and, with one exception, was probably given indifferent medical advice, arguably hung on to office too long which, at least for Europe, contributed to some negative outcomes. Pope John Paul II, when quite ill, was open and communicative about his illness, had high-quality medical and surgical care and, together with his spirited will, greatly contributed to favourable European political outcomes, and to European and world stability.

  9. Infinitesimal how a dangerous mathematical theory shaped the modern world

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Amir

    2014-01-01

    On August 10, 1632, five leading Jesuits convened in a sombre Roman palazzo to pass judgment on a simple idea: that a continuous line is composed of distinct and limitlessly tiny parts. The doctrine would become the foundation of calculus, but on that fateful day the judges ruled that it was forbidden. With the stroke of a pen they set off a war for the soul of the modern world. Amir Alexander takes us from the bloody religious strife of the sixteenth century to the battlefields of the English civil war and the fierce confrontations between leading thinkers like Galileo and Hobbes. The legitimacy of popes and kings, as well as our modern beliefs in human liberty and progressive science, hung in the balance; the answer hinged on the infinitesimal. Pulsing with drama and excitement, Infinitesimal will forever change the way you look at a simple line.

  10. Tandlægers erfaringer med at foreslå og få gennemført behandling med kroner og broer i privat praksis [Experiences of Danish dentists in private practice in motivating treatment with crowns and bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidor, F.; Moore, R.

    2003-01-01

    English:What subjective experiences have Danish dentists in private practice to propose and implement treatment with crowns and bridges? A mailed questionnaire were completed and returned by 216 private practice dentists for a random sample from Aarhus. Of these, 22% thought that it was uncomfort......English:What subjective experiences have Danish dentists in private practice to propose and implement treatment with crowns and bridges? A mailed questionnaire were completed and returned by 216 private practice dentists for a random sample from Aarhus. Of these, 22% thought...... and bridges, or lack of success in getting treatment completed hung mostly with practice type and location. Almost 76% of the dentists felt that it should be possible to learn how to motivate patients for the expensive treatments (eg bridges). More than 90% of the dentists felt the need for a better insurance...

  11. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Hillard, R. J.; Borland, J. O.

    2005-08-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (RS) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations.

  12. Nonlinear oscillations of a coupled autoparametrical system with ideal and nonideal sources of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal and nonideal autoparametrical system excited by DC motor with unbalanced mass is presented in this work. The system consists of the body of mass M which is hung on a nonlinear spring with a nonlinear damper, and a pendulum of the length l and mass m mounted to the body of mass M. It is assumed that the motion of the pendulum is damped by nonlinear resistive forces. Vibrations of both models (ideal and nonideal are researched. Solutions for the system response are presented for specific values of the parameters of system and the energy transfer between modes of vibrations is studied. Next excited vibrations for both models have been examined analytically and numerically. Except different kinds of periodic vibrations, there may also appear chaotic vibrations.

  13. LCD rear projector P401LC; Ekisho hoshiki rear projector P401LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A rear projector using a 40-type LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) has been commercialized, which may be utilized in various ways. It may be used for displaying information at shops, airports, etc., or may be used as a landscape-oriented electronic signboard for which plural projectors need to be arranged laterally. The rear projector is characterized in that (1) it can be placed anywhere and occupies but a small space, installed on the floor, suspended from the ceiling, or hung on the wall, that (2) it easily produces large pictures in a multiple screen system of 2 times 2 screens (80 inches) by the use of a built-in video wall processor, and that (3) it deals with various types of signals, ranging from video signals to XGA signals, by the use of a newly developed resolution rate conversion LSI (Large Scale Integration). (translated by NEDO)

  14. Artificial Nesting of Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula on the Park Lake in Puławy (Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Stasiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of breeding pairs of Common Goldeneye in Lublin region was estimated to approx. 15. The survey in 2012 was conducted to estimate the breeding and the non-breeding population of the species on the Vistula oxbow in Czartoryskis Park in Puławy revealed one breeding pair and up to seven non-breeding. In March 2013 two nest boxes for Common Goldeneye were hung on trees in the middle and in the end of the oxbow. In 2014 the nest box in the middle of the oxbow was unoccupied and the one in the end of the reservoir was occupied by the pair of Common Goldeneye. We noted the successful breeding with six nestlings. Same time the second pair of the species successfully brood in the natural tree hollow. More than one breeding pair of the species on the same reservoir is unusual in this part of Poland.

  15. Setsuro Tamaru and Fritz Haber: links between Japan and Germany in science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hideko Tamaru

    2015-04-01

    Setsuro Tamaru was my grandfather. He worked with Fritz Haber in Germany on researching the ammonia synthesis process and contributed substantially to the development of scientific research and education in Japan. Although I had never met him, I felt his existence while I grew up, since our house was built by him and had many artifacts brought back from Germany by my grandfather; e.g., a Bechstein upright piano upon which I practiced piano every day and Fritz Haber's portrait with his handwritten message hung on the wall. This is an account of my grandfather's life, concentrating on his relationship with Fritz Haber. This story goes back to a time more than a century ago. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Description of the male, larva and nymphal stages of Cryptocellus iaci (Arachnida, Ricinulei), with an overview of tarsal sensilla and other integumental structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Lidianne; Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The male, larva and nymphal stages of Cryptocellus iaci Tourinho, Lo Man-Hung & Bonaldo, 2010, a species previously known only from a single female, are described based on specimens from around the type locality, in an area of both Terra Firme forest and igapó (flooded forests), at the Jufari River, Roraima State, Brazil. The specimens were illustrated using live photography, stereomicroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, allowing us to examine and describe the large diversity of tarsal sensilla and other integumental structures in Cryptocellus and to compare them to those of the previously studied Pseudocellus. Based on the male somatic characters Cryptocellus iaci is placed in thefoedus species-group. Cryptocellus iaci has two sensilla of type 1 on the distal tarsomeres of legs III (DT III), while only one has been reported for Pseudocellus spp., suggesting a potential value in this type of character for systematic studies of the group.

  17. [Expression of splice-variants of the insulin-like growth factor I and the condition of the cell-myosatellite pool in the rat m. soleus under conditions of gravitation relief and passive stretching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonosova, Iu N; Shenkman, B S; Nemirovskaia, T L

    2009-09-01

    We suggested that satellite proliferation with subsequent incorporation of their nuclei in the fibres was essential for enhancement of the protein synthesis in the rat relieved m. soleus. In passive stretch of the muscle, the number of labelled cells exceeded 2.5-fold their number in hung out animals and 1.7-fold in the control animals. The expression level of the insulin-like growth factor I (IF-1) was determined in the m. soleus after hanging out with stretching, and no changes were revealed as compared with hanging out without stretching in the control group. We believe that the muscle IF-1 and satellite cell incorporation are not essential for preventing atrophy of relieved soleus muscle in stretching.

  18. A triboelectric wind turbine for small-scale energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Matthias; Boisseau, Sebastien; Geisler, Matthias; Despesse, Ghislain; Reboud, Jean Luc

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with a rotational energy harvester including a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT), a cylindrical stator covered by several electrodes, and thin Teflon dielectric membranes hung on the rotor. The sliding contact of the Teflon membranes on the stator provides simultaneously large capacitance variations and a polarization source for the electrostatic converter by exploiting triboelectric phenomena. 1μW has been harvested at 4m/s; 130μW at 10m/s and 550μW at 20m/s with a 40mmØ device. In order to validate the energy harvesting chain, the airflow energy harvester has been connected to a power management circuit implementing Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction (SECE) to supply a wireless sensor node with temperature and acceleration measurements, transmitted to a computer at 868MHz.

  19. The effect of daytime rain on the Indian Flying Fox (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae Pteropus giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baskaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight.  Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day.  When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements.  After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws.  They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree.  Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur.  The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation. 

  20. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  1. Let’s rise up to unite taxonomy and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional “model” organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance. PMID:28820884

  2. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Holly M

    2017-08-01

    What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  3. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Taipei University of Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Taipei University of Technology. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  4. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Sun Yat-sen University) 

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Sun Yat-sen University. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  5. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  6. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  7. Der Bologna-Prozess als Instrument zur Durchsetzung geschlechtergerechter Studiengänge? The Bologna Process as Instrument for the Implementation of Gender-Equitable Courses of Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tullney

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Auf der Grundlage von Expert/-inneninterviews entwickeln die Autorinnen der Studie Kriterien für geschlechtergerechte Studiengänge und analysieren den derzeitigen Stellenwert von Gender-Aspekten bei der Einführung gestufter Studiengänge. Hieraus entwickeln sie Handlungsempfehlungen zur stärkeren Integration von Inhalten der Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung sowie zur Erhöhung der Geschlechtergerechtigkeit in den neuen Studiengängen.Basing their examination on interviews with experts, the authors develop criteria for gender-equitable courses of study and analyze the current significance of gender aspects in the introduction of tiered courses of study. They then develop recommendations for taking action to better integrate the teachings of women’s and gender studies as well as to increase gender equity in the new courses of study.

  8. Analysis of multi cloud storage applications for resource constrained mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage, which can be a surrogate for all physical hardware storage devices, is a term which gives a reflection of an enormous advancement in engineering (Hung et al., 2012. However, there are many issues that need to be handled when accessing cloud storage on resource constrained mobile devices due to inherent limitations of mobile devices as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup (Yeo et al., 2014. There are many multi cloud storage applications available, which handle issues faced by single cloud storage applications. In this paper, we are providing analysis of different multi cloud storage applications developed for resource constrained mobile devices to check their performance on the basis of parameters as battery consumption, CPU usage, data usage and time consumed by using mobile phone device Sony Xperia ZL (smart phone on WiFi network. Lastly, conclusion and open research challenges in these multi cloud storage apps are discussed.

  9. A Hundred Years of Physics on Show

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The New Yorker Richard Feynman, well known to all physicists for his diagrams. Eleven vivid posters have recently been hung along the Theoretical Physics corridor on the first floor of Building 53. They tell the story of a century of physics, between 1900 and the end of the nineteen-nineties, the century that gave us atomic and quantum physics and the great breakthroughs that have rocked our understanding of the world and the universe. The posters are a gift from the American Physical Society to the CERN Library. As they were designed for high school and university book collections in the US, they necessarily have a somewhat American view of the history of science. But it is still instructive to revisit contemporary physics through its great figures, such as Marie Curie, Stephen Hawking, and Richard Feynman, not to mention Albert Einstein and many others. Why not take the time for a little trip down this particular stretch of Memory Lane?

  10. Norms of Masculinity and the Cultural Narrative of Intimate Partner Violence Among Men in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Hawkins, Laurie; Salazar, Kelsey; Hennink, Monique M; Ha, Vu Song; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-10-01

    Semi-structured interviews with 31 men in Hung Yen Province in Northern Vietnam are used to elucidate a conceptual narrative to understand men's perceptions and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Vietnam. This narrative suggests that cultural definitions of masculinity and changes in women's participation in the labor force have contributed to status conflicts that normalize IPV as part of masculine superiority. The narratives of both IPV perpetrators and non-perpetrators demonstrate how violence is incorporated into the cultural definition of masculinity and illustrates how men use this definition to minimize their own and other men's perpetration. We suggest that attempts to reduce IPV in Vietnam must address constructions of masculinity and the socio-historical context of IPV by providing gender-sensitivity training and opportunities for men to evaluate critically how constructions of masculinity in their families and communities contribute to IPV perpetration.

  11. Review Essay: Re-envisioning the Chinese Cityscape: Tabula Rasa and Palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yomi Braester, Painting the City Red: Chinese Cinema and the Urban Contract. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010. 405 pp. $26.95 (paper.Chang-tai Hung, Mao’s New World: Political Culture in the People’s Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011. 352 pp. $39.95 (cloth.In 1958, Mao Zedong famously compared China’s 600 million people to a “blank sheet of paper free from any mark,” on which “the most beautiful words can be written” and the “most beautiful pictures can be painted.” In his view, China’s vast landscapes and its people’s mindscapes were a tabula rasa awaiting transformation through his utopian blueprints. Since the Chinese Communist Party (CCP shifted its center of gravity from rural to urban areas in the late 1940s, however, China’s major cities have received the greatest makeovers, in both physical and visual terms. The two books under review in this essay present interdisciplinary inquiries into urban space and visual media in the People’s Republic of China (PRC, with a shared focus on Beijing. In Mao’s New World, Chang-tai Hung examines the forging of a brand new political culture and national identity in the 1950s, when the CCP remade the old capital as a tabula rasa to lay down its foundations. In Painting the City Red, Yomi Braester inquires into the symbiotic relationship between cinema and cities from 1949 to 2008, when city planners, writers, and filmmakers continually remade Beijing, Shanghai, and Taipei as urban palimpsests.

  12. Construction and installation of the experimental marine equipment for recovery of rare metals in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Seko, Noriaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tabata, Kokichi [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuiding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    2001-03-01

    An experimental marine equipment was designed and constructed to evaluate a fibrous polymer adsorbent prepared with radiation-processing and to extract the technical tasks in the step to the utilization of the rare metals recovery in seawater. The equipment was set in the offing of Mutsu-Sekine in Aomori prefecture. The scale of this equipment is capable of recovering 1 kg uranium in seawater by dipping the adsorbents by 6 times into the sea for 30 days per one dipping. The adsorbents, packed in metal wire cages, were hung down from a fish preserve-shaped float (floating steel frame). This float capacity was designed that the floating steel frame was sunk when wave height becomes high in order to reduce the tension of the ropes. The safety of the rope was evaluated by using design wave height 4.3 m and maximum wave height 7.3 m derived from 10 years' probability wave height. The safety factors obtained were 6.4 for the design wave height and 3.7 for the maximum wave height. The floating steel frame and the adsorbent cage were designed to maintain the mechanical strength under the maximum wave height. The weight of four anchor blocks are 40 tons enough to moor the floating steel frame. In the setting of the marine equipment, the floating steel frame connected with the anchor blocks by rope was put down on the bottom of the sea. The adsorbent cage was hung in the center of the floating steel frame. The characteristic test was carried out by packing adsorbents into adsorbent cage and dipping them for 20 days into the sea. There was no serious problem in the floating steel frame, the adsorbent cage, and the ropes and their knots. (author)

  13. Role of anuria in the relationship between indoxyl sulfate and anemia in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeng-Yi Huang,1,2 Ching-Wei Hsu,1,2 Chih-Wei Yang,1,2 Cheng-Chieh Hung,1,2 Wen-Hung Huang1,2 1Kidney Research Center, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Taipei, 2Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Experimental evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate (IS is associated with chronic kidney disease-related anemia. However, clinical studies are limited, and few have explored the potential confounding effect of anuria. This study, thus, evaluated the association between IS and anemia in both non-anuric and anuric peritoneal dialysis (PD patients.Methods: This cross-sectional and observational study included 165 chronic PD patients aged 19–84 years. Their serum IS levels in total and free forms were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Correlations between serum IS and hemoglobin (Hb were performed in both non-anuric and anuric groups.Results: Among the study subjects, 90 were non-anuric and 75 were anuric. As a whole, there was no correlation between IS and Hb. Nonetheless, subsequent analysis of the non-anuric patients showed that Hb is negatively correlated with IS levels (rs=-0.405, P<0.001 for total form and rs=-0.296, P=0.005 for free form. Factors that significantly affected Hb levels in the stepwise multiple regression analysis include total IS and iron saturation. In contrast for anuric patients, serum ferritin, albumin, iron saturation, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker, but not serum IS, were predictors for anemia in the multiple regression model.Conclusions: Serum IS is associated with an increased severity of anemia in non-anuric PD patients and not in anuric ones, indicating anuria could be a confounding factor in such association. Keywords: indoxyl sulfate, anemia, peritoneal dialysis, anuria 

  14. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  15. POTENSI JENDELA DALAM MEMINIMALKAN INTRUSI KEBISINGAN: SEBUAH STUDI AWAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost domestic building of warm humid climate depends very much on natural ventilation, and thus large openings. However, since adjacent street transforms into potential noise source, the openings will be critical points for noise intrusion. Opening design strategies is then of importance to adopt. Prior to this investigation, a computational simulation has been carried out to calculate ventilation rates within building to meet airflow requirement, which shows that there are three type of windows suitable to be employed. These windows, i.e. casement, top-hung and jalousie, were then to be examined of doing task in reducing noise ingress. The research shows indication rather than conclusion that jalousie window insignificantly offers better noise reduction than the two others do. Some unconsidered factors are predicted having effect on this result. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bangunan domestik sederhana, seperti rumah tinggal, yang berlokasi di negara tropis lembab seperti Indonesia, sangat bergantung pada keberadaan jendela demi kelangsungan ventilasi alami. Seiring pertumbuhan fungsi jalan di depan bangunan, jendela juga meupakan titik kritis terjadinya intrusi kebisingan dari jalan ke dalam bangunan. Oleh karenanya, perlu ditempuh kompromi desain jendela untuk kepentingan ventilasi dan reduksi kebisingan. Penelitian sebelumnya terhadap 3 model jendela menunjukkan bahwa ketiga jendela tersebut mampu mensuplai tingkat ventilasi yang disyaratkan. Pada penelitian ini ketiga model jendela tersebut kemudian diuji kemampuannya dalam mereduksi kebisingan melalui proses uji lapangan. Ketiga model tersebut adalah jendela casement, top-hung dan jalusi. Namun demikian, keterbatasan dana dan sumber daya telah menyebabkan beberapa faktor belum dapat diuji dalam penelitian ini. Faktor-faktor tersebut menyebabkan perbedaan hasil pengujian antara tiga jendela tersebut kurang signifikan. Hal ini menyebabkan penelitian belum dapat menghasilkan kesimpulan

  16. Gases in Taiwan mud volcanoes: Chemical composition, methane carbon isotopes, and gas fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Hung-Chun [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); You, Chen-Feng, E-mail: cfy20@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chih-Hsien [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Mud volcanoes are important pathways for CH{sub 4} emission from deep buried sediments; however, the importance of gas fluxes have hitherto been neglected in atmospheric source budget considerations. In this study, gas fluxes have been monitored to examine the stability of their chemical compositions and fluxes spatially, and stable C isotopic ratios of CH{sub 4} were determined, for several mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan. The major gas components are CH{sub 4} (>90%), 'air' (i.e. N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} + Ar, 1-5%) and CO{sub 2} (1-5%) and these associated gas fluxes varied slightly at different mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. The Hsiao-kun-shui (HKS) mud volcano emits the highest CH{sub 4} concentration (CH{sub 4} > 97%). On the other hand, the Chung-lun mud volcano (CL) shows CO{sub 2} up to 85%, and much lower CH{sub 4} content (<37%). High CH{sub 4} content (>90%) with low CO{sub 2} (<0.2%) are detected in the mud volcano gases collected in eastern Taiwan. It is suggestive that these gases are mostly of thermogenic origin based on C{sub 1} (methane)/C{sub 2} (ethane) + C{sub 3} (propane) and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} results, with the exception of mud volcanoes situated along the Gu-ting-keng (GTK) anticline axis showing unique biogenic characteristics. Only small CH{sub 4} concentration variations, <2%, were detected in four on-site short term field-monitoring experiments, at Yue-shi-jie A, B, Kun-shui-ping and Lo-shan A. Preliminary estimation of CH{sub 4} emission fluxes for mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan fall in a range between 980 and 2010 tons annually. If soil diffusion were taken into account, the total amount of mud volcano CH{sub 4} could contribute up to 10% of total natural CH{sub 4} emissions in Taiwan.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Williams; Deforesting the earth; From prehistory to global crisis (Greg Bankoff Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann (eds; The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar (René van den Berg Wim Ravesteijn, Jan Kop (eds; Bouwen in de archipel; Burgerlijke Openbare Werken in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1800-2000 (Freek Colombijn Susan Rodgers; Print, poetics, and politics; A Sumatran epic in the colonial Indies and New Order Indonesia (Bernhard Dahm Robert A. Scebold; Central Tagbanwa; a Philippine language on the brink of extinction; Sociolinguistics, grammar, and lexicon (Aone van Engelenhoven Adrian Vickers; Journeys of desire; A study of the Balinese text Malat (Amrit Gomperts B.J. Terwiel; Thailand’s political history; From the fall of Ayutthaya to recent times (Hans Hägerdal Robert van Niel; Java’s Northeast Coast 1740-1840; A study in colonial encroachment and dominance (Mason C. Hoadley Terence H. Hull (ed.; People, population, and policy in Indonesia (Santo Koesoebjono W.L. Korthals Altes; Tussen cultures en kredieten; Een institutionele geschiedenis van de Nederlandsch-Indische Handelsbank en Nationale Handelsbank, 1863-1964 (Koh Keng Weh William van der Heide; Malaysian cinema, Asian film; Border crossings and national cultures (Benjamin McKay Angela Romano; Politics and the press in Indonesia; Understanding an evolving political culture (Soe Tjen Marching Simon Harrison; Fracturing resemblances; Identity and mimetic conflict in Melanesia and the West (Toon van Meijl Daniel Fitzpatrick; Land claims in East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Susi Moeimam, Hein Steinhauer; Nederlands-Indonesisch Woordenboek (Stuart Robson Terance W. Bigalke; Tana Toraja: a social history of an Indonesian people (Dik Roth K. Alexander Adelaar (with the assistance of Pak Vitus Kaslem; Salako or Badameà; Sketch grammar, texts and lexicon of a Kanayatn dialect in West Borneo (Hein Steinhauer

  18. Sympodial bamboo species differ in carbon bio-sequestration and stocks within phytoliths of leaf litters and living leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tingting; Ying, Yuqi; Teng, Jiangnan; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Meng, Cifu; Jiang, Peikun; Tang, Caixian; Li, Jianmin; Zheng, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) with high resistance against decomposition is an important carbon (C) sink in many ecosystems. This study compared concentrations of phytolith in plants and the PhytOC production of seven sympodial bamboo species in southern China, aiming to provide the information for the managed bamboo plantation and selection of bamboo species to maximize phytolith C sequestration. Leaf litters and living leaves of seven sympodial bamboo species were collected from the field sites. Concentrations of phytoliths, silicon (Si), and PhytOC in leaf litters and living leaves were measured. Carbon sequestration as PhytOC was estimated. There was a considerable variation in the PhytOC concentrations in the leaf litters and living leaves among the seven bamboo species. The mean concentrations of PhytOC ranged from 3.4 to 6.9 g kg(-1) in leaf litters and from 1.6 to 5.9 g kg(-1) in living leaves, with the PhytOC production rates ranging from 5.7 to 52.3 kg e-CO2 ha(-1) year(-1) as leaf litters. Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro) Keng f. had the highest PhytOC production rate. Based on a bio-sequestration rate of 52.3 kg e-CO2 ha(-1) year(-1), we estimated that the current 8 × 10(5) ha of sympodial bamboo stands in China could potentially acquire 4.2 × 10(4) t e-CO2 yearly via phytolith carbon. Furthermore, the seven sympodial bamboo species stored 5.38 × 10(5) t e-CO2 as PhytOC in living leaves and leaf litters in China. It is concluded that sympodial bamboos make a significant contribution to C sequestration and that to maximize the PhytOC accumulation, the bamboo species with the highest PhytOC production rate should be selected for plantation.

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical carcinoma: which is better, intravenous or intra-arterial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ting Gui,* Keng Shen,* Yang Xiang, Lingya Pan, Jinghe Lang, Ming Wu, Huifang Huang, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin YangDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the work Purpose: The aim of our study is to investigate the differences in therapeutic effects and clinical significance between intravenous systematic chemotherapy and intra-arterial interventional chemotherapy in stage Ib2-IIb cervical carcinomas. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 93 cases of intravenous and 118 cases of intra-arterial neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage Ib2-IIb cervical carcinomas treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2001 to 2010. Results: After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the overall response rate was 84.9% versus (vs 88.2% and the operability rate was 77.4% vs 81.4%, for intravenous vs intra-arterial (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in toxicities, surgical duration, perioperative blood loss, and operative complications between these two groups. Postoperative pathological examination revealed a significantly lower parametrial infiltration in the intra-arterial group (12.5% vs 38.1%, P<0.05, while the positive vaginal margin, lymph node metastasis, and intravascular tumor embolus showed no significant differences. The intravenous group and the intra-arterial group had similar recurrence rate (16.0% vs 12.3%, distant metastasis rate (9.1% vs 8.5%, and 5 year survival rate (79.5% vs 84.9%, without significant differences. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil are safe and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinomas. The intravenous and the intra-arterial approaches present with similar chemotherapy efficacy and clinical outcome. Since it is more simple and economical, the intravenous systematic

  20. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas ecombinadas de Capsicum annuum L. em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Agronomic performance of recombinant inbred of Capsicum annuum L. lines cultivated under organic system and greenhouse conditions

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    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas em cultivo protegido e a busca de produtos orgânicos pelos consumidores têm sido um desafio para produtores e pesquisadores de hortaliças. Para que essas formas de cultivo proporcionem lucratividade ao produtor e frutos de qualidade para o consumidor, faz-se necessária a busca por genótipos adaptados a esse manejo diferenciado. Neste trabalho, objetivouse avaliar o desempenho de 12 linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de Capsicum annuum L., obtidas do cruzamento entre os acessos UENF 1421 e UENF 1381, em cultivo protegido sob manejo orgânico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, na Estação Experimental de Seropédica da PESAGRO-RIO, em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se o número total de frutos (NTF, peso total de frutos (PTF, peso médio dos frutos (PMF, comprimento dos frutos (CF, diâmetro dos frutos (DF, relação comprimento/diâmetro do fruto (CF/DF e presença de capsaicina (CAPS. Foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos variâncias genotípica, fenotípica e ambiental, coeficientes de determinação genotípico e de variação genética e o índice de variação. Houve diferença altamente significativa para todas as características, exceto para PTF. As linhas produziram elevado número de frutos, leves e de formatos variados. Somente duas linhas não tiveram pungência e quatro segregaram para CAPS. Todas as características tiveram alta variância genotípica e altos coeficientes de determinação genotípicos, mostrando que os resultados são, predominantemente, de origem genética. Os dados permitiram a indicação preliminar das linhas 5 e 8 para o cultivo orgânico em ambiente protegido.Plant management under greenhouse conditions, associated with search for ecological products by consumers, has been a challenge for both farmers and vegetable researchers. Obtaining profit and quality depends on adapted genotypes that can be grown using an adequate management. The aim

  1. Morphometric patterns and preferential uses of Capsicum peppers in the State of Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia Padrões morfométricos e usos preferenciais de pimentas Capsicum spp. em Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira

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    Reinaldo I Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    ômicos predominantes (savana ou floresta e por zona domiciliar do usuário (rural ou urbana. Os resultados indicaram haver diferenças morfológicas nos frutos de pimenta relacionadas tanto a fitofisionomia, quanto a zona domiciliar da área de coleta, mas não a origem étnica do grupo. Isto indica que as diferenças estão relacionadas mais a fatores inerentes aos tratos culturais, fortemente influenciados pelo ambiente, que à preferência do usuário. Os morfotipos com frutos de menor peso e alta pungêngia das espécies C. chinense e C. frutescens, independente da cor, foram os preferidos dos usuários indígenas e não-indígenas para produção de molhos e jiquitaia (pó de pimenta. A 'aderência cultural' é sugerida para explicar o uso preferencial comum de pimentas entre os agrupamentos étnicos analisados em Roraima.

  2. The safety and efficacy of aspirin intake in photoselective vaporization laser treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia

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    Shao IH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available I-Hung Shao,1,* Chen-Pang Hou,1,* Shao-Ming Chen,3 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2 1Department of Urology, 2Bioinformation Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 3Department of Urology, Taipei City Hospital, Heping Campus, Taipei, Taiwan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Endoscopic surgical treatment has become an option to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP in patients. We evaluated preoperative and perioperative parameters, functional outcomes, and adverse events up to 12 months postoperatively of patients on oral anticoagulation therapy undergoing PVP, and compared the results with patients who did not take anticoagulation therapy. A total of 89 patients who received photoselective vaporization laser for benign prostate hyperplasia from May 2006 to February 2011 in our hospital were enrolled in our study. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not they were taking oral aspirin; 23 (25.8% patients were taking aspirin derivatives (aspirin group, and 66 (74.2% were not taking aspirin derivatives (control group. The mean prostate volume (58.8 mL vs 51 mL; P = 0.16 and mean energy consumption (235,268 J vs 289,793 J; P = 0.097 were comparable between the aspirin group and control group. The average postoperative results of hemoglobin were 13.4 mg/dL for the aspirin group versus 13.9 mg/dL for the control group (P = 0.327. A significantly higher maximum flow rates and 80% improved post-void residual urine were noted during the followup. Postoperatively all variable showed significant improvement starting at month 1 of followup and remained improved for the 12 month followup. Postoperative complications were low and comparable between groups. PVP was characterized by excellent hemostatic

  3. A pre-indo-European place-name: Dalmatia

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    Sorin Paliga

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years ago 1 ventured to suggest another etymon ofthe place name (hereafter PN Ardeal, the Romanian form for Transylvania and, connected to this, 1 also explained the PN Dalmatia (Paliga 1986. 1 shall not rediscuss the whole topic, yet it is useful to briefly point the essentiais of my hypothesis for a larger discussion. 1 started from the observation that the largely accepted hypothesis which sees Rom. PN Ardeal as a reflection of Hung. Erdély is not at all feasible, mainly from reasons of phonetic evolution, as long as the expected form should have been *Erdei or * A rdei. W e can better understand the situation of this PN if placing it in a reasonable linguistic-comparative context. As a matter of fact the situation is simple enough: Ardealis a compound of the type Ar-deal, ar- (a particle lost in vocabulary, probably akin to a arunca, a aruca "to cast away, throw" with the reconstructable meaning "over, far away", and deal "bili", also "forest", very frequent in Romanian place-names. The fact that Ar-deal is a compound is also supported by obviously similar forms like Subdeal (also spelled Sub Deal "at the foothill", Pe deal "on the hill", La deal "uphill". All these forms are frequent in the so-called minor toponomy as well as in vocabulary. Reverting Ar-deal, it should be also observed that the Medieval Latin form Trans-silvania and German Überwald (now replaced by Siebenbürgen are loan-translations (calques after Ar-deal. Hung.Erdély is also a calque but following the rules of derivation in Hungarian: noun + particle, i.e. Erdő- "forest" and -elu/ -elv > -ely (cf. előre "straightforward", előtt "in front of", as shown and accepted by all Hungarian linguists (cf. Kiss 1980 with further references. What is particularly interesting in this case is that the calque was doubled by a fortuitous similarity between Ar-deal and Erdély, which created a confusion of etymological analysis.

  4. Structure determination of uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Deinococcus radiodurans in complex with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hege Lynum; Johnson, Kenneth A; McVey, Colin E; Leiros, Ingar; Moe, Elin

    2015-10-01

    Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) is a DNA-repair enzyme in the base-excision repair (BER) pathway which removes uracil from DNA. Here, the crystal structure of UNG from the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (DrUNG) in complex with DNA is reported at a resolution of 1.35 Å. Prior to the crystallization experiments, the affinity between DrUNG and different DNA oligonucleotides was tested by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). As a result of this analysis, two 16 nt double-stranded DNAs were chosen for the co-crystallization experiments, one of which (16 nt AU) resulted in well diffracting crystals. The DNA in the co-crystal structure contained an abasic site (substrate product) flipped into the active site of the enzyme, with no uracil in the active-site pocket. Despite the high resolution, it was not possible to fit all of the terminal nucleotides of the DNA complex into electron density owing to disorder caused by a lack of stabilizing interactions. However, the DNA which was in contact with the enzyme, close to the active site, was well ordered and allowed detailed analysis of the enzyme-DNA interaction. The complex revealed that the interaction between DrUNG and DNA is similar to that in the previously determined crystal structure of human UNG (hUNG) in complex with DNA [Slupphaug et al. (1996). Nature (London), 384, 87-92]. Substitutions in a (here defined) variable part of the leucine loop result in a shorter loop (eight residues instead of nine) in DrUNG compared with hUNG; regardless of this, it seems to fulfil its role and generate a stabilizing force with the minor groove upon flipping out of the damaged base into the active site. The structure also provides a rationale for the previously observed high catalytic efficiency of DrUNG caused by high substrate affinity by demonstrating an increased number of long-range electrostatic interactions between the enzyme and the DNA. Interestingly, specific interactions between residues

  5. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan

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    Chen Yung-Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. Methods During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Results Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%, dogs (20%, pig (10%, and non-chicken avian (10%. Conclusion Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of

  6. Risk factors associated with ineligibility of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy

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    Shao IH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I-Hung Shao,1,2,* Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,* Chen-Pang Hou,1 Horng-Heng Juang,3,4 Chien-Lun Chen,1 Phei-Lang Chang,1,4 Ke-Hung Tsui, 1,41Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Urology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, 3Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, 4Bioinformation Center, Chang Gung Memory Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU is a standard treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. However, RNU can result in decreased renal function and cannot be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a risk group stratification analysis to determine the preoperative factors that are predictive of diminished renal function after RNU.Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of all patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2008. We analyzed the association between perioperative glomerular filtration rate and preoperative parameters including cancer characteristics, serum creatinine level, and kidney size measured on computed tomographic images.Results: A total of 242 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average decrease in renal function 1 month after RNU was 19.7%. Using 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as the eligibility cutoff for cisplatin-based chemotherapy, 42.1% of the population was eligible prior to nephroureterectomy, whereas following surgery only 15.2% remained eligible. Using a cutoff of 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, 59.9% of the cohort was eligible for fractionated cisplatin dosing preoperatively, whereas only 32.6% remained above the cutoff postoperatively. The most significant predictors of poor postoperative renal function were body mass index >25 kg/m2, age >65 years, contralateral kidney length less than 10 cm, and absence of ipsilateral hydronephrosis

  7. Evaluation of a universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution campaign in Ghana: cost effectiveness of distribution and hang-up activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Paintain, Lucy; Awini, Elizabeth; Addei, Sheila; Kukula, Vida; Nikoi, Christian; Sarpong, Doris; Kwesi Manyei, Alfred; Yayemain, Daniel; Rusamira, Etienne; Agborson, Josephine; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Bart-Plange, Constance; Chatterjee, Anirban; Gyapong, Margaret; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay

    2014-02-28

    Between May 2010 and October 2012, approximately 12.5 million long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed through a national universal mass distribution campaign in Ghana. The campaign included pre-registration of persons and sleeping places, door-to-door distribution of LLINs with 'hang-up' activities by volunteers and post-distribution 'keep-up' behaviour change communication activities. Hang-up activities were included to encourage high and sustained use. The cost and cost-effectiveness of the LLIN Campaign were evaluated using a before-after design in three regions: Brong Ahafo, Central and Western. The incremental cost effectiveness of the 'hang-up' component was estimated using reported variation in the implementation of hang-up activities and LLIN use. Economic costs were estimated from a societal perspective assuming LLINs would be replaced after three years, and included the time of unpaid volunteers and household contributions given to volunteers. Across the three regions, 3.6 million campaign LLINs were distributed, and 45.5% of households reported the LLINs received were hung-up by a volunteer. The financial cost of the campaign was USD 6.51 per LLIN delivered. The average annual economic cost was USD 2.90 per LLIN delivered and USD 6,619 per additional child death averted by the campaign. The cost-effectiveness of the campaign was sensitive to the price, lifespan and protective efficacy of LLINs.Hang-up activities constituted 7% of the annual economic cost, though the additional financial cost was modest given the use of volunteers. LLIN use was greater in households in which one or more campaign LLINs were hung by a volunteer (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.09, 2.27; p=0.02). The additional economic cost of the hang-up activities was USD 0.23 per LLIN delivered, and achieved a net saving per LLIN used and per death averted. In this campaign, hang-up activities were estimated to be net saving if hang-up increased LLIN use by 10% or more. This suggests

  8. Fenretinide inhibits macrophage inflammatory mediators and controls hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway

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    Lin CH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Han Lin,1,* Shang-Yu Lee,2,* Chun-Cheng Zhang,3 Ye-Fong Du,1 Hao-Chang Hung,1 Hung-Tsung Wu,4 Horng-Yih Ou1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chi-Mei Medical Center, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Holistic Care, Chi-Mei Medical Center, 4Research Center of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Fenretinide is a novel anticancer agent reported to exhibit anti-invasive and antimetastatic activities. It has also been shown to improve obesity and diabetes, although the effects of fenretinide on hypertension are still unknown, and the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we have shown that treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ in RAW264.7 macrophages, and pretreatment with fenretinide reversed the effect of LPS on PPARγ expression. In addition, LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 were dose-dependently reversed by fenretinide, and the effects of fenretinide on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production were blocked by treatment with PPARγ antagonist. Moreover, fenretinide decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitrogen oxide production. These effects were blocked by the pretreatment with PPARγ antagonist in a dose-dependent manner, indicating fenretinide activated PPARγ to exert anti-inflammation activity. In view of the role of inflammation in hypertension and the anti-inflammatory action of fenretinide, we found that administration of fenretinide in spontaneously hypertensive rats

  9. Amsacrine analog-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle to resolve insolubility for injection delivery: characterization and pharmacokinetics

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    Fang YP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Ping Fang,1 Chih-Hung Chuang,2 Pao-Chu Wu,1 Yaw-Bin Huang,1 Cherng-Chyi Tzeng,3 Yeh-Long Chen,3 Ya-Ting Liu,1 Yi-Hung Tsai,1 Ming-Jun Tsai4–6 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Biomedical and Environment Biology, College of Life Science, 3School of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 4Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, 5School of Medicine, Medical College, China Medical University, Taichung, 6Department of Neurology, China Medical University An-Nan Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: Amsacrine analog is a novel chemotherapeutic agent that provides potentially broad antitumor activity when compared to traditional amsacrine. However, the major limitation of amsacrine analog is that it is highly lipophilic, making it nonconductive to intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to utilize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN to resolve the delivery problem and to investigate the biodistribution of amsacrine analog-loaded SLN. Physicochemical characterizations of SLN, including particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and stability, were evaluated. In vitro release behavior was also measured by the dialysis method. In vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution behavior of amsacrine analog were investigated and incorporated with a non invasion in vivo imaging system to confirm the localization of SLN. The results showed that amsacrine analog-loaded SLN was 36.7 nm in particle size, 0.37 in polydispersity index, and 34.5±0.047 mV in zeta potential. More than 99% of amsacrine analog was successfully entrapped in the SLN. There were no significant differences in the physicochemical properties after storage at room temperature (25°C for 1 month. Amsacrine analog-loaded SLN maintained good stability. An in vitro release study showed that amsacrine analog-loaded SLN sustained a release pattern and followed the zero equation. An

  10. Total quality management (TQM, organizational characteristics and competitive advantage

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    Najm A. Najm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two issues. The first is to determine the impact of TQM dimensions of a medical care system (quality system, quality leadership, medical and sanitary staff, relationship with patient, relationships with suppliers, and continuous improvement on the hospital competitive advantage (innovation, competitive benchmarking in sample Jordanian hospitals. The second is to explore the moderating effect of two basic organizational characteristics: the size and the age of a hospital, on the relationship between TQM dimensions and competitive advantage. Our finding indicates that five TQM dimensions (QS, QL, RP, RS, and CI have a positive impact on hospital innovation and reputation. This result is compatible with the main findings of many previous field studies. (Prajogo and suhal, 2003; Hung et al., 2010; Abrunhosa and Sa, 2008; Bon and Mustafa, 2013, Silva et al., 2014. This result could be attributed to a continuous improvement of hospital services quality (the sixth of the main dimensions of TQM. Continuous improvement (CI is synonymous to innovation because both imply changes and modifications to health service.

  11. The biomechanical and perceptual influence of chain resistance on the performance of the olympic clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M; Coker, Cheryl A; Briggs, Doug

    2008-03-01

    Proponents of chain training suggest that using chains hung from the ends of barbells rather than using conventional barbells alone enhances strength, power, and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a conventional barbell with chains compared to a conventional barbell without chains would affect the performance of an Olympic Clean. The subjects were also asked regarding their perception of how chains affected their lifting. Four male and 3 female competitive weightlifters who used chains as part of their training participated in the study. The testing protocol compared the subjects' lifting 80% and 85% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) using conventional barbells and their lifting 80% and 85% of their 1RM using chains (75% conventional barbells + 5% chains and 80% conventional barbells + 5% chains, respectively). Video analysis evaluated the bar's vertical displacement and velocity and the rate of force production. Vertical ground reaction forces for the first-pull, unweighting, and second-pull phases of the lift were evaluated by using a force plate. After testing, the subjects completed a 2-item questionnaire asking individual perception of the effects of the chains. The results showed no significant difference for condition for any of the variables examined. In contrast, all subjects perceived that the chains required a greater effort. In conclusion, the results indicated that the addition of chains provided no greater value over lifting conventional barbells alone in the performance of the Olympic Clean, although the subjects perceived the chains to have a positive effect.

  12. A tale of two slinkies: learning about scientific models in a student-driven classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Punit; Berggren, Calvin; Livezey, Jesse; Olf, Ryan

    2014-11-01

    We describe a set of conceptual activities and hands-on experiments based around understanding the dynamics of a slinky that is hung vertically and released from rest. The motion, or lack thereof, of the bottom of the slinky after the top is dropped sparks students' curiosity by challenging their expectations and provides context for learning about scientific model building. This curriculum helps students learn about the model building process by giving them an opportunity to enlist their collective intellectual and creative resources to develop and explore two different physical models of the falling slinky system. By engaging with two complementary models, students not only have the opportunity to understand an intriguing phenomenon from multiple perspectives, but also learn deeper lessons about the nature of scientific understanding, the role of physical models, and the experience of doing science. The activities we present were part of a curriculum developed for a week-long summer program for incoming freshmen as a part of the Compass Project at UC Berkeley, but could easily be implemented in a wide range of classrooms at the high school or introductory college level.

  13. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Piotrowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009, today’s faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes such as Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO. This paper reviews the recent extant research on bibliometrics within the context of citation analysis. Particular focus is on empirical studies, review essays, and critical commentaries on citation-based metrics across interdisciplinary academic areas. Research that relates to the interface between citation analysis and applications in higher education is discussed. Some of the attributes and limitations of citation operations of contemporary databases that offer citation searching or cited reference data are presented. This review concludes that: a citation-based results can vary largely and contingent on academic discipline or specialty area, b databases, that offer citation options, rely on idiosyncratic methods, coverage, and transparency of functions, c despite initial concerns, research from open access journals is being cited in traditional periodicals, and d the field of bibliometrics is rather perplex with regard to functionality and research is advancing at an exponential pace. Based on these findings, online instructors would be well served to stay abreast of developments in the field.

  14. High pressure air jet in the endoscopic preparation room: risk of noise exposure on occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93 dBA, P  2.5 dB) was 2.15% at 90 dBA, 11.6% at 95 dBA, and 51.3% at 100 dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room.

  15. Erection of the Meiko-Central bridge; Meiko chuo ohashi no kasetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, S.; Nishikawa, K.; Nagai, Y.; Ishihara, S.; Tsunekawa, M.; Yoshino, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    This is a 1170m-long triple-span continuous steel cable-stayed bridge with the central span measuring 590m, built to traverse Nagoya Port as part of the Isewangan highway. The 190m-high main towers are A-shaped, and have an octagonal cross section to stay stable against winds. The joints were designed to be welded mainly on the spot so as not to affect the surrounding landscape, and in this welding process the achievement of prescribed accuracy was the important technological task. The main girder was a 37m-wide multi-chamber/single-box type, and the steel stabs were installed by on-site welding. Since the erection was carried out above the ship course, a method was used in which the main girder was hung over with the cable stretched long, which demanded constant prudence to assure accuracy throughout the work. The cable is a 17-stage 2-face multi-fan type, a semi-parallel wire strand coated with polyethylene and white fluoroethylene resin. As for accuracy management for erection, it was accomplished by adjusting the amount of shim introduced into each of the four cables every time one stage of cable was erected for the side span and central span. Every accuracy management requirement met the target value with an adequate margin. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Design and construction of Ogawa bridge; Ogawa bashi no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, T.; Chigira, F. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sakao, H.

    1995-09-30

    Ogawa bridge 230m long by 15.5m wide has been planned on the national road No.401 at Katashina-mura in Gunma Prefecture. Structure mode is two spans continuous PC cable-stayed obliquely system, and a main tower is H type (height: 56m from the road surface) and is located at the center of the bridge alone. This place corresponding to the entrance of Oze famous national park, the main tower is designed so as to have bulge, imaging Mizubasho (lysichiton camtschatcense), from the middle part of the pier to the lower part of the main tower. Arrangement of the cables is designed as two faces of hung fun type and one side face is composed of 13 steel strands (dia. 15.2mm wire x 27 (partly 19); covered with PE tube) in front and rear respectively. A main girder is the box type PC block 2.3m height by 4m or 3m long, and 3m long one is for fastening with a cable. Centering on the main tower, the girder blocks are successively connected in front and rare alternatively and are fastened with cables in part. This overhanging connection work is carried out by two special movable conveyers `Wagens`. 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Diseno de una Actividad de Aprendizaje Basada en la Argumentacion Dialogica en un curso Virtual de Biotecnologia y su Incidencia en el Desarrollo de Competencias Cientificas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Benavides, Fedra Lorena

    El proposito de la investigacion fue evaluar la efectividad de una actividad de aprendizaje basado en la argumentacion dialogica en linea y su incidencia en el desarrollo de competencias cientificas. Se fundamenta en la teoria del aprendizaje socio cultural de Vigotsky (1984), los principios del diseno instruccional de la cognicion situada por Hung y Der-Thang (2001) y como estrategia se aplico la argumentacion dialogica utilizando el Modelo Argumentativo de Toulmin MAT (1984). El diseno experimental comparo dos grupos de estudiantes A y B en el curso virtual de Biotecnologia. El grupo A (experimental) desarrollo la discusion a partir de la estrategia disenada para este estudio y el grupo B (control) realizo la discusion desde las actividades tradicionales. El desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa se valoro con el instrumento de evaluacion para argumentacion dialogica en linea propuesta por Clark y Sampson (2008). La evaluacion de las competencias cientificas se realizo a partir de una postprueba. Los datos fueron analizados con pruebas estadisticas no parametricas. Los resultados de la investigacion, indicaron diferencias significativas en el nivel de la competencia argumental en el grupo experimental en comparacion al grupo control. Igualmente se demostro que existe una relacion positiva entre el nivel de desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa y el nivel de desarrollo de las competencias cientificas.

  18. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes.

  19. Effects of dynamic and static handgrip exercises on hand and wrist volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Junichiro; Hargens, Alan

    2008-05-01

    It is not known how the mode of exercise, dynamic and static exercises, affects the limb volume. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate hand and wrist volume (HWV) after dynamic and static handgrip exercise. Nine healthy subjects (age 31.8 +/- 7.3 years; height 172.0 +/- 5.7 cm; body mass 66.9 +/- 8.1 kg, mean +/- SD) volunteered for this study. HWV was measured with a hand and wrist volumeter before and immediately after dynamic and static exercises. Initially during rest, HWV was measured after the hand was passively hung for 5 min. Handgrip exercises with an ergonomic hand exerciser were performed at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction in right and left hands by static and dynamic exercises, respectively. Both dynamic and static handgrip exercises consisted of six sets of 30-s contractions with 10-s rest intervals between exercise bouts. The dynamic handgrip exercise was performed by repetitive contraction and relaxation of the hand at a maximum frequency. In order to determine intensity of handgrip exercises, maximum isometric handgrip strength of the right and left hand was measured with a handgrip dynamometer. Data are presented as mean +/- SD. After dynamic and static handgrip exercises, HWV increased significantly, and these increases represent 2.2 +/- 0.7% (P wrist tissues.

  20. Estimation of the Corneal Young’s Modulus In Vivo Based on a Fluid-Filled Spherical-Shell Model with Scheimpflug Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Jen Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current intraocular pressure (IOP measurement using air puff could be erroneous without applying proper corrections. Although noncontact tonometry is not considered to be accurate, it is still popularly used by eye clinics. It is thus necessary to extract the correct information from their results. This study proposes a practical approach to correctly measure IOP in vivo. By embedding a new model-based correction to the Corvis® ST, we can extract the corneal Young’s modulus from the patient data. This Young’s modulus can be used to correct the IOP readings. The tests were applied to 536 right eyes of 536 healthy subjects (228 male and 308 female between March of 2012 and April of 2016. The tests were applied to patients at the Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital and the Hung-Chuo Eye Clinics. The statistical analysis showed that the value for the Young’s modulus was independent of all the other parameters collected from the Corvis ST, including the corneal thickness and the intraocular pressure. Therefore, it is important to independently measure the Young’s modulus instead of depending on the correlation with the other parameters. This study adds the methodology of measuring corneal stiffness in vivo for ophthalmologists’ reference in diagnosis.

  1. Luminescent 3D Lanthanide-Cadmium Heterometal-Organic Frameworks with Chemical Stability and Selective Luminescent Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Liu, Le-Hui; Shi, Qing; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Wang, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2017-12-18

    Four novel three-dimensional (3D) 4d-4f heterometal-organic compounds, [LnCd2(Pbc)4(Meimdc)(H2O)]·3H2O (Ln = Eu, 1a; Tb, 1b; Sm, 1c; Dy, 1d) (HPbc = 4-(4-pyridinyl)benzoic acid; H3Meimdc = 2-methyl-1H-4,5-imidazole-dicarboxylic acid), have been successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method. All the compounds are isostructural and show three-dimensional microporous pillar-layered structures with uncoordinated carboxylate sites hung in the channels. Compound 1a possesses excellent chemical stability. The luminescent investigations show that compounds 1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d display the characteristic emission bands of Ln3+ ions. Compound 1a exhibits a good potential as a luminescent sensor material for multi-responsive Ag+, Cu2+, Zn+, Co2+, and Ni2+ cations and some organic amines. Interestingly, 1a can capture Ag+, Cu2+, Zn+, Co2+, and Ni2+ cations and shows cation-dependent colorimetric response, which indicates the potential for naked sensing.

  2. CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF ONLINE LEARNING READINESS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH LEARNER ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun CIGDEM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationship between certain factors of online learning readiness and learners’ end-of-course achievements. The study was conducted at a two-year post-secondary Turkish military school within the scope of the course titled Computer Literacy, which was designed and implemented in a blended way. The data were collected from 155 post-secondary military students through an online questionnaire. Three sub-scales of Hung et al.’s Online Learning Readiness Scale were used to collect the data during the first two weeks of the course. Descriptive and inferential statistics, such as Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were performed to analyze the data. The descriptive results of the study indicated that students’ motivation for online learning was higher than both their computer/Internet self-efficacy and their orientations to self-directed learning. The inferential results revealed that the students’ end-of-course grades had significantly positive relationships with their computer/Internet self-efficacy and self-directed learning orientations. Finally, the students’ self-direction towards online learning appeared to be the strongest predictor of their achievements within the course; whereas computer/Internet self-efficacy and motivation for learning did not predict the learner achievement significantly.

  3. An investigation into the cognition behind spontaneous string pulling in New Caledonian crows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex H Taylor

    Full Text Available The ability of some bird species to pull up meat hung on a string is a famous example of spontaneous animal problem solving. The "insight" hypothesis claims that this complex behaviour is based on cognitive abilities such as mental scenario building and imagination. An operant conditioning account, in contrast, would claim that this spontaneity is due to each action in string pulling being reinforced by the meat moving closer and remaining closer to the bird on the perch. We presented experienced and naïve New Caledonian crows with a novel, visually restricted string-pulling problem that reduced the quality of visual feedback during string pulling. Experienced crows solved this problem with reduced efficiency and increased errors compared to their performance in standard string pulling. Naïve crows either failed or solved the problem by trial and error learning. However, when visual feedback was available via a mirror mounted next to the apparatus, two naïve crows were able to perform at the same level as the experienced group. Our results raise the possibility that spontaneous string pulling in New Caledonian crows may not be based on insight but on operant conditioning mediated by a perceptual-motor feedback cycle.

  4. Dutch-Cantonese Bilinguals Show Segmental Processing during Sinitic Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinka Timmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the debate on the primacy of syllable vs. segment (i.e., phoneme as a functional unit of phonological encoding in syllabic languages by investigating both behavioral and neural responses of Dutch-Cantonese (DC bilinguals in a color-object picture naming task. Specifically, we investigated whether DC bilinguals exhibit the phonemic processing strategy, evident in monolingual Dutch speakers, during planning of their Cantonese speech production. Participants named the color of colored line-drawings in Cantonese faster when color and object matched in the first segment than when they were mismatched (e.g., 藍駱駝, /laam4/ /lok3to4/, “blue camel;” 紅饑駝, /hung4/ /lok3to4/, “red camel”. This is in contrast to previous studies in Sinitic languages that did not reveal such phoneme-only facilitation. Phonemic overlap also modulated the event-related potentials (ERPs in the 125–175, 200–300, and 300–400 ms time windows, suggesting earlier ERP modulations than in previous studies with monolingual Sinitic speakers or unbalanced Sinitic-Germanic bilinguals. Conjointly, our results suggest that, while the syllable may be considered the primary unit of phonological encoding in Sinitic languages, the phoneme can serve as the primary unit of phonological encoding, both behaviorally and neurally, for DC bilinguals. The presence/absence of a segment onset effect in Sinitic languages may be related to the proficiency in the Germanic language of bilinguals.

  5. Technologie-Management in der Medizintechnik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassauer, Josef; Feigl, Thomas

    In der Industrie wurde in den vergangenen Jahren ein besonderer Schwerpunkt auf die stetige Erhöhung von Qualität und Effizienz gelegt. Im Zeichen des globalen Wettbewerbes bedeutet hohe Produktivität aber nicht mehr unbedingt einen Wettbewerbsvorsprung, sondern wird zur Grundvoraussetzung, um wettbewerbsfähig zu bleiben. Unter diesen verschärften Marktgegebenheiten wird ein Wettbewerbsvorsprung vorwiegend durch Innovation und Geschwindigkeit erzielt. Dafür spricht die positive Entwicklung in der Medizintechnik. Die Hersteller medizinischer Produkte investieren rund 10% ihres Umsatzes in Forschung und Entwicklung. Im Durchschnitt wird 50% des Umsatzes mit Produkten erzielt, die jünger als 2 Jahre sind. Die Innovationskraft der Branche zeigt sich auch in einem stetigen Anstieg der Patentanmeldungen im medizinischen Bereich. Sie bildet die Grundlage für einen Export Deutschlands in Höhe von ca. 15 Mrd. DM und entspricht einem Marktanteil von 14% am gesamten Weltmarkt. Aufgrund der dynamischen technologischen Entwicklung in der Medizintechnik, des zunehmenden Wohlstandes und der Verschiebung der Alterspyramide wird der medizintechnischen Branche auch weiterhin eine positive Entwicklung vorhergesagt. Die prognostizierten Wachstumsraten liegen deutlich über denen anderer Branchen wie beispielsweise über bislang führende Produktbranchen wie Chemie und Maschinenbau. Interdisziplinäre Kooperationen erlauben Bündelungen von neuestem Wissen und von Kompetenzen.

  6. Astrobiology and the Biological Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Four hundred years ago two astronomical world views hung in the balance: the geocentric and the heliocentric. Today astronomy faces a similar choice between two grand world views: a purely physical universe, in which cosmic evolution commonly ends in planets, stars and galaxies, and a biological universe, in which cosmic evolution routinely results in life, mind and intelligence. Astrobiology is the science providing the data to make this critical choice. This 20th century overview shows how we have arrived at the view that cosmic evolution may have resulted in life and intelligence in the universe. It examines how our astronomical world view has changed over the last century, recalls the opinions of astronomical pioneers like Russell, Shapley, and Struve on life in the universe, and shows how planetary science, planetary systems science, origins of life studies and SETI have combined to form a new discipline. Astrobiology now commands \\$50 million in direct funding from NASA, funds 15 Astrobiology Institute members around the country and four affiliates around the world, and seeks to answer one of astronomy's oldest questions. Whether we live in a mostly physical universe, as exemplified in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, or in a biological universe, as portrayed in Arthur C. Clarke's works, this reality will have profound consequences, no less than the Copernican theory. Astrobiology also looks to the future of life; taking a long-term ``Stapledonian" view, it is possible we may live in a postbiological universe.

  7. Left-sided mouse intubation: description and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Thomas; Brand, Vanessa; Moehrlen, Ueli; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Purkabiri, Kurosch; Ott, Sebastian Robert; Stammberger, Uz; Ochs, Matthias; Hamacher, Jürg

    2010-02-01

    A method of left main bronchus intubation was developed based on a wire guide-based microscopic endotrachael mouse intubation technique. The authors used a 22 G x 1 inch catheter elongated by a 38-mm silicone tube, and a wire guide with a tag to assign the length of the wire completely covered by the silicon tube. The isoflurane-anesthetized mouse was hung perpendicularly with its incisors on a thread and transorally intubated under strict vision with the wire guide tip advanced 3 mm out of the catheter. Then the catheter was advanced about 6 to 8 mm into the trachea. Afterwards the wire guide was redrawn to the level of the catheter tip (blue tag on the wire guide appeared at the upper end of catheter) to prevent injury. Then the neck was pushed into a right lateral flexion with one finger against a foam block fixed on the vertical plate, causing a straight distance between mouth and left main bronchus. This positioning allows to gently advance the catheter into the left main bronchus by another about 20 mm, using the wire guide with its tip just within the tube, to achieve there a wedge position with gentle pressure.The technique had a success rate of more than 80% in 81 mice weighing 23 to 48 g. It may be of interest for unilateral lung intervention, e.g., with injurious substances or with drugs.

  8. Zwischen "Arzt spielen", "Work-Life-Balance" und "Highend-Medizin". Wird "hegemoniale Männlichkeit" in der Medizin herausgefordert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rothe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wir diskutieren die Frage, ob eine sogenannte "Feminisierung" bestehende "maskuline" Machtstrukturen in der Medizin herausfordert. Die Rede von der "Feminisierung der Medizin" setzt sowohl die "Maskulinität" voraus als auch deren Veränderung durch die Erhöhung des Frauenanteils. Wir stellen die Kontrastanalyse zweier Gruppendiskussionen aus der Längsschnittstudie Karriereverläufe und Karrierebrüche bei Ärztinnen und Ärzten während der fachärztlichen Weiterbildung (KarMed vor; eine Diskussion mit angehenden Ärztinnen und eine mit angehenden Ärzten. Als manifestes Thema wurde Geschlechtlichkeit in beiden Diskussionen im diskursiven Kontext der sogenannten "Feminisierung" eingeführt – bezeichnenderweise im Kontrast zur gleichsam mythisch aufgeladenen Maskulinität der Chirurgie. Das Material unserer Gruppendiskussionen verweist auf eine nach wie vor maskuline Norm im Selbstverständnis der angehenden Ärztinnen und Ärzte. Die Männerrunde konstituierte sich als Gruppe der Ärzteschaft bei allen Differenzen wie selbstverständlich als männliche Norm. Die Frauengruppe konstituierte sich über eine geteilte Identifikation als "Frauen in der Medizin". Das Material wurde mit Methoden der psychoanalytischen Sozialforschung interpretiert und wird in diesem Beitrag im Hinblick auf die Begriffe der Feminisierung und der hegemonialen Männlichkeit diskutiert. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601159

  9. Dioxin contamination in soils of Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Doan, Thanh Vu; Tarradellas, Joseph; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Dioxin is the common name for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and is abbreviated as PCDD/Fs. In the case of Southern Vietnam, is of high concern dioxin contamination in the areas affected by past-use chemical defoliants. Our study related to the zone considered as a "hot spot"--Bien Hoa Airbase and surrounding areas (Bien Hung Lake). Although the war ended over 30 years ago, the adverse effects on this territory still continue. Soil and sediment were selected for our research as they act as a sink for PCDD/Fs. The samples were taken and analyzed in CECOTOX laboratory following certified procedures. The total amounts of PCDD/Fs (2,3,7,8 related congeners) in the samples were converted into WHO-TEQ and compared with standard values proposed by Canadian environmental quality guidelines. The obtained data shows a relatively high risk (up to 20.4 times higher than (probable effect level) PEL value for sediment and 46 times higher than standard value for soil). The research is continuing on the assessment of dioxin transport in food chain. Moreover, considering the obtained data a complete solution should be found urgently to solve the problem of dioxin contamination in the studied areas.

  10. Bioremediation of bacteria pollution using the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in the intensive mariculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xichang; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Bi; Jin, Meifang; Fu, Wantao

    2010-01-01

    Sessile filter-feeding marine sponges (Porifera) have been reported to possess high efficiency in removing bacteria pollution from natural or aquaculture seawater. However, no investigation has been carried out thus far in a true mariculture farm water system. Therefore this study sought to investigate the ability of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis to bioremediate the bacteria pollution in the intensive aquaculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Sponge specimens were hung in fish culture effluent at different temperature to investigate the optimal temperature condition for bacteria removal by H. perlevis. Turbots S. maximus were co-cultured with sponge H. perlevis in 1.5 m(3) of water system at 15-18 degrees C for 6 weeks to control the growth of bacteria. It was found that H. perlevis was able to remove pathogenic bacteria efficiently at 10-20 degrees C, with a maximal removal of 71.4-78.8% of fecal coliform, 73.9-98.7% of pathogenic vibrio, and 75.0-83.7% of total culturable bacteria from fish-culture effluent at 15 degrees C; H. perlevis continuously showed good bioremediation of bacteria pollution in the S. maximus culture water system, achieving removal of 60.0-90.2% of fecal coliform, 37.6-81.6% of pathogenic vibrio, and 45.1-83.9% of total culturable bacteria. The results demonstrate that H. perlevis is an effective bioremediator of bacteria pollution in the turbot S. maximus culture farm water system.

  11. A comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics: I. Measurement and characterization of mass and bending properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaoqun; Yu, Weidong

    2007-11-01

    The main content dealt with in this paper is to present a new apparatus and a new method that can measure multiple mechanical properties through a single test in principle, which can be used for handle evaluation for textile materials. The comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics and yarns (CHES-FY) is a kind of apparatus that is capable of measuring mass, bending, friction and tensile behavior just through one pulling-out test, and is able to characterize the handle of fabrics, whose measurement principle and structure of the CHES-FY system in mass and bending steps are analyzed in the present paper. The shape of a hung fabric was captured by a digital camera, and its weight was calculated. Then, a three-point bending in principle was utilized to model and analyze the bending properties of the fabric, and the corresponding formula was obtained for calculating the bending rigidity of the fabric. The comparisons of mass and bending rigidity based on 17 fabrics have been conducted by using CHES-FY, electronic balance and KES-FB2, respectively. The measured results show that there are high correlations between the three measuring systems for fabrics. It indicates that the approach using CHES-FY is feasible and accurate in measuring and characterizing mass and bending rigidity.

  12. Feasibility of Preparing Nesting Box and Luring Large Solitary Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa Valga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Michał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylocopa valga, commonly called the carpenter bee and the largest bee with metallicviolet hair cover, is extremely rarely observed in Poland. We hypothesize that a stable and possibly long-term population of X. valga can be maintained in Poland through the creation of suitable nesting conditions. X. valga has been observed since the spring of 2014 in Wisznice (south-eastern Poland. A nesting box made out of 25 wooden blocks with drilled holes was hung about 2.5 meters above the ground. X. valga were interested in the blocks made of willow wood but did not nest in the beech, alder and pine. The carpenter bees chose holes made with drill bits of 10, 15, 20 mm in diameter and a length of 10, 15 and 20 cm. X. valga flying in the same direction most often visited the flora taxa: Aquilegia vulgaris, Ballota nigra, Consolida ajacis, Delphinium consolida, Deutzia scabra, Catalpa spp., Wisteria spp., Robinia ambigua, Stachys spp. and Trifolium pretense. X. valga is a solitary bee, but unlike most other solitary bees it demonstrates aspects of social behavior. It was observed to display cohabitative behavior involving the use of a single hole by more than one female. The females showed aggressive defensive behavior and if approached too closely started buzzing loudly. The information obtained during the long-term observation shows that X. valga can be maintained in partly artificial conditions to increase and stabilize the bee population.

  13. The Reluctance to be on a Facebook Sabbatical: How Facebook Promotes Students’ Academic Life

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    Pernille Bröns

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate negative effects of Facebook usage on academic performance. This arti­cle argues that there is more to the connection between students’ Facebook usage and their academic per­formance. Three independent studies were carried out: one study examined the effects of a Facebook sab­batical on students; two further studies explored the Facebook usage behaviour of students who felt that a sabbatical would affect them aversely. The results indicate that Facebook plays a more central role in stu­dent’s lives than that of a mere platform for procrastination. It is a place that combines education and work with a high degree of social interaction. Bisherige Studien lassen den Schluss zu, dass die Nutzung von Facebook einen negativen Ein­fluss auf akademische Leistungen hat. Dieser Artikel präsentiert drei neue Nutzerstudien, welche die Bezie­hung zwischen der Nutzung von Facebook und akademischen Leistungen deutlich komplexer erscheinen lassen als dies bisher vermutet wurde. Die erste Studie untersuchte die Auswirkungen eines Facebook-Sab­baticals auf Studierende; zwei weitere Studien untersuchten die Facebook-Nutzung von Studierenden, die das Sabbatical ablehnten. Die Ergebnisse der Studien zeigen, dass Facebook viel mehr ist als eine rein pri­vat genutzte Plattform, die Prokrastination befördert. Facebook ist ein virtueller Ort, der akademisches Le­ben und Arbeiten mit einem hohen Grad an Interaktion verbindet.

  14. Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veissier, Isabelle; Van laer, Eva; Palme, Rupert; Moons, Christel P. H.; Ampe, Bart; Sonck, Bart; Andanson, Stéphane; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.

  15. A disc-type magneto-rheologic fluid damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-sheng

    2003-01-01

    A disc-type magneto-rheological fluid damper operating in shear mode is proposed in this paper, which is based on the special characteristics of the magneto-rheological (MR) fluid with rapid, reversible and dramatic change in its rheological properties by the application of an external magnetic field. The magnetic field of the disc-type MR fluid damper is analysed by the finite element method; the controllability of the disc-type MR fluid damper on the dynamic behaviour of a rotor system; and the effectiveness of the disc-type MR fluid damper in controlling the vibration of a rotor system, are studied in a flexible rotor system with an over-hung disc. It is shown that the magnetic flux density of the disc-type MR fluid damper in the working areas can significantly change with the applied current in the coil; and that the dynamic behavior of the disc-type MR fluid damper can be varied by the application of an external magnetic field produced by a low voltage electromagnetic coil. The disc-type MR fluid damper can significantly change the dynamic characteristics of a rotor system, provided that the location of the disk-type MR fluid damper is carefully chosen. The disc-type MR fluid damper is a new actuator with good dynamic characteristics for rotating machinery.

  16. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  17. The effect of short-term dependency and immobility on skin temperature and colour in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H P; Davis, T R C

    2006-12-01

    The effects of short-term dependency and immobility on skin temperature were assessed in two experiments. In the first study, ten volunteers hung their left arm dependent and motionless while using their right hand for light office work. After 30 minutes, the dependent left hands were cooler (mean=0.9 degrees C: 95% CI=0.7-1.1) than the active right hands and exhibited a deeper colour with significantly increased green intensity (P=0.03) as assessed on digital images. In the second study, seven volunteers submerged both their hands in water at 15 degrees C for 15 minutes. The left arm was then left dependent and motionless while the right hand was placed on the table and its fingers were flexed and extended every 10 seconds. The left hands remained cooler than the right and were a median of 3.6 (range 2.9-4.5) degrees C cooler after 60 minutes. These studies demonstrate that skin temperature and colour differences between the hands, which are sometimes used to support the diagnosis of CRPS-1, can be produced and maintained by short-term immobility and dependency of the hand.

  18. Technical Tools for Studying Structure and Dynamics of Water Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Z. Dykman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a review of the technical tools designed to study structure and dynamics of water masses in the surface, bottom and deep-water sea layers, where the acting processes are not connected with wind waves. The process of adapting the measuring equipment to the requirements resulting from the expanding notions on physics of the marine environment phenomena is shown. Almost all the major designs are patented in the USSR, Ukraine and Russia. The experience in the development of different instruments enable adequately respond to the need for new methods and technical means intended for the organization of operational observations of the marine environment and land and sea interface zone. CTD-system experimental samples having a high degree of miniaturization and extremely low power consumption have already been created. They possess the necessary metrological characteristics and are intended for use in the drifters and lost (disposable probes. According to its metrological and operating characteristics, the autonomous electromagnetic current meter is able to provide reliable data in a variety of conditions (including collapse area of wind waves both being installed on a fixed base and hung on buoy stations. For wide manufacture of the new measurement tools it is necessary to create a complete set of design documentation on the basis of existing sketches, as well as to find the production base, equipped with machine tools of the corresponding class.

  19. Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Verma, Rohit; Ghosh, Dipak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell.

  20. Solar-powered hearing aids for children with impaired hearing in Vietnam: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Quang Thanh; Pham, Dung; Choi, Kevin J; Nguyen, Uyen T T; Le, Lan; Shanewise, Trudy; Tran, Lien; Nguyen, Nga; Lee, Walter T

    2017-01-25

    Hearing loss is a barrier to speech and social and cognitive development. This can be especially pronounced in children living in low- and middle-income countries with limited resources. To determine the feasibility, durability and social impact of ComCare GLW solar-powered hearing aids provided for Vietnamese children with hearing impairment. A retrospective review of data from an international, multi-discipline humanitarian visit was performed. Hearing aids were given to 28 children enrolled at the Khoai Chau Functional Rehabilitation School, Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. Device inspection and observational assessments were performed by teachers using a modified Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children and an Infant Hearing Program Amplification Benefit Questionnaire. Qualitative interviews were undertaken to assess the study aims. Hearing aids were well tolerated for use during regular school hours. All units remained functional during the study period (12 months). Teachers noted increased student awareness and responsiveness to surrounding sounds, but the degree of response to amplification varied between children. There was no significant improvement in speech development as all subjects had prelingual deafness. Teachers felt confident in troubleshooting any potential device malfunction. A solar-powered hearing aid may be a viable option for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study demonstrates that device distribution, maintenance and function can be established in countries with limited resources, while providing feasibility data to support future studies investigating how similar devices may improve the quality of life of those with hearing loss.

  1. The Effect of Magnesium Carbonate (Chalk) on Geometric Entropy, Force, and Electromyography During Rock Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgas, Matthew A; Drum, Scott N; Jensen, Randall L; Phillips, Kevin C; Watts, Phillip B

    2016-12-01

    Rock climbers believe chalk dries the hands of sweat and improves the static coefficient of friction between the hands and the surface of the rock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether chalk affects geometric entropy or muscular activity during rock climbing. Nineteen experienced recreational rock climbers (13 males, 6 females; 173.5 ± 7.0 cm; 67.5 ± 3.4 kg) completed 2 climbing trails with and without chalk. The body position of the climber and muscular activity of the finger flexors was recorded throughout the trial. Following the movement sequence participants hung from a standard climbing hold until they slipped from the climbing structure, while the coefficient of friction and the ratio of the vertical forces on the hands and feet were determined. Although there were no differences in the coefficient of friction (P = .748), geometric entropy (P = .359), the ratio of the vertical forces between the hands and feet (P = .570), or muscular activity (P = .968), participants were able to hang longer after the use of chalk 62.9 ± 36.7 s and 49.3 ± 25.2 s (P = .046). This is advantageous because it may allow for prolonged rests, and more time to plan the next series of climbing moves.

  2. The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.

  3. [Effects of chronic multiple stress on learning and memory and the expression and phosphorylation of cerebral ERK of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Luo, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yao-Ming; Liu, Ming-Chao; Ma, Jin-Long; Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2011-02-01

    To study the effect of chronic multiple stress on learning and memory, and the expression and activation of cerebral extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 of rats in vivo. Ninety male SD rats were divided randomly into control group and stress group. Rats in stress group were stressed everyday by one of the seven stressors including cold exposure, foot shock, white noise, restraint, tail hung up, sleep deprivation, and level shake, and then the ability of learning and memory was determined by Morris water maze test. Serum corticosterone (CORT) level was determined by radioimmunoassay kit. Western blot was performed to determine the expression and phosphorylation of ERK in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the brain. The escape latencies of stressed rats were substantially longer than those of the controls in the water maze test (P < 0.01) except a transient recovery at the end of the third week after the stress. The stress also resulted in significantly higher serum CORT level and decreased P-ERK level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) (P < 0.01). Similarly, transient elevation of both CORT and P-ERK levels were observed at the end of the third week. Chronic multiple stress can lead to impaired learning and memory by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus and PFC. The partial recovery of learning and memory, CORT and P-ERK levels at the end of the third week may due to the adaptation of the rats to stressors.

  4. Renewal of the separate type pool gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohhashi, Nobuyoshi; Izumo, Hironobu; Kameyama, Iwao; Isaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Monden, Yoshihiro; Tazura, Akio

    1999-10-01

    As a part of the modification of JRR-4, the pool gate was renewed. The pool gate is separated into two parts with packing on the both contact faces, and holds the pool water by the pressure caused by a difference of the water levels. The structure and the principle are so simple that treatment of the pool gate is easy. However, it is very difficult to secure the watertight performance of this gate type. Because the uneven and meandering easily occurred in the surface of the packing, in the former pool gate leakage of the pool water from the separate parts of the gate often occurred. Besides, the selection width of rubber material to conform was very small. In renewal of the pool gate, the mock-up experiment of the packing parts was performed. Based on the results, the new pool gate was designed and installed. The new seal structure developed for the new gate was confirmed to have a high watertight performance even under the condition of very low pool water level. And the loads which hung on the packing is decreased in the new developed packing structure. High watertight performance of the new pool gate was confirmed by the leak tests after installation. This report gives the development of the new pool gate with high watertight performance and the construction of it. (author)

  5. Das Mechanostat-Modell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerschan-Schindl K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Knochen ist ständig wechselnden Belastungen ausgesetzt und adaptiert seine Festigkeit entsprechend. Mangelnde körperliche Aktivität bedeutet eine zu geringe Verformung des Knochens und in der Folge einen Knochenabbau. Zyklische Belastungen des Knochens jenseits der Modelling-Schwelle, welche ausreichend starke Verformungen des Knochens und Verschiebungen der intrakanalikulären Flüssigkeit mit sich bringen, resultieren in einer Erhöhung der Knochenfestigkeit. Diese Verformungen werden durch Osteozyten wahrgenommen. Die mechanischen Kräfte werden in biochemische Signale umgewandelt (Mechanotransduktion und schließlich die Effektorzellen aktiviert (Transmission. Die Förderung der Osteoblasten bei Hemmung der Osteoklastenaktivität führt letztlich zu einer positiven Knochenbilanz. Die Reaktionen des Knochens sind aber nicht nur von Intensität und Frequenz der Belastung, sondern auch von der Beschleunigung der Bewegung abhängig. Nicht-mechanische Faktoren wie Sexualhormone modulieren das Ausmaß der Adaptation des Skeletts auf mechanische Reize.

  6. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  7. Cultural- and traditional-ecological perspectives in Saami religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Fjellström

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of Christmas peace, established by the Hälsinge law, was a firmly established custom in the Nordic countries going back to the official Christmas celebrations laid down by the Catholic church at Tours in 867. Christmas Eve was respected as a day of fasting and "no meat was eaten", beliefs about Christmas folk were common in western Scandinavia and Celtic areas, –the Catholic celebrations of the twelve days of Christmas—the period of Christmas peace—was linked with these beliefs and the sacrificial rite took place relatively close to the tent with a sacrificial dish shaped like a boat complete with sail and oars being hung up in a tree, probably a tall tree so that the Christmas folk could reach it on their wanderings through the air. This last that-clause does not seem to have any Catholic connections but rather pre-Christian ones. An analysis of these different phenomena can perhaps provide us with examples of parallel phenomena in Saami materials.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen MH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Manh Hung Nguyen, Andreas KruseInstitute of Gerontology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, GermanyObjective: To evaluate the effects of Tai chi exercise on balance, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in community-dwelling elderly in Vinh city, Vietnam.Design: A randomized controlled trial.Participants: One hundred two subjects were recruited.Intervention: Subjects were divided randomly into two groups. The Tai chi group was assigned 6 months' Tai chi training. The control group was instructed to maintain their routine daily activities.Outcome measures: The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and Trail Making Test (TMT were used as primary outcome measures.Results: Participants in the Tai chi group reported significant improvement in TMT (part A (F [1, 71] = 78.37, P < 0.001 and in TMT (part B, (F [1, 71] = 175.00, P < 0.001 in comparison with the control group. Tai chi participants also reported better scores in FES (F [1, 71] = 96.90, P < 0.001 and in PSQI (F [1,71] = 43.69, P = 0.001 than the control group.Conclusion: Tai chi is beneficial to improve balance, sleep quality, and cognitive performance of the elderly.Keywords: Tai chi, sleep, balance 

  9. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner.

  10. A new technique for assessing ball speed and impact force in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi-Moghaddam, Morteza

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a description of a simple ballistic pendulum used for assessing ball speed and forces in volleyball. A seven-meter long pendulum with a wooden block of mass 10 kg was constructed and then used in conjunction with a specially designed timer with a precision of 10(-3)s to measure ball speed, pendulum speed and forces exerted to the ball and to the hand. Twelve volleyball players, ranging in ability from beginners to elite (National team) level were used as subjects, and separated into three groups; beginners, university and elite. All subjects performed five services of each kind. Subjects were instructed to jump to the height where the ball and pendulum were hung and hit it against the pendulum as hard as possible. A video camera, Panasonic M9000, was also used for the deviation angle measurement of pendulum. The results showed that highly skilled players receive larger forces and produce higher ball speeds than lower-level athletes.

  11. Analysis of the electrical energy requirements of the GSI facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ripp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Die Veränderung auf dem deutschen Energiemarkt durch die Energiewende bringt eine Viel-zahl von Problemen mit sich. Der stetig ansteigende Ausbau von erneuerbaren Energien und die daraus resultierende starke Schwankung der eingespeisten Energiemengen zwingen die Netzbetreiber zum Ausbau der Stromnetze [1]. Die dadurch verursachten Kosten lassen die Netznutzungsgebühren steigen, welche an die Endkunden weitergegeben werden. Ebenfalls stieg die EEG-Umlage (Erneuerbare-Energie-Gesetz) von 3,6ct/kWh im Jahr 2012 über 5,3ct/kWh im Jahr 2013 auf 6,3ct/kWh für das Jahr 2014 [2], [3], [4]. Die extrem schnell steigenden Energiekosten zwingen die Verbraucher zur Erhöhung ihrer Energieeffizienz, um die laufenden Kosten so niedrig wie möglich zu halten [3]. Dies verlangt nach innovativen Ansätzen und Lösungen im unternehmenseigenen Energiemanagement. Besonders For-schungseinrichtungen mit großem Energiebedarf müssen eine höhere Energieeffizienz reali-sieren, um bei knappen Budgets ihrem Forschungsauftrag gerec...

  12. Hyperonenproduktion in C+C- und Si+Si-Kollisionen bei 158 GeV pro Nukleon

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    Ultrarelativistische Schwerionenstöße werden seit etwa 15 Jahren untersucht, um Kernmaterie unter extremen Bedingungen zu erforschen; in Kollisionen schwerer Atomkerne kann bei hohen Einschußenergien Kernmaterie stark komprimiert und aufgeheizt werden. Die Bedeutung dieser Experimente wird durch Berechnungen der Quanten-Chromo-Dynamik auf raumzeitlichen Gittern hervorgehoben, die bei ausreichend hoher Energiedichte eine Phase voraussagen, in der die Quarks nicht mehr in Hadronen gebunden sind, sondern zusammen mit den Gluonen ein partonisches System ausbilden. Ist das System hinreichend groß und equilibriert, wird es als Quark-Gluon-Plasma bezeichnet. Die als Signatur für das Überschreiten der Phasengrenze vorgeschlagene erhöhte Produktion Seltsamkeit tragender Teilchen wurde in der Gegenüberstellung von elementaren Proton+Proton-Interaktionen und Kern+Kern-Stößen experimentell über einen weiten Energiebereich bestätigt. Eine solche Überhöhung kann aber auch durch rein hadronische Phänomene her...

  13. Acute parietal lobe infarction presenting as Gerstmann’s syndrome and cognitive decline mimicking senile dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tien-Yu Chen,1 Chun-Yen Chen,1,3 Che-Hung Yen,2,3 Shin-Chang Kuo,1,3 Yi-Wei Yeh,1,3 Serena Chang,1 San-Yuan Huang1,31Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Gerstmann’s syndrome encompasses the tetrad of finger agnosia, agraphia, acalculia, and right-left confusion. An elderly man with a history of several cardiovascular diseases was initially brought to the psychiatric outpatient department by his family because of worsening of recent memory, executive function, and mixed anxious-depressive mood. Gerstmann’s syndrome without obvious motor function impairment and dementia-like features could be observed at first. Emergent brain computed tomography scan revealed new left-middle cerebral artery infarction over the left posterior parietal lobe. This case reminds us that acute cerebral infarction involving the parietal lobe may present as Gerstmann’s syndrome accompanied by cognitive decline mimicking dementia. As a result, emergent organic workups should be arranged, especially for elderly patients at high risk for cerebral vascular accident.Keywords: Gerstmann’s syndrome, dementia, parietal lobe infarction

  14. From the curve of the snake, and the scene of the crocodile: musings on learning and losing space, place and body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gannon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Where else can educational research begin and end, if not with the body of the researcher, if not with the particular material/ corporeal/ affective assemblages that this body is and has been part of? This paper traces the mutual constitution of bodies, identities and landscapes through memory as the body of this educator travels through multiple scenes of geo-spatial-temporal movement, and down the east coast of Australia. This movement parallels the movement from being a school teacher to becoming an academic. Throughout the paper landscape is foregrounded, and the body in landscape is evoked through poetic and literary modes of writing around the themes of learning and losing. The body in landscape is not merely the body of the writer. Other bodies in the landscape include ‘the curve of the snake’ - the row of protective hills that were said to protect her tropical home from cyclones – and the ‘scene of the crocodile’ – the rock that hung over the valley she passed on her way to school that she had learned of from Indigenous teachers. The political and ethical consequences of memory work, of body and place writing, and of genres of writing in educational research, are also considered. The paper argues for an embodied and reflexive literacy of place that incorporates multiple modes of knowing, being and writing.

  15. [Use of stairs in a hospital increased by a sign near the stairs or the elevator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houweling, S T; Stoopendaal, J; Kleefstra, N; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, H J G

    2005-12-24

    To investigate whether signs encouraging taking the stairs or discouraging taking the elevator lead to an increasing number of patients taking the stairs instead of the elevator in a hospital. Interventional study. During a period of 6 weeks in the period October-December 2004, an investigator recorded how many patients took the stairs and how many took the elevator on the first floor of a hospital close to a diabetes outpatient clinic. A baseline measurement was done over a period of 2 weeks and 4 weeks were used for evaluating the effect of 2 different interventions, each lasting 2 weeks. During the first intervention, a sign was hung up near the elevator, which read: 'Exercise is healthy, take the stairs'. During the second intervention the sign read: 'Use of this elevator is exclusively for personnel and persons with restricted mobility'. Staff members and disabled patients were excluded from the study. A total of 2674 movements were counted. Use of the stairs increased statistically significantly during both interventions: from 54.6% to 63.4% during the first intervention and to 70.4% during the second intervention. Signs in a diabetes outpatient clinic that either encouraged the use of the stairs or discouraged the use of the elevator increased the patients' use of the stairs.

  16. COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS OF PHEROMONE LURES OF IPSOWIT® ,IPSTYP®, AND TYPOSAN® AGAINST IPS TYPOGRAPHUS (L. (COL.: SCOLYTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Göktürk

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effectiveness ratios of Ipsowit®, Ipstyp®, and Typosan® pheromone lures were compared. One research area within the pure spruce forests of Ardanuç-Karanlıkmeşe in Artvin Province of Turkey was selected for this study. A total of 30 pheromone traps (with ten of each type of pheromone lures were placed in the area. The traps hunging in the third week of May in 2003 stayed for 45 days. All of them were checked four times in 45 days to count trapped insects. As a result, in the early weeks of the placement, there were more insects collected, followed by a gradual decrease in trapped insect number in the later weeks. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between Ipstyp® and Typosan® in number of trapped insects. Both pheromone lures were, however, much more effective than Ipsowit®That is why, instead of Ipsowit®, using Ipstyp® and/or Typosan® lures against the pest would be more economic and more effective.

  17. Dynamic damper pressure fluctuation in the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Korolyov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inertial part of any devices and equipment (e.g., pumps, hung or mounted on the resilient frame and being under the influence of the disturbing force that works at a constant frequency, may be subject to fluctuations, especially near of the resonance area. For elimination these fluctuations, you can resort to the use of a dynamic damper. Aim: The aim of the work is an analytical study of various dynamic dampers to reduce pressure fluctuation problems in pumping systems. Materials and Methods: A comparative analysis of efficiency of functioning was carried out for two types of dynamic dampers - hydraulic and mechanical. Results: The technique for calculating of dynamic damper of fluid pressure fluctuations in the hydraulic and mechanical pumps is presented. Algorithms of calculations are reported to engineering applications and implemented in the production process. The calculations show that the use of dynamic mechanical dampers is expedient at high frequency pumps, and, with increasing frequency of the pump by 6 times, winning in the dimensions of the damper in 3.5 times.

  18. Commercial preslaughter blue light ambience for controlling broiler stress and meat qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Freitas Barbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of blue light diffuser on the broiler stress control by measuring the occurrence of PSE meat just before slaughtering. Birds were divided into the following two groups before slaughter at the point of being hung on shackles: broiler group under low intensity blue light ambience (475, 17-20 lx and control group under white light (550-650nm, 321-332 lx. Birds' stressful conditions were measured by the occurrence of PSE meat. Breast fillets were classified as PSE meat based on pH ( 53.0. The fillet samples in the control group had the following characteristics: pHu=5.77, L* = 54.26 and b*= 6.27. The fillet samples from birds under blue light ambience had the following characteristics: pHu=5.81, L* = 52.86 and b* = 5.22 (p < 0.05. These results revealed that the treatment of blue light ambience just before slaughtering contributed to the alleviation of ante mortem stress of the birds, which was observed by a 14% decrease in the occurrence of PSE meat. Exposure to blue light just before slaughtering was shown to have potential to be used in modern slaughterhouses to offer a comfortable atmosphere, thereby maintaining breast meat quality.

  19. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Sonidegib, a novel smoothened inhibitor for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan HQ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hung Q Doan,1 Sirunya Silapunt,1 Michael R Migden2,3 1Department of Dermatology, University of Texas, McGovern Medical School, 2Mohs Surgery Unit, Department of Dermatology, 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. If left untreated, BCCs can become locally aggressive or even metastasize. Currently available treatments include local destruction, surgery, and radiation. Systemic options for advanced disease are limited. The Hedgehog (Hh pathway is aberrantly activated in a majority of BCCs and in other cancers. Hh pathway inhibitors are targeted agents that inhibit the aberrant activation of the Hh pathway, with smoothened being a targeted component. Sonidegib is a novel smoothened inhibitor that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This review focuses on BCC pathogenesis and the clinical efficacy of sonidegib for the treatment of advanced BCC. Keywords: nonmelanoma skin cancer, Hedgehog pathway, clinical trials

  1. Hydroelastic behaviour of a structure exposed to an underwater explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, G.; Greco, M.; Brocchini, M.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydroelastic interaction between an underwater explosion and an elastic plate is investigated num- erically through a domain-decomposition strategy. The three-dimensional features of the problem require a large computational effort, which is reduced through a weak coupling between a one-dimensional radial blast solver, which resolves the blast evolution far from the boundaries, and a three-dimensional compressible flow solver used where the interactions between the compression wave and the boundaries take place and the flow becomes three-dimensional. The three-dimensional flow solver at the boundaries is directly coupled with a modal structural solver that models the response of the solid boundaries like elastic plates. This enables one to simulate the fluid–structure interaction as a strong coupling, in order to capture hydroelastic effects. The method has been applied to the experimental case of Hung et al. (2005 Int. J. Impact Eng. 31, 151–168 (doi:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2003.10.039)) with explosion and structure sufficiently far from other boundaries and successfully validated in terms of the evolution of the acceleration induced on the plate. It was also used to investigate the interaction of an underwater explosion with the bottom of a close-by ship modelled as an orthotropic plate. In the application, the acoustic phase of the fluid–structure interaction is examined, highlighting the need of the fluid–structure coupling to capture correctly the possible inception of cavitation. PMID:25512585

  2. Holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Rong-Xin [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany); Guo, Wu-zhong [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity is investigated. We find a new type of Wald entropy, which appears on entangling surface without the rotational symmetry and reduces to usual Wald entropy on Killing horizon. Furthermore, we obtain a formal formula of HEE for the most general higher derivative gravity and work it out exactly for some squashed cones. As an important application, we derive HEE for gravitational action with one derivative of the curvature when the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We also study some toy models with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We prove that our formula yields the correct universal term of entanglement entropy for 4d CFTs. Furthermore, we solve the puzzle raised by Hung, Myers and Smolkin that the logarithmic term of entanglement entropy derived from Weyl anomaly of CFTs does not match the holographic result even if the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We find that such mismatch comes from the ‘anomaly of entropy’ of the derivative of curvature. After considering such contributions carefully, we resolve the puzzle successfully. In general, we need to fix the splitting problem for the conical metrics in order to derive the holographic entanglement entropy. We find that, at least for Einstein gravity, the splitting problem can be fixed by using equations of motion. How to derive the splittings for higher derivative gravity is a non-trivial and open question. For simplicity, we ignore the splitting problem in this paper and find that it does not affect our main results.

  3. Small scale test for seismic response control structure using block & tackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Faisal bin; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    An innovative and economic seismic response control system using block and tackle system (hereinafter referred as movable pulley damper system) is under development. In order to clarify the influence of friction between the pulley and the wire, a wire was applied to multiple pulleys and a static force test in which a weight was hung on one side was performed. The frictional force was measured in different test cases by changing the number of loops of the wire and the weight value. If we divide the frictional force by the weight and the number of grooves of pulley, the results show a relatively constant friction coefficient. Then, a dynamic shaking table test using a two story specimen was conducted. Similar to the static test, the frictional force was measured in test cases by changing the number of loops of the wire, the initial tension force of the wire and the amplitude of input sine wave. The obtained friction coefficient was almost the same value of the static test that means the friction coefficient does not change so much between static and dynamic loading conditions.

  4. The combined effects of grain supplementation and tenderstretching on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding a mixed grain supplement and tenderstretching (TS) alpaca carcasses on meat quality. A total of 56 castrated 24month old alpacas were divided into two treatments (pasture-only, and pasture plus supplementation). Supplemented groups were fed a mixed grain ration in addition to ad lib pasture for 10weeks. Animals were slaughtered across two kill days (n=28). One half of each carcass was suspended by the pelvis (TS) prior to chilling, and the other half was Achilles tendon hung (AH). After 24h, muscles were removed and aged for 10 and 25d. TS significantly increased sarcomere length and reduced shear force and cooking loss in the m. semimembranosus. This trend was not observed in other muscles including the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. psoas major. Ageing period resulted in a marginal improvement in LL tenderness. There is clear evidence that TS improves tenderness in the hindquarter of alpacas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pengaruh Cara Aplikasi Minyak Suling Melaleuca bracteata dan Metil Eugenol terhadap Daya Pikat Lalat Buah Bactrocera dorsalis

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    Agus Kardinan

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted at farmer’s fruit garden in Cilebut area, Bogor during 1997–1998. The objective is to know the effect of some application techniques of oil distilled from Melaleuca bracteata leaves on trapping fruit fly. Research consisted of three activities, those were the effect of some techniques of application on trapping fruit flies (I weekly, (2 in two weeks and (3 the effects of some concentrations of methyl eugenol (ME on trapping fruit fly. All treatments were hung at the fruit trees as high as 1.5 m. Observations were done in the number and gender of fruit flies trapped weekly and two-weekly. Result revealed that melaleuca distilled oil can be applied either by dropping into water or into cotton ball. Melaleuca leaves distilled oil should be applied once in two weeks, since its effectiveness lasted for two weeks only. The minimum concentration of methyl eugenol which could fruit flies effectively was 57%. Key words: Melaleuca bracteata, Bactrocera dorsalis

  6. Testing the retention of attachments for implant overdentures - validation of an original force measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, O; Lassauzay, C; Abi Nader, S; Feine, J; de Albuquerque Junior, R F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an original portable device to measure attachment retention of implant overdentures both in the lab and in clinical settings. The device was built with a digital force measurement gauge (Imada) secured to a vertical wheel stand associated with a customized support to hold and position the denture in adjustable angulations. Sixteen matrix and patrix cylindrical stud attachments (Locator) were randomly assigned as in vitro test specimens. Attachment abutments were secured in an implant analogue hung to the digital force gauge or to the load cell of a traction machine used as the gold standard (Instron Universal Testing Machine). Matrices were secured in a denture duplicate attached to the customized support, permitting reproducibility of their position on both pulling devices. Attachment retention in the axial direction was evaluated by measuring maximum dislodging force or peak load during five consecutive linear dislodgments of each attachment on both devices. After a wear simulation, retention was measured again at several time periods. The peak load measurements with the customized Imada device were similar to those obtained with the gold standard Instron machine. These findings suggest that the proposed portable device can provide accurate information on the retentive properties of attachment systems for removable dental prostheses.

  7. Prophylactic ankle braces and knee varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venesky, Kandy; Docherty, Carrie L; Dapena, Jesus; Schrader, John

    2006-01-01

    Although prophylactic ankle bracing has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of ankle sprains,how these ankle braces might affect the other joints of the lower extremity is not clearly understood. To determine the effects of a prophylactic ankle brace on knee joint varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque during a drop landing onto a slanted surface. A repeated-measures design. Biomechanics research laboratory. Twenty-four physically active college students. Participants were tested in a brace and no brace condition. We measured 3 dependent variables:(1) peak ankle inversion-eversion torque, (2) peak knee varus-valgus torque, and (3) peak knee internal-external rotation torque. A force plate was used to collect ground reaction force data, and 6 motion analysis cameras collected kinematic data during the unilateral drop landing. An adjustable bar was hung from the ceiling, and a slant board was positioned over the center of the force plate, so that the ankle of the participant's dominant leg would invert upon landing. Peak torque was measure din both the brace and no-brace conditions. The average of the peak values in 3 trials for both conditions was used for the statistical analysis. Ankle eversion torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 19.75, P external rotation torque was significantly greater in the brace condition(F1,23 4.33, P external rotation torque increased when the ankle was braced.

  8. An Investigation into the Cognition Behind Spontaneous String Pulling in New Caledonian Crows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex H.; Medina, Felipe S.; Holzhaider, Jennifer C.; Hearne, Lindsay J.; Hunt, Gavin R.; Gray, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of some bird species to pull up meat hung on a string is a famous example of spontaneous animal problem solving. The “insight” hypothesis claims that this complex behaviour is based on cognitive abilities such as mental scenario building and imagination. An operant conditioning account, in contrast, would claim that this spontaneity is due to each action in string pulling being reinforced by the meat moving closer and remaining closer to the bird on the perch. We presented experienced and naïve New Caledonian crows with a novel, visually restricted string-pulling problem that reduced the quality of visual feedback during string pulling. Experienced crows solved this problem with reduced efficiency and increased errors compared to their performance in standard string pulling. Naïve crows either failed or solved the problem by trial and error learning. However, when visual feedback was available via a mirror mounted next to the apparatus, two naïve crows were able to perform at the same level as the experienced group. Our results raise the possibility that spontaneous string pulling in New Caledonian crows may not be based on insight but on operant conditioning mediated by a perceptual-motor feedback cycle. PMID:20179759

  9. Using Sites From Internet in the Chemistry Teaching

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    M. P. S. Azevedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the student researcher is tied directly to their conduct in seeking information on the Internet. The objective of this study is to assess the way in which students of chemistry at high school level in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes / RJ, make their web searches, highlighting the necessary care and guiding the correct way to use the data available. For this, we examined the contents of General Chemistry available on Web sites and analyzed through qualitative research, the frequency and how the evaluated students manage the avaiable data. The survey showed that 35% of students use the Internet to conduct research in Chemistry area and of these, only 22% compare the information obtained with information from academical books. Only 13% of the students consult their teachers about the information obtained from the Web. Regarding the six sites tested, none was considered excellent taking into account reliability parameters proposed by Hung (2004, as accuracy, objectivity, currency and authority. It is therefore important that students establish contact with the Internet in order to bring information to the classroom, however it is vital that these students do not see it as absolute truth and assess the criticality of the content provided on it.

  10. A Silenced Land of Empty Faces: Censorship and Narration in Edward Said’s After the Last Sky

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    Mauro Pala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1983 Edward Said, who was then serving as a consultant to the United Nations International Conference on the Question of Palestine suggested that photographs of Palestinians should be hung in the entrance to the main conference site in Geneva. The official response was that the photographs could be displayed, but with no caption or explanation. This form of censorship marks the beginning of After the Last Sky a book of pictures by the Swiss photographer Jean Mohr, commented and expanded by Said, who explores the ways and modes through which memory can, challenging censorship, interact with photographs and written texts, and thereby attempt to reconstruct a people’s past and current historical trajectory. The contribution also explores how Palestinians suffered censorship of their own experience through a systematic dispossession of territories, affiliations and, eventually, their identity as a national ethnic group, a brutal strategy of segregation against which Said’s philological approach provides a strong ethical argument.  

  11. There Are a Lot of Things They Didn't Tell Me When I Signed On: Helping Trainees Land a First Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble Md, Curt

    2016-12-15

    During my training and my early faculty tenure, there was a picture of a dust-caked, grizzled cowboy that hung between the two primary cardiac operating rooms. Beneath the picture was written, "There are a lot of things about this job they didn't tell me when I signed on." When we moved into our new hospital, the picture did not resurface. However, I never forgot the lesson conveyed by that picture. One of the most important obligations faculty members have is to help their trainees find a job. While their trainees have likely had part-time jobs and, of course, they've held training positions, they usually have not had a 'real' job before. The job that each hopes to land at this point in their lives is vastly different from any that they've had before, and the issues that they need to consider are numerous, substantial, and, generally, unfamiliar to them. Therefore, a brief review of some of these considerations may be useful to those giving advice about the post-residency job search. I will not cover one major issue in choosing a 'first' job: whether to look at academic jobs, non-academic jobs, or jobs that are hybrids of the two. As most know, in academics it's dog eat dog, while in non-academic jobs, it's just the opposite.

  12. Die (reënboog na die sondvloed (Gen 9:12-17

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    H.F. Stander

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The (Rainbow after the deluge (Gen 9:12-17The Hebrew word which is used for “rainbow” in Genesis 9:13,16 can also be translated as an archer’s “bow”. It is interesting to note that all the ancient writers used the latter meaning (“war bow” in their interpretation of the Noah account, and not the meaning of “rainbow”. The ancients often depicted God as a warrior God who had a bow and shot arrows at those whom He wanted to punish. After God had punished the people for their sins, he hung up his bow. The bow in the clouds is without a bow string, and this is to remind the people that God is now at peace with them. In this article the prevalence of this interpretation in the ancient world, is shown. The writings of the Church Fathers are also scrutinized for their remarks on the (rainbow. To conclude, the translation of this symbol in various Bible translations is also discussed.

  13. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

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    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  14. The Landscape of the Gibbet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Sarah; Dyndor, Zoe

    2015-01-02

    From the Murder Act of 1752 until the Anatomy Act of 1832 it was forbidden to bury the bodies of executed murderers unless they had first been anatomised or 'hung in chains' (gibbeted). This paper considers some of the observations of the Wellcome-funded project 'Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse' as they relate to the practice of gibbeting. The nature of hanging in chains is briefly described before an extensive discussion of the criteria by which gibbets, which often remained standing for many decades, were selected. These are: proximity to the scene of crime, visibility, and practicality. Exceptions, in the forms of those sentenced by the Admiralty Courts, and those sentenced in and around London, are briefly considered. Hanging in chains was an infrequent punishment (anatomical dissection was far more frequently practised) but it was the subject of huge public interest and attracted thousands of people. There was no specified time for which a body should remain hanging, and the gibbet often became a known landmark and a significant place in the landscape. There is a remarkable contrast between anatomical dissection, which obliterates and anonymises the body of the individual malefactor, and hanging in chains, which leaves a highly personalised and enduring imprint on the actual and imaginative landscape.

  15. Bacterial safety of reconstituted continuous drip tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, C; Lipman, T O; Geraghty, M; Parker, R H

    1982-01-01

    Chemically defined diets require reconstitution and transfer to a delivery system. When reconstituted High Vivonex was noted in our Medical Center to be bacteriologically contaminated, we instituted a series of control procedures. We then reevaluated bacterial growth in reconstituted High Nitrogen Vivonex and diluted Isocal under ward conditions. The mixtures were prepared with sterile water versus tap water, using a hand washed blender versus a machine washed blender. We also investigated the bacteriological effect of blast freezing reconstituted High Nitrogen Vivonex. All preparations of the nonfrozen High Nitrogen Vivonex showed occasional low level contamination, although quantitative cultures did not show logarithmic growth over eight hours of observation. No growth occurred in the blast frozen High Nitrogen Vivonex or in the Isocal. We conclude that reconstituted High Nitrogen Vivonex and diluted Isocal may be prepared and hung safely for eight hours, and that blast freezing of High Nitrogen Vivonex is bacteriologically safe. As a result of our initial findings of bacteriologic contamination, we believe a program for bacterial monitoring of the tube feeding is desirable.

  16. Momentum Enhancement due to Crater Ejecta during Hypervelocity Impact of Highly Porous and Consolidated Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James; Chocron, Sidney; Grosch, Donald; Durda, Daniel; Housen, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were performed with impacts of 2.54- to 4.45-cm-diameter aluminum spheres at 2.1 km/s into both consolidated rock (granite) and highly porous rock (pumice). Measured in these experiments was the momentum enhancement -- that is, how much momentum is transferred to the rock by the impactor. The transferred momentum is greater than the impactor due to the crater ejecta. The momentum enhancement is characterized by β , which is the ratio of the momentum transferred to the target and the momentum of the impactor. High speed video recorded the impact event, the ejecta from the target, and the motion of the target (hung in a ballistic pendulum arrangement). Constitutive models of rock that include porosity and crush-up behavior when incorporated into impact physics codes (specifically CTH and EPIC) show good agreement with crater depth, but they do not show good agreement with momentum enhancement. This paper will review the data and place it in the context of other momentum enhancement data, including the nonlinear effect of scale size. It will also explore the difficulties in large-scale numerical modeling of the momentum enhancement. An application of this data is determining the effectiveness of deflecting asteroids and comet nuclei by hypervelocity impacts.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available -Monika Arnez, Niels Mulder, Southeast Asian images; Towards civil society? Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2003, ix + 253 pp. -Adriaan Bedner, Connie Carter, Eyes on the prize; Law and economic development in Singapore. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, xviii + 307 pp. [The London-Leiden series on law, administration and development 7.] -Amrit Gomperts, J.R. van Diessen ,Grote atlas van Nederlands Oost-Indië/Comprehensive atlas of the Netherlands East Indies. Zierikzee: Asia Maior, Utrecht: Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap (KNAG, 2004, 480 pp. (editors, with the collaboration of R.C.M. Braam, W. Leijnse, P.A. Levi, J.J. Reijnders, R.P.G.A. Voskuil and M.P.B. Ziellemans, F.J. Ormeling (eds -Stuart R. Harrop, Adriaan Bedner ,Towards integrated environmental law in Indonesia? Leiden: Research school CNWS, School of Asian, African and Amerindian studies, 2003, 161 pp. [CNWS publications 127.], Nicole Niessen (eds -David Henley, Paul H. Kratoska ,Locating Southeast Asia: Geographies of knowledge and politics of space. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2005, xi + 326 pp., Remco Raben, Henk Schulte Nordholt (eds -Gerry van Klinken, Anthony J. Langlois, The politics of justice and human rights; Southeast Asia and universalist theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, xi + 214 pp. [Cambridge Asia-Pacific studies.] -Koh Keng We, Jurrien van Goor, Prelude to colonialism; The Dutch in Asia. Hilversum: Verloren, 2004, 127 pp. -Lim Beng Soon, Thomas H. Slone, Prokem; An analysis of a Jakartan slang. Oakland: Masalai Press, 2003, 95 pp. -Lim Beng Soon, Neil Khor Jin Keong ,The Penang Po Leung Kuk; Chinese women, prostitution and a welfare organisation. Kuala Lumpur; The Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic society (MBRAS, 2004, VII + 181 pp., Khoo Keat Siew (eds -Dick van der Meij, J. Thomas Lindblad ,Macht en majesteit; Opstellen voor Cees Fasseur bij zijn afscheid als hoogleraar in de geschiedenis van Indonesië aan de

  18. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN JUS PEPAYA MENGKALDALAM MENURUNKAN TEKANAN DARAH PENDERITAHIPERTENSI DI PUSKESMAS

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    aida - andriani

    2017-12-01

    design. With a total sample of 15 people with hypertension. Collecting data in this study using observations of blood pressure pretest and posttest. The data analysis in this study include the analysis of univariate and bivariate analysis using t-dependent test is computerized.The results showed that the average blood pressure pretest is 166.33 / 97 + 11.72 / 6.21 mmHg and after the intervention decreased to 148.33 / 86.00 + 8.99 / 6.60 mmHg. There are differences in the average blood pressure of respondents between before and after intervention with an average difference in systolic blood pressure of 18.00 + 10.14 mmHg (p = 0.000 and the mean difference in diastolic blood pressure of 8.28 + 11.00 mmHg (p = 0.000.It can be concluded that the administration hung papaya juice is effective in lowering the blood pressure of hypertensive patients. For that is expected to society, especially people with hypertension to take advantage of papaya juice hung as one of the non-pharmacological treatments that have proven effective in lowering blood pressure in patients with hypertension.

  19. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    locally combined time series increasing the available data for model development. Apart from analyzed protocolling errors, microclimatic site influences, genetic variation and the observers were identified as sources of uncertainty of phenological observational data. It was concluded that 99% of all phenological observations at a certain site will vary within approximately 24 days around the parametric mean. This supports to the proposed 30-day rule to detect outliers. New phenology models that predict local BB from daily temperature time series were developed. These models were based on simple interactions between inhibitory and promotory agents that are assumed to control the developmental status of a plant. Apart from the fact that, in general, the new models fitted and predicted the observations better than classical models, the main modeling results were: - The bias of the classical models, i.e. overestimation of early observations and underestimation of late observations, could be reduced but not completely removed. - The different favored model structures for each species indicated that for the late spring phases photoperiod played a more dominant role than for early spring phases. - Chilling only plays a subordinate role for spring BB compared to temperatures directly preceding BB. Die Länge der Vegetationsperiode (VP) spielt eine zentrale Rolle für die interannuelle Variation der Kohlenstoffspeicherung terrestrischer Ökosysteme. Die Analyse von Beobachtungsdaten hat gezeigt, dass sich die VP in den letzten Jahrzehnten in den nördlichen Breiten verlängert hat. Dieses Phänomen wurde oft im Zusammenhang mit der globalen Erwärmung diskutiert, da die Phänologie von der Temperatur beeinflusst wird. Die Analyse der Pflanzenphänologie in Süddeutschland im 20. Jahrhundert zeigte: - Die starke Verfrühung der Frühjahrsphasen in dem Jahrzehnt vor 1999 war kein singuläres Ereignis im 20. Jahrhundert. Schon in früheren Dekaden gab es ähnliche Trends. Es konnten

  20. Beneficial effects of prolonged blood pressure control after carotid artery stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna Chang,1 Huei-Fong Hung,2 Fang-I Hsieh,3 Wei-Hung Chen,1,4 Hsu-Ling Yeh,1,5 Jiann-Horng Yeh,1,6 Hou-Chang Chiu,1,6 Li-Ming Lien1,4 1Department of Neurology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Department of Cardiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 3School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 4School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 6School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether carotid artery stenting (CAS plus medicine in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis provide a better long-term blood pressure (BP control compared to other medical treatments alone. The other aim was to explore the correlation between post-CAS hypotension within 6 h and long-term BP reductions after CAS. Materials and methods: Patients with severe carotid stenosis were recruited either in the CAS group or in the medication group. BPs and the number of classes of antihypertensive agents were recorded at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Extra BP information was collected at 6 h, 3 days, and 1 month after CAS. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were performed to test the relationship of BP changes among CAS and medication groups after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Univariate linear regressions were also used to determine the correlations between the mean or maximal systolic BP (SBP reductions at 6 h and 1 year post-CAS. Results: In total, 72 members in the CAS group and 82 members in the medication group were recruited. Compared with the medication group, patients in the CAS group had greater BP reductions at 6 and 12 months of follow-up after adjusting for confounding factors (13.56 mmHg at 6 months, P=0.0002; 16.98 mmHg at 12 months, P<0.0001. This study also shows significant

  1. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  2. Auswirkungen von transdermalem Testosterongel auf Marker des Knochenumsatzes und die Knochendichte bei hypogonadalen Männern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C

    2003-01-01

    äglich 100 mg Testosteron entsprechend 10 g Gel sowohl in der Hüfte (+1,1 ± 0,3 %, als auch in der Wirbelsäule (+ 2,2 ± 0,5 % signifikant erhöht (p = 0,0001. Schlußfolgerungen: Die transdermale Behandlung mit Testosterongel über 6 Monate führte vorübergehend zu einer Senkung der Knochenresorptionsmarker und einer Erhöhung der Marker für die Osteoblastenaktivität und somit zu einer geringfügigen, aber signifikanten Verbesserung der Knochendichte. Laufende Langzeitstudien sollten die Frage beantworten, ob die beobachtete Erhöhung der Knochendichte erhalten bleibt oder weiterhin von der verabreichten Testosterondosis abhängt.

  3. Langzeit-Pharmakokinetik von transdermalem Testosterongel bei Männern mit Hypogonadismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swerdloff RS

    2003-01-01

    war der durchschnittliche Testosteronspiegel über 24 h (Cavg in der Gruppe mit 100 mg Testosterongel am höchsten (1,4 bzw. 1,9 mal so hoch wie Cavg für 50 mg Testosterongel bzw. für das Testosteronpflaster. Der mittlere Steady-state-Testosteronspiegel blieb während der 180 Tage der Testosterongelanwendung stabil. Die Erhöhung der Testosterongeldosis von 50 auf 75 mg/Tag führte zu keinem signifikanten Anstieg des Cavg-Wertes, während die Dosisverminderung von 100 auf 75 mg/Tag den Serumtestosteronspiegel bei den meisten Patienten in den Normalbereich zurückführte. Die Serumspiegel für freies Testosteron verliefen parallel zum Gesamttestosteron und der Anteil des freien Testosterons blieb bei transdermaler Testosteronverabreichung unverändert. Der durchschnittliche Dihydrotestosteronspiegel stieg auf den 1,3-fachen Ausgangswert nach Anwendung des Testosteronpflasters, war jedoch nach Anwendung des Testosterongels mit 50 bzw. 100 mg Wirkstoff pro Tag deutlicher erhöht (3,6- bzw. 4,6-fach, was zu einer geringen, aber signifikanten Erhöhung des Verhältnisses von Dihydrotestosteron zu Testosteron in den beiden Gruppen mit Testosterongel führte. Der Serumöstradiolspiegel stieg an und die Serum-LH- und -FSH-Spiegel wurden in allen Behandlungsgruppen proportional zum Serumtestosteron vermindert; das Serum-SHBG zeigte geringfügige Abnahmen, die aber nur in der Gruppe mit 100 mg Testosterongel signifikant waren. Aus den Ergebnissen schließen wir, daß die transdermale Testosterongelanwendung den Serumtestosteronspiegel und das freie Testosteron bei Männern mit Hypogonadismus rasch und effizient in den Normalbereich anheben kann. Das transdermale Testosterongel zeichnet sich durch Dosierungsflexibilität bei nur geringer Inzidenz von Hautreizungen und einer niedrigen Rate an Studienabbrüchen aus.

  4. Transdermales Testosterongel verbessert die Parameter Sexualfunktion, Stimmung, Muskelkraft und Körperzusammensetzung bei hypogonadalen Männern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C

    2003-01-01

    Behandlung erhöhte sich die fettfreie Körpermasse in der mit 10 g Testosterongel/Tag behandelten Gruppe (2,74 ± 0,28 kg stärker (p = 0,0002 als in der mit 5 g Testosterongel/Tag (1,28 ± 0,32 kg oder mit Testosteronpflaster (1,20 ± 0,26 kg behandelten Gruppe. Fettmasse und Fettanteil wurden in der Testosteronpflaster- Gruppe nicht signifikant verringert, zeigten jedoch Abnahmen in den beiden mit Testosterongel behandelten Gruppen (50 mg/Tag: -0,90 ± 0,32 kg; 100 mg/Tag: -1,05 ± 0,22 kg. Die Erhöhung der fettfreien Körpermasse und Verringerung des Fettanteils korrelierten mit den Veränderungen des durchschnittlichen, nach der transdermalen Testosteronersatztherapie erreichten Serumtestosteronspiegels. Diese günstigen Auswirkungen der Testosteronsubstitution wurden von den erwarteten Zunahmen des Hämatokrits und der Hämoglobinkonzentration begleitet, jedoch ohne signifikante Veränderung des Lipidprofils. Der Anstieg der mittleren PSA-Konzentration (innerhalb des Normalbereichs korrelierte mit dem Serumtestosteronspiegel. Der größte Anstieg zeigte sich in der mit täglich 10 g Testosterongel behandelten Gruppe. Das Auftreten von Hautreizungen wurde von 5,5 % der mit Testosterongel und 66 % der mit Penetrationsvermittler enthaltendem Testosteronpflaster behandelten Probanden berichtet. Wir schließen aus den Ergebnissen, daß die Testosteronersatztherapie mit dem Gel bei hypogonadalen Männern zu einer Verbesserung von Sexualfunktion und Stimmung, einer Erhöhung der fettfreien Körpermasse sowie der Muskelkraft (vor allem in den Beinen und zu einer Verringerung der Fettmasse bei weniger Hautirritationen und Therapieabbrüchen als unter Anwendung der empfohlenen Dosierung eines Penetrationsvermittler enthaltenden Referenzpflasters führte.

  5. Potential of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

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    Yang HW

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hung-Wei Yang,1,2 Mu-Yi Hua,1 Hao-Li Liu,3 Chiung-Yin Huang,2 Kuo-Chen Wei21Molecular Medicine Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung University and Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: Nanoparticles (NPs play an important role in the molecular diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of therapeutic outcomes in various diseases. Their nanoscale size, large surface area, unique capabilities, and negligible side effects make NPs highly effective for biomedical applications such as cancer therapy, thrombolysis, and molecular imaging. In particular, nontoxic superparamagnetic magnetic NPs (MNPs with functionalized surface coatings can conjugate chemotherapeutic drugs or be used to target ligands/proteins, making them useful for drug delivery, targeted therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, transfection, and cell/protein/DNA separation. To optimize the therapeutic efficacy of MNPs for a specific application, three issues must be addressed. First, the efficacy of magnetic targeting/guidance is dependent on particle magnetization, which can be controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions during synthesis. Second, the tendency of MNPs to aggregate limits their therapeutic use in vivo; surface modifications to produce high positive or negative charges can reduce this tendency. Finally, the surface of MNPs can be coated with drugs which can be rapidly released after injection, resulting in targeting of low doses of the drug. Drugs therefore need to be conjugated to MNPs such that their release is delayed and their thermal stability enhanced. This chapter describes the creation of nanocarriers with a high drug-loading capacity comprised of a high-magnetization MNP core and a shell of aqueous, stable, conducting polyaniline derivatives and their applications in cancer therapy. It further summarizes some

  6. The effectiveness of acupuncture on the sleep quality of elderly with dementia: a within-subjects trial

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    Kwok T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Ping Chung Leung,3 Yun Kwok Wing,4 Isaac Ip,2 Bel Wong,2 Daniel Wai Hung Ho,2 Wai Ming Wong,3 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 3Institute of Chinese Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Purpose: Elderly with dementia are often afflicted with sleep problems. Recent studies have suggested that acupuncture may be a feasible alternative to traditional sleep medicine for treating sleep disturbance. This study investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture on sleep quality of elderly with dementia. Patients and methods: Nineteen elders with dementia were followed through a control period and an acupuncture treatment period, each lasting 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjects' sleep quality and cognitive function. Sleep parameters were recorded by wrist actigraphy. Cognitive function was assessed by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive (ADAS-Cog. Pretests and posttests were conducted immediately before and after the control and treatment periods. Changes in the outcome measures between control and treatment periods were compared. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that the subjects gained significantly more resting time and total sleep time in the treatment period than in the control period (P < 0.05. A nonsignificant trend for improvement in sleep efficiency was observed. Improvement in cognitive function was not statistically significant. A total of 86% of the subjects completed the treatment regime. Conclusion: Results reveal that acupuncture was effective in improving some domains of sleep quality of elderly with dementia, and the subjects showed acceptance towards the intervention. Strengths and limitations of the present study as well as suggestions for further studies were considered. Keywords: acupuncture, sleep disturbance, patients

  7. Factors Associated with Correct and Consistent Insecticide Treated Curtain Use in Iquitos, Peru.

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    Valerie A Paz-Soldan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an arthropod-borne virus of great public health importance, and control of its mosquito vectors is currently the only available method for prevention. Previous research has suggested that insecticide treated curtains (ITCs can lower dengue vector infestations in houses. This observational study investigated individual and household-level socio-demographic factors associated with correct and consistent use of ITCs in Iquitos, Peru. A baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP survey was administered to 1,333 study participants, and ITCs were then distributed to 593 households as part of a cluster-randomized trial. Follow up KAP surveys and ITC-monitoring checklists were conducted at 9, 18, and 27 months post-ITC distribution. At 9 months post-distribution, almost 70% of ITCs were hanging properly (e.g. hanging fully extended or tied up, particularly those hung on walls compared to other locations. Proper ITC hanging dropped at 18 months to 45.7%. The odds of hanging ITCs correctly and consistently were significantly greater among those participants who were housewives, knew three or more correct symptoms of dengue and at least one correct treatment for dengue, knew a relative or close friend who had had dengue, had children sleeping under a mosquito net, or perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home. Additionally, the odds of recommending ITCs in the future were significantly greater among those who perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home (e.g. perceived the ITCs to be effective. Despite various challenges associated with the sustained effectiveness of the selected ITCs, almost half of the ITCs were still hanging at 18 months, suggesting a feasible vector control strategy for sustained community use.

  8. Blood lead level is a positive predictor of uremic pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis

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    Weng CH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hao Weng,1,2 Ching-Wei Hsu,1,2 Ching-Chih Hu,2,3 Tzung-Hai Yen,1,2 Ming-Jen Chan,1,2 Wen-Hung Huang1,2 1Department of Nephrology and Division of Clinical Toxicology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, 3Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan Abstract: Although uremic pruritus (UP is a common and annoying symptom for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. However, systemic inflammation is one of the possible pathogenesis of UP, and blood lead level (BLL has been noted to be associated with inflammation and nutritional status in long-term HD patients. There might be an interaction or association, therefore, between BLL and UP through systemic inflammation. We analyzed cross-sectional data among 866 participants. All of the 866 patients in this study were stratified into groups with low-normal (<10 µg/dL, high-normal (10–20 µg/dL, and abnormal BLLs (>20 µg/dL. The associations between UP and BLL and the clinical data were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that HD duration, non-anuria, log ferritin, serum low-density lipoprotein, log BLL, high-normal BLL, and high BLL were associated with UP. In conclusion, BLL was positively associated with UP. Keywords: blood lead levels, uremic pruritus, hemodialysis 

  9. Predialysis hypotension is not a predictor for mortality in long-term hemodialysis patients: insight from a single-center observational study

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    Huang WH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Hung Huang,1,2 Ching-Wei Hsu,1,2 Ching-Chih Hu,3 Tzung-Hai Yen,1,2 Cheng-Hao Weng1,2 1Department of Nephrology, Division of Clinical Toxicology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Gueishan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China Introduction: Predialysis hypotension has been noted to be a predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD patients. Previous studies evaluating the impact of predialysis hypotension on the mortality of HD patients did not exclude patients with diabetes mellitus (DM or cardiovascular disease.Methods: Eight hundred and sixty-six patients on maintenance HD were recruited. Clinical parameters were recorded and subjected to the analysis of predictors of predialysis hypotension and mortality.Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that DM (odds ratio [OR]: 0.439, P=0.002, hypertension history (OR: 0.634, P=0.022, Kt/V Daugirdas (OR: 2.545, P=0.001, anuria (OR: 2.313, P=0.002, serum phosphate (OR: 0.833, P=0.010, and serum triglyceride (OR: 1.002, P=0.012 were associated with predialysis hypotension. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (P<0.001, male sex (P=0.029, anuria (P=0.004, and DM (P=0.011 were associated with higher probability of 24- and 36-month mortality. Predialysis hypotension was not associated with higher probability of 12-, 24-, and 36-month mortality.Conclusion: Predialysis hypotension is not a predictor of 12-, 24-, and 36-month survival in patients without DM and with higher dialysis adequacy. Keywords: predialysis hypotension, hemodialysis, mortality

  10. Evaluation of Melaleuca cajuputi (Family: Myrtaceae) Essential Oil in Aerosol Spray Cans against Dengue Vectors in Low Cost Housing Flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B; Mat Ali, R

    2012-01-01

    Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil in aerosol spray was evaluated against the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus at low cost housing flats in Section 10, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ESSENTIAL OIL IN AEROSOL VIZ: 5% and 10% of concentrations were sprayed for 5 seconds each towards hung mosquitoes in 5 cylindrical net cages. Aerosol weights were recorded before and after spraying to determine discharge rates. Knockdown and mortality number were observed and compared to MS standard aerosol which contain 0.07% prallethrin and 0.05% d-phenothrin as positive control and aerosol contain 40% kerosene and 60% LPG was used as negative control. High knockdown and mortality was observed in both species of mosquitoes towards MS standard aerosol. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) of mortality and knockdown between 5% and 10% of essential oil aerosol and 5% and 10% essential oil between MS standard. For 5% essential oil, mean percentage (%) of knockdown and mortality of Ae. aegypti displayed slightly higher compared to Ae. albopictus. Spraying with 5% M. cajuputi essential oil aerosol indicated a knockdown of Ae. aegypti 5.60±1.18 and mortality of 22.90±4.22 while Ae. albopictus showed 4.60±0.89 knockdown and 20.00±2.85 mortality. The 10% essential oil concentration gave 23.60±1.68 knockdown and 48.05±0.37 mortality for Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus gave 23.00±3.16 knockdown and 44.20 ± 2.10 mortality respectively. Extracts of essential oils does possessed an adulticidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future dengue vectors control.

  11. Solar tower enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiqiang; Xu, Yan; Acosta-Iborra, Alberto; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are located in desert areas where the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) value is very high. Since water resource is scarcely available, mechanical draft cooing technology is commonly used, with power consumption of mechanical fans being approximately 2% of the total power generated. Today, there is only one solar power plant (Khi Solar One in South Africa) uses a condenser installed in a Natural Draft Cooling (NDC) tower that avoids the windage loss of water occurring in wet cooling towers. Although, Khi Solar One is a cavity receiver power tower, the receivers can be hung onto the NDC tower. This paper looks at a novel integration of a NDC tower into an external molten salt receiver of a solar power plant, which is one of a largest commercial molten salt tower in China, with 100MWe power capacity. In this configuration study, the NDC tower surrounds the concrete tower of the receiver concentrically. In this way, the receiver concrete tower is the central support of the NDC tower, which consists of cable networks that are fixed to the concrete tower and suspended at a certain height over the floor. The cable networks support the shell of the NDC tower. To perform a preliminary analysis of the behavior of this novel configuration, two cases of numerical simulation in three dimensional (3D) models have been solved using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, ANSYS Fluent 6.3. The results show that the integration of the NDC tower into an external central receiver tower is feasible. Additionally, the total heat transfer rate is not reduced but slightly increases when the molten salt receiver is in operation because of the additional natural draft induced by the high temperature of the receiver.

  12. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, R.; Munoz, R. [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Gestion Ambiental del Aire, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km{sup 2}) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  13. Culturally adaptive storytelling intervention versus didactic intervention to improve hypertension control in Vietnam: a cluster-randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa L; Allison, Jeroan J; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Nguyen, Cuong K; Dang, Diem M; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Nguyen, Quang P; Goldberg, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Novel, large-scale, effective, and sustainable interventions to control hypertension in Vietnam are needed. We report the results of a cluster-randomized feasibility trial at 3 months follow-up conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" intervention, "We Talk about Our Hypertension," and a didactic intervention. The storytelling intervention included stories about strategies for coping with hypertension, with patients speaking in their own words, and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors including salt reduction and exercise. The didactic intervention included only didactic content. The storytelling intervention was delivered by two DVDs at 3-month intervals; the didactic intervention included only one installment. The trial was conducted in four communes, equally randomized to the two interventions. The mean age of the 160 study patients was 66 years, and 54% were men. Most participants described both interventions as understandable, informative, and motivational. Between baseline and 3 months, mean systolic blood pressure declined by 8.2 mmHg (95% CI 4.1-12.2) in the storytelling group and by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI 1.4-9.5) in the didactic group. The storytelling group also reported a significant increase in hypertension medication adherence. Both interventions were well accepted in several rural communities and were shown to be potentially effective in lowering blood pressure. A large-scale randomized trial is needed to compare the effectiveness of the two interventions in controlling hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02483780.

  14. An improved culturing method for opiine fruit fly parasitoids and its application to parasitoid monitoring in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masry, Ayad; Furlong, Michael J; Clarke, Anthony R; Cunningham, John Paul

    2018-02-01

    Good culturing methods play an important role in the study of insect behavior and its application to pest management. Here, we describe and validate a new method for rearing the parasitoid wasp, Diachasmimorpha kraussii, which attacks some of the world's worst fruit fly pests and is an internationally used biological control agent. Our method differs from standard culturing approaches by presenting adult wasps with host-infested artificial media within a "culturing bag," which mimics a natural (fruit) oviposition substrate. In laboratory trials using wild collected D. kraussii, the culturing bag method was compared to the use of host-infested nectarines, and a commonly used laboratory method of presenting host-infested artificial media within Petri dishes. The culturing bag method proved to be a significant improvement on both methods, combining the advantages of high host survival in artificial media with parasitism levels that were the equivalent to those recorded using host-infested fruits. In our field study, culturing bags infested with the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and hung in a mixed peach and nectarine orchard proved to be effective "artificial fruits" attracting wild D. kraussii for oviposition. Significantly more adult wasps were reared from the culturing bags compared to field collected fruits. This was shown to be due to higher fruit fly larval density in the bags, as similar percentage parasitism rates were found between the culturing bags and ripe fruits. We discuss how this cheap, time-efficient method could be applied to collecting and monitoring wild D. kraussii populations in orchards, and assist in maintaining genetic variability in parasitoid laboratory cultures. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Aerobic capacity and upper limb strength are reduced in women diagnosed with breast cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Neil-Sztramko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Question: What are typical values of physical function for women diagnosed with breast cancer and how do these compare to normative data? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Participants: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who were before, during or after treatment. Outcome measures: Physical function was divided into three categories: aerobic capacity, upper and lower extremity muscular fitness, and mobility. Measures of aerobic capacity included field tests (6-minute walk test, 12-minute walk tests, Rockport 1-mile test, and 2-km walk time and submaximal/maximal exercise tests on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. Measures of upper and lower extremity muscular fitness included grip strength, one repetition maximum (bench, chest or leg press, muscle endurance tests, and chair stands. The only measure of mobility was the Timed Up and Go test. Results: Of the 1978 studies identified, 85 were eligible for inclusion. Wide ranges of values were reported, reflecting the range of ages, disease severity, treatment type and time since treatment of participants. Aerobic fitness values were generally below average, although 6-minute walk time was closer to population norms. Upper and lower extremity strength was lower than population norms for women who were currently receiving cancer treatment. Lower extremity strength was above population norms for women who had completed treatment. Conclusion: Aerobic capacity and upper extremity strength in women diagnosed with breast cancer are generally lower than population norms. Assessment of values for lower extremity strength is less conclusive. As more research is published, expected values for sub-groups by age, treatment, and co-morbidities should be developed. [Neil-Sztramko SE, Kirkham AA, Hung SH, Niksirat N, Nishikawa K Campbell KL (2014 Aerobic capacity and upper limb strength are reduced in women diagnosed with breast cancer: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 189–200

  16. Aerobic capacity and upper limb strength are reduced in women diagnosed with breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Kirkham, Amy A; Hung, Stanley H; Niksirat, Negin; Nishikawa, Kei; Campbell, Kristin L

    2014-12-01

    What are typical values of physical function for women diagnosed with breast cancer and how do these compare to normative data? Systematic review with meta-analysis. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who were before, during or after treatment. Physical function was divided into three categories: aerobic capacity, upper and lower extremity muscular fitness, and mobility. Measures of aerobic capacity included field tests (6-minute walk test, 12-minute walk tests, Rockport 1-mile test, and 2-km walk time) and submaximal/maximal exercise tests on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. Measures of upper and lower extremity muscular fitness included grip strength, one repetition maximum (bench, chest or leg press), muscle endurance tests, and chair stands. The only measure of mobility was the Timed Up and Go test. Of the 1978 studies identified, 85 were eligible for inclusion. Wide ranges of values were reported, reflecting the range of ages, disease severity, treatment type and time since treatment of participants. Aerobic fitness values were generally below average, although 6-minute walk time was closer to population norms. Upper and lower extremity strength was lower than population norms for women who were currently receiving cancer treatment. Lower extremity strength was above population norms for women who had completed treatment. Aerobic capacity and upper extremity strength in women diagnosed with breast cancer are generally lower than population norms. Assessment of values for lower extremity strength is less conclusive. As more research is published, expected values for sub-groups by age, treatment, and co-morbidities should be developed. [Neil-Sztramko SE, Kirkham AA, Hung SH, Niksirat N, Nishikawa K Campbell KL (2014) Aerobic capacity and upper limb strength are reduced in women diagnosed with breast cancer: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy60: 189-200]. Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Edward Albee and Arthur Kopit: Look Who’s Wearing the Pants!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra AGAFIȚEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to make the readers acquainted with the realities of the twentieth century American family, as perceived by the two American playwrights, and, on the other hand, to underline the unusual phenomena that have been brought by the changing dynamics of the family relationships. All the five plays under discussion—All Over, A Delicate Balance, The American Dream, The Sandbox by Edward Albee, and Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin’ So Sad by Arthur Kopit — present situations in which the female characters seem to have become the leader, taking the place of the head of the family, of the pater familias. They stop acting like loving mothers and wives, they forget to take care of their families; instead, they lock away their hearts and assume the part of some sort of tyrant: they control everyone and everything in the house, their word being the equivalent of a rule. The female characters are endowed with masculine traits, whereas the male characters are emasculated, effeminate, deprived of any kind of power. The purpose of the paper is to demystify the myth of the ideal, perfect American family,to make the readers realize that the image that has been presented to the non-American public is, in the twentieth century, nothing but a disguise. Our goal is to display the image of the new American family hoping that, in doing so, we will succeed in making the readers realize the fact that human relationships, especially the ones within the family, need to be re-established on a deeper and more meaningful level.

  18. Cold saline lavage for removal of incarcerated porous ingrowth stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Michael P; Cabrera, Bryan J; DiMaio, Frank R; Lementowski, Peter

    2011-12-06

    A patient with a history of total knee arthroplasty and 5 subsequent revisions presented with pain. His preoperative construct consisted of a revision implant with porous in-growth stem extensions. He was indicated for revision surgery for a painful implant with progressive arthrofibrosis. The surgery proceeded uneventfully until we were unable to loosen the proximal portion of the ingrown femoral stem. After the distal femur was removed, a trephine was used to break the bone ingrowth from the distal portion of the stem. Flexible osteotomes were used to loosen the bone-prosthetic interface, but they were unable to penetrate deep enough, and they eventually bent under the applied loads. Nonflexible osteotomes were also used without success, and we were still unable to remove the stem from within the femur. Slap hammers, vice grips, and other devices were used to try to remove the stem, but attempts were unsuccessful. We hung a 3-liter bag of ice-cold (4 °C) saline and ran all 3 liters of saline, under gravity pressure, retrograde down the femoral shaft in an attempt to contract the metal and allow for the removal of the stem. We then attached a stem extension screw to the incarcerated femoral stem and were able to remove it with minimal effort using a back-slap device. We inspected the prosthesis and found no abnormalities of the stem to explain its incarceration and no iatrogenic perforations in the femur. This case demonstrates a useful technique that should be kept in a revision surgeon's armamentarium for the removal of incarcerated porous ingrowth stems. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

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    Chou YH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Hsin Chou,1 Chin-Pang Lee,1,2 Chia-Yih Liu,1,2 Ching-I Hung1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan Objective: Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS, a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Methods: A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Results: All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403, supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67, including a general somatic scale (GSS, melancholic scale (MS, muscular pain scale (MPS, and chest symptom scale (CSS. The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales.Conclusion: The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. Keywords: depression, somatization, Mokken scale analysis, item response theory, construct validity

  20. Effects of prior instruction and anaesthesia on long-latency responses to stretch in the long flexor of the human thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, C K; McCloskey, D I

    1985-08-01

    Long-latency (40-80 ms) electromyographic (e.m.g.) responses of the contracting flexor pollicis longus to stretches applied at the thumb-tip, were studied in normal human subjects. Stretches were applied during four classes of contraction: (i) isometric 'hold', in which the subject held a steady isometric contraction; (ii) isometric tracking, in which the subject tracked a steadily rising force target; (iii) isotonic tracking, in which the subject flexed against a constant torque to track a position target; (iv) weight-lifting, in which the subject lifted a weight hung at one end of a lever by pressing the thumb-tip on the other end of the lever. The effects on the responses of prior instructions to 'resist' or to 'let go', and of local anaesthesia of the thumb, were studied. The ability to modify the size of the long-latency e.m.g. response in accordance with prior instruction was variable. All subjects tested could do so during isometric holding contractions, but many could not do so during the other forms of contraction. Local anaesthesia of the thumb significantly reduced the long-latency e.m.g. response in only some subjects, and abolished it in none. The reduction was most reliably seen for isometric force tracking contractions. During thumb anaesthesia in different subjects, there was a significant correlation between the proportional increase in apparent heaviness of an object lifted by thumb flexion and the proportional reduction in the size of the long-latency e.m.g. response to muscle stretch.

  1. Klinik und Diagnose des Morbus Paget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikosch P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Morbus Paget des Knochens (PD ist eine mono- oder polyostotische, progrediente Skeletterkrankung auf dem Hintergrund einer genetischen Prädisposition bzw. möglichen viralen Genese. Episoden lokal erhöhter Osteoklastentätigkeit wechseln sich mit Phasen überschießender Osteoblastentätigkeit ab. Der Knochenabbau findet in der Regel subkortikal, der folgende Knochenanbau hingegen am Periost statt. Endergebnis ist ein Knochen mit gestörter Architektur und eingeschränkter Belastbarkeit. Klinisch ergeben sich chronische Schmerzen, lokale Überwärmung, Knochenverformungen, Frakturen sowie artikuläre, neurologische und kardiologische Komplikationen. Da nur ein geringer Prozentsatz aller Patienten mit PD klinisch manifeste Symptome entwickelt, werden viele Patienten mit PD nicht diagnostiziert bzw. deren Paget-Läsionen oftmals nur im Rahmen anderer Untersuchungen zufällig entdeckt. Die wichtigste bildgebende Untersuchung ist das native Röntgen, mit dem schon frühe osteolytische Läsionen erkannt werden können. In der Knochenszintigraphie können mit hoher Sensitivität die hypermetabolen Paget-Läsionen dargestellt werden. Die Computertomographie und die Magnetresonanztomographie werden bei speziellen Fragestellungen ergänzend eingesetzt. Im Labor ist die alkalische Phosphatase regelmäßig erhöht; eine isolierte Erhöhung sollte eine weiterführende Abklärung in Richtung PD bewirken. Bei unklaren Befunden der Bildgebung oder Verdacht auf eine mögliche maligne Entartung von Paget-Läsionen (Paget-Sarkom sind Knochenbiopsien angezeigt.

  2. Ceremony of the Five-Hundredth Anniversary of Canonisation of St Stanislaus in Cracow in 1753 in the Eyes of an Art Historian

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    Marek Walczak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On September 8, 1753 a celebration took place in the Wawel Cathedral to commemorate the five-hundredth anniversary of the canonisation of St. Stanislaus. The main element of a specially prepared decoration was a structure of considerable size as sembled in the middle of the nave, opposite the martyr’s tomb. It served as a throne on top of which a late Gothic reliquary, made by a Cracovian goldsmith Marcin Marciniec, for Stanislaus’ head was placed. The structure was embellished with the Saint’s coats of arms and candelabras and over it a canopy with wings spread to the sides was hung. On both sides of the reliquary two eagles were placed. Two more, holding a mitre and a crosier, stood underneath. In the four comers of the structure four obelisks adorned with candelabras were placed, while the sides of the altar of St. Stanislaus had two more with lights and bishop’s insignia painted on them. Among various forms of relics veneration propagated by the Church after the Council of Trent, one was their solemn presentation to the congregation. The article analyses different examples of decorations connected with such presentations. As a close analogy to Cracow’s celebrations a jubilee of the nine-hundredth anniversary of the translation of St. Liborius from Le Mans to Paderbom celebrated in 1736 was chosen. The analysis includes annual celebrations in honour of St. Florian at Sackingen and customs connected with the translations of relics from the catacombs in Rome to churches in the Habsburg countries. The examples listed and the analysis of the written sources about Cracow allowed a hypothetical reconstruction of occasional architecture and an interpretation of its symbolic contents.

  3. Comparing postpartum stressors and social support level in primiparous and multiparous women

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    Parvin Salari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Postpartum period is an exclusive period after birth which can act as a potential stressor and could be accompanied with psychological disorders. Social support could play an important role in maternal mental health. Considering various stressors and different levels of social support for women, this study aimed to compare postpartum stressors as well as social support level between primiparous and multiparous women. Method: This descriptive comparative study was conducted on 400 primiparous and multiparous mothers who referred to urban health centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2011. They had no history of medical or psychological problems and had healthy term neonates who were 8-25 days old. The sampling was carried out through a multistage cluster sampling. Data were collected using modified Hung questionnaire of postpartum stressors, Helen questionnaire of anxiety and Hopkins social support questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive analytic statistics by SPSS version 11. Results: The mean stress scores were 242.5±157.1 in primiparous and 28.8±179.8 in multiparous women. The main stressor of primiparous and multiparous women was neonate bathing and lower-back pain, respectively. The mean score of social support was 108.3±8.25 in the primiparous and 102.0±26.6 in multiparous women, which showed a significant difference between two groups (P=0.000. Conclusion: Various care programs are essential to support primiparous and multiparous mothers from different stressors that they face in postpartum period. It is also recommended to provid more information regarding the social support for the families.

  4. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 1010 and 1.22 × 1010 Gm3 yr-1, respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 1010 Gm3 yr-1. Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 1010 Gm3 yr-1. The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathophysiologie des Kollagenstoffwechsels bei Patienten mit Induratio penis plastica (IPP

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    Lahme S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Pathogenese der IPP ist bis heute nicht geklärt. Histopathologische Untersuchungen zeigen, daß der Kollagenstoffwechsel eine Rolle spielt. Dies veranlaßte uns zur genauen Analyse der Kollagenstoffwechselparameter bei IPP. Bei 11 Patienten mit IPP und 11 Kontrollpersonen wurden Kollagenstoffwechselparameter (Prokollagen III [PIIIP], PMN-Elastase [PMN-E], Fibronektin [FN], Fibronektinrezeptor [FN-R] und alpha1-Proteinase-Inhibitor [alpha1-PI] im cavernösen und peripheren Blut bestimmt. PMN-E, PIIIP, FN und FN-R waren in den beiden Untersuchungsgruppen nicht unterschiedlich. Die peripher venösen unterschieden sich nicht von den cavernösen Blutproben. Sowohl im peripher venös (158,55 mg/dl als auch im cavernös entnommenen Blut (168,29 mg/dl war die Konzentration des a1-PI signifikant niedriger als in der Kontrollgruppe (214,82 mg/dl. An einem zweiten Kollektiv von 23 Patienten wurden Analysen des Phänotyps für alpha1-PI im Hinblick auf das Vorliegen von genetisch determinierten Mangelallelen vorgenommen. Hier zeigte sich kein signifikanter Unterschied zu einem Kontrollkollektiv von 19 gesunden Probanden. Die alpha1-PI Erniedrigung der IPP-Patienten ist signifikant und liegt unterhalb des Normalwertbereichs für die gesunde Population. Ein Mangel an alpha1-PI kann zur Aktivitätserhöhung der Proteasen und zum Umbau des Kollagengewebes führen. Möglicherweise kommt es zusammen mit einem lokal wirksamen Einflußfaktor schließlich zur dystrophen Kalzifikation. Die humangenetischen Untersuchungen sprechen nicht für eine genetische Determinierung des alpha1-PI-Mangels, sondern legen eine erworbene hepatische Störung nahe.

  6. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PSthermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort.

  7. Estudios sobre la reactividad de harinas crudas de cemento tratadas con rápidos y diferentes calentamientos

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    Weisweiler, W.

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Estudios experimentales llevados a cabo a una temperatura dada de calcinación, sirvieron para observar el efecto de las altas velocidades de calentamiento sobre las reacciones del clinker. Mientras que un aumento de la reactividad de los materiales fue claramente detectada cuando la velocidad pasó de 20 K/min a tomar valores iguales y mayores a 100 K/min, un negativo efecto sobre el Tiempo de Reacción Completa o "Período de Calcinación a Punto" no pudo ser establecido. Considerando además que el tiempo necesario para llevar a la materia prima hasta la temperatura de reacción, es necesariamente un tiempo inefectivo, podrían las plantas productoras de cemento obtener mayores rendimientos en tiempo y espacio, utilizando altas cuotas de calentamiento. Estudios de microscopía probaron que con el aumento de las velocidades de calentamiento, hubo una mayor generación de microcristales incidiendo directamente sobre la molienda y calidad del clinker. [de] Untersuchungen zur Reaktivität van zementrohmehlen nach verschieden schneller Aufheizung. Modellversuche mit linearen Aufheizgeschwindigkeiten solten zeigen, ob bei einer vorgegebenen Brenntemperatur die Verklinkerungsreaktionen beeinfluβt werden können. Während eindeutige Steigerungen der Kalkbindungsraten lediglich zwischen 20 K/min und Aufheizgeschwindigkeiten >=100 K/min nachweisbar waren, konnten negative Auswirkungen auf die Garbranddauern bei keiner Versuchsserie festgestellt werden. Unter Berücksichtigung der zur Aufheizung der Rohstoffe notwendigen Totzeiten, können bei den technischen Zementproduktionsanlagen nach schneller Aufheizung höhere Raum-Zeit-Ausbeuten erreicht werden. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen ergaben, daβ durch Erhöhung der Aufheizraten der Anteil mikrokristalliner Klinkerphasen zunimmt, was sich direkt aut die Zementklinkermahibarkeit und die Klinkerqualität aswirkt.

  8. Assessing quality and completeness of human transcriptional regulatory pathways on a genome-wide scale

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    Aifantis Iannis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathway databases are becoming increasingly important and almost omnipresent in most types of biological and translational research. However, little is known about the quality and completeness of pathways stored in these databases. The present study conducts a comprehensive assessment of transcriptional regulatory pathways in humans for seven well-studied transcription factors: MYC, NOTCH1, BCL6, TP53, AR, STAT1, and RELA. The employed benchmarking methodology first involves integrating genome-wide binding with functional gene expression data to derive direct targets of transcription factors. Then the lists of experimentally obtained direct targets are compared with relevant lists of transcriptional targets from 10 commonly used pathway databases. Results The results of this study show that for the majority of pathway databases, the overlap between experimentally obtained target genes and targets reported in transcriptional regulatory pathway databases is surprisingly small and often is not statistically significant. The only exception is MetaCore pathway database which yields statistically significant intersection with experimental results in 84% cases. Additionally, we suggest that the lists of experimentally derived direct targets obtained in this study can be used to reveal new biological insight in transcriptional regulation and suggest novel putative therapeutic targets in cancer. Conclusions Our study opens a debate on validity of using many popular pathway databases to obtain transcriptional regulatory targets. We conclude that the choice of pathway databases should be informed by solid scientific evidence and rigorous empirical evaluation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Wing Hung Wong, Dr. Thiago Motta Venancio (nominated by Dr. L Aravind, and Prof. Geoff J McLachlan.

  9. Survivin – biology and potential as a therapeutic target in oncology

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    Cheung CHA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chun Hei Antonio Cheung,1,2 Chien-Chang Huang,3 Fang-Ying Tsai,4 Jane Ying-Chieh Lee,1 Siao Muk Cheng,2 Yung-Chieh Chang,1 Yi-Chun Huang,1 Shang-Hung Chen,5 Jang-Yang Chang3,6 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, 4South East Asian Health Education Center in Taiwan (SEAHECT, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 5Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs family; its overexpression has been widely demonstrated to occur in various types of cancer. Overexpression of survivin also correlates with tumor progression and induces anticancer drug resistance. Interestingly, recent studies reveal that survivin exhibits multiple pro-mitotic and anti-apoptotic functions; the differential functions of survivin seem to be caused by differential subcellular localization, phosphorylation, and acetylation of this molecule. In this review, the complex expression regulations and post-translational modifications of survivin are discussed. This review also discusses how recent discoveries improve our understanding of survivin biology and also create opportunities for developing differential-functioned survivin-targeted therapy. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus® (Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, and SciFinder® (CAS, Columbus, OH, USA were used to search for literature in the preparation of this review. Keywords: survivin, BIRC5, IAP, XIAP, caspase-9, Samc, DIABLO

  10. Evaluating Liquid and Granular Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Broadcast Applications for Controlling Vectors of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses in Artificial Containers and Tree Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, James F; Farooq, Muhammad; Turnwall, Brent T; Richardson, Alec G

    2015-07-01

    The principal vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial and natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these and similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military and civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular and liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB and VectoBac GR) and two liquid (Aquabac XT and VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, and hung 1.5 or 3 m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality and Bti droplet and granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular and liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open and beneath vegetation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

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    MF. Souza-Filho

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker, N. glaberrima (Wiedemann, N. pendula (Bezzi, N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis, as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, D. brasiliensis (Szépligeti, Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut, and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchôa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years.

  12. Innovative use of Distributed Temperature Sensing and Meteorological Data to Understand Thermoregulation of Free-Ranging Howling Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Vinyard, C. J.; Williams, S. H.; Hausner, M. B.; Tyler, S. W.; Glander, K.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations are a major driver of change in natural habitats and influence the lifestyle of all organisms because temperature impacts molecular, physiological, and behavioral processes. However, there is a lack of understanding on how temperature affects metabolism, behavior, and ecology at the organismal level. Even though physiological responses to temperature fluctuations have been well documented in laboratory conditions, it has been challenging to collect the required environmental data to study thermoregulation of free-ranging mammals such as mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Fortunately, recent advances in fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) now permit the observation of temperature fields in the environment at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. This has opened an exciting opportunity for temperature monitoring at scales that were previously not feasible. This study addresses the main limitations of previous studies of primate behavior by integrating real-time environmental data with the behavior and physiological response of free-ranging primates. In this work, we present preliminary DTS data collected in a natural habitat of howling monkeys. Fiber-optic cables were hung between the ground and an elevation of approximately 15 m within the forest canopy, providing continuous profiles of temperature without any disturbance due to the animals and habitat. These measurements were integrated with conventional meteorological data and with the ambient temperature at the location of the animal, as well as with measurements of primate's subcutaneous and core body temperatures. These data will be utilized to determine how environmental conditions relate to primate behavioral and physiological responses in time and space. The methodologies used in this study provide tools to test theories of physiological thermoregulation of other free-ranging animals.

  13. INFORMATION SCENARIOS OVER THE RISK IN INSURANCE

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    Mariana Rodica Tirlea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Risks management means identifying them, assessing, quantifying and strategy to counter them, and finding solutions to some levers to diminish or even eliminate the possibility of developing or their consequences. Hung everywhere, risk is associated with uncertain situations and opportunities. The consequences of risk can result in adverse or positive effects related to the activity of the insurance undertaking or of the reinsurance undertaking. The risk has a pronounced randomly character, and its presence in the field of insurance undertakings and reinsurance. This can be explained by the fact that the risks are taken by these companies and have direct effects on their financial results during the period of validity of the contractual relations. The results of risk effects have an impact on the results of activity of insurance companies. The financial impact of a negative event, exceed the sum of the individual loss, leading in some cases to bankruptcy. The financial impact is due to the positive opportunities, which have not made an appearance, and the first event to transform into income. An important role is the responsibility of the information system, providing solutions based on scenarios, by electronic data processing, consider all types of consequences of a hazard and allow insurance companies and reinsurance, on the other hand, to calculate all the possible consequences of a given event and the ultimate financial impact on them, and finally, to make decisions to base decisions for various insurance products and reinsurance. People insurance records for each situation. In practice the scenario method is only used to make specific estimates for different scenarios depending on the circumstances, which has a certain probability of realization, for the favorable; for the neutral and negative and gives solutions for each individual, taking into account certain criteria. For example, we will present a life insurance in several poses.

  14. Post-evaluation of a ground source heat pump system for residential space heating in Shanghai China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y.; Tan, H. W.; Wang, L. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Residents of Southern China are increasingly concerned about the space heating in winter. The chief aim of the present work is to find a cost-effective way for residential space heating in Shanghai, one of the biggest city in south China. Economic and energy efficiency of three residential space heating ways, including ground source heat pump (GSHP), air source heat pump (ASHP) and wall-hung gas boiler (WHGB), are assessed based on Long-term measured data. The results show that the heat consumption of the building is 120 kWh/m2/y during the heating season, and the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of the GSHP, ASHP and WHGB systems are 3.27, 2.30, 0.88 respectively. Compared to ASHP and WHGB, energy savings of GSHP during the heating season are 6.2 kgce/(m2.y) and 2.2 kgce/(m2.y), and the payback period of GSHP are 13.3 and 7.6 years respectively. The sensitivity analysis of various factors that affect the payback period is carried out, and the results suggest that SEER is the most critical factor affecting the feasibility of ground source heat pump application, followed by building load factor and energy price factor. These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that ground source heat pump for residential space heating in Shanghai is a good alternative, which can achieve significant energy saving benefits, and a good system design and operation management are key factors that can shorten the payback period.

  15. Assessment of the Occupational Health and Food Safety Risks Associated with the Traditional Slaughter and Consumption of Goats in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel N; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Oguttu, James W; Grace, Delia

    2017-04-14

    This study assessed the occupational health and food safety risks associated with the traditional slaughter of goats and the consumption of such meat in Tshwane, South Africa. A convenience sample of 105 respondents agreed to be interviewed using structured questionnaires. A high proportion (62.64%) of practitioners admitted to not wearing protective clothing during slaughter. Slaughtering was mainly carried out by males (99%) with experience (62.2%). Forty-four percent of practitioners only changed the clothes they wore while slaughtering when they got home. During the actual slaughter, up to seven people may be involved. The majority (58.9%) of slaughters occurred early in the morning and none of the goats were stunned first. In 77.5% of cases, the health status of the persons who performed the slaughtering was not known. The majority (57.3%) of the slaughters were performed on a corrugated iron roof sheet (zinc plate). In 83.3% of the cases, the carcass was hung up to facilitate bleeding, flaying, and evisceration. Meat inspection was not practiced by any of the respondents. Throughout the slaughter process, the majority used the same knife (84.3) and 84.7% only cleaned the knife when it became soiled. A total of 52.0% of the respondents processed the carcass and cooked the meat immediately. The majority (80.0%) consumed the meat within 30 min of cooking. Men are at a higher risk of occupational health hazards associated with traditional slaughter, which can be transferred to their households. Unhygienic methods of processing and the lack of any form of post-mortem examination increase the risk of food-borne illness following the consumption of such meat.

  16. Toward Electoral Security: Experiences from KwaZulu-Natal Höhere Sicherheit bei Wahlen: Erfahrungen aus KwaZulu-Natal

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    Kristine Höglund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the dangers of electoral violence. Yet, the theoretical foundation for systematic research and for adequate policy is still underdeveloped. This article aims to develop the theoretical understandings of strategies to manage and prevent electoral violence. This is accomplished by integrating research conducted within the two academic discourses on democratization and conflict management and also by drawing on the experiences from the conflict-ridden province KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The five strategies identified are monitoring, mediation, legal measures, law enforcement and self-regulating practices. In the article, the functions and mechanisms of the strategies are discussed. In addition, we analyse the limitations and usefulness of each of the strategies in turn and also provide suggestions on how to improve electoral security.Gewaltsame Auseinandersetzungen bei Wahlen werden zunehmend als Gefahr erkannt. Dennoch sind die theoretischen Grundlagen systematischer Forschungen zu diesem Phänomen, die zu angemessenen politischen Handlungsweisen beitragen könnten, immer noch ungenügend entwickelt. Dieser Beitrag zielt darauf ab, einen theoretischen Hintergrund für Strategien zum Umgang mit Gewalt bei Wahlen und zur Prävention zu entwickeln. Zu diesem Zweck kombinieren die Autorinnen Ergebnisse zweier Forschungsbereiche – der Demokratisierungsforschung und der Forschung zum Konfliktmanagement – und ziehen außerdem Erfahrungen aus der konfliktbeladenen südafrikanischen Provinz KwaZulu-Natal heran. Sie identifizieren fünf Strategien: Monitoring, Mediation, gesetzliche Maßnahmen, Sanktionierung und Selbsthilfepraktiken. Die Autorinnen diskutieren die Wirkungsweisen und Erfolgsaussichten, aber auch die Grenzen dieser Strategien und machen einige konkrete Vorschläge zur Erhöhung der Sicherheit bei Wahlen.

  17. Taiwanese maternal health in the postpartum nursing centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chich-Hsiu; Yu, Ching-Yun; Ou, Chu-Chun; Liang, Wei-Wen

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the association between postpartum stress as well as social support and the general health status of women recently discharged from postpartum nursing centres where the ritual of Tso-Yueh-Tzu is followed. Taiwanese women stay in postpartum nursing centres to take care of their newborn babies and perform the traditional Chinese ritual of Tso-Yueh-Tzu, the custom of a postpartum month-long rest. A non-experimental research design was used in the study. Two hundred and fifty-eight postpartum women who had stayed in postpartum nursing centres for at least 20 days were recruited at eight postpartum nursing centres in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area of southern Taiwan. They were administered the Hung Postpartum Stress Scale, the Social Support Scale and the Chinese Health Questionnaire. Women without minor psychiatric morbidity had higher social support, lower postpartum stress and longer length-of-stays in the postpartum care centre than women with minor psychiatric morbidity. Postpartum stress revolved around changes in body shape. A one-point increase in postpartum stress increased the likelihood that a mother would suffer minor psychiatric morbidity by 1.04 times; while giving birth to a boy decreased that likelihood by 0.51 times. This study found Tso-Yueh-Tzu as practised in postpartum nursing centres gave the postpartum women the opportunity to receive tangible support and, therefore, helped decrease postpartum stress and improved their general health. The greatest source of postpartum stress was concern over negative body changes. The postpartum nursing centre plays an important role in helping postpartum Taiwanese women observe the traditional ritual of Tso-Yueh-Tzu and in improving these women's general health. These centres may want to pay more attention to providing exercise that promotes body toning and relaxation.

  18. Kinesthetically guided reaching accuracy in individuals with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available You-jou Hung,1 Warren G Darling2 1Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA; 2Department of Health and Human Physiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether individuals with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation show larger reaching errors than those with healthy shoulders and to determine if they implement different reaching strategies to protect the injured shoulder. Methods: Ten people with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation and 15 with healthy shoulders volunteered for this study. After viewing targets in space, participants pointed with the unconstrained arm to remembered target locations in space without visual guidance. Nine different targets were located in various planes and heights. Endpoint reaching errors were determined by comparing the finger endpoint position without visual guidance to the target location. Shoulder rotation angle at the endpoint was also compared between groups. Results: Participants with injured shoulders were able to point voluntarily to visually specified targets as accurately as participants with healthy shoulders (1 cm difference. However, participants with injured shoulders showed less shoulder external rotation (average 12° difference at the target location when compared with healthy shoulders. This difference was consistent over a large range of target locations. Conclusion: Individuals with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation have sufficient kinesthetic information about their upper limb orientation to point accurately to visually specified targets in space. However, individuals with injured shoulders acquired a new motor strategy to reach with less shoulder external rotation, presumably to protect the injured shoulder from recurrent injuries. Keywords: shoulder injuries, physiotherapy, shoulder

  19. Purple urine bag syndrome in nursing homes: Ten elderly case reports and a literature review

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    Chi-Hung Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chi-Hung Lin1, Hsien-Te Huang1, Chia-Chang Chien1, Dong-Sheng Tzeng1,2, For-Wey Lung1,3–51Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Occupational Safety and Health; 3Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Calo Psychiatric Center, Pingtung County, TaiwanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a rare occurrence, in which the patient has a purple-colored urine bag following urinary catheterization for hours to days. Most of authors believe it is a mixture of indigo (blue and indirubin (red that becomes purple. Previous study showed that PUBS occurred predominantly in chronically catheterized, constipated women. We collected 10 elderly patients with PUBS in two nursing homes. The first two cases were identified by chart review in 1987 and 2003, and then later eight cases (42.1% were collected among 19 urinary catheterized elderly in the period between January 2007 and June 2007. In the present report, PUBS probably can occur in any patients with the right elements, namely urinary tract infection (UTI with bacteria possessing these enzymes, diet with enough tryptophan, and being catheterized. Associations with bed-bound state, Alzheimer’s, or dementia from other causes are reflections of the state of such patients who are at higher risk for UTI, and hence PUBS occurred. Although we presented PUBS as a harmless problem, prevention and control of the nosocomial catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs has become very important in the new patient-centered medical era. Thus, we should decrease the duration of catheterization, improve catheter care, and deploy technological advances designed for prevention, especially in the elderly cared for in nursing homes.Keyword: purple urine bag syndrome, indigo, indirubin, nursing home, bacteriuria, indoxyl sulphatase

  20. Synthesis and neuroprotective effects of the complex nanoparticles of iron and sapogenin isolated from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Zhao, Chuang; Zhao, Jun; Ye, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera var. monosperma Hung T. Chang (Theaceae) are currently discarded without effective utilization. However, sapogenin has been isolated and shows antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities suggestive of its neuroprotective function. In order to improve the activities of sapogenin, the nanoparticles of iron-sapogenin have been synthesized, and the neuroprotective effects are evaluated. Structural characters of the nanoparticles were analyzed, and the antioxidant effect was assessed by DPPH method, and the neuroprotective effect was evaluated by rotenone-induced neurodegeneration in Kunming mice injected subcutaneously into the back of neck with rotenone (50 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks and then treated by tail intravenous injection with the iron-sapogenin at the dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg for 7 days. Mice behaviour and neurotransmitters were tested. The product had an average size of 162 nm with spherical shape, and scavenged more than 90% DPPH radicals at 0.8 mg/mL concentration. It decreased behavioural disorder and malondialdehyde content in mice brain, and increased superoxide dismutase activity, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, dopamine and acetylcholine levels in brain in dose dependence, and their maximum changes were respectively up to 60.83%, 25.17%, 22.13%, 105.26%, 42.17% and 22.89% as compared to vehicle group. Iron-sapogenin nanoparticle shows significantly better effects than the sapogenin. Iron-sapogenin alleviates neurodegeneration of mice injured by neurotoxicity of rotenone, it is a superior candidate of drugs for neuroprotection.

  1. Pseudomembranous colitis within radiotherapy field following concurrent chemoradiation therapy: a case report

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    Shen BJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bing-Jie Shen,1 Shih-Chiang Lin,2 Pei-Wei Shueng,1,3 Yueh-Hung Chou,4 Li-Ming Tseng,5 Chen-Hsi Hsieh1,6,71Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Oncology and Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Anatomical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Development of nonantibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis has been reported in patients receiving chemotherapy. Herein, we report a case of a 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who received concurrent chemoradiation therapy after surgery for stage III pT3N1M0 rectal cancer. After completion of the therapy, the patient presented with a 2-week history of intermittent watery diarrhea (seven to nine times per day. However, the patient was afebrile and laboratory examination revealed no evidence of leukocytosis. Computed tomography disclosed inflammation of the sigmoid colon, infiltrative changes around the anastomotic site, and edematous changes straddling the serosal surface. Colonoscopic examination revealed multiple whitish patches within the radiation field, a finding suggestive of pseudomembranous colitis. No concomitant antibiotics were used during the period of concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Empirical oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 hours was administrated for 2 weeks. At the end of this treatment, stool culture was negative for Clostridium difficile. Physicians should be aware of the potential for the development of

  2. Effectiveness of a life story work program on older adults with intellectual disabilities

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    Bai X

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xue Bai,1,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Karen Fung,3 Lily Tang,3 Moon He,3 Kim Wan Young,4 Florence Ho,2 Timothy Kwok2,5 1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong; 3Hong Chi Association, Hong Kong; 4Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong; 5Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Objective: This study examines the effectiveness of a life story work program (LSWp in older adults with mild-to-moderate levels of intellectual disability (ID. Methods: Using a quasiexperimental design, this study assigned 60 older adults who were between 50–90 years old with mild-to-moderate levels of ID to receive either the LSWp (intervention group, N=32 or usual activities (control group, N=28 during a period of 6 months. Evaluation was made based on the outcomes assessed by the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Personal Well-being Index – ID. Results and conclusion: LSWp shows potential for improving the quality of life and preventing the loss of interest and pleasure in older adults with ID. It also shows promise in enhancing their socialization skills. Patients with better communication abilities seemed to benefit more from the LSWp. Keywords: life story work, life story book, intellectual disabilities, older adults, effectiveness

  3. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening

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    Lin SH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Hung Lin,1 Kao-Jean Huang,1,2 Ching-Feng Weng,1 David Shiuan1 1Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Development Center of Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR. The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening. Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, virtual screening, curcumin, salvianolic acid C

  4. The Impact of Simulated Nature on Patient Outcomes: A Study of Photographic Sky Compositions.

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    Pati, Debajyoti; Freier, Patricia; O'Boyle, Michael; Amor, Cherif; Valipoor, Shabboo

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether incorporation of simulated nature, in the form of ceiling mounted photographic sky compositions, influences patient outcomes. Previous studies have shown that most forms of nature exposure have a positive influence on patients. However, earlier studies have mostly focused on wall-hung nature representations. The emergence of simulated nature products has raised the question regarding the effects of the new product on patient outcomes. A between-subject experimental design was adopted, where outcomes from five inpatient rooms with sky composition ceiling fixture were compared to corresponding outcomes in five identical rooms without the intervention. Data were collected from a total of 181 subjects on 11 outcomes. Independent sample tests were performed to identify differences in mean outcomes. Significant positive outcomes were observed in environmental satisfaction and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Environmental satisfaction in the experimental group was 12.4% higher than the control group. Direction of association for diastolic BP, nausea/indigestion medication, acute stress, anxiety, pain, and environmental satisfaction were consistent with a priori hypothesis. A post hoc exploratory assessment involving patients who did not self-request additional pain and sleep medication demonstrated confirmatory directions for all outcomes except Systolic BP, and statistically significant outcomes for Acute Stress and Anxiety-Acute Stress and Anxiety levels of the experimental group subjects was 53.4% and 34.79% lower, respectively, than that of the control group subjects. Salutogenic benefits of photographic sky compositions render them better than traditional ceiling tiles and offer an alternative to other nature interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone

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    Kang Hou-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI. However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Methods Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1 the experiment group (on malleus: the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2 negative control group (in vivo: the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3 positive control group (Hy-M30: a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. Results The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. Conclusions It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  6. Involvement of Notch1 inhibition in serum-stimulated glia and oligodendrocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells

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    Yi-Jang Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Jang Lee1, Shih-Chieh Hung2–5, Mien-Sheng Chu41Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, 3Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Medical Research and Education, 5Department of Orthopedics, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, TaiwanAbstract: The use of in vitro oligodendrocyte differentiation for transplantation of stem cells to treat demyelinating diseases is an important consideration. In this study, we investigated the effects of serum on glia and oligodendrocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells (KP-hMSCs. We found that serum deprivation resulted in a reversible downregulation of glial- and oligodendrocyte-specific markers. Serum stimulated expression of oligodendrocyte markers, such as galactocerebroside, as well as Notch1 and JAK1 transcripts. Inhibition of Notch1 activation by the Notch inhibitor, MG132, led to enhanced expression of a serum-stimulated oligodendrocyte marker. This marker was undetectable in serum-deprived KP-hMSCs treated with MG132, suggesting that inhibition of Notch1 function is additive to serum-stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation. Furthermore, a dominant-negative mutant RBP-J protein also inhibited Notch1 function and led to upregulation of oligodendrocyte-specific markers. Our results demonstrate that serum-stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation is enhanced by the inhibition of Notch1-associated functions.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, glia and oligodendrocyte differentiation, Notch1 signaling, serum deprivation

  7. USING SITES FROM INTERNET IN THE CHEMISTY TEACHING AND THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

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    M. P. S Azevedo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to evaluate how the use of the Internet by Chemistry teachers from the City of  Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, is done as a helping tool in the teaching-learning process. For this purpose, contents of General Chemistry made available in web sites were examined and analyzed, throughout qualitative research, the frequency and the form Chemistry teachers from public schools of Campos of Goytacazes (RJ manage the contents made available in the Internet. The research data shows that 58% of the teachers have a frequency of individual use of the computer being connected to the Internet daily. 43% of the teachers interviewed already affirmed to have used the resource at once in classroom and 78% already declared to have found contradictions in the information they have researched in sites containing Chemistry information. However, only 38% of the teachers affirmed to check the contents found in the Internet with those made available in text books. Regarding the analyzed sites (6 sites , none of them was considered excellent taking into account reliability parameters proposed by Hung (2004, like truthfulness, objectivity, present time and authority. Therefore teachers and students should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages Internet can bring to the teaching-learning process so together they can establish necessary guidelines in order to good initial propositions regarding this process do not turn out as self-defeating.

  8. Atmospheric and environmental effects of the 1783-1784 Laki eruption: A review and reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The 1783-1784 Laki flood lava eruption in Iceland emitted ˜122 megatons (Mt) SO2 into the atmosphere and maintained a sulfuric aerosol veil that hung over the Northern Hemisphere for >5 months. The eruption columns extended to 9-13 km and released ˜95 Mt SO2 into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (i.e., the polar jet stream), enforcing a net eastward dispersion of the plumes which reacted with atmospheric moisture to produce ˜200 Mt of H2SO4 aerosols. Away from source, the Laki aerosols were delivered to the surface by subsiding air masses within anticyclones. We show that ˜175 Mt of H2SO4 aerosols were removed as acid precipitation and caused the extreme volcanic pollution (i.e., dry fog) that effected Europe and other regions in 1783. The remaining ˜25 Mt stayed aloft at tropopause level for >1 year. The summer of 1783 was characterized by extreme and unusual weather, including an unusually hot July in western Europe, most likely caused by perseverance of southerly air currents. The following winter was one of the most severe winters on record in Europe and North America. In these regions, the annual mean surface cooling that followed the Laki eruption was about -1.3°C and lasted for 2-3 years. We propose that the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosols from Laki disrupted the thermal balance of the Arctic regions for two summers and were the main mechanism for the associated climate perturbations. Eruptions of Laki magnitude have occurred in the recent past in Iceland and will occur again. If such an eruption were to occur today, one of the most likely immediate consequences would be disruption to air traffic over large portions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  9. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

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    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  10. Controller Chips Preserve Microprocessor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Above the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Brazil, there is a dip in the Earth s surrounding magnetic field called the South Atlantic Anomaly. Here, space radiation can reach into Earth s upper atmosphere to interfere with the functioning of satellites, aircraft, and even the International Space Station. "The South Atlantic Anomaly is a hot spot of radiation that the space station goes through at a certain point in orbit," Miria Finckenor, a physicist at Marshall Space Flight Center, describes, "If there s going to be a problem with the electronics, 90 percent of that time, it is going to be in that spot." Space radiation can cause physical damage to microchips and can actually change the software commands in computers. When high-energy particles penetrate a satellite or other spacecraft, the electrical components can absorb the energy and temporarily switch off. If the energy is high enough, it can cause the device to enter a hung state, which can only be addressed by restarting the system. When space radiation affects the operational status of microprocessors, the occurrence is called single event functional interrupt (SEFI). SEFI happens not only to the computers onboard spacecraft in Earth orbit, but to the computers on spacecraft throughout the solar system. "One of the Mars rovers had this problem in the radiation environment and was rebooting itself several times a day. On one occasion, it rebooted 40 times in one day," Finckenor says. "It s hard to obtain any data when you have to constantly reboot and start over."

  11. Parenting practices, parents' underestimation of daughters' risks, and alcohol and sexual behaviors of urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée

    2008-05-01

    In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.

  12. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  13. Thickness and fit of mouthguards according to heating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in the thickness and fit of mouthguards made by four different heating methods of the mouthguard sheet material. A Sports Mouthguard(®) of 3.8-mm thickness was used in this study. Four heating methods were performed. In one method, the sheet was heated only one side. In the other methods, one side of the sheet was heated first until the center of the sheet was displaced by 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, and 1.5 cm from the baseline, and then turned upside down and heated. The sheets were adapted using a vacuum former when the heated sheets hung 1.5 cm from the baseline. We measured the thickness and fit of the mouthguard at the areas of the central incisor and first molar. The difference in thickness at the central incisor and first molar regions was analyzed by two-way anova. The difference in fit with different heating methods was analyzed by one-way anova. The results showed that the thickness of the mouthguard differed in the central incisor and first molar areas (P heating methods. The fit of the mouthguard at the central incisor and first molar areas was significantly different among the heating methods (P heated surface of the sheet contacted the surface of the working model. This finding may help to fabricate accurate mouthguards. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Association of depression with sleep quality might be greater than that of pain intensity among outpatients with chronic low back pain

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    Wang HY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-Yu Wang,1,2,* Tsai-Sheng Fu,2,3,* Shih-Chieh Hsu,1,2 Ching-I Hung1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, 2Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, 3Department of Orthopedics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: No study to date has compared the associations of pain intensity, depression, and anxiety with insomnia among outpatients with chronic low back pain (CLBP. This study aimed to investigate this issue.Patients and methods: A total of 225 outpatients with CLBP were enrolled from a general orthopedics clinic. The Insomnia Severity Index was used to evaluate sleep quality. Major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision, Axis I Disorders. Two psychometric scales were used to evaluate depression and anxiety. The Visual Analog Scale was employed to assess pain intensity. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine the association of insomnia with pain intensity, depression, and anxiety.Results: Among the 225 subjects, 58 (25.8% had clinical insomnia; 83 (36.9% had severe low back pain; 49 (21.8% had MDD, including 21 (9.3% with a current major depressive episode (MDE; and 52 (23.1% had anxiety disorders. More than half (56.9% of the subjects with CLBP and clinical insomnia had MDD and/or anxiety disorders. Subjects with a current MDE or anxiety disorders had greater severities of pain and insomnia as compared with subjects without these conditions. After controlling for demographic variables, MDE was more strongly associated with insomnia than severe low back pain; moreover, the severity of depression had a greater association with insomnia than pain intensity.Conclusion: The association of depression with insomnia was not inferior to that of

  15. Facility for testing ice drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  16. Spiritual care may impact mental health and medication adherence in HIV+ populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oji VU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Valerie U Oji,1–3 Leslie C Hung,3 Reza Abbasgholizadeh,1,4 Flora Terrell Hamilton,5 E James Essien,6 Evaristus Nwulia7 1Lifefountain Center Ministries Inc, Houston, TX, USA; 2Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3University of Texas, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, USA; 4University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 5Administration, Family & Medical Counseling Service, Inc. (FMCS, Washington, DC, USA; 6University of Houston Institute for Community Health, Houston, TX, USA; 7Psychiatry, Howard University Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA Objective: To explore a potential role for spirituality in medication-related needs assessment for integrated care in chronically ill populations. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the impact of faith beliefs on health and/or medication adherence in individuals with depression and/or HIV+/AIDS. Retrospective electronic medical record review of adult HIV+ patients of an urban primary care clinic with integrated mental health services was conducted, with Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener (SAMISS, major depressive disorder (MDD incidence over the preceding year, and history of contact with a spiritual advisor. A convenience sample was interviewed to qualitatively assess potential medication therapy management needs and medication-related problems. Another sample was examined utilizing the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Results: The literature reports positive influence on health behaviors, coping and outcomes; and poor medication adherence and treatment decisions due to patient passivity or resistance. Spiritual advisor contact (not limited to a specific religion was significantly associated with MDD absence (1.7% vs. 15.3%, P<0.005 and inversely related to SAMISS, depression, and poor health behaviors. Patient interviews reflected significance of faith in terms of insight and acceptance of

  17. Local Experience-Dependent Changes in the Wake EEG after Prolonged Wakefulness

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    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of “local sleep” in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Design: Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: 16 healthy participants (7 females). Interventions: Two extended wake periods. Measurements and Results: Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Conclusions: Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas. Citation: Hung CS; Sarasso S

  18. Adjunct effect of music therapy on cognition in Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan: a pilot study

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    Li CH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Hsun Li,1–3 Ching-Kuan Liu,2,3 Yuan-Han Yang,2–4 Mei-Chuan Chou,2,4 Chun-Hung Chen,2 Chiou-Lian Lai2,3 1Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Department of and Master’s Program in Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Purpose: Music therapy (MT reviews have found beneficial effects on behaviors and social interaction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD but inconsistent effects on cognition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adjunct effect of long-term and home-based MT in AD patients under pharmacological treatment. Patients and methods: Mild AD cases (clinical dementia rating =0.5~1 were consecutively recruited and voluntarily separated into an MT group or control group (CG for 6 months. Outcome assessments included Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI, CASI-estimated mini-mental state examination, clinical dementia rating with sum of box scores, and neuropsychiatric inventory. The MT interventions were Mozart’s Sonata (KV 448 and Pachelbel’s Canon, listening with headphones for 30 minutes daily in the morning and before sleep, respectively. Results: Forty-one cases (MT versus CG number =20 versus 21 were analyzed. Adjusted differences of CASI-estimated mini-mental state examination and CASI after 6 months in the MT group were slightly less decreased than the CG without statistical significance. In further analysis of cognitive domains of CASI, the adjusted difference of abstraction domain in the MT group was significantly better than the CG. Conclusion: Although there were no apparent additional benefits of this MT on the global cognition and daily functioning in mild AD patients, it confirms the adjunct

  19. Prophylactic Ankle Braces and Knee Varus-Valgus and Internal-External Rotation Torque

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    Venesky, Kandy; Docherty, Carrie L; Dapena, Jesus; Schrader, John

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although prophylactic ankle bracing has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of ankle sprains, how these ankle braces might affect the other joints of the lower extremity is not clearly understood. Objective: To determine the effects of a prophylactic ankle brace on knee joint varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque during a drop landing onto a slanted surface. Design: A repeated-measures design. Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four physically active college students. Intervention(s): Participants were tested in a brace and no-brace condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured 3 dependent variables: (1) peak ankle inversion-eversion torque, (2) peak knee varus-valgus torque, and (3) peak knee internal-external rotation torque. A forceplate was used to collect ground reaction force data, and 6 motion analysis cameras collected kinematic data during the unilateral drop landing. An adjustable bar was hung from the ceiling, and a slant board was positioned over the center of the forceplate, so that the ankle of the participant's dominant leg would invert upon landing. Peak torque was measured in both the brace and no-brace conditions. The average of the peak values in 3 trials for both conditions was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Ankle eversion torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 = 19.75, P Knee external rotation torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 = 4.33,P knee torque was smaller in the brace condition, but the difference was not statistically significant (F1,23 = 3.45,P = .08). Conclusions: This study provides an important first step in understanding the effects of prophylactic ankle bracing on other joints of the lower extremity. We found that prophylactic ankle bracing did have an effect on knee torque when the subject was landing on a slanted surface. Specifically, knee external rotation torque increased when

  20. Patients’ satisfaction and prevalence of complications on surgical extraction of third molar

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    Lee CTY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystal TY Lee, Shinan Zhang, Yiu Yan Leung, Samantha KY Li, Cissy C Tsang, Chun-Hung Chu Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China Objectives: To study patients’ satisfaction and prevalence of complications in surgical extraction of impacted third molar by senior dentists and recently graduated dentists in a university dental clinic. Method: Patients who had impacted third molar extraction in a university dental clinic by two associate dentists who had <2 years of experience and two senior dentists who had >15 years of experience were evaluated in this study. Patients’ age, sex, history of pericoronitis, tooth extracted, and radiographic assessment of the impacted tooth were recorded. Immediately after suture removal, the patients were invited to indicate their satisfaction on a Likert scale of 1–5. Results: A total of 546 patients received extraction, and 251 patients were operated by associate dentists. Patient satisfaction was higher among those who had noncomplicated surgery (P=0.007, short treatment time (P<0.001, and had no postsurgical emergency appointments (P<0.001. The prevalence of seeking postsurgical emergency appointments was 9.2%. The reasons were severe pain (4.8%, swelling (2.6%, bleeding (2.4%, alveolar osteitis (0.9%, paresthesia (0.9, and trismus (0.5%. The prevalence of postsurgical complication(s in associate dentists and senior dentists was 11.6% and 7.1%, respectively (P=0.050. The mean satisfaction scores for associate dentists and senior dentists were 4.17 and 3.95, respectively (P=0.002. Conclusion: Although a higher rate of postsurgical complications was observed among the patients treated by the recently graduated dentists, their patients’ satisfaction scores were higher than that of the senior dentists. Around 9% of patients attended postsurgical emergency appointments, and their common reason was severe pain. Keywords: dental satisfaction, dentistry

  1. Evolution of technology in teaching: Blackboard and beyond in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Susirith; John, Lisha Jenny; Shanthakumari, Nisha; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Shaikh, Rizwana B

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning the passing of knowledge from one generation to another - has been in existence from the earliest times of human civilization. It began in 1801, with a large piece of slate hung on the wall in a school in Scotland to provide information to a large audience at one time. In the US by mid-19th century, every class room had a blackboard to teach students. The modern version of the blackboard is either green or brown board. This was introduced in late 1960s. The whiteboards came into use during the late 1980s. Projected aids have been used since 1420. The various devices used are the epidiascope, slide projector, overhead projector for transparencies and the micro projector. An instrument to project images from a horizontal surface onto a vertical screen was invented in the 1870s. By the 1960s, transparencies were in use in classrooms. The ‘Hyalotype’, a transparent image of a photograph using actual black and white photographs on a glass slide that could be projected was invented in 1851. By 1916, the German company Agfa started producing colored lantern slides. The first version of PowerPoint was released by Microsoft in the year 1990. Cell phones, palmtops, and handheld computers; tablets, laptops, and media players are included under mobile learning devices. With the evolution of technology, students achieved competence and interested in interactive learning. The education industry has moved from distance learning to e-learning and finally to m-learning as knowledge expanded exponentially and the demand escalated. While using teaching aids with advanced technology, we must not forget the lessons from the past, striking a balance between embracing new methods of teaching and learning while upholding the timeless principles of education. The newer educational technology can be part of a comprehensive system for lifelong education. Conclusion: Use of technology in education has come a long way since the earliest times of human civilization

  2. Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants.

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    King, Lucy E; Lala, Fredrick; Nzumu, Hesron; Mwambingu, Emmanuel; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2017-08-01

    Increasing habitat fragmentation and human population growth in Africa has resulted in an escalation in human-elephant conflict between small-scale farmers and free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). In 2012 Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) implemented the national 10-year Conservation and Management Strategy for the Elephant in Kenya, which includes an action aimed at testing whether beehive fences can be used to mitigate human-elephant conflict. From 2012 to 2015, we field-tested the efficacy of beehive fences to protect 10 0.4-ha farms next to Tsavo East National Park from elephants. We hung a series of beehives every 10 m around the boundary of each farm plot. The hives were linked with strong wire. After an initial pilot test with 2 farms, the remaining 8 of 10 beehive fences also contained 2-dimensional dummy hives between real beehives to help reduce the cost of the fence. Each trial plot had a neighboring control plot of the same size within the same farm. Of the 131 beehives deployed 88% were occupied at least once during the 3.5-year trial. Two hundred and fifty-three elephants, predominantly 20-45 years old entered the community farming area, typically during the crop- ripening season. Eighty percent of the elephants that approached the trial farms were kept out of the areas protected by the beehive fences, and elephants that broke a fence were in smaller than average groups. Beehive fences not only kept large groups of elephants from invading the farmland plots but the farmers also benefited socially and financially from the sale of 228 kg of elephant-friendly honey. As news of the success of the trial spread, a further 12 farmers requested to join the project, bringing the number of beehive fence protected farms to 22 and beehives to 297. This demonstrates positive adoption of beehive fences as a community mitigation tool. Understanding the response of elephants to the beehive fences, the seasonality of crop raiding and fence breaking, and the

  3. Odour-mediated foraging by yellowjacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): predation on leks of pheromone-calling Mediterranean fruit fly males (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Hendrichs, J; Katsoyannos, B I; Wornoayporn, V; Hendrichs, M A

    1994-09-01

    Predation is probably the most important male mortality factor in insect species with courtship displays that render males performing them conspicuous targets of predators. Sexually active Mediterranean fruit fly males, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), aggregate in leks, where they participate in agonistic encounters and engage in visual, acoustic and pheromone-calling displays to attract receptive females. The objective of this study was to assess: a) whether sexually displaying C. capitata males in leks inside host and non-host foliage are subject to predation by the most prominent predators yellow-jacket wasps, Vespula germanica (F.), and if so, b) whether olfactory, visual or auditive stimuli are used by foraging wasps in locating male C. capitata prey. Studies were carried out in a citrus orchard and surroundings on the island of Chios, Greece. Observations were conducted using perforated containers hung within mulberry, fig or citrus foliage. Living C. capitata flies of different sex and either mature or immature were placed inside. Our results show that the yellowjacket wasps have learned to associate the presence of sexually active medfly males aggregated in leks with their prey's pheromone (kairomone). Foraging wasps, flying through the crowns of host trees, responded to the odour source of C. capitata male pheromone by approaching from downwind. Even inside dense citrus tree foliage, wasps keyed in on aggregations of pheromone-calling males using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli of visual and acoustic male signalling were only used at close range, after having followed the pheromone plume close to its source. Visual cues played a greater role in directing wasp foraging under more open and exposed host foliage conditions. Odour-based foraging of wasps inside host foliage in the mid-morning hours, when medfly male lekking activities peak, shifted gradually to a more visual-based host fruit patrolling in the afternoons to capture ovipositing and feeding medfly females

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture on recent stroke inpatients with incomplete bladder emptying: a preliminary study

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    Yu KW

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Yu,1,* Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Chun-Chuang Hung,3 Eric Chieh-Lung Chou,4 Yueh-Ling Hsieh,5 Te-Mao Li,2,3,* Li-Wei Chou1,2,61Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Acupuncture Research Center, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Incomplete bladder emptying (IBE is defined as having a postvoid residual (PVR urine volume greater than 100 mL for 2 consecutive days. IBE is common in stroke patients and could necessitate indwelling or intermittent catheterization. The condition is correlated with urinary tract infections, which could impede rehabilitation progress and increase medical costs. Treatment for patients with IBE includes bladder retraining, biofeedback, medication, and botulinum toxin injection, but none of these interventions are completely effective.Methods: All patients with acute stroke who were admitted to the rehabilitation ward between August 2010 and April 2011 were included in the study and their PVR urine volume was checked. Electroacupuncture (EA; 1 Hz, 15 minutes was performed on the acupoints Sanyinjiao (SP6, Ciliao (BL32, and Pangguangshu (BL28 of stroke patients with IBE for a total of ten treatments (five times a week for 2 weeks. Bladder diaries, which included the spontaneous voiding and PVR urine volumes, were recorded during the course of treatment.Results: The presence of IBE was not related to sex, history of diabetes mellitus, stroke type (hemorrhagic or ischemic, or stroke location (P > 0.05. Among the 49 patients in the study, nine (18% had IBE

  5. Culturally adaptive storytelling method to improve hypertension control in Vietnam - "We talk about our hypertension": study protocol for a feasibility cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jeroan J; Nguyen, Hoa L; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Kim, Minjin; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-14

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. At present, the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are either on the rise or at alarming levels in Vietnam; inasmuch, the burden of CVD will continue to increase in this country unless effective prevention and control measures are put in place. A national survey in 2008 found that the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) was approximately 25 % among Vietnamese adults and it increased with advancing age. Therefore, novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions for public health education to promote engagement in the process of detecting and treating HTN in Vietnam are urgently needed. A feasibility randomized trial will be conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a novel community-based intervention using the "storytelling" method to enhance the control of HTN in adults residing in four rural communities. The intervention will center on stories about living with HTN, with patients speaking in their own words. The stories will be obtained from particularly eloquent patients, or "video stars," identified during Story Development Groups. The study will involve two phases: (i) developing a HTN intervention using the storytelling method, which is designed to empower patients to facilitate changes in their lifestyle practices, and (ii) conducting a feasibility cluster-randomized trial to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of the intervention compared with usual care in HTN control among rural residents. The trial will be conducted at four communes, and within each commune, 25 individuals 50 years or older with HTN will be enrolled in the trial resulting in a total sample size of 100 patients. This feasibility trial will provide the necessary groundwork for a subsequent large-scale, fully powered, cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of our novel

  6. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

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    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  7. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  8. The crossroads of breast cancer progression: insights into the modulation of major signaling pathways

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    Velloso FJ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fernando J Velloso,1,* Arthur FR Bianco,2,* Jessica O Farias,3 Nadia EC Torres,4 Pault YM Ferruzo,3 Valesca Anschau,5 Henrique C Jesus-Ferreira,1 Ted Hung-Tse Chang,6 Mari Cleide Sogayar,1 Luiz F Zerbini,6 Ricardo G Correa7 1Cell and Molecular Therapy Center (NUCEL-NETCEM, School of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Sciences Institute, 3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, 4Departament of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Institute, 5Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Cancer Genomics Group, International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB, Cape Town, South Africa; 7Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer is the disease with highest public health impact in developed countries. Particularly, breast cancer has the highest incidence in women worldwide and the fifth highest mortality in the globe, imposing a significant social and economic burden to society. The disease has a complex heterogeneous etiology, being associated with several risk factors that range from lifestyle to age and family history. Breast cancer is usually classified according to the site of tumor occurrence and gene expression profiling. Although mutations in a few key genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, are associated with high breast cancer risk, the large majority of breast cancer cases are related to mutated genes of low penetrance, which are frequently altered in the whole population. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of breast cancer, including the several deregulated genes and related pathways linked to this pathology, is essential to ensure advances in early tumor detection and prevention. In this review, we outline key cellular pathways whose deregulation has been associated with breast cancer, leading to alterations in cell

  9. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

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    Wu YS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Shan Wu,1 Pao-Yen Lin,1,2 Chih-Yen Chien,3 Fu-Min Fang,4 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Chi-Fa Hung,1 Yu Lee,1 Mian-Yoon Chong11Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, 3Department of Otolaryngology, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL between those with and without depressive disorders (depression.Materials and methods: Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements.Results: A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%. A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001, loss of speech (P<0.001, low libido (P=0.001, dry mouth (P<0.001, and weight loss (P=0.001 were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001 and nutrition supplements (P<0.001. The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001 and trouble with

  10. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David C.; Murrell, Joanna C.; Whay, Helen R.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  11. Nanotetrac targets integrin αvβ3 on tumor cells to disorder cell defense pathways and block angiogenesis

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    Davis PJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul J Davis,1,2 Hung-Yun Lin,2,3 Thangirala Sudha,2 Murat Yalcin,2,4 Heng-Yuan Tang,2 Aleck Hercbergs,5 John T Leith,6 Mary K Luidens,1 Osnat Ashur-Fabian,7,8 Sandra Incerpi,9 Shaker A Mousa2 1Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA; 2Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 3PhD Program for Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Physiology, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Uludag University, Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey; 5Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 6Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center, Narragansett, RI, USA; 7Translational Hemato-oncology Laboratory, Hematology Institute and Blood Bank, Meir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Israel; 8Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 9Department of Sciences, University of Roma Tre, Rome, Italy Abstract: The extracellular domain of integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone and hormone analogs. The integrin is amply expressed by tumor cells and dividing blood vessel cells. The proangiogenic properties of thyroid hormone and the capacity of the hormone to promote cancer cell proliferation are functions regulated nongenomically by the hormone receptor on αvβ3. An L-thyroxine (T4 analog, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac, blocks binding of T4 and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 by αvβ3 and inhibits angiogenic activity of thyroid hormone. Covalently bound to a 200 nm nanoparticle that limits its activity to the cell exterior, tetrac reformulated as Nanotetrac has additional effects mediated by αvβ3 beyond the inhibition of binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. These actions of Nanotetrac include disruption of transcription of cell survival pathway genes, promotion of apoptosis by multiple mechanisms, and interruption

  12. Deep brain stimulation of pallidal versus subthalamic for patients with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu F

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan Xu,1 Wenbin Ma,2 Yongmin Huang,1 Zhihai Qiu,1 Lei Sun11Interdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects many people every year. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an effective nonpharmacological method to treat PD motor symptoms. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS versus globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS in treating advanced PD.Methods: Controlled clinical trials that compared STN-DBS to GPi-DBS for short-term treatment of PD in adults were researched up to November 2015. The primary outcomes were the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Section (UPDRS III score and the levodopa-equivalent dosage (LED after DBS. The secondary outcomes were the UPDRS II score and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score.Results: Totally, 13 studies containing 1,148 PD patients were included in this meta-analysis to compare STN-DBS versus GPi-DBS. During the off-medication state, the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD of UPDRS III and II scores were −2.18 (95% CI =−5.11 to 0.74 and −1.96 (95% CI =−3.84 to −0.08, respectively. During the on-medication state, the pooled WMD of UPDRS III and II scores were 0.15 (95% CI =−1.14 to 1.44 and 1.01 (95% CI =0.12 to 1.89, respectively. After DBS, the pooled WMD of LED and BDI were −254.48 (95% CI =−341.66 and 2.29 (95% CI =0.83 to 3.75, respectively.Conclusion: These results indicate that during the off-medication state, the STN-DBS might be superior to GPi-DBS in improving the motor function and activities of daily living for PD patients; but during the on-medication state, the opposite result is observed. Meanwhile, the STN-DBS is superior at reducing

  13. Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1

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    Khan MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available M A Khan,1 Madeline M López-Muñoz,2 Charles W Kaspar,3 Kai F Hung1 1Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; 3Bacteriology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Biogeochemical processes on exposed pyrite ores result in extremely high levels of sulfuric acid at these locations. Acidophiles that thrive in these conditions must overcome significant challenges, including an environment with proton concentrations at pH 3 or below. The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. Two putative sequences for methionine-γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11, an enzyme known to carry out α, γ-elimination on L-methionine to produce methanethiol, were identified in fer1. Bioinformatic analyses identified a conserved pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP binding domain and a partially conserved catalytic domain in both putative sequences. Detection of PLP-dependent and L-methionine-dependent production of α-keto compounds and thiol groups in fer1 confirmed the presence of methionine-γ-lyase activity. Further, fer1 lysate was capable of processing related substrates, including D-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystathionine, and L/D-homocysteine. When the two putative fer1 methionine-γ-lyase gene-coded proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, one sequence demonstrated an ability to carry out α, γ-elimination activity, while the other exhibited γ-replacement activity. These fer1 methionine-γ-lyases also exhibited optimum pH, substrate specificity, and catalytic preferences that are different from methionine-γ-lyases from other organisms. These differences are discussed in the context of molecular phylogeny constructed using a maximum

  14. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

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    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  15. An experience and contemporary status of forest recultivation in Kuzbass

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    V. I. Ufimtsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation is the main direction of rehabilitation of the degraded lands by the coal industry. The substratum of dumps of the coal industry is characterized by sharp deficiency of elements and the expressed xeromorphy. During more than 40 years on the dumps were created over 15 thousand ha of wood plantings, the agrotechnological and scientific foundation of forest recultivation is laid. Biological features of several tens types are studied, their suitability for the purposes of afforestation of dumps is estimated. Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., a common sea-buckthorn Hippophaë rhamnoídes L. and a silver birch Betula pendula Tristis appeared certainly suitable, 10 more types are recognized as the perspective. In 1989 and 2005 under the leadership of L. P. Barannik are prepared and approved for application at the regional level of the recommendation about reforestation. Now experiments on selection of types proceed, work on optimization of technologies of forest recultivation taking into account an assessment of the created plantings of the I–II class of age is conducted. The main square of reforestation, about 11 thousand hectares, the scots pine which is capable to grow on the highest classes of site class without decrease in growth processes in the senior age groups borrows. Pure sea-buckthorn plantings are created on the area about 3 thousand hectares, they are used by the population as berry-pickers, the ecological value of a sea-buckthorn consists in fast development of a surface of dumps, unpretentiousness. Joint landings of these two tree species are widely used. The birch hung, along with a birch fluffy, is presented, mainly, in the form of natural renewal. In recent years, in connection with reduction of nurseries on cultivation of seedlings of a pine, the birch began to be used actively at artificial afforestation of dumps, especially in urban areas. The main problems of forest recultivation are: non-selective formation of

  16. Development of precise measurement systems for deep-sea electrical and magnetic explorations by ROV and AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanagi, K.; Goto, T.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.; Takeuchi, A.; Nagao, T.; Matsuo, J.

    2009-12-01

    It is generally not easy to obtain the fine-scale structure of the oceanic crust with accuracy better than several tens of meters, because the deep sea prevents us from approaching the bottom in most parts of the oceans. The necessity of such detailed information, however, has increased in researches and developments of the ocean floor. For instance, it is essential in development of ocean floor resources like sea-floor hydrothermal deposits and methane hydrate in order to estimate accurate abundance of those resources. Therefore, it is very important to develop some instruments for precise measurements of the oceanic crust. From this standpoint, we have developed new measurement systems for electrical and magnetic explorations by Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). In our project, the main target is sea-floor hydrothermal deposits. We are working on research and development regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high resolution and high sampling rate, electrical exploration with accurately controlled source signals, electrical exploration tools for shallow and deep targets, versatile instruments of electrical and magnetic explorations with multi-platforms (deep-tow system, ROV, and AUV), comprehensive analyses of electrical, magnetic, acoustic and thermal data, and so on. We finished basic designs of the magnetic and electrical observation systems last year, and we have been manufacturing each instrument. So far, the first test of the magnetic exploration system was carried out in the Kumano Basin during the R/V Yokosuka cruise in July, 2009. In the test, a vector magnetometer on AUV “Urashima” and a scalar magnetometer hung below towing vehicle “Yokosuka Deep-Tow” successfully detected magnetic anomaly produced by an artificial magnetic body set up on the ocean floor. Details will be reported in another paper by Harada, M. et al. in this meeting. In addition, various performance tests will be planned for

  17. Self-reported psychopathology and health-related quality of life in heroin users treated with methadone

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    Chen YZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zai Chen,1 Wei-Lieh Huang,1,2,5 Jia-Chi Shan,4,5 Yu-Hsuan Lin,1–3,5 Hung-Chieh Wu Chang,1 Li-Ren Chang1,61Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Yun-Lin Branch, 2Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, 3Sleep Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical College, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL remains poor among heroin users, even after being treated with methadone. Evidence regarding self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in heroin users is also limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in Asian heroin users treated with methadone.Methods: Thirty-nine heroin users treated with methadone and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Both groups self-reported on demographic data, the Brief Symptom Rating Scale, EuroQoL-5D, and World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life: Short Form. We compared clinical characteristics, psychopathology, and HRQoL between the two study groups. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between psychopathology and HRQoL in the heroin user group.Results: Heroin users had more psychopathology and worse HRQoL than healthy controls. The HRQoL of heroin users had significant correlations with Brief Symptom Rating Scale scores. HRQoL could be predicted by depression, anxiety, paranoia, and additional symptoms (ie, poor appetite and sleep difficulties independently.Conclusion: Self-reported psychopathology, depression, anxiety, paranoia, poor appetite, and sleep difficulties had a negative impact on each domain of HRQoL among heroin users treated with methadone. The importance of the environmental domain of HRQoL is discussed. Clinicians

  18. Are psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions related to treatment response to methylphenidate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

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    Chan MH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandy H Chan,1 Patrick WL Leung,2 Ting-pong Ho,3 Se-fong Hung,4 Chi-chiu Lee,5 Chun-pan Tang,5 Ka-chai Cheung,2 Fung-yee Ching,2 Fefe HK Chan,6 Lu-hua Chen,2 Merce Garcia-Barcelo,7 Pak-chung Sham3 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Kowloon Hospital, Hospital Authority, 2Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, 4Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Department of Psychiatry, Kwai Chung Hospital, Hospital Authority, 6Department of Clinical Psychology, Alice Ho Mui Ling Nethersole Hospital, Hospital Authority, 7Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Background: Methylphenidate (MPH has been found to be an effective medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, there are neither consistent nor sufficient findings on whether psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions of ADHD are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children.Objectives: This study investigated whether psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children. In some ways, it is preferable to have a drug that the effectiveness of which to a disorder is not affected by its associated cognitive functions and psychiatric comorbidities. On the other hand, it is likely that the baseline symptom severity of ADHD is associated with the effectiveness of MPH treatment on the symptoms post treatment.Methods: A total of 149 Chinese boys (aged 6–12 years with ADHD, combined type, and normal IQ participated in this study. Assessment of ADHD symptom severity was conducted pre and post MPH treatment, while assessment of psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits was performed in a non-medicated condition. Treatment response was defined as the ADHD symptom severity post MPH treatment.Results: Results indicated that MPH

  19. A hybridized membrane-botanical biofilter for improving air quality in occupied spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, David; Darlington, Alan; van Ras, Niels; Kraakman, Bart; Dixon, Mike

    Botanical biofilters have been shown to be effective in improving indoor air quality through the removal of complex mixtures of gaseous contaminants typically found in human-occupied environments. Traditional, botanical biofilters have been comprised of plants rooted into a thin and highly porous synthetic medium that is hung on vertical surfaces. Water flows from the top of the biofilter and air is drawn horizontally through the rooting medium. These botanical biofilters have been successfully marketed in office and institutional settings. They operate efficiently, with adequate contaminant removal and little maintenance for many years. Depending on climate and outdoor air quality, botanical biofiltration can substantially reduce costs associated with ventilation of stale indoor air. However, there are several limitations that continue to inhibit widespread acceptance: 1. Current designs are architecturally limiting and inefficient at capturing ambient light 2. These biofilters can add significant amounts of humidity to an indoor space. This water loss also leads to a rapid accumulation of dissolved salts; reducing biofilter health and performance 3. There is the perception of potentially actively introducing harmful bioaerosols into the air stream 4. Design and practical limitations inhibit the entrance of this technology into the lucrative residential marketplace This paper describes the hybridization of membrane and botanical biofiltration technologies by incorporating a membrane array into the rootzone of a conventional interior planting. This technology has the potential for addressing all of the above limitations, expanding the range of indoor settings where botanical biofiltration can be applied. This technology was developed as the CSA-funded Canadian component an ESA-MAP project entitled: "Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in manned space craft and other closed environments", A0-99-LSS-019. While the project addressed a

  20. Power estimation of martial arts movement using 3D motion capture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azraai, Nur Zaidi; Awang Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir

    2017-06-01

    Motion capture camera (MOCAP) has been widely used in many areas such as biomechanics, physiology, animation, arts, etc. This project is done by approaching physics mechanics and the extended of MOCAP application through sports. Most researchers will use a force plate, but this will only can measure the force of impact, but for us, we are keen to observe the kinematics of the movement. Martial arts is one of the sports that uses more than one part of the human body. For this project, martial art `Silat' was chosen because of its wide practice in Malaysia. 2 performers have been selected, one of them has an experienced in `Silat' practice and another one have no experience at all so that we can compare the energy and force generated by the performers. Every performer will generate a punching with same posture which in this project, two types of punching move were selected. Before the measuring start, a calibration has been done so the software knows the area covered by the camera and reduce the error when analyze by using the T stick that have been pasted with a marker. A punching bag with mass 60 kg was hung on an iron bar as a target. The use of this punching bag is to determine the impact force of a performer when they punch. This punching bag also will be stuck with the optical marker so we can observe the movement after impact. 8 cameras have been used and placed with 2 cameras at every side of the wall with different angle in a rectangular room 270 ft2 and the camera covered approximately 50 ft2. We covered only a small area so less noise will be detected and make the measurement more accurate. A Marker has been pasted on the limb of the entire hand that we want to observe and measure. A passive marker used in this project has a characteristic to reflect the infrared that being generated by the camera. The infrared will reflected to the camera sensor so the marker position can be detected and show in software. The used of many cameras is to increase the

  1. Power estimation of martial arts movement with different physical, mood, and behavior using motion capture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2017-07-01

    In Malay world, there is a spirit traditional ritual where they use it as healing practices or for normal life. Malay martial arts (silat) also is not exceptional where some branch of silat have spirit traditional ritual where they said can help them in combat. In this paper, we will not use any ritual, instead we will use some medicinal and environment change when they are performing. There will be 2 performers (fighter) selected, one of them have an experience in martial arts training and another performer does not have experience. Motion Capture (MOCAP) camera will help observe and analyze this move. 8 cameras have been placed in the MOCAP room 2 on each side of the wall facing toward the center of the room from every angle. This will help prevent the loss detection of a marker that been stamped on the limb of a performer. Passive marker has been used where it will reflect the infrared to the camera sensor. Infrared is generated by the source around the camera lens. A 60 kg punching bag was hung on the iron bar function as the target for the performer when throws a punch. Markers also have been stamped on the punching bag so we can detect the movement how far can it swing when hit by the performer. 2 performers will perform 2 moves each with the same position and posture. For every 2 moves, we have made the environment change without the performer notice about it. The first 2 punch with normal environment, second part we have played a positive music to change the performer's mood and third part we have put a medicine (cream/oil) on the skin of the performer. This medicine will make the skin feel a little bit hot. This process repeated to another performer with no experience. The position of this marker analyzed by the Cortex Motion Analysis software where from this data, we can estimate the kinetics and kinematics of the performer. It shows that the increase of kinetics for every part because of the change in the environment, and different result for the 2

  2. Réformes, croissance, et augmentation des inégalités dans le delta du fleuve Rouge – Việt Nam (1980-2000 Reform, Growth and Increase of Inequalities in the Red River delta - Vietnam (1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Gironde

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est une analyse de l’évolution des inégalités dans les campagnes vietnamiennes, basée sur une recherche de terrain dans le delta du fleuve Rouge. Les transformations respectives des systêmes d’activités productives des foyers étudiées dans la province de Hưng Yên remettent en cause l’idée dominante selon laquelle l’augmentation des inégalités serait faible et récent. L’accumulation réalisée par un quart des exploitations et la prolétarisation partielle d’une majorité de la population rurale révèlent, quelques années après la distribution des terres de 1994, une différenciation significative en termes de richesses et d’accès aux ressources. Les mécanismes de cette différenciation se sont mis en place dès les premières mesures de la décollectivisation de l’agriculture au tournant des années 1970-1980, contrairement à une autre idée courante selon laquelle les réformes n’auraient pas eu d’effet sur les inégalités à l’intérieur des campagnes. Les inégalités de départ augmentent avec la croissance, et sont aggravées par les orientations du gouvernement, et notamment l’action des pouvoirs locaux.Based on a field research in the Red River delta, this article analyses the augmentation and accentuation of inequalities within rural Vietnam. The various changes of livelihood systems in Hung Yen province challenge the mainstream idea whereby inequalities have increased only slightly and are of recent date. In the second half of the 1990s, the widening gap between wealth accumulation among one fourth of households, and the gradual proletarianization of a majority of the rural population is already significant. Contrary to another common idea whereby institutional reforms have been associated with almost no change in inequality within rural areas, I argue that the mechanisms inciting this differentiation were set in motion during the implementation of the first decollectivisation

  3. Results of a pilot study in the U.S. and Vietnam to assess the utility and acceptability of a multi-level pregnancy test (MLPT) for home monitoring of hCG trends after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochet, Tara; Comstock, Ioanna A; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Westphal, Lynn M; Sheldon, Wendy R; Loc, Ly Thai; Blum, Jennifer; Winikoff, Beverly; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-08-22

    To evaluate the utility and acceptability of using multi-level pregnancy tests (MLPTs) at home to monitor hCG trends following assisted reproductive technology (ART). One hundred and four women presenting for ART at either Stanford Medicine Fertility and Reproductive Health Clinic (Stanford, CA) or Hung Vuong Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) participated in this pilot study. Women were asked to perform the MLPT at home, primarily on days when they were also scheduled to receive standard clinic-based serum hCG testing. These tests were administered up to 6 times over the 6-week period following embryo transfer or intrauterine insemination (IUI). Concordance of serial hCG readings for each time point was assessed by comparing trends in urine MLPT results with trends in serum hCG. Stable or increasing hCG level was interpreted as an indication of a progressing pregnancy, while a declining hCG was interpreted as a lack of established or progressing pregnancy. At study end, all participants were asked about the acceptability and convenience of using the MLPT at home for monitoring hCG trends following ART. Data from both urine and serum testing are available for 156 of 179 clinic visits (87.2%). There was high concordance of serial trend results between the two types of tests: among the 156 sets of serum and urine hCG data points, 150 (96.2%) showed a matching trend in hCG pattern and 6 (3.8%) resulted in a discordant trend. Seventy-three percent of women reported being satisfied or very satisfied with using the MLPTs at home. Almost all (96.6%) said that the MLPT was easy or very easy to use. The MLPT offers women and health care providers a client-friendly diagnostic tool to detect very early pregnancy and monitor its progress. This study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01846403 (May 1, 2013), and NCT01919502 (August 5, 2013).

  4. A randomized clinical trial of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD and prolonged mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo NY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Ying Kuo,1,2 Mei-Lien Tu,1,3 Tsai-Yi Hung,1 Shih-Feng Liu,4 Yu-Hsiu Chung,4 Meng-Chih Lin,4 Chao-Chien Wu41Department of Respiratory Therapy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital; 2Kaohsiung Medical University; 3Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanBackground: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a common problem in mechanically ventilated patients; the problem is especially obvious in COPD. Neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA can improve patient-ventilator asynchrony; however, the effect in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation is still unknown. The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of NAVA and conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD during prolonged mechanical ventilation.Methods: The study enrolled a total of 33 COPD patients with ventilator dependency for more than 21 days in the weaning center. A diaphragm electrical activity (Edi catheter was inserted in patients within 24 hours after admission to the respiratory care center, and patients were randomly allocated to NAVA or conventional group. A spontaneous breathing trial was performed every 24 hours. The results correlated with the clinical parameters.Results: There were significantly higher asynchrony incidence rates in the whole group after using Edi catheter (before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =60.6% vs 87.9%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =7.4%±8.5% vs 13.2%±13.5%, P<0.01. Asynchrony incidence: NAVA vs conventional =0% vs 84.2%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: NAVA vs conventional =0 vs 11.9±11.2 (breath %, P<0.001. The most common asynchrony events were ineffective trigger and delayed trigger. Conclusion: Compared to conventional mode, NAVA mode can significantly enhance

  5. Dissolved Zinc Measurements Using Shipboard FIA During the 2008 GEOTRACES Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, K. J.; Landing, W. M.; Milne, A.

    2008-12-01

    Zinc concentrations in the open ocean have been measured accurately by only a few investigators due to the extreme difficulties of collecting and processing seawater samples without introducing Zn contamination. Accurate measurements of dissolved Zn are important for understanding the biogeochemical behavior of this important biochemically required element in the open ocean. Historically, reliable samples for dissolved Zn were collected using Teflon-coated GO-FLO bottles individually hung on Kevlar line. To speed up sample collection, two "Trace Metal" rosette systems were tested during Leg 1 of the GEOTRACES 2008 intercalibration cruise: a large GEOTRACES 24-bottle rosette and the smaller Measures and Landing "CLIVAR" 12-bottle rosette. Both rosettes use 12-liter, Teflon-coated GO- FLO bottles equipped with Teflon spigots and modified air-relief fittings, allowing for pressure filtration. Contamination for dissolved Zn was eliminated in the 12-liter Teflon-lined GO-FLO bottles by repeated deployments ("flushing") on both rosette systems. A Flow Injection (FIA) technique for shipboard determination of total dissolved Zn was utilized to test rosette sampling methods for Zn contamination. Samples were acidified to 0.024M HCl (pH 2) for 16 hours. Samples were buffered to pH 5.5 using ammonium acetate buffer. Dissolved Zn was pre-concentrated using a small- volume column of 8-HQ cation exchange resin. After column rinsing, Zn was eluted into the flowing stream of organic reagent p-Tosyl-8-aminoquinoline (pTAQ), which forms fluorescent complexes with Zn. A flow- through fluorometer was used to record peak heights. Calibration was performed via standard additions. Accuracy of this method was established by measuring standard SAFe D2 and S1 samples, as well as multiple samples collected and analyzed throughout Leg 1 of the GEOTRACES 2008 cruise. Dissolved Cadmium (Cd) can additionally form fluorescent complexes with pTAQ. Thus, when necessary, a small, positive, Cd

  6. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

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    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  7. Data-Driven Techniques for Regional Groundwater Level Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. J.; Chang, L. C.; Tsai, F. H.; Shen, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Data-Driven Techniques for Regional Groundwater Level Forecasts Fi-John Changa, Li-Chiu Changb, Fong He Tsaia, Hung-Yu Shenba Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC. b Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan, ROC..Correspondence to: Fi-John Chang (email: changfj@ntu.edu.tw)The alluvial fan of the Zhuoshui River in Taiwan is a good natural recharge area of groundwater. However, the over extraction of groundwater occurs in the coastland results in serious land subsidence. Groundwater systems are heterogeneous with diverse temporal-spatial patterns, and it is very difficult to quantify their complex processes. Data-driven methods can effectively capture the spatial-temporal characteristics of input-output patterns at different scales for accurately imitating dynamic complex systems with less computational requirements. In this study, we implement various data-driven methods to suitably predict the regional groundwater level variations for making countermeasures in response to the land subsidence issue in the study area. We first establish the relationship between regional rainfall, streamflow as well as groundwater levels and then construct intelligent groundwater level prediction models for the basin based on the long-term (2000-2013) regional monthly data sets collected from the Zhuoshui River basin. We analyze the interaction between hydrological factors and groundwater level variations; apply the self-organizing map (SOM) to obtain the clustering results of the spatial-temporal groundwater level variations; and then apply the recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (R-NARX) to predicting the monthly groundwater levels. As a consequence, a regional intelligent groundwater level prediction model can be constructed based on the adaptive results of the SOM. Results demonstrate that the development

  8. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs

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    A. Christian

    1999-01-01

    für schnelles Gehen nahe, der von großen Dinosauriern zur Erhöhung der Höchstgeschwindigkeiten eingesetzt worden sein könnte. Die Ergebnisse werfen neues Licht auf die Dynamik großer Wirbeltiere. Sie können zu Verbesserungen in den Schätzungen der Fortbewegungsgeschwindigkeiten großer Dinosaurier eingesetzt werden. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020105

  9. Anabole Wirkungen auf den Knochen durch pulsatiles exogenes Parathormon - ein wiederentdecktes Therapieprinzip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernecker PM

    2002-01-01

    second-messenger beschrieben. Auch an der Niere wirkt PTH; über eine Aktivierung der Adenylatcyclase wird vermehrt Cyclo-AMP gebildet und in weiterer Folge über mehrere Mechanismen die 1,alpha-Hydroxylierung von 25-OH-Vitamin D zur aktiven Form gesteigert; daraus resultiert eine vermehrte Kalzium-Resorption aus dem Darm und eine - wenn auch nur geringgradige - Erhöhung der Kalzium-Rückresorption in der Niere.

  10. Non-invasive prenatal testing: a review of international implementation and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyse M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Megan Allyse,1 Mollie A Minear,2 Elisa Berson,3 Shilpa Sridhar,3 Margaret Rote,3 Anthony Hung,3 Subhashini Chandrasekharan4 1Institute for Health and Aging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA, 2Duke Science & Society, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 3Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT is an advance in the detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies that analyzes cell-free fetal DNA in the blood of a pregnant woman. Since its introduction to clinical practice in Hong Kong in 2011, NIPT has quickly spread across the globe. While many professional societies currently recommend that NIPT be used as a screening method, not a diagnostic test, its high sensitivity (true positive rate and specificity (true negative rate make it an attractive alternative to the serum screens and invasive tests currently in use. Professional societies also recommend that NIPT be accompanied by genetic counseling so that families can make informed reproductive choices. If NIPT becomes more widely adopted, States will have to implement regulation and oversight to ensure it fits into existing legal frameworks, with particular attention to returning fetal sex information in areas where sex-based abortions are prevalent. Although there are additional challenges for NIPT uptake in the developing world, including the lack of health care professionals and infrastructure, the use of NIPT in low-resource settings could potentially reduce the need for skilled clinicians who perform invasive testing. Future advances in NIPT technology promise to expand the range of conditions that can be detected, including single gene disorders. With these advances come questions of how to handle incidental findings and variants of unknown significance. Moving forward, it is essential that all stakeholders have

  11. Evolution of technology in teaching: Blackboard and beyond in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; Mendis, Susirith; John, Lisha Jenny; Shanthakumari, Nisha; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Shaikh, Rizwana B

    2016-10-01

    the passing of knowledge from one generation to another - has been in existence from the earliest times of human civilization. It began in 1801, with a large piece of slate hung on the wall in a school in Scotland to provide information to a large audience at one time. In the US by mid-19th century, every class room had a blackboard to teach students. The modern version of the blackboard is either green or brown board. This was introduced in late 1960s. The whiteboards came into use during the late 1980s. Projected aids have been used since 1420. The various devices used are the epidiascope, slide projector, overhead projector for transparencies and the micro projector. An instrument to project images from a horizontal surface onto a vertical screen was invented in the 1870s. By the 1960s, transparencies were in use in classrooms. The 'Hyalotype', a transparent image of a photograph using actual black and white photographs on a glass slide that could be projected was invented in 1851. By 1916, the German company Agfa started producing colored lantern slides. The first version of PowerPoint was released by Microsoft in the year 1990. Cell phones, palmtops, and handheld computers; tablets, laptops, and media players are included under mobile learning devices. With the evolution of technology, students achieved competence and interested in interactive learning. The education industry has moved from distance learning to e-learning and finally to m-learning as knowledge expanded exponentially and the demand escalated. While using teaching aids with advanced technology, we must not forget the lessons from the past, striking a balance between embracing new methods of teaching and learning while upholding the timeless principles of education. The newer educational technology can be part of a comprehensive system for lifelong education. Use of technology in education has come a long way since the earliest times of human civilization. While embarking on aids with advanced

  12. Induction of apoptosis by Armillaria mellea constituent armillarikin in human hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Chen YJ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Chen,1–4 Chien-Chih Chen,5 Huey-Lan Huang6 1Department of Medical Research, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 4Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Department of Biotechnology, HungKuang University, Taichung, 6Department of Bioscience Technology, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: Armillaria mellea is a honey mushroom often used in the traditional Chinese medicine “Tianma”. Currently, this medicinal mushroom is also used as a dietary supplement in numerous Western and Eastern countries. Armillarikin was isolated from A. mellea, and we previously discovered that it induced cytotoxicity in human leukemia cells. In this study, we further investigated the cytotoxicity of armillarikin against liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer cells. Armillarikin was cytotoxic against human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7, HA22T, and HepG2 cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium and alamarBlue® assays. Armillarikin treatment also induced the collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of these cells. Furthermore, armillarikin-induced apoptotic cell death was demonstrated by sub-G1 chromosomal DNA formation by using flow cytometry. In addition, the apoptosis was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk. Immunoblotting also revealed the armillarikin-induced activation of procaspase-3, -8, and -9 and upregulation of the apoptosis- and cell cycle arrest-related phospho-histones 2 and 3, respectively. Moreover, reactive oxygen species scavengers also inhibited the armillarikin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that reactive oxygen species formation played an important role in the armillarikin-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In

  13. Development of a new multiple sampling trawl with autonomous opening/closing net control system for sampling juvenile pelagic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozeki, Yoshioki; Hu, Fuxiang; Tomatsu, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    A new multiple layer sampling trawl with an autonomous net opening/closing control system was developed to sample pelagic juvenile fish quantitatively. The new trawl system, based on the Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu Trawl (MOHT), has a rigid-frame 3.3 m high and 2.35 m wide and five nets of 11.0 m length with a rectangular mouth of 2.22 m×1.81 m (4 m2 mouth area; large-scale prototype). A cambered V-shape depressor is hung below the frame and two bridles are attached at the midpoint of the side frames. A net-release controller is used, which not only controls the net release mechanism but also records the net depth, temperature and flow rate during net towing. The controller sends stored command signals to the net release mechanism as depth settings and/or time settings and does not require any commands from the surface through a conducting cable or by acoustic signals. Two other models were constructed before the construction of the large-scale prototype, which are a small-scale prototype (2 m2 mouth area) for testing the net release mechanism and a 1/4-scale model of the large-scale prototype for flume tank tests. Flume tank tests with the 1/4-scale model showed that the frame leaned forward at a tilt angle from 5 to 15 degrees at towing speeds from 0.8 to 1.4 m s-1. Opened nets closed smoothly and sequentially nets were completely opened when the trigger was released by the command. Net depth rarely changed even during changes in towing speed. Sea trials both by the small-scale and the large-scale prototype demonstrated the same towing characteristics expected from the flume tank tests. The newly developed multiple layer opening/closing MOHT (MOC-MOHT) is considered to be suitable for quantitative layer sampling of juvenile fish.

  14. Bronchiectasis and increased risk of ischemic stroke: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YF

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yung-Fu Chen,1–3,* Hsuan-Hung Lin,4,* Chih-Sheng Lin,5 Battsetseg Turbat,1 Kuo-An Wang,4,6 Wei-Sheng Chung1,3,7 1Department of Healthcare Administration, 2Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, 3Department of Health Services Administration, China Medical University, Taichung, 4Department of Management Information Systems, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Industrial Education and Technology, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Bronchiectasis is characterized by permanent dilatation of the bronchial tree caused by recurrent airway infection and inflammation. The association of atherosclerosis and inflammation is well established. However, studies on the relationship between bronchiectasis and stroke are scant. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the incidence and risk of ischemic stroke in patients with bronchiectasis. Methods: Data of 1,295 patients newly diagnosed as bronchiectasis between 2000 and 2008 were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 6,475 controls without bronchiectasis at a ratio of 5:1 were randomly selected from the general population based on frequency-matched age and sex to the patients. All participants were followed up to the date of ischemic stroke development, censoring, or the end of 2010. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with bronchiectasis compared with those without bronchiectasis. Results: The patients with bronchiectasis exhibited a higher incidence

  15. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung CY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Yu Hung,1 Ming-Yen Hsiao,2,3 Ke-Vin Chang,1,2 Der-Sheng Han,1,2 Tyng-Guey Wang2,3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 2National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales.Methods: PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection.Results: Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.17, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40–1.27, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60–1.10, and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53–1.21 after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10–0.63. Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07–0.70 and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30–1.11. There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, –0.18 to 0.80 which was only estimated from one study.Conclusion: Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose–response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to

  16. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Sarah; Mendl, Michael T; Barrett, David C; Murrell, Joanna C; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  17. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kappel

    Full Text Available In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards or hung centrally (a Kong™ within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that

  18. Pabellón deportivo en Viena – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available This stadium which, having 113.60 m diameter in the base is one of the biggest circular pavillions in the world comprises a 60 X 30 m sports field, four racing tracks and a veloromo. It also has two grandstands, with capacity for 6,300 seats, and all the necessary installations for holding any type of sporting or social event. For its construction, a system of prefabricated parts was chosen which, in essence, comprises the following: a series of reinforced concrete supports, placed in the periphery on individual foundations; and a metal sheet monolythic roof, in the shape of an inverted cone, with an 112 m free span without supports, hung from the supports and tensioned by a central reinforced concrete slab, on which the heating and ventilation installations have been placed. This roof, placed at a height of 22 m, weighs 445 tons. The construction is completed with the grandstand seats, statically separate from the rest of the structure, and made up of prefabricated angular components, resting on concrete frames made on site.Este estadio, que con sus 113,60 m de diámetro en la base es uno de los mayores pabellones circulares del mundo, se compone de un campo de juego de 60 x 30 m, cuatro pistas de carreras y un velódromo. Asimismo, dispone de dos tribunas con capacidad para 6.300 asientos, y todas las instalaciones necesarias para la celebración de cualquier tipo de deporte o acontecimiento social. Para su construcción se eligió un sistema de elementos prefabricados que, en esencia, consta de: una serie de soportes de hormigón armado, dispuestos en la periferia sobre cimientos individuales; y una cubierta monolítica de chapa metálica, en forma de cono invertido, de 112 m de luz libre sin apoyos, colgada de los soportes y tensada por una losa central de hormigón armado, sobre la que se han colocado las instalaciones de calefacción y ventilación. Dicha cubierta, situada a 22 m de altura, pesa 445 toneladas. La construcción se

  19. Origins of a 350-kilobase genomic duplication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its impact on virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Pilar; Rog, Anya; Moolji, Jalal-ud-din; Radomski, Nicolas; Fallow, Ashley; Leon-Solis, Lizbel; Bowes, Julia; Behr, Marcel A; Reed, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the evolution and impact on virulence of a 350-kb genomic duplication present in the most recently evolved members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East Asian lineage. In a mouse model of infection, comparing HN878 subclones HN878-27 (no duplication) and HN878-45 (with the 350-kb duplication) revealed that the latter is impaired for in vivo growth during the initial 3 weeks of infection. Furthermore, the median survival time of mice infected with isolate HN878-45 is significantly longer (77 days) than that of mice infected with HN878-27. Whole-genome sequencing of both isolates failed to reveal any mutational events other than the duplication that could account for such a substantial difference in virulence. Although we and others had previously speculated that the 350-kb duplication arose in response to some form of host-applied selective pressure (P. Domenech, G. S. Kolly, L. Leon-Solis, A. Fallow, M. B. Reed, J. Bacteriol. 192: 4562-4570, 2010, and B. Weiner, J. Gomez, T. C. Victor, R. M. Warren, A. Sloutsky, B. B. Plikaytis, J. E. Posey, P. D. van Helden, N. C. Gey van Pittius, M. Koehrsen, P. Sisk, C. Stolte, J. White, S. Gagneux, B. Birren, D. Hung, M. Murray, J. Galagan, PLoS One 7: e26038, 2012), here we show that this large chromosomal amplification event is very rapidly selected within standard in vitro broth cultures in a range of isolates. Indeed, subclones harboring the duplication were detectable after just five rounds of in vitro passage. In contrast, the duplication appears to be highly unstable in vivo and is negatively selected during the later stages of infection in mice. We believe that the rapid in vitro evolution of M. tuberculosis is an underappreciated aspect of its biology that is often ignored, despite the fact that it has the potential to confound the data and conclusions arising from comparative studies of isolates at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Copyright © 2014, American Society

  20. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to

  1. Calculus migration characterization during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera using suspended pendulum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian James; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Calculus migration is a common problem during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy procedure to treat urolithiasis. A conventional experimental method to characterize calculus migration utilized a hosting container (e.g., a "V" grove or a test tube). These methods, however, demonstrated large variation and poor detectability, possibly attributed to the friction between the calculus and the container on which the calculus was situated. In this study, calculus migration was investigated using a pendulum model suspended underwater to eliminate the aforementioned friction. A high-speed camera was used to study the movement of the calculus which covered zero order (displacement), first order (speed), and second order (acceleration). A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 μm, a 365-μm core diameter fiber, and a calculus phantom (Plaster of Paris, 10 × 10 × 10 mm 3 ) was utilized to mimic laser lithotripsy procedure. The phantom was hung on a stainless steel bar and irradiated by the laser at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J energy per pulse at 10 Hz for 1 s (i.e., 5, 10, and 15 W). Movement of the phantom was recorded by a high-speed camera with a frame rate of 10,000 FPS. The video data files are analyzed by MATLAB program by processing each image frame and obtaining position data of the calculus. With a sample size of 10, the maximum displacement was 1.25 ± 0.10, 3.01 ± 0.52, and 4.37 ± 0.58 mm for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 J energy per pulse, respectively. Using the same laser power, the conventional method showed calculus movement and other causes of experimental variation will be conducted as a future study.

  2. Cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by impaired peripheral oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang ML

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Lung Chuang,1,2 Shih-Feng Huang,1 Chun-Hung Su2,3 1Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Critical Care Medicine, 2School of Medicine, 3Division of Cardiology and Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Impaired peripheral oxygenation (IPO-related variables readily achieved with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET represent cardiovascular dysfunction. These variables include peak oxygen uptake (VO2 <85% predicted, anaerobic threshold <40%  VO2max predicted, VO2-work rate slope <8.6 mL/watt, oxygen pulse <80% predicted, and ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2 at nadir of >31 and >34, respectively. Some of these six variables may be normal while the others are abnormal in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This may result in confusion when using the interpretation algorithm for diagnostic purposes. We therefore hypothesized that patients found to have abnormal values for all six variables would have worse cardiovascular function than patients with abnormal values for none or some of these variables.Methods: In this cross-sectional comparative study, 58 COPD patients attending a university teaching hospital underwent symptom-limited CPET with multiple lactate measurements. Patients with abnormal values in all six IPO-related variables were assigned to an IPO group while those who did not meet the requirements for the IPO group were assigned to a non-IPO group. Cardiovascular function was measured by two-dimensional echocardiography and Δlactate/ΔVO2, and respiratory dynamics were compared between the two groups.Results: Fourteen IPO and 43 non-IPO patients were entered into the study. Both groups were similar with regard to left ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular morphology (P>0.05 for both. At peak exercise, both groups reached a similar heart rate level and Δlactate/ΔVO2. The IPO patients had an

  3. Feline-transmitted Staphylococcal hyicus endophthalmitis after clear lens extraction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao SC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Chun Chao,1–3,* Chia-Yi Lee,1,* Chan-Wei Nien,1 Shih-Hao Tzeng,1 Hung-Yu Lin1,4–6 1Department of Ophthalmology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Optometry, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Optometry, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Postoperative endophthalmitis is a dreaded postsurgery complication which may lead to legal blindness. In addition to typical risk factors, some minor episodes may also lead to the occurrence of endophthalmitis. The purpose of the current study was to report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus hyicus in a patient with a contact history of felines.Case presentation: A 58-year-old Taiwanese female who had a history of contact with felines due to her occupation had received clear lens extraction surgery of the left eye on July 10, 2015. One day after the surgery, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of the left eye was 20/40, which rapidly deteriorated to light perception with hypopyon formation. She was admitted for acute postoperative endophthalmitis and received antibiotic therapy with topical levofloxacin instillation and intravitreal vancomycin plus amikacin injection. Trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV was then performed 1 day after admission. The specimen obtained from the vitreous and anterior chambers yielded the growth of S. hyicus. The patient was discharged with BCVA measured by counting fingers. Another TPPV was arranged for the persistent

  4. Method and Apparatus for Assessing the Properties of Slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A special Slag-Prop Cu database has been developed to archive data from laboratory and industrial tests related to post-reduction slags. In order to enrich the data areas, it was decided to design a system for measuring the temperature of the liquid slag and its viscosity. Objectives of research work are to gather information on the properties of post-slags such as the temperature of liquid slag and its viscosity. The discussed issues are especially important in the foundry practice. Designed research stand and using of database applications can greatly facilitate the work of metallurgists, foundrymen, technologists and scientists. The viscosity measurement was developed and presented earlier. The author’s analytical methodology was supplemented by a thyristor measuring system (described in the article. The system temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. Measurement of the voltage mV - using the Seebeck effect can be measured throughout the entire range of thermocouple resistance, up to 1300 °C. Direct temperature measurement °C - measurement only below 1000 °C. Additional measurement - the measurement can also be read from the pyrometer set above the bath. The temperature and the reading frequency depend on the device itself. The principle of measurement is that in a molten metal / slag crucible, we put a N-type thermocouple. The thermocouples are hung by means of a tripod above the crucible and placed in a crucible. The thermocouple is connected to a compensating line dedicated to this type of thermocouple. The cable is in turn connected to a special multimeter that has the ability to connect to a computer and upload results. Temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. The Sn-Pb alloy has been subjected to testing for proper operation of the device. In this foot should be observed the supercooling of the liquid, which initiates

  5. Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Meng-Chiao Hsieh,3 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ying-Chen Huang,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,21Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 3Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and

  6. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  7. When given the opportunity, chimpanzees maximize personal gain rather than “level the playing field”

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    Lydia M. Hopper

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We provided chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes with the ability to improve the quality of food rewards they received in a dyadic test of inequity. We were interested to see if this provision influenced their responses and, if so, whether it was mediated by a social partner’s outcomes. We tested eight dyads using an exchange paradigm in which, depending on the condition, the chimpanzees were rewarded with either high-value (a grape or low-value (a piece of celery food rewards for each completed exchange. We included four conditions. In the first, “Different” condition, the subject received different, less-preferred, rewards than their partner for each exchange made (a test of inequity. In the “Unavailable” condition, high-value rewards were shown, but not given, to both chimpanzees prior to each exchange and the chimpanzees were rewarded equally with low-value rewards (a test of individual contrast. The final two conditions created equity. In these High-value and Low-value “Same” conditions both chimpanzees received the same food rewards for each exchange. Within each condition, the chimpanzees first completed ten trials in the Baseline Phase, in which the experimenter determined the rewards they received, and then ten trials in the Test Phase. In the Test Phase, the chimpanzees could exchange tokens through the aperture of a small wooden picture frame hung on their cage mesh in order to receive the high-value reward. Thus, in the Test Phase, the chimpanzees were provided with an opportunity to improve the quality of the rewards they received, either absolutely or relative to what their partner received. The chimpanzees responded in a targeted manner; in the Test Phase they attempted to maximize their returns in all conditions in which they had received low-value rewards during the Baseline Phase. Thus, the chimpanzees were apparently motivated to increase their reward regardless of their partners’, but they only used the mechanism

  8. Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Hong, Maoling; Byron, Glenn; McClelland, Ryan; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Thin, lightweight mirrors are needed for future x-ray space telescopes in order to increase x-ray collecting area while maintaining a reduced mass and volume capable of being launched on existing rockets. However, it is very difficult to determine the undistorted shape of such thin mirrors because the mounting of the mirror during measurement causes distortion. Traditional kinematic mounts have insufficient supports to control the distortion to measurable levels and prevent the mirror from vibrating during measurement. Over-constrained mounts (non-kinematic) result in an unknown force state causing mirror distortion that cannot be determined or analytically removed. In order to measure flexible mirrors, it is necessary to over-constrain the mirror. Over-constraint causes unknown distortions to be applied to the mirror. Even if a kinematic constraint system can be used, necessary imperfections in the kinematic assumption can lead to an unknown force state capable of distorting the mirror. Previously, thicker, stiffer, and heavier mirrors were used to achieve low optical figure distortion. These mirrors could be measured to an acceptable level of precision using traditional kinematic mounts. As lighter weight precision optics have developed, systems such as the whiffle tree or hydraulic supports have been used to provide additional mounting supports while maintaining the kinematic assumption. The purpose of this invention is to over-constrain a mirror for optical measurement without causing unacceptable or unknown distortions. The invention uses force gauges capable of measuring 1/10,000 of a Newton attached to nano-actuators to support a thin x-ray optic with known and controlled forces to allow for figure measurement and knowledge of the undeformed mirror figure. The mirror is hung from strings such that it is minimally distorted and in a known force state. However, the hanging mirror cannot be measured because it is both swinging and vibrating. In order to

  9. Aging of vestibular function evaluated using correlational vestibular autorotation test

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    Hsieh LC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Li-Chun Hsieh,1,2 Hung-Ching Lin,2,3 Guo-She Lee4,5 1Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Otolaryngology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, Mackay Memorial Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Imbalance from degeneration of vestibular end organs is a common problem in the elderly. However, the decline of vestibular function with aging was revealed in few vestibular function tests such as vestibular autorotation test (VAT. In the current VAT, there are drawbacks of poor test–retest reliability, slippage of the sensor at high-speed rotations, and limited data about the effect of aging. We developed a correlational-VAT (cVAT system that included a small, light sensor (less than 20 g with wireless data transmission technique to evaluate the aging of vestibular function. Material and methods: We enrolled 53 healthy participants aged between 25 and 75 years and divided them into five age groups. The test conditions were vertical and horizontal head autorotations of frequencies from 0 to 3 Hz with closed eyes or open eyes. The cross-correlation coefficient (CCC between eye velocity and head velocity was obtained for the head autorotations between 1 Hz and 3 Hz. The mean of the CCCs was used to represent the vestibular function. Results: Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the mean CCC for all test conditions, including horizontal or vertical autorotations with open eyes or closed eyes (P<0.05. The mean CCC with open eyes declined significantly at 55–65 years old and the mean CCC with closed eyes declined significantly at 65–75 years old.Conclusion: Vestibular function evaluated using mean CCC revealed a decline with

  10. The association of nephrolithiasis with metabolic syndrome and its components: a cross-sectional analysis

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    Liu YT

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yen-Tze Liu,1 Pei-Yu Yang,2 Yu-Wen Yang,1 Hung-Yu Sun,1 I-Ching Lin1,3,4 1Department of Family Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua City, 3School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, 4School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide disorder and also the major risk factor of several systemic diseases. Evidence identifying the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis is lacking, especially in Taiwan.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components.Design and setting: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Health Examination Department of a medical center in Changhua, Taiwan, from January 2010 to December 2010.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who had visited the Health Examination Center of Changhua Christian Hospital in 2010. A total of 3,886 individuals were enrolled. According to the exclusion criteria, those with an age <20 years and an abnormal renal function were excluded. A total of 3,793 subjects were included. All P-values are two tailed, and P<0.05 was defined as statistically significant.Results: The results showed a correlation between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval [CI] of metabolic syndrome for nephrolithiasis was 1.318 (1.083–1.604, with a P-value of 0.006. Larger waist circumference (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.338; 95% CI 1.098–1.631; P=0.004, higher blood pressure (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.333; 95% CI 1.106–1.607; P=0.003, and increased fasting glucose (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.276; 95% CI 1.054–1.546; P=0.01 were associated with nephrolithiasis.Conclusion: This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the relationship between metabolic

  11. Mexico's war on pollution is netting some results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclintock, J M

    1990-10-07

    The UN Day of the Atmosphere was held in Mexico City on a day when pollution was particularly high. The lead levels were 40% higher than UN recommended standards and a photochemical cloud hung over the city. The preceding year, the UN had deemed Mexico City's microorganisms in the air uncountable. 1 billion pounds of fecal dust are estimated to waft through the city due to lack of bathrooms for 2.7 million persons. 11,000 tons of pollutants are in the air. Excessive amounts of ozone are in the air for 380 hours between January and June when the UN acceptable standard is .11 parts/million for 1 hour/year. The standards for acceptable carbon monoxide levels have also been exceeded by 200 days in 1990. However, improvements have been made and recognized as progress. Carbon monoxide has been reduced by 7% due to emission inspections twice/year, cleaner fuels, good weather, and a ban on use of cars on 1 workday/week. 30,000 cars have already been removed through inspection, but there are reports of widespread corruption and bribery in 28 of the 285 inspection stations. Airborne lead, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide have remained the same or been reduced. Future plans include the requirement for catalytic converters on an estimated 200,000 public vehicles. Within 5 years, 200 million trees are to be planted in the windward approaches to the city and 5 million in the city itself. The WHO standards for greenspace to help with reoxygenation of the air are fulfilled at only 315 of the expected level. Subway expansion is also planned by 1994. Air conditioned buses traveling on special routes will be offered, albeit at high fares. In order to reduce the pollution, which amounts to 83%, caused by cars, gas prices have been increased and a fuel tax of 12% has been added to fuel sales. 13% of pollution is caused by industry, of which 3 of the top 10 are state owned. Industry is being asked to install filters and scrubbers in a program underwritten by the Japanese. Thermal

  12. Körperliche Fitness beim alternden Mann

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    Rauchenwald M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die derzeitige Diskussion um die Substitution von Hormonen zur Therapie altersbedingter Leistungseinbußen und Befindlichkeitsstörungen führte zu der Frage, ob diese Veränderungen bzw. die entsprechenden Hormonspiegel nicht auch durch körperliches Training günstig beeinflußt werden können. Altern ist mit einem kontinuierlichen Abfall der körperlichen Fitness und der Erektionsfähigkeit verbunden. Die Risikofaktoren für Erektionsstörungen, wie z. B. Übergewicht, sind sehr ähnlich jenen von Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen. Mehrere Studien konnten eine positive Korrelation von körperlicher Aktivität und Erektionsfähigkeit nachweisen. Regelmäßige Bewegung führt zu einer Gewichtsreduktion und zu einem Stressabbau. Die mit dem Alterungsprozeß assoziierten Hormone stehen untereinander als auch mit dem körperlichen Fitnesszustand in Zusammenhang. Ausdauertraining erhöht den Testosteronspiegel stärker als Krafttraining, zu hohe Belastungen führen zu einem Abfall desselben, v.a. in der Erholungsphase, und es besteht eine positive Korrelation von körperlicher Aktivität mit Testosteron und mit Wachstumshormon. Ältere Männer haben allerdings einen schlechteren Response als Jüngere (z. T. kein Effekt bei Krafttraining. Auch für Untrainierte scheint eine mäßige Kreislaufbelastung günstig zu sein und zumindest vorübergehend eine geringe Testosteron-Erhöhung zu bewirken. Ein Zusammenhang zwischen Fitness bzw. Lipidprofil einerseits und dem DHEAS-Spiegel andererseits ist in der Literatur bekannt. Körperliches Training führt auf physiologischem Wege zu Müdigkeit, besserem Schlaf und folglich zu höheren Wachstumshormonspiegeln. Weiters werden das Selbstbewußtsein, die Erektionsfähigkeit, die Muskelmasse und das Gefäßsystem günstig beeinflußt und Stress abgebaut. Regelmäßiges Training 3-5 x pro Woche für 30-60 Minuten mit einer Intensität von 60-80% des Maximalpulses wird als Ausdauertraining empfohlen. Regelmäßige k

  13. Sharia, Justice, and the Politics of Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the war-ravaged decade following 9/11, every aspect of Muslim women’s lives has become a fulcrum of political contestation. From burka bans in Belgium to proposed Sharia bans in Oklahoma and Tennessee, saving Muslim women is advertised as a purported aim for broad and varied campaigns that in actuality have little to do with them. In private conversations and in public forums on these issues, the questions on many lips are inevitably “But doesn’t Islam really oppress women?” or “Doesn’t Sharia law treat women as second class citizens?” Because these observers see Islam, Sharia, and Muslim women undifferentiated monoliths, the answers to their questions consequently fit the binaries that produce them: good and bad, just and unjust, oppressive and liberating. The assumptions buried inside these perceptions rest on western law, in which gender equality is safe, while in Sharia law, its specter hung with images of hacked hands and stoned women, it is not. The consequence of looking through these prisms is that everyone, reader and writer, scholar and student, is required to pick at team and then sit as onlookers in a civilizational contest that had little room for nuance or dialogue. All writing about Islam and Muslim women must thus ascribe to this paradigm, either an unequivocal defense or a fervid denigration, a prioritization of being either Muslim or female, and always an “either/or” and never ever a uniting “and.” The essay presented here is a small rebellion against precisely this arrangement, one that insists that we choose a side, and immediately agree or disagree, before we understand or empathize or make any attempt to feel how the world appears to others seated at different places in the arena or to those in the ring itself. Rather, liberation and justice are complicated issues that defy the construction of neat lines across cultures and contexts and individual lives.

  14. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

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    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  15. Assessing the oseltamivir-induced resistance risk and implications for influenza infection control strategies

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    Hsieh NH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nan-Hung Hsieh,1 Yi-Jun Lin,2 Ying-Fei Yang,2 Chung-Min Liao2 1Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; 2Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Oseltamivir-resistant mutants with higher drug resistance rates and low transmission fitness costs have not accounted for influenza (subtype viruses. Predicting the impacts of neuraminidase inhibitor therapy on infection rates and transmission of drug-resistant viral strains requires further investigation.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance for influenza A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 viruses.Materials and methods: An immune-response-based virus dynamic model was used to best fit the oseltamivir-resistant A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 infection data. A probabilistic risk assessment model was developed by incorporating branching process-derived probability distribution of resistance to estimate oseltamivir-induced resistance risk.Results: Mutation rate and sensitive strain number were key determinants in assessing resistance risk. By increasing immune response, antiviral efficacy, and fitness cost, the spread of resistant strains for A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 were greatly decreased. Probability of resistance depends most strongly on the sensitive strain number described by a Poisson model. Risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance increased with increasing the mutation rate for A (H1N1 only. The ≥50% of resistance risk induced by A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 sensitive infected cells were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.28–0.43 and 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.99 at a mutation rate of 10−6, respectively. Antiviral drugs must be administrated within 1–1.5 days for A (H1N1 and 2–2.5 days for A (H3N2 virus infections to limit viral production.Conclusion: Probabilistic risk assessment of antiviral drug

  16. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy following treatment with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy achieved favorable in high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Pang Hou,1,2,* Wei-Chang Lee,1,2,* Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Shao-Ming Chen,3 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2,4 Horng-Heng Juang,4,5 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2,4 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Hou-Pin Taipei Hospital, 4Bioinformation Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Patients with a high risk of prostate carcinoma typically have higher rates of positive surgical margins and biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and adjuvant hormone therapy. In this study, we assessed the effects of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT on prostate carcinoma in high-risk patients following robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP. Methods: This retrospective study investigated the medical records of 28 patients who underwent RARP between January 2009 and October 2013. Twenty-two patients underwent NHT prior to RARP. Furthermore, six patients did not undergo NHT prior to RARP. Parameters including age, operating time, blood loss, blood transfusion status, and cancer stage were checked against anatomical correlations. Potential predictors of prolonged operating time and prolonged surgical procedures were assessed using multiple logistic regressions. Results: NHT was shown to be an independent predictor of prolonged total operating time. Tumor stage alterations did not appear to be associated with NHT followed by RARP. The patients who underwent NHT were not more likely to have positive surgical margins, and an increase in patients requiring blood transfusion was not seen. Conclusion: NHT appears to increase

  17. La solución constructiva de la bóveda encamonada del salón de plenos del palacio del Senado en Madrid (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The constructive type of the timber vault that covers the Plenary Hall of the Palace of the Senate of Spain belonging to the first quarter of the 19th century is analyzed, being composed of the following elements: a rectangular soffit or timber slab with the voids filled up with plaster armed with fibers of esparto, which is hung by means of claspers from a few longitudinal straps of the wooden trusses of the original cover; a half vault formed by double table “camones” supported by a continuous wooden perimeter. By the inner face the soffit and the half vault are provided by plaster and separated by a semicircular perimetric molding in the North and South sides. The papers presents a historical investigation of the changes since the former Augustinian church to the Lounge of Spanish Parliament and Lounge of Plenary sessions, an analysis of the constructive type to which the vault belongs, a geometric characterization and a description of the principal elements.

    Se analiza el tipo constructivo de la bóveda encamonada que cubre el Salón de Plenos del Palacio del Senado de España del primer cuarto del siglo XIX, que está compuesta por los siguientes elementos: un plafón rectangular o forjado de tablas con entrevigado de yeso armado con fibras de esparto, que está colgado mediante abrazaderas de unas vigas longitudinales que se apoyan sobre los tirantes de las cerchas de madera de la cubierta original. Y por una semibóveda formada por camones de dobles tablas apoyados en un encadenado perimetral. Por el intradós el plafón y la semibóveda están guarnecidos con yeso y separados entre sí por una moldura perimetral semicircular en los lados Norte y Sur. En el trabajo se presenta una investigación histórica de los cambios registrados desde la antigua iglesia agustina, hasta el Salón de Cortes y Salón de Plenos, un análisis del tipo constructivo al que pertenece la bóveda, una caracterización geométrica y una descripci

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Neonatology and NICU clinical care and practices”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Neonatology and NICU clinical care and practices”ABS 1. BILATERAL CLAVICLE FRACTURE: A RARE CAUSE OF PERSISTENT CRYING • P. Cruz, P. Mendes, M. Anselmo, L. GonçalvesABS 2. NEONATAL TRANSPORT DURATION AND SHORT-TERM OUTCOME IN VERY-LOW-GESTATIONAL-AGE NEONATES • A. Matic, M. Gavrilovic LatinovicABS 3. PEMPHIGOID GESTATIONIS – A RARE CASE IN TWIN PREGNANCY • L. Gonçalves, E. Scortenschi, P. Cruz, P. Mendes, M. AnselmoABS 4. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLINICIAN-REPORTED OUTCOME (ClinRO MEASURE TO ASSESS READINESS FOR DISCHARGE FROM NEONATAL CARE AMONG EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS • M. Turner, R. Ward, J. Higginson, I. Hansen-Pupp, M. Vanya, E. Flood, G. Quiggle, A. Tocoian, A. Mangili, N. Barton, S. SardaABS 5. THE EFFECT OF THYROID HORMONES ON NICU ADMISSION DUE TO TRANSIENT TACHYPNEA OF NEWBORN IN LATE PRETERM AND TERM INFANTS • T. Gursoy, S. Ercin, P. Kayiran, B. GurakanABS 6. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PROLONGED JAUNDICE WORK-UPS IN THE OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT IN A TERTIARY NEONATAL CENTRE • C.M. Moore, J. O’Loughlin, B.C. HayesABS 7. SAVE THE DATE? CORRECT RECORDING OF DAY OF LIFE AND CORRECTED GESTATIONAL AGE IN NICU • C.M. Moore, A.F. El-KhuffashABS 8. PARENTS IN NICU: THE IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATION BETWEEN THE CURE AND THE CARE • G. De Bernardo, M. Svelto, M. Giordano, D. SordinoABS 9. THE PREVALENCE OF HEREDITARY HEARING LOSS IN 41,152 NEWBORNS DURING THE PERIOD 2011-2015 • S.T. Hsu, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, C.Y. Chen, H.C. Chou, W.S. Hsieh, C.C. Wu, P.N. TsaoABS 10. DEFICIENCY OF MULTIPLE acyl-CoA DEHYDROGENASE OR GLUTARIC ACIDURIA TYPE II • M. Torres, L. Geronès, J. Herrero, M.C. Cèspedes, F. Camba, J.A. Arranz, M. del Toro, F. CastilloABS 11. TEN YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN CARRIER SCREENING FOR SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY IN TAIWAN • C.Y. Chuang, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, P.N. TsaoABS 12. REDUCING MEDICATION ERRORS ON THE

  19. Nutzung und Akzeptanz von Wiki-Systemen bei Studierenden der Tiermedizin [Use and acceptance of Wiki systems for students of veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Studierende der Tiermedizin Wiki-Systeme bisher nutzen, ob sie ein fachspezifisches, tiermedizinisches Wiki-System als sinnvoll erachten und wie hoch die Bereitschaft zur Mitgestaltung ist.Methodik: Die Datenerhebung erfolgte als empirische Untersuchung mit Hilfe eines Fragebogens, der Studierenden (n=210 des Fachbereiches Veterinärmedizin (Freie Universität Berlin ausgehändigt wurde. Der Fragebogen enthielt Fragen zur Nutzung von Wikipedia allgemein und für den universitären Gebrauch und zur Nutzung und Akzeptanz von speziellen tiermedizinischen Wiki-Systemen. Ergebnisse: Die meisten Befragten hatten vorwiegend Leseerfahrungen mit Wikipedia und tiermedizinischen Wiki-Systemen, vor allem jüngere Semester. Im Gegensatz dazu war die aktive Nutzung hinsichtlich Schreiben oder Verändern von Informationen gering (8,6% Wikipedia, 15,3% tiermedizinische Wiki-Systeme. Sie war bei männlichen Nutzern (p=0,008 und in höheren Semestern (7,4% Anteil am 7. Semester stärker vorhanden. Die bisherige Nutzung universitär genutzter tiermedizinischer Wiki-Systeme war ebenfalls gering. Die Mehrheit der Studierenden (96,2% gab jedoch an, tiermedizinische Wiki-Systeme als Informationsmedium (d.h. passiv in Zukunft nutzen zu wollen. Auch hier wurde eine niedrige Bereitschaft zur aktiven Erstellung von Inhalten angegeben. Allerdings erwarten viele Studierende beim Verfassen eigener Texte einen größeren Lernerfolg. Ein Vertrauen in die Informationsqualität eines Wiki-Systems ist bei den Studierenden grundsätzlich vorhanden. Schlussfolgerung: Die Einschätzung der Wiki-Systeme als nützliche Nachschlagewerke (94,8% und die Befürwortung tiermedizinischer Wiki-Systeme (95,7% lässt eine erfolgreiche Etablierung von veterinärmedizinischen Wiki-Systemen erwarten. Hierbei sollten insbesondere Methoden zur Erhöhung der aktiven Nutzung entwickelt werden.

  20. Pemetrexed had significantly better clinical efficacy in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with susceptible EGFR mutations receiving platinum-based chemotherapy after developing resistance to the first-line gefitinib treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Jen Yang,1–4 Ming-Ju Tsai,2,4 Jen-Yu Hung,2,3 Ta-Chih Liu,3,5 Shah-Hwa Chou,3,6 Jui-Ying Lee,6 Jui-Sheng Hsu,3,7 Ying-Ming Tsai,1,2,4 Ming-Shyan Huang,2–4 Inn-Wen Chong2,3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 3Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, 5Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 6Division of Chest Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 7Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: Increased evidences show that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib could prolong progression-free survival (PFS compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic lung nonsquamous cell carcinoma harboring susceptible EGFR mutation, and gefitinib was served as the first-line therapy. However, acquired resistance is inevitable, but the salvage therapies are still unclear.Patients and methods: We designed a retrospective study of the salvage therapy and enrolled patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who had mutated EGFR and developed an acquired resistance to the first-line gefitinib in two university-affiliated hospitals in Taiwan during June 2011 to December 2014. Age, sex, smoking history, EGFR gene mutation, performance statuses, response rate, PFS2 (the PFS in salvage therapy, and overall survival (OS2, the OS in salvage therapy were recorded.Results: Two hundred and nine patients with mutated EGFR and who took gefitinib as first-line therapy were identified in the period, and a total of 98 patients who had been treated with salvage therapy with cytotoxic chemotherapy or erlotinib were eligible for this

  1. PACS support: the radiology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Rex Healthcare, a 394-bed facility located in Raleigh, N.C., faced a growing problem. The radiology department was performing a total of 130,000 procedures a year, running out of space to store the film, and having trouble managing the file room. While the IT department was focused on the Y2K scare, radiology forged ahead with a plan to implement PACS on its own at Rex Hospital. Rex had installed a mini-PACS system for ultrasound in 1996, but there was no internal support for the system's hardware or software. Being the first in the area to implement PACS, Rex wasn't able to recruit anyone locally to support the system, so they decided to take two areas that PACS had a great impact on and use their own people. The director of radiology asked the RIS analyst and the Film Library manager, both of whom were registered technologists, to implement and support the PAC system. The key to PACS support is not computer knowledge, although it helps. The key is to understand the radiology department as a whole and the workflow from within, which makes it hard to fully support from an IT perspective. The current PACS team at Rex is composed of a PACS analyst, system support specialist and an electronic imaging center manager. When we went live with PACS, it was obvious that not all of the existing file room personnel would make the technology leap, which they realized themselves. We didn't push anybody out, but we did raise the bar of expectations. By redefining job descriptions and having the EITs (electronic imaging technologists) become more involved, increased respect was quite evident among the hospital staff. The clerks that once only hung and filed films are now troubleshooting CD burners, teaching physicians the PACS, and filming necessary exams. The final key to success is to take ownership of your system. By taking ownership, I mean that a PACS team should be established to do troubleshooting and first-line support, know the servers and application, and feel

  2. Non Destructive Testing by active infrared thermography coupled with shearography under same optical heat excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Louis-Daniel; Dumoulin, Jean; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    visible spectrum would hinder the projected light beam since a laser with wavelength of 532 nm was used as the coherent light source. Experimentations were successful, but only with mitigated efficiency for shearography [2]. The thermal response was the fastest and it was possible to fully locate all defects. For shearography, the available equipment forced us to restrict the area of observation to only one defect at a time (roughly 100 cm²). Numerical models were designed based on the multiple sample tested in the experimental step of the study. Using the COMSOL© finite elements modeling software, numerous simulations yielded results in accordance with experimental data. Different types of defect could be modeled and showed that both shearography and thermography have different sensibility in function of the nature of the defect. Furthermore, analysis of the simulated results demonstrated a relation between the contrast evolution of the temperature and displacement field. In the near future, we expect to make several improvement to our experimental setup. As for the numerical model, some small disparities between the theoretical and experimental results still remain to be addressed. The numerical model could be improved but to do so it requires to raise the shearographic measurements sampling rate close to the one used for infrared thermography. Once this issue will be resolved, it will be possible to use experimental data to refine the numerical model. So, accurate models will be helpful to optimize the overall efficiency of the coupling of thermal shearography and active infrared thermography for in situ NDT application. References [1] Y.Y. Hung, C.Y. Liand, Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface strains, Applied Optics, Vol. 18, n°7, pages 1046-1051, 1979 [2] L-D. Théroux, J. Dumoulin, X. Maldague, Square heating applied to shearography and active infrared thermography measurements coupling: form feasibility test in laboratory to numerical study

  3. Monitoring of Building Structure by Tiltsensors

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    Alojz Kopáčik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the dynamic monitoring of stability (tilt measurement of bearing pillar of high-rise building using the electronic measuring system. The electronic measuring system consists of Libela 2800 tilt sensor, input/output device for the AE 2DN tilt sensor, measuring amplifier and also the Spider8 analog/digital converter and the registration equipment (notebook. The basic part of uniaxial tilt sensor creates a frame, on which is among damping plates hung a pendulum (ferromagnetic kernel. The tilt value is determined on a principle of electromagnetic induction by changing the position of ferromagnetic kernel in the reel. The range of pendulum movement is ± 2,5 mm/m and the accuracy of the tilt determination is 0,001 mm/m. The monitored building represents, from the point of constructional view, a ferro-concrete rectangular sceleton, which consists of vertical bearing pillars, on which are guyed longitudinal and transverse girders. The building ground-plan is rectangular with the dimensions of 75 m (distance and 12 m (width. The building has two underground and six above the ground floors with constructional high of 3,40 m. Whole highth of the above ground part of building is 20,4 m. The pillar tilt was measured in the transverse direction of the building at the level of the second floor using the Libela 2800 electronic sensor. The sensor was situated on the metallic console (L-profile, which was assembled on a lateral side of the circuit bearing pillar at the highth of 8,3 m above the ground level. Together with the tilt monitoring, the outside air temperature in the close area of pillar was measured. The tilt measurement was carried out continuously for 168 hours with the recording frequency of 1 Hz (1 measurement/second. The file of the measured data with 603 950 records was reduced to the file with 1006 records, which corresponds to the record of the every tenth minute. The measured tilt values represent from the

  4. Geologic map of Mészáros revisited: Pioneering tectonic mapping of the Transdanubian Range in the early 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Horváth, F.; Kovács, G.; Timár, G.; Székely, B.

    2009-04-01

    the faults mapped by Mészáros (1983) coincide fairly well with their microtectonic measurements. TR is nowadays interpreted as the uppermost Cretaceous thrust sheet of the Alpine nappes based on the interpretation of seismic surveys (Rumpler & Horváth, 1988; Horváth, 1993) and microtectonic measurements (Kiss & Fodor, 2007). We integrated the map into a GIS environment in order to evaluate the spatial accuracy of tectonic features and deformation style in the study area. Georeferencing was based upon control points applying rubber sheeting. Geological formations were digitized as polygons with their respective attributes (colour- or numerically coded). Three different categories of bounding elements are represented on the map: established, supposed and covered by younger geologic formations. Mészáros put a major emphasis on tectonic features, using 21 different line-types for representation. Digital terrain analysis methods using a 10 m DTM reveal a good correlation of the fault pattern with geomorphologic features, especially in the category of confirmed strike-slip faults. The connection of tectonic elements with the topography is a very anticipatory way of thinking for the early 1980s that became widely accepted by the end of the century. Csontos, L., Tari, G., Bergerat, F., Fodor, L. 1991. Tectonophysics, 199, 73-91. Horváth, F. 1993. In: Cloething, S., Sassi, W. & Horváth, F. (eds.) Tectonophysics, 226, 333-358. Kiss, A., Fodor, L. I. 2007. Geologica Carpathica, 58(5), 465-475. Mészáros, J. 1983. Ann. Rep. Hung. Geol. Inst. 1981, 485-502. Prinz, Gy. 1926. Danubia könyvkiadó, Pécs, 202 p. Rumpler, J., Horváth, F. 1988. In: L.H. Royden and F. Horváth (eds.) AAPG Mem. 45, Tulsa, Okl., 153-169p. Uhlig, V. 1907. Sitz. Ber. Akad. Wiss., math.- nat., Kl. 116(1), 871-982.

  5. The Adaptive Neural Network Control of Quadrotor Helicopter

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    A. S. Yushenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current steady-rising interest in using the unmanned multi-rotor aerial vehicles (UMAV designed to solve a wide range of tasks is, mainly, due to their simple design and high weight-carrying capacity as compared to classical helicopter options. Unfortunately, to solve a problem of multi-copter control is complicated because of essential nonlinearity and environmental perturbations. The most widely spread PID controllers and linear-quadratic regulators do not quite well cope with this task. The need arises for the prompt adjustment of PID controller coefficients in the course of operation or their complete re-tuning in cases of changing parameters of the control object.One of the control methods under changing conditions is the use of the sliding mode. This technology enables us to reach the stabilization and proper operation of the controlled system even under accidental external exposures and when there is a lack of the reasonably accurate mathematical model of the control object. The sliding principle is to ensure the system motion in the immediate vicinity of the sliding surface in the phase space. On the other hand, the sliding mode has some essential disadvantages. The most significant one is the high-frequency jitter of the system near the sliding surface. The sliding mode also implies the complete knowledge of the system dynamics. Various methods have been proposed to eliminate these drawbacks. For example, A.G. Aissaoui’s, H. Abid’s and M. Abid’s paper describes the application of fuzzy logic to control a drive and in Lon-Chen Hung’s and Hung-Yuan Chung’s paper an artificial neural network is used for the manipulator control.This paper presents a method of the quad-copter control with the aid of a neural network controller. This method enables us to control the system without a priori information on parameters of the dynamic model of the controlled object. The main neural network is a MIMO (“Multiple Input Multiple

  6. Hat die Ejakulation in Medium einen Effekt auf die Schwangerschaftsrate bei der Intrazytoplasmatischen Spermieninjektion bei Patienten mit schwerer Oligoasthenoteratozoospermie? Ergebnisse einer retrospektiven Analyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zollner K-P

    2002-01-01

    Schwangerschaftsrate von 22,9 % führte. In Gruppe B konnte eine Schwangerschaftsrate von 34,5 % (19 Konzeptionen von 55 Patientinnen erzielt werden (n.s.. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die Vorlage von Hepes gepuffertem Ham's F-10-Medium bei der Ejakulation bei Patienten mit Oligoasthenoteratozoospermie zu einer deutlichen, wenn auch nicht statistisch signifikanten Erhöhung der klinischen Schwangerschaftsrate führen kann. Es ist eine einfache und effiziente Methode, die bei allen Patienten mit schwerer männlicher Subfertilität Anwendung finden könnte.

  7. Association of sustained virologic response with reduced progression to liver cirrhosis in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    Tseng CW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Wei Tseng,1,2 Ting-Tsung Chang,3,4 Shinn-Jia Tzeng,5 Yu-Hsi Hsieh,1,2 Tsung-Hsing Hung,1,2 Hsiang-Ting Huang,6 Shu-Fen Wu,7 Kuo-Chih Tseng1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chia-Yi, 2School of Medicine, Tzuchi University, Hualien, 3Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, 4Infectious Disease and Signaling Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 5Department of Agronomy, National Chiayi University, 6Department of Nursing, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 7Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan Objective: We studied the effect of sustained virologic response (SVR after treatment with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN plus ribavirin on the development of liver cirrhosis in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Patients and methods: This retrospective study enrolled 145 elderly CHC patients (aged ≥65 years who were treatment-naïve and were treated with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin for 6 months between January 2005 and December 2011. Abdominal sonography was performed and liver biochemistry was studied at baseline, at the end of treatment, and every 3–6 months thereafter. The development of liver cirrhosis and related complications was evaluated at the follow-ups. The aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index was used as a noninvasive maker for fibrosis. Results: The mean patient age was 69.1±3.3 years, and the average follow-up time was 5.5 years (standard deviation: 2.5 years, range: 1.1–12.3 years. Ninety-five patients (65.5% achieved SVR, and 26 (17.9% discontinued treatment. Twenty-seven patients (18.6% developed liver cirrhosis after treatment. Patients without SVR had significantly greater risk of liver cirrhosis than those with SVR (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.312–8.761, P=0.012. The

  8. Temperature and Time Constraints on Dissolution, Fe-Mg Exchange and Zoning between Relict Forsterite and Chondrule Melt - Implications for Thermal History of Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunisik, G. K.; Ebel, D. S. S.; Walker, D.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical and textural characteristics of different generations of relict olivine grains in chondrules record the fact that chondrules were re-melted. Mineral dissolution, Fe-Mg exchange, and zoning within the relict crystals constrain the T-t aspects of this re-melting process. Here, we performed isothermal and dynamic cooling experiments at LDEO of Columbia University. For each run, a cubic crystal of known dimensions of Mogok forsterite (Fo99) was placed in synthetic Type IIA chondrule mesostasis with 4.92 wt% FeO (TLiq 1315ºC). Pressed pellets of this mixture were hung on Pt-wire loops and inserted in vertical Deltech furnace where CO-CO2 gas mixtures kept fO2 IW-1. For isothermal experiments, each charge was heated to 1428ºC, 1350ºC, 1250ºC, and 1150ºC and was held there from 20 mins to several days (>3 days) before drop-quenching into cold water. The dynamic crystallization experiments were held at 1428ºC for 20 mins, cooled at rates of 75ºC, 722ºC, and 1444ºC/hr to 1000ºC and then water quenched. X-ray-CT and EMPA at AMNH were used to image the partially resorbed/zoned olivines in 3-D before and after each run to observe textural evolution of the crystal shapes and volumes and to determine chemical changes. The isothermal experiments at 1150 and 1250ºC for 20 mins, produced no bulk FeO diffusion into the Mogok forsterite. Very minor Fe-Mg exchange at the crystal rims gives slight MgO zoning within the nearby melt. With increasing duration (1 hr and 22 hrs), at 1250ºC, embayments of melt form into the rims of the crystal (amplified at 22 hrs) with significant Fe-Mg exchange. FeO content of Mogok increased with major MgO zonation within nearby melt. At 1150ºC, the same increase in FeO in Mogok and zonation in nearby glass could only be achieved in >3 days experiment. At high Ts (1428ºC) in 20 min run, 75 volume % of Mogok forsterite has been dissolved into the melt. Resorption erodes the Fe-Mg exchange at the rims of the crystal. At longer

  9. The Elephants' Graveyard: Constraints from Mantle Plumes on the Fate of Subducted Slabs and Implications for the Style of Mantle Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    of mantle plumes, as suggested 25 years ago by Hofmann & White [2]. Determination of the depth of origin of mantle plumes would provide a 1st-order constraint on the depth of plate subduction and the volume of the "upper" mantle. Improved seismic techniques and deployment of OBS arrays may soon allow robust imaging of mantle plumes in the deep mantle, although preliminary results are controversial [3]. Detection of a conclusive geochemical signature of core/mantle interaction would also provide strong evidence for a deep origin of mantle plumes, although there is considerable debate as to what such a signature would entail. In summary, determination of the depth of origin of mantle plumes may provide the key to deciphering the fate of subducted slabs and the overall style of mantle convection. Although this problem remains unresolved after several decades of work, recent developments in both geophysics and geochemistry provide hope for a final resolution within the next 10 years. [1] M Bizimis, M Griselin, JC Lassiter, VJM Salters, G Sen, EPSL 257, 259-293, 2007. [2] AW Hofmann, WM White, EPSL 57, 421-436, 1982. [3] R Montelli, G Nolet, F Dahlens, G Masters, E Engdahl, S-H Hung, Science 303, 338-343, 2004.

  10. Europe is going to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

  11. Cubierta del Estadio Olímpico. en Munich - Alemania Federal

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The roof of the Olympic Stadium in Munich is like a gigantic tent on a network of cables, hung from masts, covering an area of 74,800 m2. Three stages were followed for building it: 1. Building and erecting the steel masts, and anchoring components. 2. Making and erecting the cable mesh. 3. Placing and welding the acrylic glass roof. The perfect planning of the work should be stressed, as all the cables were supplied on site with their final measurements, marked for easy assembly. The masts are steel tubes, pointed like cones at the end. They are made up of 37 mm thick sheets in the fust and 40 mm in the cones. The diameters reach 2.8 m and the lengths range between 41.1 m and 80 m. These masts rest on neoprene supports, fitted in ball bearings. The metal net is made up of square mesh, measuring 75 cm each side, and is placed in a 457 m long marginal cable. The acrylic roof is 4 mm thick. Sheets were thermally welded to obtain 300x300 m components, which were joined resiliently.La cubierta del Estadio Olímpico de Munich se asemeja a una gigantesca tienda de campaña sobre red de cables, suspendida de mástiles, que cubre una superficie de 74.800 m2. Para su construcción se siguieron tres etapas: 1.* Construcción y colocación de los mástiles de acero, y elementos de anclaje. 2.* Fabricación y colocación de las mallas de cables. 3.* Colocación y soldadura de la cubierta de vidrio acrílico. Es de destacar la perfecta planificación de la obra, ya que todos los cables fueron suministrados en obra con sus medidas definitivas y marcados para facilitar su colocación. Los mástiles son tubos de acero apuntados en conos en sus extremos. Están formados por chapas de 37 mm de espesor en el fuste y de 40 mm en los conos. Los diámetros llegan a 2,8 m y las longitudes oscilan entre los 41,1 m y los 80 m. Estos mástiles se apoyan sobre soportes de neopreno colocados en cojinetes de bolas. La red metálica está constituida por mallas cuadradas de

  12. Increased risk of pernicious anemia following scabies: a nationwide population-based matched-cohort study

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    Liu JM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Ming Liu,1–3,* Ren-Jun Hsu,3–5,* Fung-Wei Chang,6 Feng-Hsiang Chiu,7,8 Chia-Lun Yeh,1 Chun-Fa Huang,9,10 Shu-Ting Chang,11 Hung-Chang Lee,12 Hsin Chi,12,13 Chien-Yu Lin14,15 1Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taoyuan General Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taoyuan, 2Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, 4Department of Pathology and Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology, the Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, 5Biobank Management Center of the Tri-Service General Hospital, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 7Department of Emergency Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 8Superintendent office, Lihuili Eastern Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang province, People’s Republic of China; 9School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 10Department of Nursing, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung City, 11Department of Gastroenterology, BinKun Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Taoyuan City, 12Department of Infectious Disease, MacKay Children’s Hospital, Taipei, 13Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei city, 14Department of Pediatrics and Infectious Disease, Hsinchu MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City, Taiwan; 15Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: Scabies is a common and annoying disorder. Pernicious anemia (PA is a serious disease which, when untreated, leads to death. Mounting evidence suggests that immune-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The relationship between these two diseases has not been investigated. We conducted this

  13. A comparison of three different corneal marking methods used to determine cyclotorsion in the horizontal meridian

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    Lin HY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hung-Yuan Lin,1–3 Yi-Ting Fang,4 Ya-Jung Chuang,5 Justin N Karlin,6 Hsin-Yang Chen,7 Szu-Yuan Lin,8 Pi-Jung Lin,9 Ming Chen10 1Universal Eye Center, Zhong-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Optometry, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Fu-Jian Medical University, People’s Republic of China; 4Universal Eye Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Universal Eye Center, Long-Tan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Ningbo First Hospital, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Cathay General Hospital, 9Universal Eye Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA Abstract: During toric intraocular lens (IOL implantation, surgeons must take particular care to ensure that inaccurate preoperative measurement and intraoperative misalignment do not cause unexpected postoperative residual astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study aimed to analyze the rotational deviation, or cyclotorsion, of three corneal marking methods: VERION digital marker (VDM; reference, horizontal slit beam marking (HSBM, and subjective direct visual marking (SDVM on the table (using a bevel knife tip. Subjects included 81 eyes of 61 patients (mean age: 65.70±13.14 years; range: 32–91 years undergoing scheduled cataract surgery. A preoperative reference image was taken of each eye. Subsequently, a slit lamp with the light beam turned to the horizontal meridian was used to align the seated patient’s head, and two reference marks were placed at the 3- and 9-o’clock positions of the corneal limbus using a 27-gauge needle and marking pen (HSBM. Upon transfer to the surgical table, the VDM was used to display a real

  14. El proceso constructivo de los teatros del "Canal" del arquitecto Juan Navarro Baldeweg

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    del Aguila García, Alfonso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This present article studies and chriticizes the building system and the developement of the theater and dance complex of Canal (Teatros del Canal, Madrid, designed by Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Principal Professor of Architectural Design at Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. These theaters are being built in the center of Madrid city. The owner and developer of this complex is Canal de Isabel II (the water supply company of Madrid regional Government. The project consist in a three building complex, two theatres and a choreographic centre, put together by a back service block, each of them with it’s own different building solutions. This article is the result of the work done during the term 2006-07 of the Seminar of "Industrialization of Building Process" that, under the direction of the Principal Professor Alfonso del Águila, takes place within the Ph. D. Program of the Department of Construction and Architectural Technology set in Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. The work includes two different parts: the fi rst one, which introduces is a prologue written by Prof. Navarro and a general description of the building. The second part describes its different construction areas, ranging from the different structural solutions, the hung façades pretending to be theatre curtains, some aspects of the interior design, as acoustics, special furniture and fi nishes, not in a mere descriptive way, but also from a critical manner with the intention to be a consequence with didactical value for the students/ authors.El artículo que se presenta estudia y valora el sistema constructivo, y su desarrollo, de las obras de los Teatros del Canal, obra del Catedrático de Proyectos de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Madrid, Prof. Navarro Baldeweg, que se están llevando a cabo en Madrid, siendo la Promotora y Propietaria el Canal de Isabel II de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Se trata de un conjunto de tres edifi cios

  15. Gnawing blocks as cage enrichment and dietary supplement for does and fatteners: intake, performance and behaviour

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    Luc Maertens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different experimental gnawing blocks as cage enrichment in rabbits. One hundred and five pregnant rabbit does housed in conventional wire cages were distributed according to their parity number in 4 homogenous treatment groups. Throughout one complete reproductive cycle (from day 18 of pregnancy till weaning of the litter, does either received no enrichment (controls or a gnawing block hung from a wire on the cage wall. The 3 different blocks had the same basal components (wheat, molasses and oligoelements, but additionally wood mash (WM, wood mash+chicory pulp (ChP or wood mash and inulin syrup (I were respectively incorporated. After weaning, each litter continued to receive the same blocks as before and block consumption was measured as well as the performance of the fatteners. Weight development during the lactation was comparable except in does that received the wood powder blocks. These females had a significantly lower weight (P<0.05 at different time points compared to controls. Litter weight or kit weight was not significantly different at any of the time points measured, but again the treatment with wood powder blocks presented the lowest weight. The consumption of blocks during the whole reproduction cycle (42 d was 11.0±1.1; 6.8±1.0 and 4.4±0.7 g/d per cage for wood mash, chicory pulp or inulin enriched blocks, respectively. A very high variability in consumption of blocks was observed between females. This varied between 1 and 5 (I or ChP group or even 1 and 9 blocks (WM group per reproductive cycle. In fatteners, daily block consumption was significantly different (P<0.05 and reached on average 7.0±0.5; 3.9±0.5 and 2.2±0.2 g/d per fattener, respectively for WM, ChP and I. Five females with a block and 5 females without a block were observed for 1 h 3 d before the expected parturition and at 2 time points during lactation. Distinction was made between 15 different behaviours. Although the

  16. Hamilton Place - Ontario Canadá

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    Garwood-Jones, T. P.

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Although comparatively modest as to its exterior, the interior of the theatre-auditorium Hamilton Place has been most successfully solved, both as regards design and acoustics. Construction techniques and elements have been utilized to achieve two different sections in one and the same hall with on one hand the capacity to be able to capture shades of the spoken word at theatrical functions and on the other to reproduce the sharpness and variety of orchestras and choirs. The following elements deserve special mention: the mobile wall which incorporates the orchestra into the hall by closing the proscenium arch; the two elevating platforms where the orchestra is placed; the vertical velvet surfaces, hung like banners which soften the repercussion of the sound; the mobile horizontal surfaces over the orchestra that direct and orient the sound. The most interesting construction techniques are: the subdivision of the building into different parts, each one with independent foundation so as to avoid the transmission of the sound from one section to the other; the texture of the brick walls that disperse the reflected sound; and the use of counterforts to create smaller more personal sections for varied use. The acoustic characteristics are improved by means of a sound installation, formed by small loudspeakers placed under each seat and by other bigger ones distributed in the walls that surround the hall. The building is completed by various service installations that are appropriate to this type of construction, as well as by a small theatre-studio for the rehearsals of the orchestra and the actors, while other functions are going on in the main hall.El teatro-auditorio Hamilton Place, aunque relativamente modesto por fuera, tiene soluciones muy afortunadas en el interior, tanto por su diseño como por su adecuación acústica. Se han utilizado elementos y técnicas constructivas destinadas a conseguir, en una única sala, dos espacios

  17. Machine vision process monitoring on a poultry processing kill line: results from an implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Colin; Britton, Dougl; Daley, Wayne; Stewart, John

    2005-11-01

    width information of the entire chicken and different parts such as the breast, the legs, the wings, and the neck. The system also records average color and miss- hung birds, which can cause problems in further processing. Other relevant production information is also recorded including truck arrival and offloading times, catching crew and flock serviceman data, the grower, the breed of chicken, and the number of dead-on- arrival (DOA) birds per truck. Several interesting observations from the Georgia Tech vision system, which has been installed in a poultry processing plant for several years, are presented. Trend analysis has been performed on the performance of the catching crews and flock serviceman, and the results of the processed chicken as they relate to the bird dimensions and equipment settings in the plant. The results have allowed researchers and plant personnel to identify potential areas for improvement in the processing operation, which should result in improved efficiency and yield.

  18. 'Tool' use by the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David H.; Brunson, Shawn

    1993-01-01

    twice. On the last two swoops, the snake hung limp and apparently lifeless from the hawk's talons After the last swoop, the hawk dropped out of sight into tall grass ca 200 m from our position and presumably ate the snake because we could observe no prey in the hawk's talons when it soared up 13 rain later.If the anvil (not held in the hand) is a tool as well as the hammer (held in the hand), then the Red-tailed Hawk may be added to the short list of raptors that have been known to use tools

  19. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

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    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    population in citrus orchard. The experimental design used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7% alone and added to natural orange juice (10%. Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

  20. Association of low serum aluminum level with mortality in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu CW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Wei Hsu,1–3 Cheng-Hao Weng,1–3 Cheng-Chia Lee,1–3 Dan-Tzu Lin-Tan,1–3 Kuan-Hsing Chen,1–3 Tzung-Hai Yen,1–3 Wen-Hung Huang1–3 1Department of Nephrology, Division of Clinical Toxicology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Nephrology, Division of Clinical Toxicology, Linkou Medical Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: The National Kidney Foundation–Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommends that the serum aluminum level (SAL should be below 20 µg/L for patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. However, serum aluminum may have toxic effects on MHD patients even when it is in the apparently acceptable range (below 20 µg/L.Methods: The Medical Ethics Committee approved this study. Initially, 954 MHD patients in dialysis centers were recruited. A total of 901 patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed-up for 1 year. Patients were stratified by SAL into four equal-sized groups: first quartile (<6 µg/L, second quartile (6–9 µg/L, third quartile (9–13 µg/L, and fourth quartile (>13 µg/L. Demographic, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for analyses. A linear regression model was applied to identify factors associated with SAL. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the significance of variables in prediction of mortality.Results: Only 9.3% of MHD patients had SALs of 20 µg/L or more. At the end of the follow-up, 54 patients (6% died, and the main cause of death was cardiovascular disease. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients in the fourth SAL quartile had higher mortality than those in the first SAL quartile (log rank test, χ2=13.47, P=0.004. Using the first quartile as reference, Cox multivariate analysis indicated that patients in the third quartile (hazard ratio =1.31, 95% confidence

  1. Poorer prognosis in Taiwanese female ever smokers with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who were readministered a tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Jen Yang,1–4 Ming-Ju Tsai,2 Jen-Yu Hung,2,4 Ying-Ming Tsai,1–3 Jui-Ying Lee,5 Shah-Hwa Chou,5,6 Ta-Chih Liu,7,8 Mei-Chiou Shen,9 Ming-Shyan Huang,2,4,10 Inn-Wen Chong2,6 1Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 5Division of Chest Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 6Department of Respiratory Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 7Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 8Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 9Department of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 10Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: Readministering a second epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with acquired resistance to an initial EGFR TKI is a common treatment strategy. However, the prognostic factors for the second EGFR TKI are still uncertain.  Patients and methods: In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed between June 2009 and October 2013 at two university-affiliated hospitals in Taiwan. Basic characteristics including age, sex, smoking status, performance status, EGFR mutation status, tumor response, and progression-free survival (PFS of the second

  2. Optimal design of sound absorbing systems with microperforated panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nicholas Nakjoo

    , three different situations were considered: one was studying the combination of microperforated panels with tapered holes and a specific depth of air backing space with a view to finding the trade-off between hole angle and surface porosity. Secondly, it was of interest to study the use of multiple-layer MPPs as functional absorbers. Finally, there is a study of the optimization of a multi-layer cylindrical duct liner that gives maximum axial attenuation. Note that "Functional Absorber" is the name given to a system that can be hung, in an industrial space, for example, to provide acoustic absorption. The duct applications of interest would be in HVAC systems, whether in buildings, automotive systems or personal ventilators. In both applications, the focus was on obtaining the best possible performance in the full speech interference range, which spans the range from 500 Hz to 4000 kHz. In each case, a transfer matrix method has been developed to calculate the transmission loss and absorption coefficients provided by the systems. Note finally that the design of an N multiple-layer MPP system depends on 5N-1 parameters, and so a general optimization becomes difficult in realistic cases when as many as ten layers might be used. Thus, the use of a genetic algorithm to optimize the system parameters has been adopted, since an algorithm of that sort can efficiently identify good solutions from a very large design space. The results, as presented in this thesis, show that it is possible to identify the best combination of MPP properties that improve the desired acoustic performance, whether absorption or transmission loss, in a prescribed frequency range.

  3. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-22

    Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in August 2012 as part of a model evaluation program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radionuclide data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to provide data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test PIN STRIPE, conducted in borehole U-11b in 1966. Well ER-11-2 will provide information that can be used to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The main 31.1-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 399.6 meters (m). A completion casing string was not set in Well ER-11-2. However, a piezometer string was installed in the 31.1-cm open hole. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing hung on 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. The piezometer string was landed at 394.5 m, for monitoring the lower tuff confining unit. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other test-related radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 42.7 m of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium and 356.9 m of Tertiary volcanic rock. The water-level measured in the piezometer string on September 25, 2012, was 353.8 m below ground surface. No

  4. Cisplatin induces protective autophagy through activation of BECN1 in human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin JF

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Fan Lin,1 Yi-Chia Lin,2 Te-Fu Tsai,2,3 Hung-En Chen,2 Kuang-Yu Chou,2,3 Thomas I-Sheng Hwang2–4 1Central Laboratory, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, 3Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, 4Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the first line treatment for several cancers including bladder cancer (BC. Autophagy induction has been implied to contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer; and a high basal level of autophagy has been demonstrated in human bladder tumors. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that autophagy may account for the failure of cisplatin single treatment in BC. This study investigated whether cisplatin induces autophagy and the mechanism involved using human BC cell lines.Materials and methods: Human BC cells (5637 and T24 were used in this study. Cell viability was detected using water soluble tetrazolium-8 reagents. Autophagy induction was detected by monitoring the levels of light chain 3 (LC3-II and p62 by Western blot, LC3-positive puncta formation by immunofluorescence, and direct observation of the autophagolysosome (AL formation by transmission electron microscopy. Inhibitors including bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, chloroquine (CQ, and shRNA-based lentivirus against autophagy-related genes (ATG7 and ATG12 were utilized. Apoptosis level was detected by caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation.Results: Cisplatin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of 5637 and T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The increased LC3-II accumulation, p62 clearance, the number of LC3-positive puncta, and ALs in cisplatin-treated cells suggested that cisplatin indeed induces autophagy. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced autophagy using Baf A1, CQ, or ATG7/ATG12 shRNAs significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of

  5. Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin JF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Fan Lin,1 Yi-Chia Lin,2,3 Shan-Che Yang,1 Te-Fu Tsai,2,3 Hung-En Chen,2 Kuang-Yu Chou,2,3 Thomas I-Sheng Hwang2–4 1Central Laboratory, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer.Materials and methods: The cytotoxicity of RT4, 5637, HT1376, and T24 human bladder cancer cells treated with RAD001 alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine (3-MA, bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, chloroquine, or hydroxychloroquine was assessed using the WST-8 cell viability kit. The autophagy status in cells was analyzed by the detection of microtubule-associated light chain 3 form II (LC3-II, using immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVO formation in treated cells was determined by acridine orange vital staining. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by RAD001 was monitored by using a homemade quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene array, while phospho-mTOR was detected using Western blot. Induced apoptosis was determined by measurement of caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in cells after

  6. Occupational risk factors for testicular cancer: a registry-based case-control study in Rhineland Palatinate – Germany [Berufliche Risikofaktoren für Hodenkrebs: eine Register-basierte Fall-Kontroll-Studie in Rheinland-Pfalz – Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif, Lamyaa

    2013-11-01

    ügbaren Informationen zur Erwerbstätigkeit zwischen 2000 und 2005, sowie 564 geeignete Kontrollen (aus einem Pool anderer Krebsarten wurden aus dem Krebsregister Rheinland-Pfalz gezogen. Mittels einer unkonditionalen logistischen Regression wurden Odds Ratios (OR und deren 95%-Konfidenzintervall (CI berechnet.Ergebnisse: Eine leichte Erhöhung wurde für Techniker und verwandte Berufe (OR 1,62, 95% CI 1,00 bis 2,63 und für Bürokräfte (OR 1,71, 95% CI 1,14 bis 2,56 beobachtet. Dieser Anstieg war am höchsten in der Altersgruppe 20–50 für Techniker (OR 2,02, 95% CI 1,23 bis 3,33 sowie für Bürokräfte (OR 2,00, 95% CI 1,30 bis 3,09. Es wurde keine weitere Assoziation zwischen Hodenkrebs und anderen Berufen beobachtet.Fazit: Ein erhöhtes Risiko für Hodenkrebs wurde für Techniker und verwandte Berufe sowie für Bürokräfte beobachtet. Dies könnte auf den sozioökonomischen Status bzw. die bewegungsarme Lebensweise zurückgeführt werden, was auch schon in früheren Studien gezeigt wurde. Während die Machbarkeit einer rein Register-basierten Studie gezeigt wurde, stellen die fehlenden beruflichen Daten sowie die Wahl der Krebskontrollen eine Herausforderung für die Richtigkeit dieses Ansatzes dar.

  7. Recurrent metalliferous fluid flow, Khetri Copper Belt, northern Rajasthan, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Hannah, Judith L.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2013-04-01

    the north through Re-Os dating of sulfides from drill core covering three deposits in the >100 km-wide Khetri Cu belt. In this study, we do not seek to isolate an event in time, but to integrate existing geochronologic data, together with our own, to illuminate the regional history that bears on ore formation in the Khetri Cu belt and adjacent areas. In our reconstruction, we use Re-Os ages for chalcopyrites and molybdenites from Khetri and Rohil, and the Baniwala Ki Dhani - Dokan area of the Sikar district (30 km SE of the Khetri Cu belt). We propose that fluids acquired from dehydration of paleoslabs hung beneath earlier Proterozoic back-arc basins in the Khetri region may be important players in the ore-forming process and key to interpreting the phenomenal albitization associated with the Cu belt. Prominent NE-trending shear zones, with subordinate N-S structures at the deposit scale gave fluids access and focus into sedimentary packages in earlier-formed rift basins. These Re-Os data, together with regional U-Pb data, show that the Neoproterozoic was an important time for development of ore deposits in the metasedimentary sequences of the Ajabgarh Group in the Khetri Cu belt, the greater Khetri region, and the Aravalli-Delhi fold belt as a whole. Funded by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EAR-1119655.

  8. Ide. *ger- „kelti“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Mažiulis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available IDG. *ger- „HEBEN, HOCHZIEHEN“ZusammenfassungEinen solchen Archetyp (nämlich mit einer solchen oder ähnlichen Bedeutung gibt es bisher in etymologischen Wörterbüchern der indogermanischen Sprachen noch nicht. Eine solche Rekonst­ruktion ermöglichen aber bestimmte etymologische Gegebenheiten vor allem der baltischen und slawischen Sprachen — dieser besonders archaischen indogermanischen Dialekte. Entschei­dend bei dieser Rekonstruktion ist die im Aufsatz behandelte Etymologie (bisher von niemand er­klärt! der verwandten baltischen und slawischen Wörtern: a preuß. garian „Baum“ (Neutr. < westbalt. *garan (Neutr., b lit. girià (= lett. dziŗa „(Forstenwald“ (Fem. < ostbalt. *girā́ (Fem. und c aksl. (u. a. gora „Berg“ (Fem. < slaw. *garā (Fem.. Es werden Argumente ange­führt, die davon zeugen, daß alle diese baltischen und slawischen Wörter im Altertum „Erhöhung, Erhebung“ bedeuteten, d. h. sie waren Adjektivabstrakta (natürlich singulariatantum! — subs­tantivierte neutr. (westbalt. bzw. fem. (ostbalt. und slaw. Formen der Adjektive mit der Bedeutung „erhöht, herausragend“. Weiter wird gezeigt, daß diese balt.-slaw. Adjektive für Ableitungen zu halten sind [mit den Endungen balt.-slaw. *-as (masc, *-a (neutr., *-ā (fem.] von den For­men (mit dem Ablaut des Wurzervokalismus des Wurzelsubstantivs (der konsonantischen Dekli­nation und generis neutr. < idg. generis imanimati, eines nomen actionis (singulare tantum! mit der Bedeutung „das Emporheben, das Hervor-, Herausragen“, d. h.: a von der Form des Wur­zelnomens balt.-slaw. *gar < idg. *guor bzw. b von der Form des Wurzelnomens + *-i balt.-slaw. *gari / *giri < idg. *gori / *g0ri; von dieser Form idg. Wurzelnomen + *-i stammten i-stäm­mige av. gairiš „Berg, Anhöhe“ / altind. giríṣ „dass.“ u. a. Dieses ncmen actionis (generis inanimati idg. *gor bzw. *gori / *g ori „das Emporheben, das Hervor

  9. The epidemiology and burden of Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan utilizing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung YN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yen-Ni Hung,1 Zbigniew Kadziola,2 Alan JM Brnabic,3 Ju-Fen Yeh,4 Jong-Ling Fuh,5,6 Jen-Ping Hwang,7,8 William Montgomery,9 1School of Gerontology Health Management and Master Program in Long-Term Care, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Real World Analytics, Eli Lilly GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 3Real World Analytics, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Medicine, Eli Lilly and Company, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 6Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, 7Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 8Division of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 9Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia Purpose: The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence, cumulative incidence, and economic burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD in Taiwan, using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal, observational study using data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of the NHIRD. Patients were included in this study if they were 50 years of age or older and their records included a primary or secondary diagnosis of AD. New patients who met inclusion criteria were followed up longitudinally from 2005 to 2010. Costs were calculated for the first year following the diagnosis of AD.Results: Overall, a higher percentage of women than men were diagnosed with AD (54% vs 46%, respectively. The first AD diagnosis occurred most frequently in the age of 75–84 years. The person-year incidence rate increased from 5.63/1,000 persons (95% CI, 5.32–5.94 in 2005 to 8.17/1,000 persons (95% CI, 7.78–8.57 in 2010. The cumulative incidence rate was 33.54/1,000 persons (95% CI, 32.76–34.33 in 2005

  10. Prospecting For Magnetite Ore Deposits With A Innovative Sensor's of Unique Fundamentally New Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianenko, T. I.; Tachaytdinov, R. S.; Sarichev, V. F.; Kotov, B. V.; Susoeva, G. N.

    After careful study of principles and abilities of all existing magnetmeters of all three revolutions in magnetic prospecting we have come to the conclusion that they cannot solve local guestions of the magnetic prospecting or determine centre coordinates of magnetite ore body before drilling Electromagnetism lows and achievents magnetprospectings and radioelectronics of all 20th century serve as a theoretical base of the "locator". While creating this cardinally new magnetmeter , we borrowed different things from radio-prospectors, magnetprospectors, wireless operators and combined all of them while creating the "locators''. The "locators' construction is bas ed on the "magnetic intensification" principle ,owing to which this "locators" are characterised by hight sensitiveness and ability to determine centers of even little commercial magnetite ore deposits with relatively weak magnetic anomalies. The main advantage of the "locators" over existing ones is that it can solve local questions determine centre coordinates. A remarkably simple locator construction determine direction of the on-surface measurings towards the ore body centre and gives approximate prognosis resourses before/withour/ drilling. The "locators" were worked out for the first time in history , they have 2 licences. The fundamental design and drawbacks of the existing magnetometers have been inherited from the original magnetometre dating back two or three hundred years. The developers of the existing magnetometres have all gone along the same well- beaten track of replacing the primitive sensor in the form of a piece of ore hung on a string at first by an arrow sensor and later by magnetically oriented protons and quanta, with amplification of the sensors' OUTPUT signal. Furthermore, all the existing magnetometres are imperfect in that they, lacking the directivity of the ground-level magnetic measurements, only record the overall magnetic vector field generated by all the ore bodies around the

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A MUD-PULSE HIGH-TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT-WHILE-DRILLING (MWD) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins; William Motion; Jay Martin

    2002-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop a mud-pulse measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool for oil and gas drilling operations that can be used where downhole temperatures are as high as 195 C (383 F). The work was planned to be completed in two phases: Phase I and an optional Phase II. The objectives of Phase I were first to identify critical components of existing MWD systems that can or cannot operate at 195 C. For components not able to meet the higher standard, one of several strategies was pursued: (1) locate high-temperature replacement components, (2) develop new designs that eliminate the unavailable components, or (3) use cooling to keep components at acceptable operating temperatures (under 195 C). New designs and components were then tested under high temperatures in the laboratory. The final goal of Phase I was to assemble two high-temperature MWD prototype tools and test each in at least one low-temperature well to verify total system performance. Phase II was also envisioned as part of this development. Its objective would be to test the two new high-temperature MWD prototype tools in wells being drilled in the United States where the bottom-hole temperatures were 195 C (or the highest temperatures attainable). The high-temperature MWD tool is designed to send directional and formation data to the surface via mud pulses, to aid in the drilling of guided wellbores. The modules that comprise the tool are housed in sealed barrels that protect the electronics from exposure to down-hole fluids and pressures. These pressure barrels are hung inside a non-magnetic collar located above the drilling assembly. A number of significant accomplishments were achieved during the course of the Phase I project, including: (1) Tested two MWD strings for function in an oven at 195 C; (2) Conducted field test of prototype 195 C MWD tool (at well temperatures up to 140-180 C); (3) Tested ELCON hybrid chip with processor, clock, and memory in a custom package for 700

  12. Physician deficit in USA - where is the bottleneck? [Ärztemangel in den USA - wo wird es eng?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid, M. Sami

    2009-05-01

    ölkerung zu gewährleisten. Allerdings hat die Entwicklung von Managed Care in den Vereinigten Staaten zur Annahme geführt, dass es zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts zu einem gravierenden Ärzteüberschuss kommen könnte. Aufgrund dieser Prognose wurden die durch Medicare finanzierten Weiterbildungsstellen deutlich reduziert. Zusätzlich hat die Zahl der Studierenden an den Medizinischen Fakultäten in den 1980er und 1990er Jahren abgenommen. Jetzt ist klar geworden, dass die Prognosen falsch waren und die aktuelle Versorgung mit Ärzten die Nachfrage nicht übersteigt. Deshalb sieht die Association of American Medical Colleges eine Erhöhung der Absolventen an den Medizinschulen der Vereinigten Staaten um jährlich 3.000 bis zum Jahr 2015 vor. Aber auch wenn dieses schwierige Vorhaben gelingen sollte, könnte in den Vereinigten Staaten um 2020 ein Mangel an 200.000 Ärzten gegeben sein. Grund dafür ist der Engpass, der den Eintritt der Absolventen in die Weiterbildungsprogramme bestimmt, die die Voraussetzung für den Erwerb der Berufsberechtigung darstellen. Solange die Zahl der von Medicare getragenen Weiterbildungsstellen in den Vereinigten Staaten unverändert bleibt, bedeutet eine Zunahme an Absolventen der US-amerikanischen medizinischen Fakultäten lediglich die Verdrängung einer entsprechenden Anzahl ausländischer Absolventen, die sich in den Vereinigten Staaten weiterbilden wollen. Damit würde es zur Reduktion der Zahl jener ausländischen Absolventen kommen, die ihren Beruf in den Vereinigten Staaten aufnehmen können und damit die Zahl der Ärzte erhöhen würden. Unter dem Strich würde die Zahl der in der Patientenversorgung tätigen Ärzte dann nicht erhöht. Ärztemangel wird also ein Thema bleiben und könnte sicherlich den Zugang zur ärztlichen Versorgung erschweren.

  13. LED lighting and the Next Generation of Greenhouse for Tomatoes. Proof of Principle; LED belichting en Het Nieuwe Telen bij tomaat. Proof of Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, T.; Janse, J.; Eveleens, B. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Nieboer, S.; Valstar, W.; Grootscholten, M. [GreenQ Improvement Centre, Bleiswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this Proof of Principle project a tomato crop was grown under artificial lighting with the aim of 30% energy saving at the same level of production. Tomatoes (cultivar Komeett) were illuminated with 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} HPS (High Pressure Sodium) above the crop and 85 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} LED interlighting. The LEDs hung in 2 rows, approximately 40 cm above the lower leaves and the second strand at 40 or 70 cm above that. There were two types of LEDs used: production LEDs (light efficiency 1.6 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 87% red/13% blue) and inter-lighting LEDs (light efficiency 1.9 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 95% red/5% blue), with the same light intensity. At the start, the crop was given as much light as it could handle, and because the crop developed so well, the stem density was increased relatively early. This resulted in high fruit load, while insufficient light was available to compensate for the low levels of sunlight in the winter. In the 192 cm row spacing system the plants were too close to each other. Additional problems occurred with trace elements, lesser bumble bee activity, and a moist greenhouse climate which weakened the crop in the winter. Thus Botrytis occurred on the leaves and stems. The crop struggled with its recovery until early spring with more sunlight. Compared to a reference crop with 79 kg m{sup -2} tomatoes, 75 kg m{sup -2} were produced under-production LEDs, and 80 kg m{sup -2} under the interlighting LEDs, mainly because latter LEDs were used longer during the summer. 30% of the energy for dehumidification and heat energy, and 27% of the electricity was saved, relative to the reference crop. Thus it appears possible to save 30% energy with a near identical production [Dutch] In dit Proof of Principle project is een belichte tomatenteelt geteeld met als doel 30% energiebesparing bij een gelijke productie. Tomaten van het ras Komeett werden belicht met 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} SON-T belichting boven

  14. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    different types of waste. * A Willibald mill from Svenska Neuero - a mobile hammer mill with a drive system mounted on a trailer frame. * An Untha mill from Presona - a mobile, slow-action, electrically-operated mill with cutting tools. * A Satum mill from Ekoteknik - a stationary mill of the slow-action type with rotating knife cutters, and * A Doppstadt mill from OP-maskiner - a mobile slow-action mill with hammers. Other mills been tested for milling soft plastics by Lunds Energi in Lomma and Soederenergi in SoedertaeIje are: * Lindner- kvarn from Franssons Recycling Machine. A low- speed machine with turnable teeth. (Lomma), and * Eco- crusher from Babcock. A low- speed waste crusher with two-rotor. (Soedertaelje). The results of the tests showed that those mills/crushers/shredders that can cope with the demand to pulverize plastic material with only one or two grinding runs are slow action units with cutting tools. Hammer mills do not function as effectively for the type of plastic material investigated. Tests of whether it was possible to fire the Jamtkraft plant in Oestersund with pulverized plastic showed that with a proportion of approximately 5 per cent of plastic fuel mixed together with other solid fuel, mainly sawdust, bark and wood chips, plant operation was for the most part satisfactory. The running period amounted to approximately two weeks. Among the problems that occurred, however, were that somewhat excessively long strips of plastic hung down in front of the level sensors that control the supply from the day silos and that the overfilling sensor in the fuel screw was affected by the plastic. These problems would probably have been more serious if a larger proportion of plastic had been used. In order to be able to complete the tests in Oestersund, relatively extensive contacts was needed with the municipal environmental and community planning office, which in turn obtained the views of the County Administrative Board in the county of Jaemtland. Finally

  15. Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Satureja viminea (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suárez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract and the essential oil of Satureja viminea (Lamiaceae were tested. General physiologic effects were assessed through the Hippocratic screening test. Non fasted female Sprague Dawley rats were utilized and 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses were used. Two animals were used for each dosage level and for the vehicle alone. Exploratory behavior and curiosity were measured using a hole board apparatus and placing non-trained mice on the board and recording the number of holes explored in a 5 minute period. The Boissier chimney test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Muscle strength was assessed through a grasping test where mice were hung by their fore-limbs 40 cm above the base on a horizontal metal stainless bar. In all these tests, 3 groups of 6 albino mice, were treated with 1000 mg/kg of each the essential oil of S. viminea, the vehicle and diazepan (1 mg/kg as a positive control. Analgesic activity was explored in Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail flick method described by D`Amour and Smith (1941 modified by CYTED was implemented on three groups (6 rats each of animals treated with, each the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg, the vehicle and indomethacine. The test was carried out just before and 30, 60 and 120 min after oral treatment. Peristaltic activity was measured in albino mice, three groups of 6 animals each, treated orally with each the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg, the aqueous extract (1000 mg/kg, and the vehicle. The marker used was activated carbon. Animals were sacrificed 30 min after the marker was given and the percent of total small intestine traversed by it was calculated. Also a lethal dose 50 (LD 50 was determined with the Spearman-Karber method. A dose-related spontaneous motor activity reduction was observed. Exploratory behavior and curiosity were diminished. The grasping strength of mice was reduced. A very clear and significant analgesic effect was observed with the oral

  16. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    . Die Veränderungen in der Toxifizierung von HMP zu SMP wurden durch die SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, die DNA-Addukthäufigkeit und die MPMA-Ausscheidung erfasst. Die Vorbehandlung von Disulfiram und Ethanol führte zu tendentielle Erhöhung der SMP-Konzentration im Plasma, DNA-Addukthäufigkeit in der Leber und die MPMA-Ausscheidung. Bemerkenswert ist jedoch, dass bereits eine Dosis von 0,2 g Ethanol/kg Körpermasse bereits zu statistisch signifikanten Erhöhungen der MPMA-Ausscheidung bei weiblichen Ratten. 1-Methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. It is metabolized primarily to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (HMP) by various cDNA-expressed rat and human cytochromes P450. HMP is activated to a highly reactive sulfuric acid ester, 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (SMP), by sulphotransferases. In the rat, this activation pathway leads to the formation of DNA adducts in various tissues. Possible consequences of the toxification could be the excretion of the corresponding mercapturic acid and nucleosidadduct in urine and feces. Because of their origin, these substances should reflex the toxification process may be used as biomarkers. We investigate the excretion of 1-methylpyrenyl-mercapturic acid (MPMA) and the excretion of N2-(1-methylpyrenyl)-desoxyguanosin (MPdG) in urine and feces of HMP-treated rats. These studies showed that only a minor portion ( 30 %). Minor metabolites were phenolic sulpho conjugates of HMP ( 80 % of the metabolites excreted were oxidized at the exocyclic carbon. This side-chain oxidation, probably catalyzed by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, appears to represent a detoxification pathway. Indeed, administration of ethanol shortly before the administration of HMP to rats increased the levels of SMP detected in blood, of DNA adducts formed in tissues and of mercapturic acid excreted. These effects were observed even at very low dose levels of ethanol (0.2 g per kg body weight). Similar effects were shown after administration of Disulfiram, an inhibitor

  17. Abstracts from the 15th International Myopia Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Benavente-Perez

    2016-11-01

    rhesus monkeys Earl L Smith III, Baskar Arumugam, Li-Fang Hung, Lisa A. Ostrin, Klaus Trier, Monica Jong, Brien A. Holden O29 Application of SWATH™ based next generation proteomics (NGP in studying eye growth: opportunities and challenges Thomas Chuen Lam, Bing Zuo, Samantha Shan, Sally A. McFadden, Dennis Yan-yin Tse, Jingfang Bian, King-Kit Li, Quan Liu, Chi-ho To O30 How could emmetropization make use of longitudinal chromatic aberration? Timothy J. Gawne, John T. Siegwart Jr., Alexander H. Ward, Thomas T. Norton O31 Balance effect of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtype activation on refraction development Xiangtian Zhou O32 BMP gene expression changes in chick rpe in response to visual manipulations Yan Zhang, Yue Liu, Carol Ho, Eileen Phan, Abraham Hang, Emily Eng, Christine Wildsoet

  18. [The life of medical historian Miki Sakae, and the "history of Korean medicine and of diseases in Korea"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho

    2005-12-01

    " authored by Heo Jun, was a true example of a book containing 'Medicine Based upon Human Body and Soul'. A huge portrait of Heo Jun is reported to have been hung at the living room of his house all the time.

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Epidemiology, perinatology and DOHaD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Epidemiology, perinatology and DOHaD”ABS 1. THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL PREGESTATIONAL OBESITY IN OFFSPRING. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM • P. Priego, N. Sancho, I. Tofe, A. Torre, M.D. CañeteABS 2. UNPLANNED NEONATAL ADMISSION RATE AFTER ELECTIVE FAMILY CENTERED CAESAREAN SECTIONS • I.C. Narayen, E.E.M. Mulder, L.M. Freeman, J.J. Van Vonderen, K.E. Boers, A.B. Te PasABS 3. CESAREAN DELIVERY AMONG FOREIGN-BORN CHINESE AND US-BORN CHINESE WOMEN IN THE USA • T.A. Yen, M. Lahiff, N. Hosang, K. Harley, B. EskenaziABS 4. THE RELATION BETWEEN OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME – A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY • Y.S. Chang, C.H. Liu, P.N. Tsao, P.S. ChenABS 5. LONGITUDINAL GROWTH OF TURKISH VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS • S. Sancak, M. Hayran, T. Gursoy, F. OvalıABS 6. FETAL SONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN A CONFIRMED CASE OF BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME (BWS • M.D. Ordónez Díaz, M.A. Pino Gálvez, C. De la Cámara Morano, D. Trassierra Molina, M.P. Priego Ruiz, M.J. Párraga Quiles, A.B. López Marmol, J.L. Pérez Navero, M. Miño MoraABS 7. CORD BLOOD PENTRAXIN 3/CD36 IN FETAL MACROSOMIA • T. Boutsikou, K. Germanou, D.D. Briana, M. Boutsikou, N. Athanasopoulos, A. Marmarinos, D. Gourgiotis, A. Malamitsi-PuchnerABS 8. NEWBORN GENETIC SCREENING FOR CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME IN 41,152 NEWBORNS • P.C. Kuo, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, C.Y. Chen, H.C. Chou, W.S. Hsieh, P.N. TsaoABS 9. OFFSPRING OF DIABETIC MOTHER: THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL GLYCEMIC CONTROL • M. Miñambres Rodríguez, A. Pino Vázquez, C. Villa Francisco, I. Sanz Fernández, M. Brezmes Raposo, L. C. Bermúdez BarrezuetaABS 10. PREVALENCE AND PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL • M.P. Priego Ruiz, M.D. Ordónez Díaz, M.V. Rodriguez Benitez, D. Trassierra Molina, L. Rueda García, J.L. P

  20. Three-electron spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2017-10-01

    -only qubits which can be divided into short-ranged and long-ranged interactions. Both of these interaction types are expected to be necessary in a large-scale quantum computer. The short-ranged interactions use the exchange coupling by placing qubits next to each other and applying exchange-pulses (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Fong and Wandzura 2011 Quantum Inf. Comput. 11 1003, Setiawan et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 085314, Zeuch et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 045306, Doherty and Wardrop 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050503, Shim and Tahan 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 121410), while the long-ranged interactions use the photons of a superconducting microwave cavity as a mediator in order to couple two qubits over long distances (Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 92 205412, Srinivasa et al 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 205421). The nature of the three-electron qubit states each having the same total spin and total spin in z-direction (same Zeeman energy) provides a natural protection against several sources of noise (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502, Kempe et al 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 042307, Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 235411). The price to pay for this advantage is an increase in gate complexity. We also take into account the decoherence of the qubit through the influence of magnetic noise (Ladd 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 125408, Mehl and DiVincenzo 2013 Phys. Rev. B 87 195309, Hung et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 045308), in particular dephasing due to the presence of nuclear spins, as well as dephasing due to charge noise (Medford et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050501, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502, Shim and Tahan 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 121410, Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 235411, Fei et al 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 205434), fluctuations of the energy levels on each dot due to noisy gate voltages or the environment. Several techniques are discussed which partly decouple the qubit from magnetic noise (Setiawan et al 2014 Phys

  1. Obituary: Rodger Doxsey (1947-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario

    2009-12-01

    carefully about what I was saying, if it would be possible for the software he was developing to insert new objects in the holes in the schedule. I wondered aloud if one could improve the efficiency by choosing new objects, close to the directions of the scheduled targets, from a previously prepared list of interesting objects scattered over the sky. I remember that Rodger suddenly became very quiet, thought about the question, and finally replied something like: 'In principle, it is possible.' The Snapshot program was born at that lunch." Rodger Doxsey was born in Schenectady, New York, on March 11, 1947. He is survived by his companion, Vicky Balzano, who also works at STScI; his father, John, of Cleveland, Ohio; and his four siblings, Martha Doxsey of Edmonton, Alberta; Douglas Doxsey of Ironwood, Michigan; Virginia Doxsey of Boston; and Mary Lou Shane of Duxbury, Vermont. As a boy, his sisters described, he used to be absorbed in crossword puzzles and jigsaw puzzles. At MIT, where he studied physics and earned his Ph.D., he became fascinated with rowing, and he kept returning every year to race with his old crewmates in the Head of the Charles Regatta. He was also very fond of the work of the American artist Alexander Calder, and a lithograph of one of his drawings hung on the wall of his office. Very few people know of a ritual Rodger and I have developed over the years. During the first servicing mission and subsequent observatory verification, Rodger and I used to spend nights at the Institute, following all the tests for the instruments. After the performance test of each instrument, we shook hands ceremoniously. This became somewhat of a superstition, and consequently, in all the following servicing missions we continued with the same ritual. During SM4, Rodger was already too weak to attend all the activities continuously. We did meet, however, after the completion of SM4, and performed the ritualistic handshake to celebrate all the instruments. Goodbye friend

  2. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    with different concentrations were investigated. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits of chitosan by reducing damage to F. flabelliloba at the seedling stages under water-deficit conditions. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of chitosan spraying and drought stress on physiological characteristics of F. felabelliloba, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in laboratory. The experimental treatments included drought stress (irrigated in Field capacity, depletion of soil water content up to 35% and 65% of FC condition and foliar chitosan spray (Zero, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg l-1. Seeds of F. flabelliloba were harvested in June-July of 2012 from natural habitat in Binalood mountain and kept in laboratory condition until the study started. F. flabelliloba seeds were germinated and grown in soils at light/dark temperature cycle of 20-16 degree centigrade and photoperiod of 16-8 h. Irrigation treatments were performed after 20 days, when seedling established and chitosan sprayed simultaneous and repeated one month later. The shoot from 60-day-old plants were taken and used for analysis the physiological parameters. Shoot dry weight was measured in oven at 70 ºC for 24 hours. Enzyme activity was determined from the extract prepared according to the method of Sairam and Saxena (2000. Catalase and Peroxidase activities were determined according to Weydert and Cullen (2010 and Superoxide dismutase activity assayed as described by Beauchamp and Fridovich (1971. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring spectrophotometrically malondialdehyde (MDA content of plant based on Jiang and Hung (2001. Total phenolic content was determined according to Ebrahimzadeh and Bahramian (2009. Data from the experiment was analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 and MSTAT-C software and mean comparison was carried out using Duncan´s multiple range test at the 95% of probability. Results and

  3. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Films 351 290-4 [6]Law M, Greene L E, Johnson J C, Saykally R and Yang P 2005 Nat. Mater. 4 455-9 [7] Wang H-W, Ting C-F, Hung M-K, Chiou C-H, Liu Y-L, Liu Z, Ratinac K R and Ringer S P 2009 Nanotechnology 20 055601 [8] Shin D-W, Lee J H, Kim Y-H, Yu S M, Park S-Y and Yoo J-B 2009 Nanotechnology 20 475703 [9] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [10] Jo G et al 2010 Nanotechnology 21 185201 [11] Preston S P 1958 US Patent Specification 98 2825687

  4. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    team at Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York, designed a 50-foot-high vertical assembly tower that satisfied demanding environmental controls. The mirror elements were held as stress free as possible, maneuvered into alignment, and bonded into place with a slow-curing epoxy to a precision of a few tenths of an arcsecond. Following its launch aboard the space shuttle Columbia in July 1999, AXAF was renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Up to the time of his death, Leon had been leading a team that used Chandra, plus microwave observations of galaxy clusters, to determine the cosmic distance scale. His colleagues expect to publish their results in late 2003. In recognition of his leadership and extraordinary contributions to Chandra, Leon received the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the American Astronomical Society's high-energy astrophysics division. He died two weeks before he was scheduled to deliver his acceptance speech. Despite his illness, he had crafted a marvelous talk illustrating the tremendous advances enabled by the Chandra telescope. One of us (Tananbaum) presented his talk, which received an enthusiastic response from approximately 1000 AAS members. Leon married Erin Harrington in 1959. She survives him along with their daughter Elaine and her husband Lane Kendig; son David, his wife Jennifer Hanson, and their twin daughters Madeline and Nina; and son Alexander and his companion Sherie Davis. When not involved with X-ray telescopes or family trips to National Parks, Leon designed and built exquisite furniture in his elaborate workshop, where every tool hung neatly from its pegboard hook. On 8 February 2003 more than 200 friends and family members gathered at the Harvard Science Center for a Remembrance Service. Many smiles and more than a few tears were seen as people recalled and celebrated Leon's life. Leon was an amazing individual, respected by his colleagues as an outstanding physicist, mathematician, programmer, and engineer who could solve just

  5. Bone graft substitutes for the treatment of traumatic fractures of the extremities [Knochenersatzmaterialien zur Behandlung von traumatischen Frakturen der Extremitäten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Knochenersatzmaterialien eingesetzt.Es stellt sich die Frage nach der Wirksamkeit, Kostenwirksamkeit sowie nach ethischen, sozialen und juristischen Implikationen beim Einsatz von Knochenersatzmaterialien bei traumatischen Frakturen.Eine systematische Literaturrecherche wird in den medizinischen elektronischen Datenbanken MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. im Dezember 2009 durchgeführt. In die Bewertung werden randomisierte kontrollierte Studien (RCT ggf. mit gesundheitsökonomischen Analysen sowie Publikationen zu ethischen, sozialen sowie juristischen Aspekten einbezogen. Die medizinische Informationssynthese erfolgt nach Bewertung der Studienqualität u.a. in Form von Metaanalysen, die gesundheitsökonomische Informationssynthese deskriptiv.14 RCT werden in die medizinische und zwei Analysen in die gesundheitsökonomische Bewertung einbezogen, zu ethischen, sozialen und juristischen Aspekten werden keine Publikationen identifiziert. Beim Vergleich Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 gegenüber Standardtherapie ohne Knochentransplantat bei Frakturen ergeben sich in einem RCT (mit erhöhtem Verzerrungspotenzial signifikante Unterschiede zugunsten BMP-2 bezüglich mehrerer Endpunkte. Bei Calciumphosphat (CaP-Zementen und knochenmarkhaltigen Kompositmaterialien zeigen sich beim Vergleich gegenüber Knochentransplantaten in den RCT (alle mit hohem Verzerrungspotenzial signifikante Unterschiede zugunsten der Knochenersatzmaterialien bezüglich einzelner Endpunkte. Bei allen anderen Materialien finden sich in fast allen Vergleichen keine signifikanten Unterschiede.Die BMP-2-Anwendung zusätzlich zur Standardbehandlung ohne Knochentransplantation führt bei Betrachtung aller Patienten mit traumatischen offenen Frakturen zur Kostenerhöhung. Einsparungen durch zusätzlichen BMP-2-Einsatz lassen sich allerdings bei der Patientensubgruppe mit hochgradig offenen Frakturen (Gustilo-Anderson-Grad-IIIB errechnen. Die Kostenwirksamkeit beim BMP-2-Einsatz vs. Standardbehandlung mit Knochentransplantation sowie beim

  6. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Brain and development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Brain and development”ABS 1. CRITICAL CONDITION OF THE FETUS: RISK FACTORS AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES • E. Timokhina, A. Strizhakov, K. DerishABS 2. A MID-STUDY SAFETY CONTROL IN A HYPOTHERMIA PLUS MELATONIN CLINICAL TRIAL • A. Jerez-Calero, E. Fernandez-Marin, L. Serrano-López, AR. Gonzalez-Ramirez, J. Uberos-Fernandez, E. Narbona-LópezABS 3. EARLY PREDICTORS OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN ASPHYXIATED INFANTS TREATED WITH SELECTIVE HEAD COOLING • C.Y. Chen, P.N. Tsao, H.C. Chou, W.S. HsiehABS 4. PRENATAL SURGERY OF MYELOMENINGOCELE: IS IT WORTH DOING? • H. Villalon, M. Pinto, S. Hosiasson, F. Rybertt, A. Fernandez, D. Tuma, L. Pizarro, C. SilvaABS 5. NEONATAL CEREBRAL SINOVENOUS THROMBOSIS: TWO CASES, TWO DIFFERENT GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND RISK FACTORS • O. Turan, D. Anuk Ince, L. Olcay, T. Sezer, K. Gulleroglu, Z.Y. Çelik, A. EcevitABS 6. DEVELOPMENT OF PREMATURE BORN CHILDREN – WHAT ABOUT LANGUAGE, READING AND WRITING? THE SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST’S VIEW • Z. Kolundžić, M. Lenček, A. Šimić Klarić, K. Pavičić DokozaABS 7. CHARACTERISTICS AND DISCHARGE OUTCOMES OF INFANTS UNDERGOING THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA IN AMERICAN NICUs • K. Ellsworth, M. Harris, M. Ellsworth, W. Carey, A. Spitzer, R. ClarkABS 8. PERINATAL STROKE: A LEADING CAUSE OF SEIZURES IN THE NEONATAL PERIOD. 4 YEAR EXPERIENCE IN A TERTIARY NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT • P. Mikrou, S. Hands, E. Mawondo, S.V. Rasiah, M. BorooahABS 9. CARRIER SCREENING FOR FRAGILE X SYNDROME IN TAIWAN FROM 2013 TO 2015 • W.C. Yang, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, P.N. TsaoABS 10. LENTICULOSTRIATE VASCULOPATHY IN NEONATES: CASES SERIES REPORT • M.P. Priego-Ruiz, D. Trassierra-Molina, M.P. Jaraba-Caballero, M.D. Ordóñez-Díaz, I.M. Tofé-ValeraABS 11. CONGENITAL HYDROCEPHALUS SECONDARY TO ARACHNOID CYST: CASE REPORT • M.P. Priego-Ruiz, I.M. Tofé-Valera, N

  7. 12th WINFOCUS world congress on ultrasound in emergency and critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Yahya; Tezel, Onur; Salman, Necati; Cevik, Erdem; Algaba-Montes, Margarita; Oviedo-García, Alberto; Patricio-Bordomás, Mayra; Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim; Ali, Abbas; Mustafa, Alrayah; Abdelrahman, Ihab; Bahar, Mustafa; Ali, Osama; Lester Kirchner, H; Prosen, Gregor; Anzic, Ajda; Leeson, Paul; Bahreini, Maryam; Rasooli, Fatemeh; Hosseinnejad, Houman; Blecher, Gabriel; Meek, Robert; Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Ćuti, Edina Ćatić; Belina, Stanko; Vančina, Tihomir; Kovačević, Idriz; Rustemović, Nadan; Chang, Ikwan; Lee, Jin Hee; Kwak, Young Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Cheng, Chi-Yung; Pan, Hsiu-Yung; Kung, Chia-Te; Ćurčić, Ela; Pritišanac, Ena; Planinc, Ivo; Medić, Marijana Grgić; Radonić, Radovan; Fasina, Abiola; Dean, Anthony J; Panebianco, Nova L; Henwood, Patricia S; Fochi, Oliviero; Favarato, Moreno; Bonanomi, Ezio; Tomić, Ivan; Ha, Youngrock; Toh, Hongchuen; Harmon, Elizabeth; Chan, Wilma; Baston, Cameron; Morrison, Gail; Shofer, Frances; Hua, Angela; Kim, Sharon; Tsung, James; Gunaydin, Isa; Kekec, Zeynep; Ay, Mehmet Oguzhan; Kim, Jinjoo; Kim, Jinhyun; Choi, Gyoosung; Shim, Dowon; Lee, Ji-Han; Ambrozic, Jana; Prokselj, Katja; Lucovnik, Miha; Simenc, Gabrijela Brzan; Mačiulienė, Asta; Maleckas, Almantas; Kriščiukaitis, Algimantas; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Macas, Andrius; Mohite, Sharad; Narancsik, Zoltan; Možina, Hugon; Nikolić, Sara; Hansel, Jan; Petrovčič, Rok; Mršić, Una; Orlob, Simon; Lerchbaumer, Markus; Schönegger, Niklas; Kaufmann, Reinhard; Pan, Chun-I; Wu, Chien-Hung; Pasquale, Sarah; Doniger, Stephanie J; Yellin, Sharon; Chiricolo, Gerardo; Potisek, Maja; Drnovšek, Borut; Leskovar, Boštjan; Robinson, Kristine; Kraft, Clara; Moser, Benjamin; Davis, Stephen; Layman, Shelley; Sayeed, Yusef; Minardi, Joseph; Pasic, Irmina Sefic; Dzananovic, Amra; Pasic, Anes; Zubovic, Sandra Vegar; Hauptman, Ana Godan; Brajkovic, Ana Vujaklija; Babel, Jaksa; Peklic, Marina; Radonic, Vedran; Bielen, Luka; Ming, Peh Wee; Yezid, Nur Hafiza; Mohammed, Fatahul Laham; Huda, Zainal Abidin; Ismail, Wan Nasarudin Wan; Isa, W Yus Haniff W; Fauzi, Hashairi; Seeva, Praveena; Mazlan, Mohd Zulfakar

    2016-09-01

    Jinjoo Kim, Jinhyun Kim, Gyoosung Choi, Dowon ShimA27 Usefulness of abdominal ultrasound for acute pyelonephritis diagnosis after kidney transplantationJi-Han LeeA28 Lung ultrasound for assessing fluid tolerance in severe preeclampsiaJana Ambrozic, Katja Prokselj, Miha LucovnikA29 Optic nerve sheath ultrasound in severe preeclampsiaGabrijela Brzan Simenc, Jana Ambrozic, Miha LucovnikA30 Focused echocardiography monitoring in the postoperative period for non-cardiac patientsAsta Mačiulienė, Almantas Maleckas, Algimantas Kriščiukaitis, Vytautas Mačiulis, Andrius MacasA31 POCUS-guided paediatric upper limb fracture reduction: algorithm, tricks, and tipsSharad MohiteA32 Point-of-care lung ultrasound: a good diagnostic tool for pneumonia in a septic patientZoltan Narancsik, Hugon MožinaA33 A case of undergraduate POCUS (r)evolutionSara Nikolić, Jan Hansel, Rok Petrovčič, Una Mršić, Gregor ProsenA34 The Graz Summer School for ultrasound: from first contact to bedside application: three-and-a-half-day undergraduate ultrasound training: résumé after two years of continuous developmentSimon Orlob, Markus Lerchbaumer, Niklas Schönegger, Reinhard KaufmannA35 Usefulness of point-of-care ultrasound in the emergency room in a patient with acute abdominal painAlberto Oviedo-García, Margarita Algaba-Montes, Mayra Patricio-BordomásA36 Use of bedside ultrasound in a critically ill patient. A case reportAlberto Oviedo-García, Margarita Algaba-Montes, Mayra Patricio-BordomásA37 Diagnostic yield of clinical echocardiography for the emergency physicianAlberto Oviedo-García, Margarita Algaba-Montes, Mayra Patricio-BordomásA38 Focused cardiac ultrasound in early diagnosis of type A aortic dissection with atypical presentationChun-I Pan, Hsiu-Yung Pan, Chien-Hung WuA39 Detection of imperforated hymen by point-of-care ultrasoundHsiu-yung Pan, Chia-Te KungA40 Developing a point-of-care ultrasound curriculum for pediatric nurse practitioners practicing in the pediatric emergency

  8. Carnaria: The Festival of the Goddess Carna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos

    2012-07-01

    hot spelt. She is a goddess of the olden time, and subsists upon the foods to which she was inured before; no voluptuary is she to run after foreign viands’ (6.169–172. His description of expensive foreign dishes, which had not been served at the Roman tables of old, concludes: ‘The pig was prized, people feasted on slaughtered swine: the ground yielded only beans and hard spelt. Whoever eats at the same time these two foods on the [C]alends of the sixth month, they affirm that nothing can hurt his bowels’ (178–182. The June Calends were popularly known as Kalendae fabariae because it was in June that the first beans were harvested in Italy and brought as offerings to the altars. This is attested by Macrobius, and while his details slightly diverge from Ovid’s, the two accounts are easily amalgamated into a whole. Macrobius further mentions a temple on Mount Caelius dedicated to Carna by Lucius Iunius Brutus. The Greeks believed that whitethorn twigs attached to doors or windows would repel witches (Dioscorides, De natura medica 1.119. Judging by Ovid’s tale of Carna, similar superstitious beliefs proliferated among the Romans. And since superstition dies hard, the belief still lingers in many places that strongly scented plants, if hung about the room, will repel bloodsuckers and vampires. Moreover, it was believed into late antiquity that whitethorn offered protection against spirits on the day when they supposedly stalked and harassed the living. For the territory of present-day Slovenia, Johann Weikhard von Valvasor’s ‘Glory of the Duchy of Carniola’ (Die Ehre, vol. 3, 400 preserves a note about evil spirits who kill children by sucking their blood, not unlike the Roman striges repelled by Carna. The rumour about the spirits is cited in connection with the Prestranek (Prostranigkh castle: ‘As for this area around Pivka, it is said that at certain times, such as Christmas Eve, there is a host of apparitions to be seen; called vedavci in the

  9. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    keine weiteren Zellteilungen mehr durch. Daher sind DNA-Schäden in diesen Zellen ein sehr geringes Risiko für den Organismus. Soweit die reaktiven Metabolite in diesen Zellen gefangen bleiben, kann die Bioaktivierung in diesen Zellen und die Bildung von Addukten als protektiv betrachten werden, da letztere nach wenigen Tagen mit den toten Zellen in das Darmlumen abgegeben werden. Für den Vergleich der Bioaktiverung von Promutagenen durch die Form 1B1 des Menschen und der Ratte wurden aus V79 Lungenfibroblasten des Chinesischen Hamsters abgeleitete Zellinien hergestellt, die je eine der beiden Formen stabil exprimieren. Damit standen 1B1-profiziente Indikatorzellen für den HPRT-Genmutationstest zur Verfügung, und die 1B1-abhängige Bioaktivierung konnte in einem System untersucht werden, die dem eukaryontischen Organismus näher steht als die für die Ames-Tests verwendeten Bakterien. So war z.B. die Sulfotransferase wie im Gewebe im Zytoplasma lokalisiert. Als Modellsubstanzen wurden hierbei die bereits in TA1538-h1B1 mutagen wirkenden benzylischen Alkohole 6-Hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyren und 4-Hydroxycyclopenta-[def]chrysen getestet. Da die Sensitivität einer Sulfotransferase-exprimierenden V79-Zellinie sowohl durch die Menge an Sulfotransferase als auch durch die Verfügbarkeit des Sulfodonors limitiert sein könnte, wurden die Mutagenitätsexperimente mit V79-r1B1-Zellinien durchgeführt, die sich in ihrer Enzymaktivität um das Zwanzigfache unterschieden: V79-r1B1/A und -/B. Eine starke Erhöhung der Mutantenfrequenz wurde nur in der hoch exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/A (1019 ± 224 pmol/mg/min) beobachtet, so da eine gravierende Beeinträchtigung der Sensitivität durch einen Mangel an Kosubstrat ausgeschlossen wurde. In der niedriger exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/B (57 ± 9 pmol/mg/min) war nur mit 6-Hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyren ein schwacher Anstieg der Mutantenfrequenz zu erkennen, der mit 0,3 µM bei einer in etwa 100fach höheren Konzentration begann

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    -26 WEEKS’ GESTATION: A SWEDISH REGIONAL POPULATION BASED CASE CONTROL STUDY • M. Adamsson, B. Hägglöf, M. Bäckman, A. FarooqiABS 26. EARLY RISK FACTORS FOR ADVERSE NEUROMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN TERM INFANTS AFTER MODERATE HYPOXIC-ISCHAEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY • A. MaticABS 27. THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA IN BABIES WITH HYPOXIC-ISCHAEMIC ENCEPHALOPA­THY: EVIDENCE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE • K. Ghazal, A. Panickar, S. GargABS 28. EFFECT OF DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ITS SULFATE ESTER ON NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAIN INJURY – PRELIMINARY DATA • A. Posod, M. Lachinger, B. Vejnoska, E. Huber, M. Urbanek, U. Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, E. GriesmaierABS 29. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS ON BRAIN GROWTH AT 10 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN BORN EXTREMELY PRETERM • N. Padilla, C. Jimenez-Espinoza, H. Kvanta, U. AdénABS 30. SECRETONEURIN SERUM CONCENTRATIONS CORRELATE WITH ABNORMAL NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME AT THE AGE OF 24 MONTHS IN TERM NEONATES WITH ASPHYXIA • K. Wechselberger, A. Schmid, M. Höck, A. Posod, M. Urbanek, R. Fischer-Colbrie, V. Neubauer, U. Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, E. GriesmaierABS 31. SCREENING C677T POLYMORPHISM IN METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENE IN TAIWAN POPULATION • C.Y. Chuang, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, P.N. TsaoABS 32. GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGE IN PRETERM NEWBORNS • D. Szpecht, J. Gadzinowski, A. Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, G. Kurzawińska, K. Drews, M. SzymankiewiczABS 33. MRI-DIAGNOSED WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE BRAIN OF VLBW BABIES: RISK FACTOR ANALYSIS • A. Parodi, S. Raffa, M. Malova, A. Sannia, M. Severino, G. Morana, D. Tortora, M.G. Calevo, A. Rossi, L.A. RamenghiABS 34. A NEW EVALUATION INDEX FOR LEFT-RIGHT UNEQUAL VENTRICULOMEGALY IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS: ASSOCIATION WITH WALKING DISABILITIES AT 1.6 YEARS OF CORRECTED AGE • T. Ikuta, M. Mizobuchi, Y. Katayama, S. Yoshimoto, T. Ioroi, M. Yamane, T. Morisawa, A. Takatera, M. Ueda, A. Shibata, K. Maeyama, K. Fujioka, N. Nishimura, K