WorldWideScience

Sample records for humus hydrologic unit

  1. Humus and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Humus is a Latin word, meaning on or in the ground, but what is humus in the context of tree and landscape care? Is humus the same as soil organic matter? With the increased emphasis on biologically-based products for sustainable landscapes and tree care, the sources and quality of humus products have greatly increased in recent years.

  2. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.; Flint, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections

  3. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  4. EnviroAtlas - NHDPlus V2 Hydrologic Unit Boundaries Web Service - Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service contains layers depicting hydrologic unit boundary layers and labels for the Subregion level (4-digit HUCs), Subbasin level (8-digit...

  5. 1:250,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Peter; Nebert, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) was developed in the mid 70s to put into digital form a numberof data layers which were of interest to the USGS. One of these data layers was the Hydrologic Units. The map is based on the Hydrologic Unit Maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Data Coordination, together with the list descriptions and name of region, subregion, accounting units, and cataloging unit. The hydrologic units are encoded with an eight-digit number that indicates the hydrologic region (first two digits), hydrologic subregion (second two digits), accounting unit (third two digits), and cataloging unit (fourth two digits). The data produced by GIRAS was originally collected at a scale of 1:250K. Some areas, notably major cities in the west, were recompiled at a scale of 1:100K. In order to join the data together and use the data in a geographic information system (GIS) the data were processed in the ARC/INFO GUS software package. Within the GIS, the data were edgematched and the neatline boundaries between maps were removed to create a single data set for the conterminous

  6. Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Lists many recent research projects in hydrology, including flow in fractured media, improvements in remote-sensing techniques, effects of urbanization on water resources, and developments in drainage basins. (MLH)

  7. Hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando G, E.

    1989-01-01

    Isotopical techniques are used in hydrology area for exploration, evaluation and exploration of water investigation. These techniques have been used successfully and are often the best or only means for providing certain hydrogeological parameters

  8. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  9. Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried

    2005-08-01

    Water in its different forms has always been a source of wonder, curiosity and practical concern for humans everywhere. Hydrology - An Introduction presents a coherent introduction to the fundamental principles of hydrology, based on the course that Wilfried Brutsaert has taught at Cornell University for the last thirty years. Hydrologic phenomena are dealt with at spatial and temporal scales at which they occur in nature. The physics and mathematics necessary to describe these phenomena are introduced and developed, and readers will require a working knowledge of calculus and basic fluid mechanics. The book will be invaluable as a textbook for entry-level courses in hydrology directed at advanced seniors and graduate students in physical science and engineering. In addition, the book will be more broadly of interest to professional scientists and engineers in hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, agronomy, geology, climatology, oceanology, glaciology and other earth sciences. Emphasis on fundamentals Clarification of the underlying physical processes Applications of fluid mechanics in the natural environment

  10. Humus in some soils from Western Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    Soils of Antarctica are well known as a thick profile soils with low amounts of humus concentrated in the upper layers - O or A horizons. Also there are specific soils of seashore landscapes which affected by penguins guano accumulation and, therefore characterized by high stocks of organic matter in solum. These two types of soils were studied during the Western Antarctica part of 53th Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2008 International Polar Year. These rote of expedition was on Polar stations "Russkaya", "Leningradskaya" and "Bellinsgausen" and also two places, not affected by polar men's - Lindsey Island and Hudson mountains (Ross Sea). Typical soils of "Russkaya" and "Leningradskaya" stations was a Cryosoils with low humus content (0,02 - 0,20 %) which was a product of lichens decaying and further humification. The humus profile was not deep and humic substances migration stopped on the 30 cm deeps maximally. Soils of Sub-Antarctica (Bellinsgausen station, King-George Island) show higher portions of humus which maximum was 3,00 % under the mosses. Humus distribution was more gradual through profile due to the higher thickness of active layer and longer period of biological activity. Soils under the penguin's beaches shows big portions of organic matter, in some cases more than 50 % to total soil mass. Humification starts in first years in cases of Sub-Antarctic guano soils and only after 3-7 years of leaching in seashore Antarctic guano-soils. Soils under the guano layers were extremely reached by nitrogen, and in some cases there were not any plants there due to toxicity of guano. This event was more typical for cold seashore soils of Antarctica. In all cases humus consists mostly of fulvic acids and low molecular non-specific organic acids. The CHA/CFA ratio in all cases were lesser than 1,0 and in more that 50 % of cases it was lesser than 0,5. The investigations conducted shows that the stocks of humus in soil of Antarctica are not estimated and till now we

  11. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Hydrologically Connected Zone Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Hydrologically Connected Zone (HCZ) Mask was determined using grid analysis to combine surface water features in the United States from three datasets: First,...

  12. Hydrologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Hydro1ogi er den videnskab, der omhand1er jordens vand, dets forekomst, cirku1ation og forde1ing, dets kemiske og fysiske egenskaber samt indvirkning på omgivelserne, herunder dets relation ti1 alt liv på jorden. Således lyder en b1andt mange definitioner på begrebet hydrologi, og som man kan se...

  13. Calibration by Hydrological Response Unit of a National Hydrologic Model to Improve Spatial Representation and Distribution of Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P. A., II

    2015-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support consistent hydrologic modeling across the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) simulates daily hydrologic and energy processes in watersheds, and is used for the NHM application. For PRMS each watershed is divided into hydrologic response units (HRUs); by default each HRU is assumed to have a uniform hydrologic response. The Geospatial Fabric (GF) is a database containing initial parameter values for input to PRMS and was created for the NHM. The parameter values in the GF were derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of the entire CONUS. The NHM application is composed of more than 100,000 HRUs from the GF. Selected parameter values commonly are adjusted by basin in PRMS using an automated calibration process based on calibration targets, such as streamflow. Providing each HRU with distinct values that captures variability within the CONUS may improve simulation performance of the NHM. During calibration of the NHM by HRU, selected parameter values are adjusted for PRMS based on calibration targets, such as streamflow, snow water equivalent (SWE) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). Simulated SWE, AET, and runoff were compared to value ranges derived from multiple sources (e.g. the Snow Data Assimilation System, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (i.e. MODIS) Global Evapotranspiration Project, the Simplified Surface Energy Balance model, and the Monthly Water Balance Model). This provides each HRU with a distinct set of parameter values that captures the variability within the CONUS, leading to improved model performance. We present simulation results from the NHM after preliminary calibration, including the results of basin-level calibration for the NHM using: 1) default initial GF parameter values, and 2) parameter values calibrated by HRU.

  14. Structure of diagnostics horizons and humus classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of the main humus forms is generally based on the morpho-genetic characters of the A and OH diagnostic horizons. This is the case in the new European key of classification presented in Freiburg on September 2004 (Eurosoil Congress. Among the morpho-genetic characters, the soil structure covers a very important role. In this work, the structure of the diagnostic A and OH horizons has been analysed in terms of aggregation force, diameter and composition of the soil lumps (peds. In order to study the aggregation force, two disaggregating tools have been conceived and used. The diameter of the lumps has been measured by sieving the soil samples with standardised webs. Observing the samples thanks to a binocular magnifying 10X and 50X, the organic or/and mineral composition of the soil aggregates has been determined, data being investigated with ANOVA and Factorial Analysis. The article examines the argument from two points of view: crashing tools for estimating the soil structure (part 1 and the dimensions of the peds given in European key of humus forms classification (part 2. The categories of soil peds diameter and composition seem to be linked to the main humus forms. For instance, aggregates having a diamater larger than 1 mm and well amalgamate organo-mineral composition are more present in the A horizons of the Mull forms than in which of the other forms; contrary to the OH horizon of the Moder or Mor, the OH horizon of the Amphi forms shows an important percent of small organic lumps. Some propositions have been given in order to improve the European key of humus forms classification.

  15. Technological developments in real-time operational hydrologic forecasting in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlow, Michael D.

    1988-09-01

    The hydrologic forecasting service of the United States spans applications and scales ranging from those associated with the issuance of flood and flash warnings to those pertaining to seasonal water supply forecasts. New technological developments (underway in or planned by the National Weather Service (NWS) in support of the Hydrologic Program) are carried out as combined efforts by NWS headquarters and field personnel in cooperation with other organizations. These developments fall into two categories: hardware and software systems technology, and hydrometeorological analysis and prediction technology. Research, development, and operational implementation in progress in both of these areas are discussed. Cornerstones of an overall NWS modernization effort include implementation of state-of-the-art data acquisition systems (including the Next Generation Weather Radar) and communications and computer processing systems. The NWS Hydrologic Service will capitalize on these systems and will incorporate results from specific hydrologic projects including collection and processing of multivariate data sets, conceptual hydrologic modeling systems, integrated hydrologic modeling systems with meteorological interfaces and automatic updating of model states, and extended streamflow prediction techniques. The salient aspects of ongoing work in these areas are highlighted in this paper, providing some perspective on the future U.S. hydrologic forecasting service and its transitional period into the 1990s.

  16. Watershed Boundaries - WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN: 6-Digit Accounting Units, Hydrologic Units, in Indiana, (Derived from US Geological Survey, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN is a polygon shapefile showing the boundaries of accounting units (HUA) in Indiana. Accounting units are noted by a 6-digit hydrologic unit....

  17. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS... 660—Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) USGS HUC State(s) Hydrologic Unit... 18010206 CA/OR Upper Klamath River Chinook and coho salmon Iron Gate Dam 18010207 CA Shasta River Chinook...

  18. Development of a 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Code Numbering System for South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, David E.; Lowry, Claude; Lowery, Mark A.; Hurley, Noel M.

    1999-01-01

    A Hydrologic Unit Map showing the cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds of South Carolina has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, funded through a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 319 Grant, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. These delineations represent 8-, 11-, and 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes, respectively. This map presents information on drainage, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries of the water-resources regions, subregions, accounting units, cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds. The source maps for the basin delineations are 1:24,000-scale 7.5-minute series topographic maps and the base maps are from 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs; however, the data are published at a scale of 1:500,000. In addition, an electronic version of the data is provided on a compact disc.Of the 1,022 subwatersheds delineated for this project, 1,004 range in size from 3,000 to 40,000 acres (4.69 to 62.5 square miles). Seventeen subwatersheds are smaller than 3,000 acres and one subwatershed, located on St. Helena Island, is larger than 40,000 acres.This map and its associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resource managers and planners in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. In addition, the map can be used for cataloging water-data acquisition activities, geographically organizing hydrologic data, and planning and describing water-use and related land-use activities.

  19. Do storage dynamics in hydropedological units control hydrological connectivity? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Birkel, C.; Dick, J.; Geris, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2013-12-01

    In many northern landscapes, peat-dominated riparian wetlands often characterise the zone of connection between terrestrial drainage and the river network. In order to understand the relationship between connectivity and stream flow generation in a montane headwater catchment, we examined the storage dynamics and isotopic composition of soil water in major hydropedological units. These formed a classic catena sequence for northern catchments from free-draining podzols on steep upper hillslopes through to peaty gleysols in lower receiving slopes to deeper peats (Histosols) in the riparian zone. The peaty gleys and peats remained saturated throughout the year, whilst the podzols showed distinct wetting and drying cycles. In this climatic region, most precipitation events are less than 10mm in magnitude, storm runoff is mainly generated from the Histosols and Gleysols, with runoff coefficients (RCs) typically horizons of the soils due to mixing with larger volumes of stored water. This damping is accentuated in the deeper soil profile and groundwater. Consequently, the isotopic composition of stream water is also damped, but the strongly reflects that of the near surface waters in the riparian peats. Old 'pre-event' water generally accounts for >80% of flow, even in large events, mainly reflecting the displacement of water stored in the riparian peats and peaty gleys. These riparian areas appear to be the dominant zone where different catchment source waters mix; acting as an 'isostat' that regulates the isotopic composition of stream waters and integrates the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) for the catchment.

  20. Hydrological Response Unit Analysis Using AVSWAT 2000 for Keuliling Reservoir Watershed, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Azmeri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sediments deposition derived from the erosion in upstream areas can lead to river siltation or canals downstream irrigation. According to the complexity of erosion problem at Keuliling reservoir, it is essential that topography, hydrology, soil type and land use to be analyzed comprehensively. Software used to analyze is AVSWAT 2000 (Arc View Soil and Water Assessment Tools-2000, one of the additional tool of ArcView program. The results obtained are the watershed delineation map, soil type map to produce soil erodibility factor (K which indicates the resistance of soil particles toward exfoliation, land use map to produce crop management factor (C and soil conservation and its management factors (P. Hydrology analysis includes soil type, land use and utility for the erosion rate analysis through Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU. The biggest HRU value of sub-basin is on area 5 and the lowest one is on area 10. All four HRU in sub-basin area 5 are potentially donating high value for HRU. In short, this area has the longest slope length so that it has a large LS factor. About 50% of the land was covered by bushes which gain higher C factor rather than forest. Moreover, it has contour crop conservation technique with 9-20 % declivity resulting in having dominant factor of P. Soil type is dominated by Meucampli Formation which has soil erodibility factor with high level of vulnerable toward the rainfall kinetic energy. All in all, the vast majority of HRU parameters in this sub-basin area obtain the highest HRU value. Hydrology analysis, soil type, and use-land are useful for land area analysis that is susceptible to erosion which was identified through Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU using GIS. As the matter of fact, spatially studies constructed with GIS can facilitate the agency to determine critical areas which are needed to be aware or fully rehabilitated.

  1. An analysis of historic and projected climate scenarios in the Western United States using hydrologic landscape classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Identifying areas of similar hydrology within the United States and its regions (hydrologic landscapes - HLs) is an active area of research. HLs are being used to construct spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, a...

  2. Implications of the methodological choices for hydrologic portrayals of climate change over the contiguous United States: Statistically downscaled forcing data and hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Mendoza, Pablo A.; Newman, Andrew J.; Nijssen, Bart; Livneh, Ben; Hay, Lauren E.; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    Continental-domain assessments of climate change impacts on water resources typically rely on statistically downscaled climate model outputs to force hydrologic models at a finer spatial resolution. This study examines the effects of four statistical downscaling methods [bias-corrected constructed analog (BCCA), bias-corrected spatial disaggregation applied at daily (BCSDd) and monthly scales (BCSDm), and asynchronous regression (AR)] on retrospective hydrologic simulations using three hydrologic models with their default parameters (the Community Land Model, version 4.0; the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, version 4.1.2; and the Precipitation–Runoff Modeling System, version 3.0.4) over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Biases of hydrologic simulations forced by statistically downscaled climate data relative to the simulation with observation-based gridded data are presented. Each statistical downscaling method produces different meteorological portrayals including precipitation amount, wet-day frequency, and the energy input (i.e., shortwave radiation), and their interplay affects estimations of precipitation partitioning between evapotranspiration and runoff, extreme runoff, and hydrologic states (i.e., snow and soil moisture). The analyses show that BCCA underestimates annual precipitation by as much as −250 mm, leading to unreasonable hydrologic portrayals over the CONUS for all models. Although the other three statistical downscaling methods produce a comparable precipitation bias ranging from −10 to 8 mm across the CONUS, BCSDd severely overestimates the wet-day fraction by up to 0.25, leading to different precipitation partitioning compared to the simulations with other downscaled data. Overall, the choice of downscaling method contributes to less spread in runoff estimates (by a factor of 1.5–3) than the choice of hydrologic model with use of the default parameters if BCCA is excluded.

  3. Structure and Origins of Trends in Hydrological Measures over the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, T; Hidalgo, H G; Dettinger, M D; Cayan, D R; Pierce, D W; Bonfils, C; Barnett, T P; Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2008-08-22

    This study examines, at 1/8 degree spatial resolution, the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States (U.S.) over the period 1950-1999, and investigates whether these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations. A number of variables were analyzed, including late winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1st April Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October through March precipitation total (P{sub ONDJFM}), and seasonal (January-February-March; JFM) accumulated runoff as a fraction of water year accumulated runoff. The observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-year control run of the CCSM3-FV climate model, statistically downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid using the method of Constructed Analogues. Both observed and downscaled temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations, and occupy substantial part of the area (37-42%) over the mountainous western U.S. These trends are strongly related to the large scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations (750 m to 2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500 m-3000 m for SWE/PONDJFM) where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments across the simulation domain indicated that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a

  4. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  5. Humus and humility in ecosystem model design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ed

    2015-04-01

    that are developed in collaboration with stakeholders are much more likely to be used (Sterk et al., 2012). Rather than trying to re-frame the question to suit the model, modellers need the humility to accept that the model is inappropriate and should develop the capacity to model the question. In this study these issues are explored using the MADOC model (Rowe et al., 2014) as an example. MADOC was developed by integrating existing models of humus development, acid-base exchange, and organic matter dissolution to answer a particular policy question: how do acidifying pollutants affect pH in humic soils? Including the negative feedback whereby an increase in pH reduces the solubility of organic acids improved the predictive accuracy for pH and dissolved organic carbon flux in the peats and organomineral soils that are widespread in upland Britain. The model has been used to generate the UK response to data requests under the UN Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. References: Funtowicz, S.O. & Ravetz, J.R., 1990. Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy. Kluwer. Rowe, E.C., et al. 2014. Environmental Pollution 184, 271-282. Sterk, B., et al. 2012. Environmental Modelling & Software 26, 310-316.

  6. The Curve Number Concept as a Driver for Delineating Hydrological Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Savvidou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new methodology for delineating Hydrological Response Units (HRUs, based on the Curve Number (CN concept, is presented. Initially, a semi-automatic procedure in a GIS environment is used to produce basin maps of distributed CN values as the product of the three classified layers, soil permeability, land use/land cover characteristics and drainage capacity. The map of CN values is used in the context of model parameterization, in order to identify the essential number and spatial extent of HRUs and, consequently, the number of control variables of the calibration problem. The new approach aims at reducing the subjectivity introduced by the definition of HRUs and providing parsimonious modelling schemes. In particular, the CN-based parameterization (1 allows the user to assign as many parameters as can be supported by the available hydrological information, (2 associates the model parameters with anticipated basin responses, as quantified in terms of CN classes across HRUs, and (3 reduces the effort for model calibration, simultaneously ensuring good predictive capacity. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated in the hydrological simulation of the Nedontas River Basin, Greece, where parameterizations of different complexities are employed in a recently improved version of the HYDROGEIOS model. A modelling experiment with a varying number of HRUs, where the parameter estimation problem was handled through automatic optimization, showed that the parameterization with three HRUs, i.e., equal to the number of flow records, ensured the optimal performance. Similarly, tests with alternative HRU configurations confirmed that the optimal scores, both in calibration and validation, were achieved by the CN-based approach, also resulting in parameters values across the HRUs that were in agreement with their physical interpretation.

  7. Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

  8. The role of forest humus in watershed management in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R., Jr. Trimble; Howard W. Lull

    1956-01-01

    Forest humus is one of the most interesting components of the forest environment. Its surface serves as a depository for leaf fall and needle fall, with successive depths marking stages of transmutation from the freshly fallen to the decomposed. And humus is responsive: humus type and depth are indicators of forest treatment and, to some extent, of site quality....

  9. Climate and hydrological changes in the northeastern United States : recent trends and implications for forested and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, T.G.; Richardson, A.D.; McGuire, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study reviewed previous and projected changes in climatic and hydrologic conditions in the northeastern United States. While climatic warming and increases in precipitation, snow, and hydrologic regimes have been observed over the last 100 years, the most pronounced changes have occurred since 1970. However, trends in climatic and hydrological variables have differed both spatially and temporally in different regions. Decadal-scale climatic variations have also altered long-term trends. Climate models predict continued increases in both temperature and precipitation over the next century. Increases in growing season length are expected to increase evapotranspiration and the frequency of droughts. An increase in the frequency of droughts is also expected to increase the risk of fires and other disturbances. Forest productivity and maple syrup production will be impacted, and the intensity of autumn foliage coloration will be diminished. It was concluded that climate and hydrological changes will have a profound impact on forest structure, composition and ecological functioning. 131 refs., 5 figs

  10. A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanella, A.; Jabiol, B.; Ponge, J.F.; Waal, de R.W.; Delft, van S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe an abundance of humus taxonomies exists starting with early approaches in the late 19th century. Frequently used in an international context, they do not cover all site conditions in the European area. Although having basic concepts and general lines, the European (and North American,

  11. Effects of timber management on the hydrology of wetland forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; James P. Shepard; Devendra M. Amatya; Hans Riekerk; Nicholas B. Comerford; Wayne Skaggs; Lloyd Swift

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to review the hydrologic impacts of various common forest management practices that include harvesting, site preparation, and drainage. Field hydrological data collected during the past 5±10 years from ten forested wetland sites across the southern US are synthesized using various methods including hydrologic simulation models and...

  12. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande Ronde...

  13. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  14. Dendroclimate evidence for extreme hydrologic events over the late Holocene in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, J. K.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Pederson, N.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events pose a present and future threat to cities and infrastructure in the densely populated coastal corridor of the northeastern United States (NE). An understanding of the potential range and return interval of storms, floods, and droughts is important for improving coastal management and hazard planning, as well as the detection and attribution of trends in regional climate phenomena. Here, we examine a suite of evidence for Common Era paleohydroclimate extreme events in the NE. Our study analyzes a network of hydroclimate sensitive trees, subfossil 'drowned' forests and co-located sediment records, using both classical and isotope dendrochronology, radiocarbon analyses, and sediment stratigraphy. Atlantic White cedar (AWC) forests grow along the NE coast and are exposed to severe coastal weather, as they are typically most successful in near-shore, glacially formed depressions. Many coastal AWC sites are ombrotrophic and contain a precipitation or drought signal in their ring widths. Sub-fossil AWC forests are found where near-shore swamps were drowned and exposed to the ocean. Additionally, the rings of coastal AWC may contain the geochemical signature of landfalling tropical cyclones, which bring with them a large influx of precipitation with distinct oxygen isotopes, which can be used to identify these large storms. Dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating, and analysis of sediment cores are used here to identify and date the occurrence of large overwash events along the coastline of the northeastern United States associated with extreme storms.

  15. Effects of humus on acetone-butanol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovats, J

    1963-01-01

    Adding 6 to 8 g humus-rich soil dried at 80/sup 0/ to 100 cc sterilized molasses, containing 3.8 sucrose and 0.1% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, inoculated with acetone-butanol fermentative bacteria, increased acetone, butanol, and ethanol yields by 30, 50, and 40%, respectively. The acetone-to-butanol ratio increased from 1.85 to 2.1-2.3 in low and 2.6-2.8 in high sucrose-molasses concentrations. Yields of total organic solvents increased from 25 to 36-8% of the sucrose present. Inorganic salts from ashed humus soils were only 10 to 20% less effective in enhancing fermentation than the whole soil. It is postulated that the fermentation is enhanced by trace elements present in the soil.

  16. Hydrological Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical report (December 1937-April 1948) containing hydrologic information for the United States, divided into ten regions. While hourly precipitation tables...

  17. Climate and hydrological changes in the northeastern United States: recent trends and implications for forested and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Richardson, Andrew D.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    We review twentieth century and projected twenty-first century changes in climatic and hydrologic conditions in the northeastern United States and the implications of these changes for forest ecosystems. Climate warming and increases in precipitation and associated changes in snow and hydrologic regimes have been observed over the last century, with the most pronounced changes occurring since 1970. Trends in specific climatic and hydrologic variables differ in their responses spatially (e.g., coastal vs. inland) and temporally (e.g., spring vs. summer). Trends can differ depending on the period of record analyzed, hinting at the role of decadal-scale climatic variation that is superimposed over the longer-term trend. Model predictions indicate that continued increases in temperature and precipitation across the northeastern United States can be expected over the next century. Ongoing increases in growing season length (earlier spring and later autumn) will most likely increase evapotranspiration and frequency of drought. In turn, an increase in the frequency of drought will likely increase the risk of fire and negatively impact forest productivity, maple syrup production, and the intensity of autumn foliage coloration. Climate and hydrologic changes could have profound effects on forest structure, composition, and ecological functioning in response to the changes discussed here and as described in related articles in this issue of the Journal.

  18. The sources and composition of humus in some soils of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    Original data on humus-forming substances and their elemental and biochemical compositions in Antarctic soils are discussed. Mosses, lichens, algae, remains of higher vascular plants, and penguin guano of two types differ considerably in their chemical compositions. This leads to significant differences in the formation of humic substances in plant materials themselves in the course of their transformation. However, no significant differences in the composition of humus in the fine earth of soils developing under different humus-forming materials have been revealed, which may be related to the extremely low rates of humification. Significant differences between the soils of Antarctic landscapes proper and the soils of the Subantarctic King George Island are only observed in the humus enrichment with nitrogen. The soils of Antarctica are low-humus soils with the humate-fulvate or fulvate types of humus.

  19. Five hydrologic and landscape databases for selected National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Gary R.; Gurley, Laura N.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Hunt, Alexandria M.

    2017-06-12

    This report serves as metadata and a user guide for five out of six hydrologic and landscape databases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to describe data-collection, data-reduction, and data-analysis methods used to construct the databases and provides statistical and graphical descriptions of the databases. Six hydrologic and landscape databases were developed: (1) the Cache River and White River National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) and contributing watersheds in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, (2) the Cahaba River NWR and contributing watersheds in Alabama, (3) the Caloosahatchee and J.N. “Ding” Darling NWRs and contributing watersheds in Florida, (4) the Clarks River NWR and contributing watersheds in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, (5) the Lower Suwannee NWR and contributing watersheds in Georgia and Florida, and (6) the Okefenokee NWR and contributing watersheds in Georgia and Florida. Each database is composed of a set of ASCII files, Microsoft Access files, and Microsoft Excel files. The databases were developed as an assessment and evaluation tool for use in examining NWR-specific hydrologic patterns and trends as related to water availability and water quality for NWR ecosystems, habitats, and target species. The databases include hydrologic time-series data, summary statistics on landscape and hydrologic time-series data, and hydroecological metrics that can be used to assess NWR hydrologic conditions and the availability of aquatic and riparian habitat. Landscape data that describe the NWR physiographic setting and the locations of hydrologic data-collection stations were compiled and mapped. Categories of landscape data include land cover, soil hydrologic characteristics, physiographic features, geographic and hydrographic boundaries, hydrographic features, and regional runoff estimates. The geographic extent of each database covers an area within which human activities, climatic

  20. A simple rainfall-runoff model based on hydrological units applied to the Teba catchment (south-east Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, N. H. W.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrological model (YWB, yearly water balance) has been developed to model the daily rainfall-runoff relationship of the 202 km2 Teba river catchment, located in semi-arid south-eastern Spain. The period of available data (1976-1993) includes some very rainy years with intensive storms (responsible for flooding parts of the town of Malaga) and also some very dry years.The YWB model is in essence a simple tank model in which the catchment is subdivided into a limited number of meaningful hydrological units. Instead of generating per unit surface runoff resulting from infiltration excess, runoff has been made the result of storage excess. Actual evapotranspiration is obtained by means of curves, included in the software, representing the relationship between the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration as a function of soil moisture content for three soil texture classes.The total runoff generated is split between base flow and surface runoff according to a given baseflow index. The two components are routed separately and subsequently joined. A large number of sequential years can be processed, and the results of each year are summarized by a water balance table and a daily based rainfall runoff time series. An attempt has been made to restrict the amount of input data to the minimum.Interactive manual calibration is advocated in order to allow better incorporation of field evidence and the experience of the model user. Field observations allowed for an approximate calibration at the hydrological unit level.

  1. Humus application produced by organic waste transformation in growing lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, M. G.; Morales Osorio, A.; Gutierrez Martinez, R.; Marquez Monsalvo, J. J.; Reyes Reyes, G.

    2009-01-01

    Every year in Mexico are produced more tons of garbage (19 874 259 tons) than tons of corn (18 309 000 tons). Fifty percent of domestic garbage is constituted by organic remainders. In december 2005 began de project Biotransformation of Organic Remainders in Humus for its Application in growing Lands with the purpose to prove the methods of: 1) Natural outdoors transformation, 2) Accelerated fermentation with thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, and 3) Transformation with microorganisms such as californian red worm, Eisenia andrei, to transform efficiently fruits and vegetables remainders. (Author)

  2. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  3. Estimating soil hydrological response by combining precipitation-runoff modeling and hydro-functional soil homogeneous units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefania; Bodoque, Jose Maria; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods constitute one of the natural hazards better able to generate risk, particularly with regard to Society. The complexity of this process and its dependence on various factors related to the characteristics of the basin and rainfall make flash floods are difficult to characterize in terms of their hydrological response.To do this, it is essential a proper analysis of the so called 'initial abstractions'. Among all of these processes, infiltration plays a crucial role in explaining the occurrence of floods in mountainous basins.For its characterization the Green-Ampt model , which depends on the characteristics of rainfall and physical properties of soil has been used in this work.This is a method enabling to simulate floods in mountainous basins where hydrological response is sub-daily. However, it has the disadvantage that it is based on physical properties of soil which have a high spatial variability. To address this difficulty soil mapping units have been delineated according to the geomorphological landforms and elements. They represent hydro-functional mapping units that are theoretically homogeneous from the perspective of the pedostructure parameters of the pedon. So the soil texture of each homogeneous group of landform units was studied by granulometric analyses using standarized sieves and Sedigraph devices. In addition, uncertainty associated with the parameterization of the Green-Ampt method has been estimated by implementing a Monte Carlo approach, which required assignment of the proper distribution function to each parameter.The suitability of this method was contrasted by calibrating and validating a hydrological model, in which the generation of runoff hydrograph has been simulated using the SCS unit hydrograph (HEC-GeoHMS software), while flood wave routing has been characterized using the Muskingum-Cunge method. Calibration and validation of the model was from the use of an automatic routine based on the employ of the search algorithm

  4. Modeling of the development of humus horizons in soils of Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergina, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to the simulation of pedogenesis processes in time are considered. Models for the formation of humus horizon on parent rocks of different genesis in Crimea are presented. Formation rates of humus horizons have been determined, which allows developing the remediation strategies for mining dumps of mineral deposits in Crimea.

  5. Open hydrology courseware using the United States Geological Survey’s National Water Census Data Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jake; Ames, Daniel P.; Blodgett, David L.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the primary U.S. Government agency for water data collection and dissemination. In this role, the USGS has recently created and deployed a National Water Census Data Portal (NWC-DP) which provides access to streamflow, evapotransporation, precipitation, aquatic biology and other data at the national level. Recognizing the value of these data sets for hydrologic science education, this paper presents an effort to bridge the gap between pencil–and-paper-based hydrology curriculum and the USGS NWC-DP resource. Specifically, we have developed an R package, National Water Census Education (NWCEd), and five associated laboratory exercises that integrate R- and web-services-based access to the NWC-DP data sets. Using custom functions built into the NWCEd, students are able to access unprecedented amounts of hydrologic data from the NWC-DP, which can be applied to current hydrology curriculum and analyzed using NWCEd and a number of other open-source R tools.

  6. Hydrologic processes of forested headwater watersheds across a physiographaic gradient in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Johnny Boggs; Steven G. McNulty; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin; Zhaohua Dai; James M. Vose; Ileana B. La Torre Torres; Timothy Callahan

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the hydrologic processes is the first step in making sound watershed management decisions including designing Best Management Practices for nonpoint source pollution control. Over the past fifty years, various forest experimental watersheds have been instrumented across the Carolinas through collaborative studies among federal, state, and private...

  7. PEMANFAATAN ARANG BATOK KELAPA DAN TANAH HUMUS BATURRADEN UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR LOGAM KROM (Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anung Riapanitra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste containing hazardous and toxic chemical compounds into the environment leads to water pollution, soil and air. These chemical compounds will endanger human life and environment. One type of compound that may pollute the environment is chromium. The metal is commonly found in industrial waste such as from exhaust and industrial wastewater from etal plating company. The purpose of this research is to utilize coconut shell charcoal and soil humus as a low-cost and ready-made alternative material to reduce the concentration chromium (Cr on wastewater. Humus was taken from Baturraden region and was isolated using NaOH extraction and was furthermore purified using mixtures of HF(aq: HCl(aq. Coconut shell charcoal was produced and was mixed with the humus. Adsorption process was carried out by batch method on variations of charcoal: humus composition, pH, and contact time. Humus soil was identified using infrared spectrophotometry (IR. Determination of chromium concentration was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The purified humus yielded was 25.92% (w/w, with 34.18% moisture, and ash content of 18.09%. The results showed that the variation of composition ratio of 2:1 charcoal and humus produced the greatest percent reduction of 18.20%, and the optimum pH for the adsorption is 9. For the variation of contacts time, the optimum reaction time is at 180minutes with decreasing concentration of Pb up to 56.07%.

  8. Simulations of hydrologic response in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Jones, L. Elliott; Painter, Jaime A.

    2017-12-29

    A suite of hydrologic models has been developed for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) as part of the National Water Census, a U.S. Geological Survey research program that focuses on developing new water accounting tools and assessing water availability and use at the regional and national scales. Seven hydrologic models were developed using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic, distributed-parameter, process-based system that simulates the effects of precipitation, temperature, land cover, and water use on basin hydrology. A coarse-resolution PRMS model was developed for the entire ACFB, and six fine-resolution PRMS models were developed for six subbasins of the ACFB. The coarse-resolution model was loosely coupled with a groundwater model to better assess the effects of water use on streamflow in the lower ACFB, a complex geologic setting with karst features. The PRMS coarse-resolution model was used to provide inputs of recharge to the groundwater model, which in turn provide simulations of groundwater flow that were aggregated with PRMS-based simulations of surface runoff and shallow-subsurface flow. Simulations without the effects of water use were developed for each model for at least the calendar years 1982–2012 with longer periods for the Potato Creek subbasin (1942–2012) and the Spring Creek subbasin (1952–2012). Water-use-affected flows were simulated for 2008–12. Water budget simulations showed heterogeneous distributions of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and storage change across the ACFB. Streamflow volume differences between no-water-use and water-use simulations were largest along the main stem of the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee River Basins, with streamflow percentage differences largest in the upper Chattahoochee and Flint River Basins and Spring Creek in the lower Flint River Basin. Water-use information at a shorter time step and a fully coupled simulation in

  9. Landscape-Scale Disturbance: Insights into the Complexity of Catchment Hydrology in the Mountaintop Removal Mining Region of the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Few land disturbances impact watersheds at the scale and extent of mountaintop removal mining (MTM. This practice removes forests, soils and bedrock to gain access to underground coal that results in likely permanent and wholesale changes that impact catchment hydrology, geochemistry and ecosystem health. MTM is the dominant driver of land cover changes in the central Appalachian Mountains region of the United States, converting forests to mine lands and burying headwater streams. Despite its dominance on the landscape, determining the hydrological impacts of MTM is complicated by underground coal mines that significantly alter groundwater hydrology. To provide insight into how coal mining impacts headwater catchments, we compared the hydrologic responses of an MTM and forested catchment using event rainfall-runoff analysis, modeling and isotopic approaches. Despite similar rainfall characteristics, hydrology in the two catchments differed in significant ways, but both catchments demonstrated threshold-mediated hydrologic behavior that was attributed to transient storage and the release of runoff from underground mines. Results suggest that underground mines are important controls for runoff generation in both obviously disturbed and seemingly undisturbed catchments and interact in uncertain ways with disturbance from MTM. This paper summarizes our results and demonstrates the complexity of catchment hydrology in the MTM region.

  10. Monitoring of the humus status of soils of the Ingulets irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovitsii, P. S.

    2012-03-01

    The results of long-term studies (1957-2007) of the changes in the morphology of soil profiles and in the reserves and fractional composition of the humus in the soils of the Ingulets irrigation system are discussed. After 50 years of irrigation, the boundaries of the genetic horizons shifted downward by 15-30 cm. The redistribution of the humus took place: its content decreased to a low level in the plow layer of the irrigated and rainfed soils and significantly increased in the layer of 60-100 cm so that the reserves of humus in the layer of 0-100 cm somewhat increased and corresponded to a moderate level. The distribution of humus in the soil profiles was characterized by the gradual lowering down the soil profile. The concentration of nitrogen in the humus of the irrigated southern chernozems was very low. The degree of humification of the soil organic matter was high. The humus was of the humate type in the upper horizons and of the fulvate-humate type in the lower horizons.

  11. A strategy for assessing potential future changes in climate, hydrology, and vegetation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Stephen; Hostetler, Steven W.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Anderson, Katherine H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical and geological data indicate that significant changes can occur in the Earth's climate on time scales ranging from years to millennia. In addition to natural climatic change, climatic changes may occur in the near future due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are the result of human activities. International research efforts using atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM's) to assess potential climatic conditions under atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of twice the pre-industrial level (a '2 X CO2' atmosphere) conclude that climate would warm on a global basis. However, it is difficult to assess how the projected warmer climatic conditions would be distributed on a regional scale and what the effects of such warming would be on the landscape, especially for temperate mountainous regions such as the Western United States. In this report, we present a strategy to assess the regional sensitivity to global climatic change. The strategy makes use of a hierarchy of models ranging from an AGCM, to a regional climate model, to landscape-scale process models of hydrology and vegetation. A 2 X CO2 global climate simulation conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) GENESIS AGCM on a grid of approximately 4.5o of latitude by 7.5o of longitude was used to drive the NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over the Western United States on a grid of 60 km by 60 km. The output from the RegCM is used directly (for hydrologic models) or interpolated onto a 15-km grid (for vegetation models) to quantify possible future environmental conditions on a spatial scale relevant to policy makers and land managers.

  12. Development of a transient, lumped hydrologic model for geomorphologic units in a geomorphology based rainfall-runoff modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannametee, E.; Karssenberg, D.; Hendriks, M. R.; de Jong, S. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a modelling framework for distributed hydrological modelling of 103-105 km2 catchments by discretizing the catchment in geomorphologic units. Each of these units is modelled using a lumped model representative for the processes in the unit. Here, we focus on the development and parameterization of this lumped model as a component of our framework. The development of the lumped model requires rainfall-runoff data for an extensive set of geomorphological units. Because such large observational data sets do not exist, we create artificial data. With a high-resolution, physically-based, rainfall-runoff model, we create artificial rainfall events and resulting hydrographs for an extensive set of different geomorphological units. This data set is used to identify the lumped model of geomorphologic units. The advantage of this approach is that it results in a lumped model with a physical basis, with representative parameters that can be derived from point-scale measurable physical parameters. The approach starts with the development of the high-resolution rainfall-runoff model that generates an artificial discharge dataset from rainfall inputs as a surrogate of a real-world dataset. The model is run for approximately 105 scenarios that describe different characteristics of rainfall, properties of the geomorphologic units (i.e. slope gradient, unit length and regolith properties), antecedent moisture conditions and flow patterns. For each scenario-run, the results of the high-resolution model (i.e. runoff and state variables) at selected simulation time steps are stored in a database. The second step is to develop the lumped model of a geomorphological unit. This forward model consists of a set of simple equations that calculate Hortonian runoff and state variables of the geomorphologic unit over time. The lumped model contains only three parameters: a ponding factor, a linear reservoir parameter, and a lag time. The model is capable of giving an appropriate

  13. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  14. Liquid humus and microorganisms to promote the production of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crespa in hydroponic crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco José

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an initial phase, a trial with growing hydroponic lettuce was installed, considering all the macro and micronutrients necessary and sufficient for growth, where treatments were applied with and without liquid humus, combining separately with inoculation of mycorrhiza and bacteria Bacillus type, observing that the significant effect by the individual use of the liquid humus is up to 50%. Subsequently, in a Phase II, different doses of only liquid humus with only mycorrhizae were evaluated, where applying of 8 L of pure liquid humus per 36 L of stock solution of hydroponics crop, the plants had the highest weight (40.7%, the highest altitude (39% and the longest (42% compared to the witness. Instead, the combination of liquid humus plus mycorrhizal is 6 L per 36 L of stock solution, which stimulated a further growth and weight of growing lettuce in hydroponics conditions. In general, the use of liquid humus decreased the production time from 60 to 52 days.

  15. Phase II Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord

    2004-12-01

    This report documents pertinent hydrologic data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU): CAU 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support the development of the Phase II FF CAU groundwater flow model.

  16. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  17. The relevance of humus forms for land degradation in Mediterranean mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J. M.; Jongejans, J.

    1998-06-01

    In the Gavarras (NE Spain), a large number of plots on respective schists, leucogranite and granodiorite was studied for their soils and vegetation. Results were used to check conclusions from earlier studies of Mediterranean forest soils (mostly shallow Regosols and Cambisols) on such acidic to intermediate rocks. They confirmed that the humus form depends on catenary position and lithology, and that aggregate stability and infiltration characteristics of the upper mineral soil horizon relate to humus form type. Aggregate stability of the topsoil was found to be relatively high in mor and mull type humus forms, but differences with moder type humus forms were not statistically significant. Differences in aggregate stability are attributed to the presence of stable humus-clay-iron complexes in mulls and to high fungal activity and organic matter content of mors. Low infiltration rates were only encountered in topsoils with mor type humus form, in line with results from the earlier studies. In deeper soil horizons with low organic matter content, aggregate stability will be largely related to soil reaction and base saturation. On leucogranite and granodiorite, these were found to vary strongly, most probably largely due to local differences in fast acid neutralizing capacity (ANC f). These local differences are primarily attributed to differences in the mineralogical composition and texture of the soil material, connected with differences in lithology and/or brought about by erosion, colluviation and soil formation. Consonant with earlier studies, it is concluded that the susceptibility of these forest soils to erosion largely depends on properties of the upper mineral soil horizon, which are controlled by or related with humus form development. General trends in the latter are clear and can be used to predict this susceptibility. In the case of land degradation, which implies a more severe erosion, deeper soil horizons are also involved. Spatial variability in

  18. The progress of hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, V T [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1967-05-15

    This paper discusses mainly the challenge of hydrology, recent activities, events, and major problems in hydrology, and advances in hydrological techniques. New scientific knowledge and techniques developed in many modern scientific disciplines, and the recognition of the importance of hydrology in water-resources development enable and encourage the hydrologist to advance scientific hydrology. Many programmes to promote hydrology and to expand its attendant activities have been developed in recent years. Therefore, the activities in the United States of America, such as the Universities Council on Water Resources and the President's Water for Peace Programme, and the programmes in the International Hydrological Decade are mentioned. The most important advance in theoretical hydrology is the development of a new concept of dynamic sequential systems for the hydrological cycle, thus creating new fields of systems, parametric, and stochastic hydrology. Modern scientific instrumentation provide the hydrologist with better tools for solving his problems. The most important of these, such as electronic computers, remote sensing, and nuclear techniques are discussed. Today various major problems, both theoretical and practical, face the hydrologist. Theoretical problems concern the basic understanding of hydrological systems and the mathematical simulation and physical interpretation of hydrological phenomena. Major practical problems are numerous and diversified, but they are mostly related to the multiple-purpose development of water resources. Four central problematical subjects are discussed; namely, the effects of man on his environment, the dynamics of aqueous flow systems, hydrological transport mechanism, and groundwater hydrology. Also, the use of nuclear techniques in solving various hydrological problems is discussed. It is believed that the application of nuclear techniques would prove extremely valuable in helping solve problems, but their ultimate use in

  19. The progress of hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, V.T.

    1967-01-01

    This paper discusses mainly the challenge of hydrology, recent activities, events, and major problems in hydrology, and advances in hydrological techniques. New scientific knowledge and techniques developed in many modern scientific disciplines, and the recognition of the importance of hydrology in water-resources development enable and encourage the hydrologist to advance scientific hydrology. Many programmes to promote hydrology and to expand its attendant activities have been developed in recent years. Therefore, the activities in the United States of America, such as the Universities Council on Water Resources and the President's Water for Peace Programme, and the programmes in the International Hydrological Decade are mentioned. The most important advance in theoretical hydrology is the development of a new concept of dynamic sequential systems for the hydrological cycle, thus creating new fields of systems, parametric, and stochastic hydrology. Modern scientific instrumentation provide the hydrologist with better tools for solving his problems. The most important of these, such as electronic computers, remote sensing, and nuclear techniques are discussed. Today various major problems, both theoretical and practical, face the hydrologist. Theoretical problems concern the basic understanding of hydrological systems and the mathematical simulation and physical interpretation of hydrological phenomena. Major practical problems are numerous and diversified, but they are mostly related to the multiple-purpose development of water resources. Four central problematical subjects are discussed; namely, the effects of man on his environment, the dynamics of aqueous flow systems, hydrological transport mechanism, and groundwater hydrology. Also, the use of nuclear techniques in solving various hydrological problems is discussed. It is believed that the application of nuclear techniques would prove extremely valuable in helping solve problems, but their ultimate use in

  20. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A; Andraski, Brian J; Cooper, Clay A; Mayers, C Justin; Michel, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5 × 10(12) tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activitiesconversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  1. DYNAMICS OF HUMUS CONTENT AND AIR-WATER SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE VEGETABLE AND FLOWER GLASSHOUSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted in Magadenovac glasshouses, eastern Croatia during seventeen years (1985. - 2002.. In that period, the glasshouse production of vegetables and flowers was intensive during the whole year. The trial was set up on 500 m2. Because of often crop rotation during the same year, soil tillage must be done fast and soil must be homogenized till depth of about 40 cm. Often in practice it is not possible to plough because of numerous reasons and then main mechanization is roto-digging machine. The aim of this investigation was to determine the consequences of long-term application of the special roto-digging machine and dynamics of organic matter and humus content during 17 years. For this purpose, multiple chemical and physical analyses were done. It was determined that, by intensive production during 17 years, organic matter content in soil surface layer significantly decreased (1995 year - 8.60% and 2002 year - 5.00%. In subsurface layer (35-50 cm organic matter content decreased by about 50%. At the same time, by decreasing organic matter content soil became more acid, because pH value measured in 1M KCl after 17 years was by 1.4 units lower in the surface layer, and by about 0.5 units lower in subsurface layer. Finally, soil became acid (pHKCl = 4.8. Decreasing in organic matter and humus content led to soil compaction, decreased soil porosity and degradation of other physical and chemical properties. It can be concluded, that it is necessary to import complete agricultural operations relative to soil tillage for soil preserving.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  3. Evaluation of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes in the Salt River Basin, Missouri, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes at the watershed scale is needed by land managers and policy makers to properly assess potential adaptation strategies. While numerous studies have been conducted on hydrologic processes in the Midwest, only a few have analyzed the l...

  4. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (Oh-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-01-01

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km 2 in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources. - Highlights: → Concentrations of 39 elements in forest floor humus are provided. → The capabilities of humus sampling for bio-monitoring purposes are demonstrated. → Geochemical anomalies are linked to known contamination sources. → The study shows the importance of scale for geochemical mapping projects. → Humus provides a picture of the long term contamination history of a country. - Forest floor humus, the atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interface, archives an environmental contamination signal over long time periods.

  5. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (O{sub h}-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie [Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Kvetnove namesti 391, 252 43 Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Reimann, Clemens, E-mail: Clemens.Reimann@ngu.no [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Boyd, Rognvald [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Filzmoser, Peter [Institute for Statistics and Probability Theory, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Englmaier, Peter [Faculty of Life Science, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-15

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2} in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources. - Highlights: > Concentrations of 39 elements in forest floor humus are provided. > The capabilities of humus sampling for bio-monitoring purposes are demonstrated. > Geochemical anomalies are linked to known contamination sources. > The study shows the importance of scale for geochemical mapping projects. > Humus provides a picture of the long term contamination history of a country. - Forest floor humus, the atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interface, archives an environmental contamination signal over long time periods.

  6. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  7. Hydrology of the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward; Wood, Warren

    2001-05-01

    Water fluxes were estimated and a water budget developed for the land surface and a surficial 10-m-deep section of the coastal sabkhas that extend from the city of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, west to the border with Saudi Arabia. The fluxes were estimated on the basis of water levels and hydraulic conductivities measured in wells and evaporation rates measured with a humidity chamber. In contrast with conceptual models proposed in earlier studies, groundwater inflow is estimated to be small, whereas the largest components of the water budget are recharge from rainfall and evaporation from the water table. Estimates within a rectilinear volume of sabkha, defined as 1 m wide by 10 km long by 10 m deep, indicate that about 1 m3/year of water enters and exits by lateral groundwater flow; 40-50 m3/year enters by upward leakage; and 640 m3/year enters by recharge from rainfall. Based on the water and solute fluxes estimated for the upward leakage into the sabkha, 7-8 pore volumes of brine have entered the sabkha from below since the time the sabkha became saturated (7,000 years ago) as a result of the last global sea-level rise. Résumé. Les flux d'eau ont été estimés et le bilan hydrique a été réalisé pour la surface et les dix premiers mètres sous la surface de sebkhas littorales qui s'étendent à partir de la ville d'Abou Dhabi (Émirats Arabes Unis) à l'ouest de la frontière avec l'Arabie Saoudite. Les flux ont été estimés à partir des niveaux piézométriques et des conductivités hydrauliques mesurés dans les puits et à partir de mesures d'évaporation au moyen de capteurs d'humidité. En opposition avec les modèles conceptuels proposés dans les premières études, on estime que les apports par les eaux souterraines sont faibles, alors que les termes du bilan hydrique les plus importants sont la recharge par la pluie et l'évaporation à partir de la nappe. Les estimations dans un parallélépipède rectangle de sebkha, d'1 m de large, de

  8. Growth Response of Seedling Yellow Birch to Humus-Soil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Robert R. Oberg

    1966-01-01

    Previous observations of the establishment of yellow birch have cited the importance of mixed humus-mineral soil seedbeds. Godman and Krefting pointed out that both germination and growth were enhanced. Subsequent studies have shown that while germination in the absence of competition is adequate on mineral soil of a Podzol A under a wide variety of light and...

  9. Altitude profiles of total chlorinated paraffins in humus and spruce needles from the Alps (MONARPOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozza, Saverio, E-mail: saverio.iozza@empa.c [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johanns-Ring 19, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Schmid, Peter, E-mail: peter.schmid@empa.c [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Oehme, Michael, E-mail: michael.oehme@unibas.c [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johanns-Ring 19, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Bassan, Rodolfo [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, Claudio [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardia (Italy); Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Schramm, Karl-Werner [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health (Germany); Kraeuchi, Norbert [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, Wolfgang; Offenthaler, Ivo; Weiss, Peter [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, Primoz [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Knoth, Wilhelm [Federal Environment Agency (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are toxic, bioaccumulative, persistent, and ubiquitously present in the environment. CPs were analyzed in humus and needle samples, which were taken within the Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent and other Organic Pollutants (MONARPOP) at sampling sites of 7 different altitude profiles in the Alps. Gas chromatography combined with electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (EI-MS/MS) was used for the determination of total CPs (sum of short, medium and long chain CPs). CPs were found in all samples; the concentrations varied between 7 and 199 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) and within 26 and 460 ng g{sup -1} dw in humus and needle samples, respectively. A clear vertical tendency within the individual altitude profiles could not be ascertained. Within all altitude profiles, elevated concentrations were observed in humus samples taken between 700 and 900 m and between 1300 and 1500 m. In the needle samples no similar correlation could be observed due to higher variation of the data. - For the first time, CP levels of humus and spruce needle samples from the Alps (MONARPOP) were presented including the evaluation of altitude profiles.

  10. Soil evolution in spruce forest ecosystems: role and influence of humus studied by morphological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chersich S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the role and the mutual influences of humus and soil in alpine spruce forest ecosystems we studied and classified 7 soil - humic profiles on the 4 main forestry dynamics: open canopy, regeneration, young stand, tree stage. We studied the role of humification process in the pedologic process involving soils and vegetations studing humic and soil horizons. Study sites are located at an altitude of 1740 m a.s.l near Pellizzano (TN, and facing to the North. The parent soil material is predominantly composed of morenic sediments, probably from Cevedale glacier lying on a substrate of tonalite from Presanella (Adamello Tertiary pluton. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. The characteristics observed in field were correlated with classical chemical and physical soil analyses (MIPAF 2000. In order to discriminate the dominant soil forming process, the soils were described and classified in each site according to the World Reference Base (FAO-ISRIC-ISSS 1998. Humus was described and classified using the morphological-genetic approach (Jabiol et al. 1995. The main humus forms are acid and they are for the greater part Dysmoder on PODZOLS. The main pedogenetic processes is the podzolization, locally there are also hydromorphic processes. We associate a definite humus form with a pedological process at a particular step of the forest evolution. We concluded thath the soil study for a correct pedological interpretation must take count of the characteristics of the humic epipedon.

  11. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnik, Yu.G.; Bednaya, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  12. Leaf fall, humus depth, and soil frost in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hart; Raymond E. Leonard; Robert S. Pierce

    1962-01-01

    In the mound-and-depression microtopography of the northern hardwood forest, leaves are blown off the mounds and collect in the depressions. This influence of microtopography on leaf accumulation is responsible for much of the variation in humus depth; and this, in turn, affects the formation and depth of soil frost.

  13. Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgarejo, M.R.; Ballesteros, M.I.; Bendeck L, M.

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

  14. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  15. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  16. Enhanced hydrological extremes in the western United States under global warming through the lens of water vapor wave activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Xue, Daokai; Gao, Yang; Chen, Gang; Leung, Lai-Yung; Staten, Paul W.

    2018-04-23

    Understanding how regional hydrological extremes would respond to warming is a grand challenge to the community of climate change research. To address this challenge, we construct an analysis framework based on column integrated water vapor (CWV) wave activity to diagnose the wave component of the hydrological cycle that contributes to hydrological extremes. By applying the analysis to the historical and future climate projections from the CMIP5 models, we found that the wet-versus-dry disparity of daily net precipitation along a zonal band can increase at a super Clausius-Clapeyron rate due to the enhanced stirring length of wave activity at the poleward flank of the mean storm track. The local variant of CWV wave activity reveals the unique characteristics of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in terms of their transport function, enhanced mixing and hydrological cycling rate (HC). Under RCP8.5, the local moist wave activity increases by ~40% over the northeastern Pacific by the end of the 21st century, indicating more ARs hitting the west coast, giving rise to a ~20% increase in the related hydrological extremes − $ despite a weakening of the local HC.

  17. Simulation study on 137Cs distribution in the each component of irrigation-farmed gray-brown desert soil humus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikebaier Yilahong; Jia Hongtao; Tuerxun Tuerhong; Karpuhin, A.I.; Torshin, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The components and characters of humus in irrigation-farmed gray-brown desert soil were studied and gel filtration method is used at indoor experiment to study the bond properties of the foreign source 137 Cs and soil humus' components. Results show that the bonding rate of 137 Cs was the highest in clay mineral, 78.37% of total. 21.63% of 137 Cs was accumulated in the humus, the bonding rate of 137 Cs with humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin were 5.78%, 6.60% and 9.25%, respectively. The humic acid and 137 Cs formed four low weight complex molecules, their average molecular weights are > 700, 392, 168 and 137 Cs can not only be bonded into the stable organic-inorganic composite, but also into humus-metal ion complex with very high stability. (authors)

  18. Soil humus and carbon popularity from 1804 (N. de Saussure) to 2015 (COP 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Christian; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The popularity of humus (or soil organic matter SOM) and later on soil organic carbon (SOC) as related to plant nutrition, soil fertility and environment varied widely from the beginning of the 19th century with the research of Nicolas de Saussure (1804) to Thaer's humus theory (1809) followed by Liebig's mineral theory (1840) until the 20th century with new perceptions of the beneficial roles of SOM. Nowadays, it is known that SOM (with SOC) participates in multiple interactions with the other Earth ecosystem compartments (hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere lithosphere). Very recently SOM and SOC were raised to the summit of the international challenges concerning global changes with the French initiative entitled "4 per 1000". Therefore, from the past to the present humus has received varying levels of consideration regarding its benefits for humanity. The central questions of this presentation will be: 1) What were the links between science and society at each of these epistemological steps during these last 200 years, and 2) what were the scientific theories involved?

  19. Altitude profiles of total chlorinated paraffins in humus and spruce needles from the Alps (MONARPOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozza, Saverio; Schmid, Peter; Oehme, Michael; Bassan, Rodolfo; Belis, Claudio; Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Kräuchi, Norbert; Moche, Wolfgang; Offenthaler, Ivo; Weiss, Peter; Simoncic, Primoz; Knoth, Wilhelm

    2009-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are toxic, bioaccumulative, persistent, and ubiquitously present in the environment. CPs were analyzed in humus and needle samples, which were taken within the Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent and other Organic Pollutants (MONARPOP) at sampling sites of 7 different altitude profiles in the Alps. Gas chromatography combined with electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (EI-MS/MS) was used for the determination of total CPs (sum of short, medium and long chain CPs). CPs were found in all samples; the concentrations varied between 7 and 199 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) and within 26 and 460 ng g(-1) dw in humus and needle samples, respectively. A clear vertical tendency within the individual altitude profiles could not be ascertained. Within all altitude profiles, elevated concentrations were observed in humus samples taken between 700 and 900 m and between 1300 and 1500 m. In the needle samples no similar correlation could be observed due to higher variation of the data.

  20. Hydrology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the 'Hydrology Project' of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura', Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such research comprises: Amazon hydrology and Northeast hydrology. Techniques for the measurement of isotope ratios are used. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Variation in soil macro-fauna diversity in seven humus orders of a Parrotio-Carpinetum forest association on Chromic Cambisols of Shast-klateh area in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, M.; Habashi, H.; Waez-Mousavi, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    Soil biodiversity includes organisms which spend a part or all of their life cycle on or in the soil. Among soil-dwelling animals, macro-fauna as an important group of animals have important effects on the dynamics of soil organic matter and litter decomposition process. The humus forms interact with the climatic conditions, flora, as well as soil fauna, and microbial activity. In new humus form classifications, soil organisms play an important role in separation of humus horizons from one another. The subject of this study was to determine the diversity of macro fauna for different humus forms. We determined humus forms using morphological classification, and then 69 random samples were taken from plots of 100 cm2 in area, and soil macro-fauna species were collected by hand sorting method. Two classes of humus forms, including Mull (with three humus orders, namely Dysmull, Oligomull, and Mesomull,) and Amphi (with four humus orders, namely Leptoamphi, Eumacroamphi, Eumesoamphi, and Pachyamphi) were identified. A number of 13 macro-fauna orders were identified using identification key. Among the humus orders, Shannon diversity, Simpson evenness and Margalef richness indices were the highest in Pachyamphi order. Arthropod diversity in Pachyamphi humus order was higher than those of Mull. These results showed that diversity of soil macrofauna increase by increasing the thickness of the organic horizons (OL, OF, OH), especially OH horizon.

  2. Meltwater drainage beneath ice sheets: What can we learn from uniting observations of paleo- and contemporary subglacial hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, L. M.; Carter, S. P.; Greenwood, S. L.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding meltwater at the base of ice sheets is critical for predicting ice flow and subglacial sediment deformation. Whereas much progress has been made with observing contemporary systems, these efforts have been limited by the short temporal scales of remote sensing data, the restricted spatial coverage of radar sounding data, and the logistical challenges of direct access. Geophysical and sedimentological data from deglaciated continental shelves reveal broad spatial and temporal perspectives of subglacial hydrology, that complement observations of contemporary systems. Massive bedrock channels, such as those on the sediment-scoured inner continental shelf of the Amundsen Sea and the western Antarctic Peninsula, are up to hundreds of meters deep, which indicate either catastrophic drainage events or slower channel incision over numerous glaciations or sub-bank full drainage events. The presence of these deep channels has implications for further ice loss as they may provide conduits today for warm water incursion into sub-ice shelf cavities. Sediment-based subglacial channels, widespread in the northern hemisphere terrestrial domain and increasingly detected on both Arctic and Antarctic marine margins, help characterize more ephemeral drainage systems active during ice sheet retreat. Importantly, some observed sediment-based channels are connected to upstream subglacial lakes and terminate at paleo-grounding lines. From these records of paleo-subglacial hydrology, we extract the relative timing of meltwater drainage, estimate water fluxes, and contemplate the sources and ultimate fate of basal meltwater, refining predictive models for modern systems. These insights provided by geological data fill a gap in knowledge regarding spatial and temporal dynamics of subglacial hydrology and offer hindsight into meltwater drainage influence/association with ice flow and retreat behavior. The union of information gathered from paleo- and contemporary subglacial

  3. Humus layer is the main locus of secondary SO4 production in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Daniel; Marty, Charles; Duchesne, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the sources of S exported from catchments and the reactivity of the large soil organic S pool is crucial to understand the mid- or long-term response of forested catchments to decreasing atmospheric S deposition and global warming. Sulfur fluxes as well as S and O isotopes of SO4 were measured in precipitation, throughfall, soil solutions and streams at two boreal forest catchments respectively dominated by black spruce (BS) and balsam fir (BF) in Quebec, Canada. Overall, δ34S-SO4 signature showed relatively small variations among various solution types. However, at both sites, δ18O-SO4 in precipitation (averages of 10.5-11.1‰) was decreased by 3.5-3.6‰ in throughfall because of the production of secondary SO4 through oxidation of SO2 deposited on the canopy. Throughfall δ18O-SO4 was decreased by a further 5.4-6.6‰ in the solution leaving the humus layer which was attributed to the production of secondary SO4 under the action of soil microorganisms through the oxidation of organic S during which the S atom acquired O from water and gaseous O2 present in the soil. A mixing equation based on known isotopic signature of each source suggested that ˜67-81% of the S-SO4 leaving the catchments had interacted with the canopy and the humus layer. The stability of δ18O-SO4 in the mineral soil solution and in the stream of both sites, suggests that SO4 does not undergo reduction-oxidation cycles after its passage through the humus layer. Despite its huge size, the organic S reservoir within the mineral soil would be largely inert. Given the chemical nature of SO4 transformation in the canopy, the humus layer would be responsible for nearly 100% of the biological production of secondary SO4 in the whole watershed at both sites. Taking into account the substantial production of dissolved organic S in the humus layer further emphasizes the crucial importance of the latter in the S cycling of boreal forests.

  4. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  5. The Western States Water Mission: A Hyper-Resolution Hydrological Model and Data Integration Platform for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; David, C. H.; Reager, J. T., II; Oaida, C.; Stampoulis, D.; Levoe, S.; Liu, P. W.; Trangsrud, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Allen, G. H.; Crichton, D. J.; Emery, C. M.; Farr, T.; Granger, S. L.; Hobbs, J.; Malhotra, S.; Osterman, G. B.; Rueckert, M.; Turmon, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Western States Water Mission (WSWM) is a high-resolution (3 km2), hydrological model and data integration platform under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the last 2 years. Distinctive features of the WSWM are its explicit representations of river networks and deep groundwater, an emphasis on uncertainty quantification, a major visualization and data distribution effort, and its focus on multivariate data assimilation, including GRACE/FO, SMAP, SWOT and MODSCAG fractional snow covered area. Importantly, the WSWM is actively managed as a flight project, i.e. with the rigor of a satellite mission. In this presentation we give an overview of the WSWM, including past accomplishments status, and future plans. In particular, results from recent 30-year simulations with GRACE and MODSCAG assimilation will be presented.

  6. Observed Hydrologic Impacts of Landfalling Atmospheric Rivers in the Salt and Verde River Basins of Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Eleonora M. C.; Dominguez, Francina; Hu, Huancui; von Glinski, Gerd; Robles, Marcos; Skindlov, Jonathan; Walter, James

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow atmospheric water vapor corridors, can contribute substantially to winter precipitation in the semiarid Southwest U.S., where natural ecosystems and humans compete for over-allocated water resources. We investigate the hydrologic impacts of 122 ARs that occurred in the Salt and Verde river basins in northeastern Arizona during the cold seasons from 1979 to 2009. We focus on the relationship between precipitation, snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture, and extreme flooding. During the cold season (October through March) ARs contribute an average of 25%/29% of total seasonal precipitation for the Salt/Verde river basins, respectively. However, they contribute disproportionately to total heavy precipitation and account for 64%/72% of extreme total daily precipitation (exceeding the 98th percentile). Excess precipitation during AR occurrences contributes to snow accumulation; on the other hand, warmer than normal temperatures during AR landfallings are linked to rain-on-snow processes, an increase in the basins' area contributing to runoff generation, and higher melting lines. Although not all AR events are linked to extreme flooding in the basins, they do account for larger runoff coefficients. On average, ARs generate 43% of the annual maximum flows for the period studied, with 25% of the events exceeding the 10 year return period. Our analysis shows that the devastating 1993 flooding event in the region was caused by AR events. These results illustrate the importance of AR activity on the hydrology of inland semiarid regions: ARs are critical for water resources, but they can also lead to extreme flooding that affects infrastructure and human activities.

  7. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  8. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  9. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  10. Behavior of Foliares Applications of Humus Mixed with the NPK in Rice Cultivation (Oryza Sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Saborit Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the observation of one green yellowsh clorosis in the plantations of rice, after the cold campaings and the disminishing of the agricultural efficiency of the cerial in areas of Saint Elena Land belonging to the fortified cooperatove of credits and service (FCCS Camilo Cienfuegos in Las Nuevas, La Sierpe, Province of Sancti – Spiritus, were done foliars aplications with mineral fertilizing as, N.P.K to different doses and moments of applications, in order to obtain alternative of nutrition for the cultivation, the work was done on a green yellowish ferralitic ground since 2009 to 2011, using LP-5 cultivation doing the sowing by the method of transplantation, fertilization. It was done mixing 49L. ha-¹ of liquid warm humus with 0.35 Kg. ha-¹ of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The results shown that the use of the foliar fertilization with liquid worm humus mixed with the N.P.K minerals, increased the efficiency, obtaining 5.3t. ha-¹ as an average in different variants used. The economic analysis showed that the treatment with 40% of nitrogen was reduced with seven foliars applications, it was highest to the witness N.P.K in 1.5t . ha-¹ of the grain obtaining a relative benefit of 4264.55 pesos by hectarea.

  11. Particle size distribution in effluent of trickling filters and in humus tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, W; Günthert, F W

    2001-11-01

    Particles and aggregates from trickling filters must be eliminated from wastewater. Usually this happens through sedimentation in humus tanks. Investigations to characterize these solids by way of particle size measurements, image analysis and particle charge measurements (zeta potential) are made within the scope of Research Center for Science and Technology "Fundamentals of Aerobic biological wastewater treatment" (SFB 411). The particle size measuring results given within this report were obtained at the Ingolstadt wastewater treatment plant, Germany, which served as an example. They have been confirmed by similar results from other facilities. Particles flushed out from trickling filters will be partially destroyed on their way to the humus tank. A large amount of small particles is to be found there. On average 90% of the particles are smaller than 30 microm. Particle size plays a decisive role in the sedimentation behaviour of solids. Small particles need sedimentation times that cannot be provided in settling tanks. As a result they cause turbidity in the final effluent. Therefore quality of sewage discharge suffers, and there are hardly advantages of the fixed film reactor treatment compared to the activated sludge process regarding sedimentation behaviour.

  12. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Bryant

    2008-05-01

    This document presents a summary and framework of the available hydrologic data and other information directly relevant to the development of the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99 groundwater flow models. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are briefly summarized with reference to the complete documentation.

  13. Assessment of hydrologic impact of extending exploratory shafts into the Calico Hills nonwelded tuff unit at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is performing analyses to address an objection by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to plans in the Consultation Draft of the Site Characterization Plan for direct excavation of the Calico Hills nonwelded (CHn) unit within the repository exploration block at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The excavation was planned as part of site characterization activities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This characterization activities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This characterization activity has been deferred, pending the results of a risk/benefit analysis of alternative methods for obtaining needed characterization data from CHn unit. The benefits from characterizing the CHn unit are generally related to obtaining information leading to improved confidence in predictions of site performance. The risks are generally associated with potential adverse impacts to site performance that result from excavation or other intrusion into the CHn unit. The purpose of the risk/benefit analysis is to produce a recommendation to the Director, Regulatory and Site Evaluation Division. DOE/Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office for a strategy for characterizing the CHn unit. The recommendation will describe characterization activities that are expected to provide the needed information while limiting adverse impacts to site performance to the extent practical. The risk/benefit analysis was supported with scoping calculations to provide a quantitative evaluation of the impacts associated with different strategies. The working group responsible for the risk/benefit analysis requested that these scoping calculations to be supported with more detailed performance assessments for evaluating impacts of different characterization activities. This report summarizes the results of these performance assessment analyses. 9 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab

  14. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities...... under specific circumstances. Initially a general water balance equation is defined for a typical landfill, and the different parts of the water balance are discussed. A separate section discusses water flow and the hydrogeology of landfilled wastes and considers the impact of water short...

  15. Two factors defining humus as a key structural component of soil organic matter and as a physicochemical speciation of carbon in its turnover wending its way through the micro environment of soil, sediments and natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 40-50 years, the scientific community started to question the model of soil organic matter. Close consideration has been given to the following models: the classic model that regards a significant part of soil organic matter as large, covalently bonded 'humus polymers', which are formed via "humification", and the continuum model that considers soil organic matter as 'supra molecular aggregates of degradation fragments'[1]. The underlying cause of a contradiction between 'humus polymers' model and continuum model of SOM implies that 'the vast majority of operationally defined humic material in soils is a very complex mixture of microbial and plant biopolymers and their degradation products but not a distinct chemical category'. Furthermore, authors [1] of the continuum model suggested 'to turn to modern, evidence based concept, and to abandon the operational proxies of the past' that means to consider term 'humus' as an out-of-date model. However, micro cosmos of organic matter in soil implies not only an assemblage of molecular units but also a system of interactions of different types [2]. Peculiar interactions in SOM allow us to understand a lot of physicochemical phenomena observed in soil samples, for example by EPR and SL EPR examinations [3, 4, 5]. Among specific interactions in soil, mention should be made of hydrogen (H) bonds and hydrophobic interaction. Spin Labeling EPR examination of natural and labeled soil samples showed that in SOM, there are stable and roaming H-bonds. Stable H-bonds are typical of a part of SOM, which can be isolated as humus, whereas a non-humified part of SOM is rich in roaming hydrogen bonds. Addition of some water (more than maximal moisture) to soil leads to disintegration of some weak H-bond. Other solvents influence SOM the same way but they disintegrate stronger or weaker H-bonds in dependence on used solvent. Thus in soil, different environmental conditions (like moisture, temperature or pollution) influence

  16. Chemical composition of the humus layer, mineral soil and soil solution of 150 forest stands in the Netherlands in 1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Leeters, E.E.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A nationwide assessment of the chemical composition of the humus layer, mineral topsoil (0-30 cm) and soil solution in both topsoil and subsoil (60-100 cm) was made for 150 forest stands in the year 1990. The stands, which were part of the national forest inventory on vitality, included seven tree

  17. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (Oh-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the "environmental memory" of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km2 in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Humus accumulation, humification, and humic acid composition in soils of two post-mining chronosequences after coal mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abakumov, E.V.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Brus, Jiří; Frouz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 491-500 ISSN 1439-0108 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08023; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Humus accumulation * Humic acids composition * Humification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2013

  19. Chemical composition of the humus layer, mineral soil and soil solution of 200 forest stands in the Netherlands in 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeters, E.E.J.M.; Vries, de W.

    2001-01-01

    A nationwide assessment of the chemical composition of the soil solid phase and the soil solution in the humus layer and two mineral layers (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) was made for 200 forest stands in the year 1995. The stands were part of the national forest inventory on vitality, included seven tree

  20. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (O-h-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, J.; Suchara, I.; Hola, M.; Reimann, C.; Boyd, R.; Filzmoser, P.; Englmaier, P. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2} in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources.

  1. Inversions of radiocarbon age of humus in the profile of modern soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichagova, O.A.; Cherkinskij, A.E.; Tolchel'nikov, Yu.S.

    1984-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous inversions of humus radiocarbon age in the orofile of modern soils are studied. The reasons for exogenous and endogenous invesrsions are enumerated and examples are given. Thus, the exogenous inversion of the chernozem by the underbush (Kursk region) is explained by a high activity of soricids. The age determination of the disturbed profile in the depth of 49-59 cm turns out to be rejuvanated - 1820+-70 years and that of the non-disturbed one - 4050+-60 years. A conclusion is made on the necessity of a detailed analysis of each soil profile, specific features of its genesis as well as a possibility of postgenetic transformations, especially Anthropogenic ones. In this case an interpretation of the radiocarbon data will be more accurate

  2. Isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology was jointly organized by the IAEA and UNESCO, in co-operation with the National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF). Upon the invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany the Symposium was held from 19-23 June 1978 in Neuherberg on the GSF campus. The Symposium was officially opened by Mr. S. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA. The symposium - the fifth meeting held on isotope hydrology - was attended by over 160 participants from 44 countries and four international organizations and by about 30 observers from the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the absence of scientists from the USSR five papers were cancelled and therefore only 46 papers of the original programme were presented in ten sessions

  3. Fertilization with liquid digestate in organic farming - effects on humus balance, soil potassium contents and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Siegl, Thomas; Bonell, Marion; Unterfrauner, Hans; Peticzka, Robert; Ableidinger, Christoph; Haas, Dieter; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Biogas production and use of liquid digestate are subject of controversial discussion in organic farming. Using biomass from intercrops as feedstock for biogas production makes it possible to produce renewable energy without compromising food production. With liquid digestate, crops can be fertilized in a more targeted way than by incorporating intercrop biomass into the soil. For long-term sustainability in organic farming, however, this practice must not have adverse effects on soil fertility. In order to assess the effects of fertilization with liquid digestate on soil fertility, two randomised field experiments were conducted for two years on different soil types near Bruck/Leitha (Lower Austria). One experiment was set up on a calcareous chernozem with 4 % humus content, the other on a parachernozem with pH 5.9 and 2.1 % humus. Soil potassium content, both in the water-soluble fraction and in the exchangeable fraction, increased significantly at both sites. As fertilization with liquid digestate exceeded the potassium requirements of the crops by far, the proportion of potassium of the exchangeable cations increased rapidly. Soil physical properties were not influenced by digestate fertilization on the chernozem site. On the parachernozem, aggregate stability was increased by the organic matter applied via digestate. On this acidic site low in humus content, the supply of 4 t/ha organic matter, which featured a lignin content of 37 % and was relatively resistant to decomposition, had a clearly positive impact on soil physical properties. Humus balances were computed both with the 'Humuseinheiten'-method and with the site-adapted method STAND. They were calculated on the basis of equal amounts of intercrop biomass either left on the field as green manure or used for biogas production and the resulting amount of liquid digestate brought back to the field. The humus balances indicated that the humus-efficacy of the liquid digestate was equal to slightly higher

  4. Ecological limit functions relating fish community response to hydrologic departures of the ecological flow regime in the Tennessee River basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rodney R.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Wolfe, William J.; Saylor, Charles F.; Wales, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological limit functions relating streamflow and aquatic ecosystems remain elusive despite decades of research. We investigated functional relationships between species richness and changes in streamflow characteristics at 662 fish sampling sites in the Tennessee River basin. Our approach included the following: (1) a brief summary of relevant literature on functional relations between fish and streamflow, (2) the development of ecological limit functions that describe the strongest discernible relationships between fish species richness and streamflow characteristics, (3) the evaluation of proposed definitions of hydrologic reference conditions, and (4) an investigation of the internal structures of wedge-shaped distributions underlying ecological limit functions.Twenty-one ecological limit functions were developed across three ecoregions that relate the species richness of 11 fish groups and departures from hydrologic reference conditions using multivariate and quantile regression methods. Each negatively sloped function is described using up to four streamflow characteristics expressed in terms of cumulative departure from hydrologic reference conditions. Negative slopes indicate increased departure results in decreased species richness.Sites with the highest measured fish species richness generally had near-reference hydrologic conditions for a given ecoregion. Hydrology did not generally differ between sites with the highest and lowest fish species richness, indicating that other environmental factors likely limit species richness at sites with reference hydrology.Use of ecological limit functions to make decisions regarding proposed hydrologic regime changes, although commonly presented as a management tool, is not as straightforward or informative as often assumed. We contend that statistical evaluation of the internal wedge structure below limit functions may provide a probabilistic understanding of how aquatic ecology is influenced by altered hydrology

  5. ON THE DIVISION OF NORTH BOUNDARY OF SUBTROPICAL ZONE ACCORDING TO THE COMPOSITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL HUMUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper predecessors′ achievements about the division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south slope of Funiu Mountain are firstly summarized, and the cause why these viewpoints about the division are different also has been presented. Seven soil profiles at different heights above sea level are dug along the south slope of Funiu Mountain. Many compositions and properties of soil humus have been analyzed in laboratory. A comprehensive study has been made about the division according to the compositions and properties of soil humus with mathematical method. During the analysis process eight indexes have been used, such as altitude, organic carbon, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), the ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid (HA/FA), two extinction coefficients (E4,E6), and their ratio (E4/E6).The result indicates that the boundary is at about 1000 meters above sea level.

  6. ON THE DIVISION OF NORTH BOUNDARY OF SUBTROPICAL ZONE ACCORDING TO THE COMPOSITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL HUMUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJian-hua; ZHAOQing-liang; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this paper predecessorsˊ achievements about the division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south slope of Funiu Mountain are firstly summarized,and the cause why these viewpoints about the division are different also has been presented.Seven soil profiles at different heights above sea level are dug along the south slope of Funiu Mountain.Many compositions and properties of soil humus have been analyzed in laboratory.A comprehensive study has been made about the division according to the compositions and properties of soil humus with mathematical method.During the analysis process eitht indexes have been used,such as altitude,organic carbon,humic acid(HA),fulvic acid(FA),the ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid(HA/FA),two extinction coefficients(E4,E6), and their ratio (E4/E6).The result indicates that the boundary is at about 1000 meters above sea level.

  7. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M., E-mail: kirchner@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Faus-Kessler, T.; Jakobi, G.; Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kotalik, J.; Zsolnay, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardy (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. - Caused by temperature-dependent processes regarding deposition, re-volatilization and decomposition of POPs, the concentration of organochlorine pesticides varies in the Alpine region with altitude.

  8. Humus soil as a critical driver of flora conversion on karst rock outcrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiai; Shen, Youxin; He, Beibei; Zhao, Zhimeng

    2017-10-03

    Rock outcrop is an important habitat supporting plant communities in karst landscape. However, information on the restoration of higher biotic populations on outcrops is limited. Here, we investigated the diversity, biomass changes of higher vascular plants (VP) and humus soil (HS) on karst outcrops during a restoration process. We surveyed VP on rock outcrops and measured HS reserved by various rock microhabitats in a rock desertification ecosystem (RDE), an anthropogenic forest ecosystem (AFE), and a secondary forest ecosystem (SFE) in Shilin County, southwest China. HS metrics (e.g. quantity and nutrients content) and VP metrics (e.g. richness, diversity and biomass) were higher at AFE than at RDE, but lower than at SFE, suggesting that the restoration of soil subsystem vegetation increased HS properties and favored the succession of VP on rock outcrops. There was significantly positive correlation between VP metrics and HS amount, indicating that the succession of VP was strongly affected by availability and heterogeneity of HS in various rock microhabitats. Thus, floral succession of rock subsystem was slow owing to the limited resources on outcrops, although the vegetation was restored in soil subsystem.

  9. Manganese availability is negatively associated with carbon storage in northern coniferous forest humus layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendahl, Johan; Berg, Björn; Lindahl, Björn D

    2017-11-14

    Carbon sequestration below ground depends on organic matter input and decomposition, but regulatory bottlenecks remain unclear. The relative importance of plant production, climate and edaphic factors has to be elucidated to better predict carbon storage in forests. In Swedish forest soil inventory data from across the entire boreal latitudinal range (n = 2378), the concentration of exchangeable manganese was singled out as the strongest predictor (R 2  = 0.26) of carbon storage in the extensive organic horizon (mor layer), which accounts for one third of the total below ground carbon. In comparison, established ecosystem models applied on the same data have failed to predict carbon stocks (R 2  < 0.05), and in our study manganese availability overshadowed both litter production and climatic factors. We also identified exchangeable potassium as an additional strong predictor, however strongly correlated with manganese. The negative correlation between manganese and carbon highlights the importance of Mn-peroxidases in oxidative decomposition of recalcitrant organic matter. The results support the idea that the fungus-driven decomposition could be a critical factor regulating humus carbon accumulation in boreal forests, as Mn-peroxidases are specifically produced by basidiomycetes.

  10. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  11. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  12. Delineating landscape-scale processes of hydrology and plant dispersal for species-rich fen conservation : the Operational Landscape Unit approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Beltman, Boudewijn; Janssen, Ron; Soons, Merel B.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and conservation of species-rich nature reserves requires inclusion of landscape-scale connections and transport processes such as hydrologic flows and species dispersal. These are important because they provide suitable habitat conditions and an adequate species pool. This study aimed

  13. Hydrology team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  14. Pollution control at the hydrologic resources: propositions for Brazil under the light of United States and Australia; Copntrole da poluicao nos corpos hidricos: proposicoes para o Brasil a luz dos Estados Unidos e da Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Lilian Bechara Elabras; Magrini, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the case of United States which is enough elucidative as the definition standards of effluent defined by industrial typology is concerned, ent the Australia case in a opposite form does not posses legal devices at a federal level specifically disposing on the control of effluent disposal through launching standards defined by industrial typology. Relevant importance will be given to some instruments of pollution control of hydrological resources foreseen in those countries. Based on the american and australian models, this paper presents some propositions.

  15. Pot experiments on the influence of increasing substrate humus content on N utilization of 15N- urea by forage plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdoerster, U.; Markgraf, G.

    1984-01-01

    The soils used for graded soil-quartz mixtures were taken from the A/sub p/ horizon both of loess-chernozem and deep-loam fallow soil. The plants used in the experiments included annual rye grass, feed oats/oil radish, and green maize/mustard. The yields extended with increasing soil content, mainly by growing utilization of soil N. Because of the special effect of the organic soil substrate the returns with chernozem admixture surpassed those with fallow soil admixture. Under these experimental conditions no significant relation was found between both the fertilizer N absorption and N utilization of urea and humus quality and quantity. (author)

  16. Influence of soil humus content on the effect of nitrification inhibitors applied with liquid manure and slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the nitrification inhibitors nitrapyrin (NP), 1-carbomoyl-3-(5)-methyl-pyrazole (CMP) and dicyandiamide (DCD) applied with 15 N-labelled liquid manure and slurry was investigated in incubation experiments with ten soils of different humus content, including soils from three selected plots of both the Thyrow soil fertility experiment and the Lauchstaedt static experiment. A significant negative relation was found for liquid manure between the nitrification delay of the three inhibitors in relation to the C/sub t/ content, nitrification capacity, and nitrification turnover of the soil. This relationship was found in the slurry variants only when DCD was applied. (author)

  17. U.S.V.I. Hydrological Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile comprises the watershed boundaries, or hydrological units and their physical and erosion related characteristics for the U.S. Virgin Islands

  18. Isotopic evidence for the formation of unusually humus-rich soils in the Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Peter; Acksel, Andre; Kühn, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Arable mineral soils in the Pleistocene landscape of Northern Germany usually contain about 4 to 8 kg of organic C (Corg) per m2, most of which is visually recognizable concentrated in the tilled topsoil horizon. Some unusually humus-rich (10 to 20 kg Corg m-2), and deeply (> 70 cm) dark-colored soils in coastal regions with mollic properties have been classified as Chernozems. Their location far away from the middle German and Central European Chernozem regions, absence of steppe vegetation and semi-arid climate conditions make classical pedogenetic theories doubtful. However, non-targeted mass spectrometric analyses of soil organic matter (SOM) composition revealed great similarities with typical Chernozems worldwide (Thiele-Bruhn et al., 2014) and made alternative (e.g. waterlogged) pathways of SOM accumulation unlikely. Subsequent detailed multi-method SOM analyses down the soil profiles revealed relative enrichments in cyclic ("black carbon") and heterocyclic organic compounds in the deeper, bioturbated horizons. These were plausibly explained by the input of combustion residues, likely originating from anthropogenic activities because spots of these soils coincided with archeological artifacts of early settlements (Acksel et al., 2016). However, these finding could not completely explain the genesis of Chernozems in the Baltic region. Therefore, we actually explored isotope analyses (12/13C, 13/14C, 14/15N, 32/34S) to find out the origin of these unusual SOM enrichments and the time period in which it occurred. The results will be compiled to a consistent hypothesis on the formation of these soils in the Baltic and other Northern European regions. References Acksel, A., W. Amelung, P. Kühn, E. Gehrt, T. Regier, P. Leinweber. 2016. Soil organic matter characteristics as indicator of Chernozem genesis in the Baltic Sea region. Geoderma Regional 7, 187-200. Thiele-Bruhn, S., Leinweber P., Eckhardt K.-U., Siem H.K., Blume H.-P. 2014. Identifying Chernozem

  19. Mapping hotspots of malaria transmission from pre-existing hydrology, geology and geomorphology data in the pre-elimination context of Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andrew; Mageni, Zawadi; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry; Macklin, Mark G; Majambare, Silas; Ali, Abdullah; Msellem, Mwinyi; Al-Mafazy, Abdul-Wahiyd; Smith, Mark; Thomas, Chris

    2015-01-22

    Larval source management strategies can play an important role in malaria elimination programmes, especially for tackling outdoor biting species and for eliminating parasite and vector populations when they are most vulnerable during the dry season. Effective larval source management requires tools for identifying geographic foci of vector proliferation and malaria transmission where these efforts may be concentrated. Previous studies have relied on surface topographic wetness to indicate hydrological potential for vector breeding sites, but this is unsuitable for karst (limestone) landscapes such as Zanzibar where water flow, especially in the dry season, is subterranean and not controlled by surface topography. We examine the relationship between dry and wet season spatial patterns of diagnostic positivity rates of malaria infection amongst patients reporting to health facilities on Unguja, Zanzibar, with the physical geography of the island, including land cover, elevation, slope angle, hydrology, geology and geomorphology in order to identify transmission hot spots using Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) analysis. The distribution of both wet and dry season malaria infection rates can be predicted using freely available static data, such as elevation and geology. Specifically, high infection rates in the central and southeast regions of the island coincide with outcrops of hard dense limestone which cause locally elevated water tables and the location of dolines (shallow depressions plugged with fine-grained material promoting the persistence of shallow water bodies). This analysis provides a tractable tool for the identification of malaria hotspots which incorporates subterranean hydrology, which can be used to target larval source management strategies.

  20. Mechanisms for Reduction of Natural Waters Technogenic Pollution by Metals due to Complexions with Humus Substances (Zoning: Western Siberia and the European Territory of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The article described the complexation of metal ions with humus substances in natural waters (small lakes). Humus substances as the major biochemical components of natural water have a significant impact on the forms and migration of metals and the toxicity of natural objects. This article presents the results of large-scale chemical experiments: the study of the structural features (zonal aspects) of humus substances extracted from soil and water natural climatic zones (more than 300 objects) in Russia (European Russia and West Siberia); the influence of structural features on the physic-chemical parameters of humus acids and, in particular, on their complexing ability. The functional specifics of humus matter extracted from soils is estimated using spectrometric techniques. The conditional stability constants for Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II), and Al(III) are experimentally determined with the electrochemical, spectroscopic analysis methods. The activities of metals are classified according to their affinity to humus compounds in soils and water. The determined conditional stability constants of the complexes are tested by model experiments, and it is demonstrated that Fe and Al ions have higher conditional stability constants than the ions of alkali earth metals, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Furthermore, the influence of aluminium ions and iron on the complexation of copper and lead as well as the influence of lead and copper on complexation of cobalt and nickel have been identified. The metal forms in a large number of lakes are calculated basing on the experiments’ results. The main chemical mechanisms of the distribution of metals by forms in the water of the lakes in European Russia and West Siberia are described.

  1. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  2. An eco-hydrological project on Turkey Creek watershed, South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2008-01-01

    The low-gradient, forested wetland landscape of the southeastern United States’ Coastal Plain represents an important eco-hydrologic system, yet there is a very little information available on the region’s ecological, hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Long-term hydrologic monitoring can provide the information needed to understand basic hydrologic processes...

  3. Rio Grande transboundary integrated hydrologic model and water-availability analysis, New Mexico and Texas, United States, and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Ritchie, Andre; Boyce, Scott E.; Ferguson, Ian; Galanter, Amy; Flint, Lorraine E.; Henson, Wesley

    2018-05-31

    Changes in population, agricultural development and practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are increasing demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Southwest—the Rincon and Mesilla Valley parts of Rio Grande Valley, Doña Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas. The goal of this study was to produce an integrated hydrological simulation model to help evaluate water-management strategies, including conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for historical conditions, and to support long-term planning for the Rio Grande Project. This report describes model construction and applications by the U.S. Geological Survey, working in cooperation and collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation.This model, the Rio Grande Transboundary Integrated Hydrologic Model, simulates the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including selected components related to variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of surface-water and groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help improve planning for future conditions and sustained operations of the Rio Grande Project (RGP) by the Bureau of Reclamation. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a Transboundary Rio Grande Watershed Model (TRGWM) water-balance model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (referred to as One Water). The hydrologic models were developed for and calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use, and parameters were adjusted so that simulated values closely matched available measurements (calibration). The calibrated model was then used to assess the use and movement of water in the Rincon Valley, Mesilla Basin

  4. Redimiento de Quercus humboldtii Bonpland (Roble en condiciones de interacción micorrizas ectotróficas - humus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyda Minelly Zarate Quiroga

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el rendimiento de Quercus humboldtii(roble en hidroponía de soporte sólido (virutade madera a través del análisis de las variables peso seco (g, peso fresco (g, altura (cm, áreafoliar (cm2, índice foliar específico (IF, cm2/g y tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, g/cm2*días,en dos fases, durante 14 meses, así: en la fase 1 (10 meses se aplicó inóculo ectomicorrízico,posteriormente se comprobó la colonización por ectomicorrizas (ECM. Se encontró diferenciaestadísticamente significativa (95% de confianza entre los 2 tratamientos (con y sin ECM, endonde las plantas ectomicorrizadas presentan incrementos en las variables evaluadas. En lafase 2 (4 meses, se adicionaron 5 humus, disímiles en los contenidos de elementos y pH, perocon valores de capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC altos (superiores a 25 meq/100g.A los tratamientos (12, resultado de combinar árboles con y sin ECM con cada uno de loshumus, se les confirmó la presencia de ECM y mostraron diferencias significativas (95% deconfianza, en donde se vió que la interacción ECM - humus genera los mejores rendimientos,y que la ectomicorriza actúa como reguladora de los cambios en la disponibilidad de elementosen el medio. Los análisis de elementos a nivel foliar mostraron una amplia tolerancia del roblepara macro y micro elementos, desde valores bajos a altos, según los referentes empleados. Seestableció un sistema interactuante soporte - raíz - ECM - humus, que permite una adecuadadinámica nutricional. Se analizó el inóculo ectomicorrízico (obtenido de árboles en condicionesde campo, y se obtuvo por morfotipificación la caracterización de 12 morfotipos, más uno delensayo de rendimiento. Al contrastar los morfotipos obtenidos con los árboles fuente se corro-boró el comportamiento poli-simbióntico de la especie. Se encontraron las condiciones necesa-rias para establecer hidroponía en medio líquido de Quercus humboldtii.

  5. Evolution of the soil humus status on the calcareous Neogene clay dumps of the Sokolov quarry complex in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abakumov, E.V.; Frouz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2009), s. 718-724 ISSN 1064-2293 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(XE) 08-04-01128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil humus status * calcareous Neogene clay dumps * Sokolov quarry complex Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2009

  6. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of techniques were applied to the HL assessment unit composition in watersheds across the Pacific Northwest to aggregate the hydrologic behavior of the Hydrologic Landscapes from the assessment unit scale to the watershed scale. This non-trivial solution both emphasizes HL classifications within the watershed that provide that majority of moisture surplus/deficit and considers the relative position (upstream vs. downstream) of these HL classifications. A clustering algorithm was applied to the HL-based characterization of assessment units within 185 watersheds to help organize watersheds into nine classes hypothesized to have similar hydrologic behavior. The HL-based classes were used to organize and describe hydrologic behavior information about watershed classes and both predictions and validations were independently performed with regard to the general magnitude of six hydroclimatic signature values. A second cluster analysis was then performed using the independently calculated signature values as similarity metrics, and it was found that the six signature clusters showed substantial overlap in watershed class membership to those in the HL-based classes. One hypothesis set forward from thi

  7. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  8. HYDROLOGY, NESHOBA COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MINNESOTA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, STEARNS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, CALHOUN COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, LEFLORE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, WAYNE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. Hydrology, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, NEWTON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, TIPPAH COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating ALood discharges for a ALood Insurance...

  2. Weber County Hydrology Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, LEAKE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, CHISAGO COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, CLAIBORNE COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, LAFAYETTE COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, Yazoo COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, Lawrence County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, Allegheny County, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, SIMPSON COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, GILCHRIST COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, GLADES COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, LEE COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, GREENE County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  15. Responses of stream nitrate and DOC loadings to hydrological forcing and climate change in an upland forest of the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; Elizabeth W. Boyer; James B. Shanley

    2009-01-01

    In coming decades, higher annual temperatures, increased growing season length, and increased dormant season precipitation are expected across the northeastern United States in response to anthropogenic forcing of global climate. We synthesized long-term stream hydrochemical data from the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, United States, to explore the...

  16. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  17. General physical fundamentals of isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the measurement and measuring units of stable isotopes, the physical properties, measurement and measuring units of radioactive isotopes, the fundamentals of the tracer technique, the environmental isotope distribution in the hydrosphere and the radiation protection in isotope hydrological investigations. (HK) [de

  18. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  19. Hydrologic Response Unit Routing in SWAT to Simulate Effects of Vegetated Filter Strip for South-Korean Conditions Based on VFSMOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jae Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS because it considers only ‘filter strip width’ when the model estimates sediment trapping efficiency and does not consider the routing of sediment with overland flow which is expected to maximize the sediment trapping efficiency from upper agricultural subwatersheds to lower spatially-explicit filter strips. Therefore, the SWAT overland flow option between landuse-subwatersheds with sediment routing capability was enhanced by modifying the SWAT watershed configuration and SWAT engine based on the numerical model VFSMOD applied to South-Korean conditions. The enhanced SWAT can simulate the VFS sediment trapping efficiency for South-Korean conditions in a manner similar to the desktop VFSMOD-w system. Due to this enhancement, SWAT is applicable to simulate the effects of overland flow from upper subwatersheds to reflect increased runoff volume at the lower subwatershed, which occurs in the field if no diversion channel is installed. In this study, the enhanced SWAT model was applied to small watersheds located at Jaun-ri in South-Korea to simulate a diversion channel and spatially-explicit VFS. Sediment can be reduced by 31%, 65%, and 68%, with a diversion channel, the VFS, and the VFS with diversion channel, respectively. The enhanced SWAT should be used in estimating site-specific effects on sediment reduction with diversion channels and VFS, instead of the currently available SWAT, which does not simulate sediment routing in overland flow and does not consider other sensitive factors affecting sediment reduction with VFS.

  20. Granulated wood ash to forest soils. Effects on microorganisms, phosphorus availability, and spatial relationships in the humus layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarholm, Marianne

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises effects on microorganisms, phosphorus (P) availability and spatial relationships in the humus layer of two spruce forests in south-western Sweden four to seven years after application of 3.2 tonnes (t) (Skogaby), alternatively three or six t (Torup) of granulated wood ash. There were tendencies for increases in pH and in numbers of ciliates, flagellates and small nematodes while no effects were observed for naked amoebae, the major consumers of bacteria among the protozoa. After seven years, the amount of P in microbial biomass in the humus layer in the wood ash treatment (A) in Skogaby was significantly higher than in the control (C), increased amounts of microbial nitrogen and carbon were also recorded. Observations over time indicated that the P availability in the soil first decreased after the ash addition, but later increased above that in the control. The time course was most readily seen in the microbial biomass, which contained 50% of total P in the humus layer, an amount equal to ten times the yearly uptake in trees. The microbial biomass has a much higher P concentration as compared to the needles, the component of the tree with the highest concentration. The P in micro-organisms thus form a buffer against P deficiency for the trees. A test where the 32 P uptake rate of excised mycorrhizal fine roots in the laboratory is used to establish P availability in the field, indicated an increased P availability in (A), which was in contrast to reported decreased uptake of P in trees, decreased P concentration in needles and also in roots, as compared to (C). In six treatments investigated in Skogaby 32 P uptake rates were negatively correlated to the P/C of the microbial biomass. Acid phosphatase activity was always higher in (A) as compared to treatments where soluble P had been added and at two out of five times also higher than in (C ). High phosphatase activity levels were at least partly connected to large amounts of microbial biomass

  1. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  2. Relations between soil respiration, humus quali­ty and ca­tion exchange capacity in selected subtypes of chernozem in South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Foukalová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM undergoes short and long-term transformation in the soil. Microorganisms through their enzymes are able to mineralize organic carbon while the rate of this process is different. Biological test though referred to one of the main diagnostic methods for evaluating soil qualit­y/health. The aim of our work was to determine basal respiration, total carbon content, fractio­nal composition of humus and basic parameters of soil colloidal complex in selected subtypes of chernozem in South Moravia region. Basal respiration was measured using Vaisala GMT220 apparatus. Total carbon content was determined by oxidimetric titration and basic parameters of soil colloidal according to Mehlich. Results showed that production of carbon dioxide varied from 0.09 to 0.27 mg CO2/100g/h. Linear correlation between basal respiration and humification degree was found. Humus content varied from 2.15% to 4.6%. No correlation between quantity of humus and basal respiration was observed. Higher values of basal respiration were connected with higher quality of HS. Significant linear correlation between total carbon content (TOC and cation exchange capacity (CEC was found.

  3. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  4. Hydrologic Services Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  5. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  6. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John McCord

    2007-01-01

    This document, which makes changes to Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--077, Revision 0 (June 2006), was prepared to address review comments on this final document provided by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 4, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made for the two plates inserted in the back of the document: Plate 4: Disregard the repeat of legend text 'Drill Hole Name' and 'Drill Hole Location' in the lower left corner of the map. Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-16-1 location (white dot on the lower left side of the map) is not color-coded because no water level has been determined. The well location is included for reference. Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-12-1 location (upper left corner of the map), a yellow dot, represents the lower water level elevation. The higher water level elevation, represented by a red dot, was overprinted

  7. Monitoring Groundwater Variations from Satellite Gravimetry and Hydrological Models: A Comparison with in-situ Measurements in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at mapping time variations in the Earth’s gravity field, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission is applicable to access terrestrial water storage (TWS, which mainly includes groundwater, soil moisture (SM, and snow. In this study, SM and accumulated snow water equivalent (SWE are simulated by the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS land surface models (LSMs and then used to isolate groundwater anomalies from GRACE-derived TWS in Pennsylvania and New York States of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The monitoring well water-level records from the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Climate Response Network from January 2005 to December 2011 are used for validation. The groundwater results from different combinations of GRACE products (from three institutions, CSR, GFZ and JPL and GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH and VIC are compared and evaluated with in-situ measurements. The intercomparison analysis shows that the solution obtained through removing averaged simulated SM and SWE of the three LSMs from the averaged GRACE-derived TWS of the three centers would be the most robust to reduce the noises, and increase the confidence consequently. Although discrepancy exists, the GRACE-GLDAS estimated groundwater variations generally agree with in-situ observations. For monthly scales, their correlation coefficient reaches 0.70 at 95% confidence level with the RMSE of the differences of 2.6 cm. Two-tailed Mann-Kendall trend test results show that there is no significant groundwater gain or loss in this region over the study period. The GRACE time-variable field solutions and GLDAS simulations provide precise and reliable data sets in illustrating the regional groundwater storage variations, and the application will be meaningful and invaluable when applied to the data-poor regions.

  8. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Sonoran region, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Sonoran region of California lies west of the Colorado River and adjoins the Mojave Desert on the west, Death Valley on the northwest, and the Salton trough on the south. The region is arid with annual precipitation ranging from less than 80 millimeters to as great as 250 millimeters in one mountain range; annual free-surface evaporation is as great as 2,500 millimeters. The characteristic basin and range topography of the region was caused by a mid-Tertiary period of intense crustal extension, accompanied by volcanic eruptions, clastic sedimentation, faulting, and tilting. Potential host media for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include granite and other coarsegrained plutonic rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. Thick sections of the unsaturated zone in basin fill, intrusive, and volcanic rocks appear to have potential as host media. The region is bordered on the west by areas of relatively greater Quaternary faulting, vertical crustal uplift, and seismicity. The region has a few areas of Quaternary volcanic activity. Geothermal heat flows of 2.5 heat-flow units or greater and one earthquake of magnitude 6-7 have been recorded. The region includes topographically closed basins as well as basins that drain to the Colorado River. Dry lakes and playas occupy the closed basins. Ground-water recharge and surface runoff are small because of the small amount of precipitation and great potential evaporation. Natural ground-water discharge is by evaporation in the basin playas and by underflow to the Colorado River. Dissolved-solids concentration of ground water generally is less than 500 milligrams per liter, and much of it is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Ground water is saline in many of the playas, and chloride or sulfate is the predominant anion. Small tonnages of ore have been produced from numerous precious and fewer base-metal deposits. (author)

  9. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project to assess and evaluate the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity. The framework for this evaluation is provided in Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Section 3.0 of Appendix VI ''Corrective Action Strategy'' of the FFACO describes the process that will be used to complete corrective actions specifically for the UGTA Project. The objective of the UGTA corrective action strategy is to define contaminant boundaries for each UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) where groundwater may have become contaminated from the underground nuclear weapons tests. The contaminant boundaries are determined based on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. A summary of the FFACO corrective action process and the UGTA corrective action strategy is provided in Section 1.5. The FFACO (1996) corrective action process for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97 was initiated with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 2000a). The CAIP included a review of existing data on the CAU and proposed a set of data collection activities to collect additional characterization data. These recommendations were based on a value of information analysis (VOIA) (IT, 1999), which evaluated the value of different possible data collection activities, with respect to reduction in uncertainty of the contaminant boundary, through simplified transport modeling. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAIP identifies a three-step model development process to evaluate the impact of underground nuclear testing on groundwater to determine a contaminant boundary (DOE/NV, 2000a). The three steps are as follows: (1) Data compilation and analysis that provides the necessary modeling

  10. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear techniques used in hydrology are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either intentionally introduced into, or naturally present in the water. The low concentrations of these nuclides, which must be detected in groundwater and surface water, require special measurement techniques for the concentrations of radioactive or of stable nuclides. The nuclear techniques can be used most fruitfully in conjunction with conventional methods for the solution of problems in the areas of hydrology, hydrogeology and glacier hydrology. Nuclear techniques are used in practice in the areas of prospecting for water, environment protection and engineering hydrogeology. (orig.) [de

  11. Production and standing crop of litter and humus in a forest exposed to chronic gamma irradiation for twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous exposure since 1961 of an oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory to chronic gamma irradiation has shown: (1) progressive reduction in litter production from the first year through 1965; (2) greater litter production in 1973 compared to 1965 at exposure rates below 9 R/day primarily because of the prolific sprouting of the oaks, especially Quercus alba; (3) further reduction in litter production in intermediate zones (14-49 R/day) from 1965 to 1973 as a result of replacement of the forest by a Carex pensylvanica mat; (4) increased litter production in the high exposure zone (125 R/day) in 1973 as a result of colonization by adventive species; (5) reduction in the standing crop of litter by 1973 at the lowest exposure rate studied (3.5 R/day) although in 1965 there was no reduction at exposure rates up to 15 R/day; (6) decline in humus content at 4.6 R/day and above with the standing crop in the Carex zone exceeding that of the shrub and damaged forest zones of lower exposures. Both further losses and partial recovery in the production and storage of organic matter have occurred since 1965. These changes constitute a portion of the long-term response of the forest to chronic disturbance. The pattern of response is the result of ecosystem processes that are still not in equilibrium with the chronic disturbance and which were not predictable from short-term studies, even those spanning as much as 4 yr

  12. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  13. Rapid prediction of particulate, humus and resistant fractions of soil organic carbon in reforested lands using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Dinesh B; Baldock, Jeff A; Read, Zoe J; Murphy, Simon C; Cunningham, Shaun C; Perring, Michael P; Herrmann, Tim; Lewis, Tom; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; England, Jacqueline R; Paul, Keryn I; Weston, Christopher J; Baker, Thomas G

    2017-05-15

    Reforestation of agricultural lands with mixed-species environmental plantings can effectively sequester C. While accurate and efficient methods for predicting soil organic C content and composition have recently been developed for soils under agricultural land uses, such methods under forested land uses are currently lacking. This study aimed to develop a method using infrared spectroscopy for accurately predicting total organic C (TOC) and its fractions (particulate, POC; humus, HOC; and resistant, ROC organic C) in soils under environmental plantings. Soils were collected from 117 paired agricultural-reforestation sites across Australia. TOC fractions were determined in a subset of 38 reforested soils using physical fractionation by automated wet-sieving and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Mid- and near-infrared spectra (MNIRS, 6000-450 cm -1 ) were acquired from finely-ground soils from environmental plantings and agricultural land. Satisfactory prediction models based on MNIRS and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were developed for TOC and its fractions. Leave-one-out cross-validations of MNIRS-PLSR models indicated accurate predictions (R 2  > 0.90, negligible bias, ratio of performance to deviation > 3) and fraction-specific functional group contributions to beta coefficients in the models. TOC and its fractions were predicted using the cross-validated models and soil spectra for 3109 reforested and agricultural soils. The reliability of predictions determined using k-nearest neighbour score distance indicated that >80% of predictions were within the satisfactory inlier limit. The study demonstrated the utility of infrared spectroscopy (MNIRS-PLSR) to rapidly and economically determine TOC and its fractions and thereby accurately describe the effects of land use change such as reforestation on agricultural soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal land use/land cover classification using remote sensing imagery for hydrological modeling in a Himalayan watersched

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saran, S.; Sterk, G.; Kumar, S.

    2009-01-01

    Land use/land cover is an important watershed surface characteristic that affects surface runoff and erosion. Many of the available hydrological models divide the watershed into Hydrological Response Units (HRU), which are spatial units with expected similar hydrological behaviours. The division

  15. Optimal land use/cover classification using remote sensing imagery for hydrological modelling in a Himalayan watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sameer Saran,; Sterk, G.; Kumar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Land use/cover is an important watershed surface characteristic that affects surface runoff and erosion. Many of the available hydrological models divide the watershed into Hydrological Response Units (HRU), which are spatial units with expected similar hydrological behaviours. The division into

  16. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  17. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  18. Hydrologic Engineering Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), an organization within the Institute for Water Resources, is the designated Center of Expertise for the U.S. Army Corps of...

  19. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  20. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  1. Evaluating spatial patterns in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian

    the contiguous United Sates (10^6 km2). To this end, the thesis at hand applies a set of spatial performance metrics on various hydrological variables, namely land-surface-temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture. The inspiration for the applied metrics is found in related fields...... is not fully exploited by current modelling frameworks due to the lack of suitable spatial performance metrics. Furthermore, the traditional model evaluation using discharge is found unsuitable to lay confidence on the predicted catchment inherent spatial variability of hydrological processes in a fully...

  2. Spatial distribution of lead and lead isotopes in soil B-horizon, forest-floor humus, grass (Avenella flexuosa) and spruce (Picea abies) needles across the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan [Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Kvetnove namesti 391, 252 43 Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Reimann, Clemens, E-mail: Clemens.Reimann@ngu.no [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Boyd, Rognvald [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Filzmoser, Peter [Institute for Statistics and Probability Theory, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Englmaier, Peter [Faculty of Life Science, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Pb-concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratios are provided for four different sample materials for the Czech Republic. > The paper demonstrates the local impact of a number of different contamination sources. > The data provide clear evidence that traffic emissions are no major source of Pb to the Czech environment. > The data demonstrate that the B-horizon provides no valid 'background' for Pb-concentration or the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio. > Pb isotope ratios change during soil weathering and at the interface biosphere/pedosphere. - Abstract: Lead concentrations were determined in samples of soil B-horizon (N = 258), forest-floor humus (O-horizon, N = 259), grass (Avenella flexuosa, N = 251) and spruce (Picea abies, N = 253) needles (2nd year) collected at the same locations evenly spread over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2}. Median Pb concentrations differ widely in the four materials: soil B-horizon: 27 mg/kg (3.3-220 mg/kg), humus: 78 mg/kg (19-1863 mg/kg), grass: 0.37 mg/kg (0.08-8 mg/kg) and spruce needles: 0.23 mg/kg (0.07-3 mg/kg). In the Pb distribution maps for humus, grass and spruce a number of well-known Pb-contamination sources are indicated by unusually high concentrations (e.g., the Pb smelter at Pribram, the metallurgical industry in the NE of the Czech Republic and along the Polish border, as well as the metallurgical industry in Upper Silesia and Europe's largest coal-fired power plant at Bogatynia, Poland). The ratio {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb was determined in all four materials. The median value of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio in the soil B-horizon is 1.184 (variation: 1.145-1.337). In both humus and grass the median value for the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio is 1.162 (variation: 1.130-1.182), in spruce needles the median ratio is 1.159 (variation: 1.116-1.186). In humus, grass and spruce needles the known contamination

  3. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  4. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  5. Pot experiments on the influence of increasing substrate humus content on N utilization of /sup 15/N- urea by forage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdoerster, U.; Markgraf, G. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Pflanzenproduktion)

    1984-01-01

    The soils used for graded soil-quartz mixtures were taken from the A/sub p/ horizon both of loess-chernozem and deep-loam fallow soil. The plants used in the experiments included annual rye grass, feed oats/oil radish, and green maize/mustard. The yields extended with increasing soil content, mainly by growing utilization of soil N. Because of the special effect of the organic soil substrate the returns with chernozem admixture surpassed those with fallow soil admixture. Under these experimental conditions no significant relation was found between both the fertilizer N absorption and N utilization of urea and humus quality and quantity.

  6. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1980-01-01

    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  8. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  9. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B.; Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M.

    1992-05-01

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management

  10. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  11. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, DODGE COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, DUNN COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, yakima County, WA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, GEORGETOWN COUNTY, SC, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, LAUREL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, LAMAR COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, IONIA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, Bourbon COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, MONITEAU COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, IRON COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, WHITLEY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, TUSCOLA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, Richland County, ND, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, Grant County, SD, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, LIBERTY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, RICE COUNTY, MN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, MONO COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, EDGEFIELD COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Hydrology and soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard J. Lane; Mary R. Kidwell

    2003-01-01

    We review research on surface water hydrology and soil erosion at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER). Almost all of the research was associated with eight small experimental watersheds established from 1974 to 1975 and operated until the present. Analysis of climatic features of the SRER supports extending research findings from the SRER to broad areas of the...

  1. Hydrology and flow forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, J.K.; Kwadijk, J.; Van Duivendijk, J.; Van Gelder, P.; Pang, H.; Rao, S.Q.; Wang, G.Q.; Huang, X.Q.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied and applied the statistic model (i.e. MMC) and hydrological models to Upper Yellow River. This report introduces the results and some conclusions from the model. The three models, MMC, MWBM and NAM, have be applied in the research area. The forecasted discharge by the three models

  2. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  3. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  4. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  5. Curricula and Syllabi in Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This collection of papers is intended to provide a means for the exchange of information on hydrological techniques and for the coordination of research and data collection. The objectives and trends in hydrological education are presented. The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) Working Group on Education recommends a series of topics that…

  6. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science...

  7. Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Hydrological and Nutrients Simulation Using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran in a Mesoscale Monsoon Watershed, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaofu Li; Chuan Luo; Kaixia Jiang; Rongrong Wan; Hengpeng Li

    2017-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) is a hydrological and water quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out for hydrological and nutrient simulation using the HSPF model in the Xitiaoxi watershed in China. Streamflow simulation was calibrated from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2007 and then validated from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 using daily observed data, and nu...

  8. Hydrological system dynamics of glaciated Karnali River Basin Nepal Himalaya using J2000 Hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, K. R.; Nepal, S.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Shrestha, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological modelling plays an important role in understanding hydrological processes of a catchment. In the context of climate change, the understanding of hydrological characteristic of the catchment is very vital to understand how the climate change will affect the hydrological regime. This research facilitates in better understanding of the hydrological system dynamics of a himalayan mountainous catchment in western Nepal. The Karnali River, longest river flowing inside Nepal, is one of the three major basins of Nepal, having the area of 45269 sq. km. is unique. The basin has steep topography and high mountains to the northern side. The 40% of the basin is dominated by forest land while other land cover are: grass land, bare rocky land etc. About 2% of the areas in basin is covered by permanent glacier apart from that about 12% of basin has the snow and ice cover. There are 34 meteorological stations distributed across the basin. A process oriented distributed J2000 hydrologial model has been applied to understand the hydrological system dynamics. The model application provides distributed output of various hydrological components. The J2000 model applies Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) as a modelling entity. With 6861 HRU and 1010 reaches, the model was calibrated (1981-1999) and validated (2000-2004) at a daily scale using split-sample test. The model is able to capture the overall hydrological dynamics well. The rising limbs and recession limbs are simulated equally and with satisfactory ground water conditions. Based on the graphical and statistical evaluation of the model performance the model is able to simulate hydrological processes fairly well. Calibration shows that Nash Sutcliffe efficiency is 0.91, coefficient of determination is 0.92 Initial observation shows that during the pre-monsoon season(March to May) the glacial runoff is 25% of the total discharge while in the monsoon(June to September) season it is only 13%. The surface runoff

  9. A comparison of the watershed hydrology of coastal forested wetlands and the mountainous uplands in the Southern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; L.W. Swift; J.P. Shepard; H. Riekerk

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology plays a critical roie in wetland development and ecosystem structure and functions. Hydrologic responses to forest management and climate change are diverse in the Southern United States due to topographic and climatic differences. This paper presents a comparison study on long-term hydrologic characteristics (long-term seasonal runoff patterns, water...

  10. [Socio-hydrology: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-yi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Fang, Xue-ning

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology is an interdiscipline of hydrology, nature, society and humanity. It mainly explores the two-way feedbacks of coupled human-water system and its dynamic mechanism of co-evolution, and makes efforts to solve the issues that human faces today such as sustainable utilization of water resources. Starting from the background, formation process, and fundamental concept of socio-hydrology, this paper summarized the features of socio-hydrology. The main research content of socio-hydrology was reduced to three aspects: The tradeoff in coupled human-water system, interests in water resources management and virtual water research in coupled human-water system. And its differences as well as relations with traditional hydrology, eco-hydrology and hydro-sociology were dwelled on. Finally, with hope to promote the development of socio-hydrology researches in China, the paper made prospects for the development of the subject from following aspects: Completing academic content and deepening quantitative research, focusing on scale studies of socio-hydrology, fusing socio-hydrology and eco-hydrology.

  11. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  12. AGU hydrology publication outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    In recent months I have been approached on several occasions by members of the hydrology community who asked me which of the various AGU journals and publishing outlets would be most suitable for a particular paper or article that they have prepared.Water Resources Research (WRR) is the primary AGU outlet for research papers in hydrology. It is an interdisciplinary journal that integrates research in the social and natural sciences of water. The editors of WRR invite original contributions in the physical, chemical and biological sciences and also in the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. The editor for the physical sciences side of the journal is Donald R. Nielson, LAWR Veihmeyer Hall, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616. The editor for the policy sciences side of the journal is Ronald G. Cummings, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131

  13. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  14. Virtual hydrology observatory: an immersive visualization of hydrology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Simon; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Habib, Emad; Gerndt, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    The Virtual Hydrology Observatory will provide students with the ability to observe the integrated hydrology simulation with an instructional interface by using a desktop based or immersive virtual reality setup. It is the goal of the virtual hydrology observatory application to facilitate the introduction of field experience and observational skills into hydrology courses through innovative virtual techniques that mimic activities during actual field visits. The simulation part of the application is developed from the integrated atmospheric forecast model: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the hydrology model: Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). Both the output from WRF and GSSHA models are then used to generate the final visualization components of the Virtual Hydrology Observatory. The various visualization data processing techniques provided by VTK are 2D Delaunay triangulation and data optimization. Once all the visualization components are generated, they are integrated into the simulation data using VRFlowVis and VR Juggler software toolkit. VR Juggler is used primarily to provide the Virtual Hydrology Observatory application with fully immersive and real time 3D interaction experience; while VRFlowVis provides the integration framework for the hydrologic simulation data, graphical objects and user interaction. A six-sided CAVETM like system is used to run the Virtual Hydrology Observatory to provide the students with a fully immersive experience.

  15. Thermal-hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T., LLNL

    1998-04-29

    This chapter describes the physical processes and natural and engineered system conditions that affect thermal-hydrological (T-H) behavior in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain and how these effects are represented in mathematical and numerical models that are used to predict T-H conditions in the near field, altered zone, and engineered barrier system (EBS), and on waste package (WP) surfaces.

  16. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, J.; Saxena, R.K.

    1974-01-01

    Several types of sealed radioactive sources, stable isotopes and water soluble radioactive tracers, used by different investigators, have been listed for studying the dynamic behaviour of water in nature. In general, all the facets of hydrological cycle, are amenable to these isotopic techniques. It is recommended that environmental isotopes data collection should be started for studying the water balance and also the interrelationships between surface and subsurface water in various rivers catchments with changing physical, geological and climatic parameters. (author)

  17. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  18. Hydrologic classification of rivers based on cluster analysis of dimensionless hydrologic signatures: Applications for environmental instream flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskievicz, S. J.; Luo, C.

    2017-12-01

    Classification of rivers is useful for a variety of purposes, such as generating and testing hypotheses about watershed controls on hydrology, predicting hydrologic variables for ungaged rivers, and setting goals for river management. In this research, we present a bottom-up (based on machine learning) river classification designed to investigate the underlying physical processes governing rivers' hydrologic regimes. The classification was developed for the entire state of Alabama, based on 248 United States Geological Survey (USGS) stream gages that met criteria for length and completeness of records. Five dimensionless hydrologic signatures were derived for each gage: slope of the flow duration curve (indicator of flow variability), baseflow index (ratio of baseflow to average streamflow), rising limb density (number of rising limbs per unit time), runoff ratio (ratio of long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation), and streamflow elasticity (sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation). We used a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the gages, based on the five hydrologic signatures, into distinct hydrologic regimes. We then used classification and regression trees (CART) to predict each gaged river's membership in different hydrologic regimes based on climatic and watershed variables. Using existing geospatial data, we applied the CART analysis to classify ungaged streams in Alabama, with the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) catchment (average area 3 km2) as the unit of classification. The results of the classification can be used for meeting management and conservation objectives in Alabama, such as developing statewide standards for environmental instream flows. Such hydrologic classification approaches are promising for contributing to process-based understanding of river systems.

  19. Macroscale hydrologic modeling of ecologically relevant flow metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Luce, Charles H.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Neville, Helen M.

    2010-09-01

    Stream hydrology strongly affects the structure of aquatic communities. Changes to air temperature and precipitation driven by increased greenhouse gas concentrations are shifting timing and volume of streamflows potentially affecting these communities. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model has been employed at regional scales to describe and forecast hydrologic changes but has been calibrated and applied mainly to large rivers. An important question is how well VIC runoff simulations serve to answer questions about hydrologic changes in smaller streams, which are important habitat for many fish species. To answer this question, we aggregated gridded VIC outputs within the drainage basins of 55 streamflow gages in the Pacific Northwest United States and compared modeled hydrographs and summary metrics to observations. For most streams, several ecologically relevant aspects of the hydrologic regime were accurately modeled, including center of flow timing, mean annual and summer flows and frequency of winter floods. Frequencies of high and low flows in the summer were not well predicted, however. Predictions were worse for sites with strong groundwater influence, and some sites showed errors that may result from limitations in the forcing climate data. Higher resolution (1/16th degree) modeling provided small improvements over lower resolution (1/8th degree). Despite some limitations, the VIC model appears capable of representing several ecologically relevant hydrologic characteristics in streams, making it a useful tool for understanding the effects of hydrology in delimiting species distributions and predicting the potential effects of climate shifts on aquatic organisms.

  20. Nuclear hydrology and sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The applications of isotope techniques to groundwater hydrology, sedimentation and surface water and heavy metal transport are discussed. Reference is made to several Australian studies. These include: a tritium study of the Burdekin Delta, North Queensland; a carbon-14 study of the Mereenie Sandstone aquifer, Alice Springs; groundwater studies in the Great Artesion Basin; uranium daughter product disequilibrium studies; the use of environmental cesium-137 to investigate sediment transport; and a study on the dispersion of water and zinc through the Magela system in the uranium mining areas of the Northern Territory

  1. Hydrological models for environmental management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolgov, Mikhail V

    2002-01-01

    .... Stochastic modelling and forecasting cannot at present adequately represent the characteristics of hydrological regimes, nor analyze the influence of water on processes that arise in biological...

  2. Description of the National Hydrologic Model for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steven; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland J.; Norton, Parker A.; Driscoll, Jessica M.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2018-01-08

    This report documents several components of the U.S. Geological Survey National Hydrologic Model of the conterminous United States for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). It provides descriptions of the (1) National Hydrologic Model, (2) Geospatial Fabric for National Hydrologic Modeling, (3) PRMS hydrologic simulation code, (4) parameters and estimation methods used to compute spatially and temporally distributed default values as required by PRMS, (5) National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database, and (6) model extraction tool named Bandit. The National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database contains values for all PRMS parameters used in the National Hydrologic Model. The methods and national datasets used to estimate all the PRMS parameters are described. Some parameter values are derived from characteristics of topography, land cover, soils, geology, and hydrography using traditional Geographic Information System methods. Other parameters are set to long-established default values and computation of initial values. Additionally, methods (statistical, sensitivity, calibration, and algebraic) were developed to compute parameter values on the basis of a variety of nationally-consistent datasets. Values in the National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database can periodically be updated on the basis of new parameter estimation methods and as additional national datasets become available. A companion ScienceBase resource provides a set of static parameter values as well as images of spatially-distributed parameters associated with PRMS states and fluxes for each Hydrologic Response Unit across the conterminuous United States.

  3. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  4. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  5. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved.

  6. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Hilary; Westerberg, Ida

    2015-04-01

    Information that summarises the hydrological behaviour or flow regime of a catchment is essential for comparing responses of different catchments to understand catchment organisation and similarity, and for many other modelling and water-management applications. Such information types derived as an index value from observed data are known as hydrological signatures, and can include descriptors of high flows (e.g. mean annual flood), low flows (e.g. mean annual low flow, recession shape), the flow variability, flow duration curve, and runoff ratio. Because the hydrological signatures are calculated from observed data such as rainfall and flow records, they are affected by uncertainty in those data. Subjective choices in the method used to calculate the signatures create a further source of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the signatures may affect our ability to compare different locations, to detect changes, or to compare future water resource management scenarios. The aim of this study was to contribute to the hydrological community's awareness and knowledge of data uncertainty in hydrological signatures, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We proposed a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrated it for a variety of commonly used signatures. The study was made for two data rich catchments, the 50 km2 Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand and the 135 km2 Brue catchment in the UK. For rainfall data the uncertainty sources included point measurement uncertainty, the number of gauges used in calculation of the catchment spatial average, and uncertainties relating to lack of quality control. For flow data the uncertainty sources included uncertainties in stage/discharge measurement and in the approximation of the true stage-discharge relation by a rating curve. The resulting uncertainties were compared across the different signatures and catchments, to quantify uncertainty

  7. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA FRACCIÓN ORGÁNICA DE HUMUS DE LOMBRIZ Y COMPOSTS PRODUCIDOS A PARTIR DE DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Melgarejo P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la calidad y el grado de humificación de diferentes materiales compostados, se caracterizó químicamente la fracción orgánica de humus de lombriz provenientes de desechos de cocina y de huerta, pulpa de café, basuras biodegradables y residuos de rosas, y de composts obtenidos de residuos de rosas y residuos de clavel. Para tal fin se hizo la determinación y análisis de la relación C/N, el fraccionamiento de la materia orgánica, la purificación y caracterización de los ácidos húmicos por análisis elemental C, H, N, O, espectroscopia visible- ultravioleta y se hallaron diferentes parámetros de humificación. El fraccionamiento de la materia orgánica indicó un bajo contenido de carbono extraído con relación a lo encontrado normalmente en el humus de los suelos. El análisis elemental de los ácidos húmicos de los composts y lombricomposts no reveló diferencias importantes entre los materiales, mientras que la relación E4/E6 proporcionó cambios más evidentes. Los resultados indicaron que la relación C/N no fue un indicativo absoluto del estado de madurez de los materiales estudiados. De los parámetros de humificación analizados, la razón de polimerización, el índice de humificación y la relación entre carbono extraído y carbono no extraído resultaron ser los parámetros que mejor estiman la madurez de los composts y lombricomposts. En cuanto a los materiales evaluados, el lorabricompost de residuos de rosas reveló en conjunto las mejores condiciones con relación al contenido y calidad de la materia orgánica para ser adicionado a un suelo.

  9. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  10. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. H. Liu

    2003-04-03

    ) Matrix properties (porosity, permeability, and van Genuchten a and m parameters) for each UZ Model layer; (3) Thermal properties (grain density, wet and dry thermal conductivity, and grain specific heat) for each UZ Model layer; and (4) Fault properties for each major hydrogeologic unit. These properties incorporate the available measurement data, as applicable, to estimate fracture and matrix properties. Field data from liquid release testing in the ESF and other relevant data are also used to validate these properties and provide bounds on property values. Another objective of this report is to document activities to validate the AFM based on experimental observations and theoretical developments. The AFM is a conceptual model that describes the fracture-matrix interaction in the UZ of Yucca Mountain. It is intended to be used to represent the hydrologic characteristics of rock fractures for the UZ Flow Model, UZ Radionuclide Transport Model under ambient conditions, Mountain-Scale and Drift-Scale Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Models, and Multiscale Thermohydrology Model. These MDL-validation activities are documented in Section 7 of this report regarding use of independent lines of evidence to provide additional confidence in the use of the AFM in the UZ models.

  11. Creating Data and Modeling Enabled Hydrology Instruction Using Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, V.; Rajib, A.; Ruddell, B. L.; Fox, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrology instruction typically involves teaching of the hydrologic cycle and the processes associated with it such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff generation and hydrograph analysis. With the availability of observed and remotely sensed data related to many hydrologic fluxes, there is an opportunity to use these data for place based learning in hydrology classrooms. However, it is not always easy and possible for an instructor to complement an existing hydrology course with new material that requires both the time and technical expertise, which the instructor may not have. The work presented here describes an effort where students create the data and modeling driven instruction material as a part of their class assignment for a hydrology course at Purdue University. The data driven hydrology education project within Science Education Resources Center (SERC) is used as a platform to publish and share the instruction material so it can be used by future students in the same course or any other course anywhere in the world. Students in the class were divided into groups, and each group was assigned a topic such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, streamflow, flow duration curve and frequency analysis. Each student in the group was then asked to get data and do some analysis for an area with specific landuse characteristic such as urban, rural and agricultural. The student contribution were then organized into learning units such that someone can do a flow duration curve analysis or flood frequency analysis to see how it changes for rural area versus urban area. The hydrology education project within SERC cyberinfrastructure enables any other instructor to adopt this material as is or through modification to suit his/her place based instruction needs.

  12. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

  13. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  14. Fifty years of forest hydrology in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Wayne T. Swank; Mark Riedel; Jim Patric; Tom Williams; Jim M. Vose; Carl Trettin; W. Michael Aust; R. Scott Beasley; Hamlin Williston; George G. Ice

    2004-01-01

    The forests of the southeastern United States are incredibly valuable and diverse, both for timber production and for the aquatic habitat they provide. These overlapping values and diverse conditions have spawned numerous studies to assess how forest management affects hydrology and water quality. In the mountains, key watershed studies include those conducted at USDA...

  15. Assessment of morphological and hydrological parameters of Oyun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involves evaluation of basin area, slopes, shape of the basin as morphological parameters and analysis of flow frequencies for flood and low flows, developing unit hydrograph and analysis of rainfall intensity distribution in the study area as hydrological parameters. The morphological analysis of the basin yielded ...

  16. Hydrological Modeling in Alaska with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, N. J.; Zavodsky, B.; Molthan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The operational National Water Model (NWM), implemented in August 2016, is an instantiation of the Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Currently, the NWM only covers the contiguous United States, but will be expanded to include an Alaska domain in the future. It is well known that Alaska presents several hydrological modeling challenges, including unique arctic/sub-arctic hydrological processes not observed elsewhere in the United States and a severe lack of in-situ observations for model initialization. This project sets up an experimental version of WRF-Hydro in Alaska mimicking the NWM to gauge the ability of WRF-Hydro to represent hydrological processes in Alaska and identify model calibration challenges. Recent and upcoming launches of hydrology-focused NASA satellite missions such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) expand the spatial and temporal coverage of observations in Alaska, so this study also lays the groundwork for assimilating these NASA datasets into WRF-Hydro in the future.

  17. Evaluación de algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y nutricionales en humus de lombriz y composts derivados de diferentes sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Melgarejo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y nutricionales en cuatro humus de lombriz obtenidos a partir de desechos de cocina y de huerta, pulpa de café, basuras biodegradables y residuos de rosas y en dos composts provenientes de residuos de rosas y de clavel. Las propiedades evaluadas fueron: humedad de campo, pH en agua (1:5, conductividad eléctrica (1:5, cenizas, materia orgánica, sílice (SiOj y capacidad de intercambio cationico por el método de extracción con acetato de amonio IN pH 7,0 y por el método de Harada. Así mismo, se determinó el contenido de hidrosolubles y su efecto sobre la germinación de semillas de Berro (Lepidium sativum; finalmente se realizó un análisis nutricional que comprendió la cuantificación de los elementos nutrientes en su forma total y disponible.

  18. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    There are a broad range of nuclear techniques applicable to a variety of hydrological problems and these techniques are becoming recognized as an additional and, in some cases, indispensable tool available to the hydrologist in his quest to meet the increasing demands for water by agriculture, industry and community water supply. In Latin America we find examples of almost all the nuclear hydrological techniques. This article endeavours to give a summary account of the status of isotope hydrology in the region and the types of problems to which these techniques have been applied

  19. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  20. NOAA Climate Data Records (CDR) of AMSU-A/B and MHS Hydrological Properties, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hydrological Properties for Applications Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR) consist of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), Advanced Microwave...

  1. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    The authors were involved in a high profile case in the United States District Court involving Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades Agricultural Area in the State of Florida. One of the central issues of the case rested on a theory that all navigable waters of the United States comprised one "unitary" water body, and as such, transfer of water from one navigable water to another did not require any permitting action. Should this theory have prevailed, great precedent would be set regarding inter-basin transfer of volumes of water capable of significantly impact to the ecologic structure and function of all involved basins. Furthermore, the impact would certainly have had demographic implications of great significance. We were asked to serve as an expert witnesses in the case charged with developing a strategy to demonstrate that three large irrigation canals were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct" (language from the U.S. Supreme Court opinion on a related case) from Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake wholly in the continental U.S. Although a totally hydrologic approach could have been taken easily, it was thought better for the legal team to include an aquatic ecologic perspective, a true example of the linkage of the two disciplines into ecohydrology. Together, an argument was crafted to explain to the judge how, in fact, the waters could in no way be "unitary" in character and that they were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct." The fundamentals of the arguments rested on well known and established principles of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was incumbent upon the authors to educate the judge on how to think about hydrologic and ecologic principles. Issues of interest to the judge included a forensic assessment of the hydrologic and ecologic regime of the lake and the original Everglades system when the State of Florida first joined the U.S. While there are anecdotal archives that describe some elements of the system, there are few

  2. Hydrology under difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    An unusual hydrological investigation is being carried out in Kenya by IAEA, at Lake Chala, a volcanic crater with no visible inlet or outlet. The problem is to determine whether the lake has any connection with a number of springs near Taveta, some six miles distant: this relationship is important in assessing the possibility of expanding the Taveta irrigation scheme. Questions of water rights and utilization are involved, since the lake is situated on the Tanganyikan border. The method adopted is that of labelling the waters of the lake with small quantities of water containing radioactive hydrogen (tritium). There are some special features in this instance, one being the difficulty of access. The lake is entirely surrounded by steep cliffs. A track was cut by British Army engineers, and the boat and all supplies were taken down by this route. Another problem was presented by the depth of the lake, which amounts to 300 feet. It is necessary to ensure the regular mixing of the tritium throughout. This has been done by means of hundreds of plastic bottles, which were dropped from the boat at regular intervals as it made a series of carefully-plotted traverses. Each bottle had a weight attached, and was perforated by two small holes. By this means, as the bottle sank the contents were progressively released until it reached the bottom, thus ensuring an even diffusion of tritium throughout the lake.

  3. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  4. Uncertainty in hydrological change modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige

    applied at the grid scale. Flux and state hydrological outputs which integrate responses over time and space showed more sensitivity to precipitation mean spatial biases and less so on extremes. In the investigated catchments, the projected change of groundwater levels and basin discharge between current......Hydrological change modelling methodologies generally use climate models outputs to force hydrological simulations under changed conditions. There are nested sources of uncertainty throughout this methodology, including choice of climate model and subsequent bias correction methods. This Ph.......D. study evaluates the uncertainty of the impact of climate change in hydrological simulations given multiple climate models and bias correction methods of varying complexity. Three distribution based scaling methods (DBS) were developed and benchmarked against a more simplistic and commonly used delta...

  5. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  6. Entropy: From Thermodynamics to Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Some known results from statistical thermophysics as well as from hydrology are revisited from a different perspective trying: (a to unify the notion of entropy in thermodynamic and statistical/stochastic approaches of complex hydrological systems and (b to show the power of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy in inference, both deductive and inductive. The capability for deductive reasoning is illustrated by deriving the law of phase change transition of water (Clausius-Clapeyron from scratch by maximizing entropy in a formal probabilistic frame. However, such deductive reasoning cannot work in more complex hydrological systems with diverse elements, yet the entropy maximization framework can help in inductive inference, necessarily based on data. Several examples of this type are provided in an attempt to link statistical thermophysics with hydrology with a unifying view of entropy.

  7. HESS Opinions "The art of hydrology"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, H.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological modelling is the same as developing and encoding a hydrological theory. A hydrological model is not a tool but a hypothesis. The whole discussion about the inadequacy of hydrological models we have witnessed of late, is related to the wrong concept of what a model is. Good models don't

  8. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  9. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  10. HOBE – a hydrological observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a short introducO on is given to the Danish hydrological observatory—HOBE. We describe characteristics of the catchment, which is subject to experimental and modeling investigations. An overview is given of the research reported in this special section of the journal, which includes...... 11 papers of original research covering precipitation, evapotranspiration, emission of greenhouse gasses, unsaturated flow, groundwater–surface water interaction, and climate change impacts on hydrology....

  11. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  12. 2003 hydrological drought - natural disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trninic, Dusan; Bosnjak, Tomislava

    2004-01-01

    An exceptionally dry and warm period from February to early October 2003 resulted in hydrological drought with attributes of a natural disaster in most of the Croatian regions. The paper presents hydrological analysis of the Sava River near Zupanja for the period 1945-2003 (N=59 years). In defining maximum annual volumes of isolated waves below the reference discharges, the following reference discharges were used:Q 30,95% = 202m 3 s -1 - minimum mean 30-day discharge, 95 % probability, Q 30,80% = 254m 3 s -1 - minimum mean 30-day discharge, 80 % probability, Q 95% = 297m 3 s -1 - (H = -17cm minimum navigation level = 95 % of water level duration from average duration curve). The analysis results have shown that the hydrological drought recorded during the current year belongs to the most thoroughly studied droughts in 59 years. For example, hydrological analysis of the reference discharge of 297m 3 s -1 has shown that this year drought comes second, immediately after the driest year 1946. However, this year hydrological drought hit the record duration of 103 days, unlike the one from 1946, which lasted 98 days. It is interesting that the hydrological droughts affect the Sava River usually in autumn and summer, rarely in winter, and it has never been recorded in spring (referring to the analysed 1945-2003 period). In conclusion, some recommendations are given for increase in low streamflows and on possible impacts of climate changes on these flows.(Author)

  13. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  14. Hydrologic Design in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. M.; Farmer, W. H.; Read, L.

    2014-12-01

    In an era dubbed the Anthropocene, the natural world is being transformed by a myriad of human influences. As anthropogenic impacts permeate hydrologic systems, hydrologists are challenged to fully account for such changes and develop new methods of hydrologic design. Deterministic watershed models (DWM), which can account for the impacts of changes in land use, climate and infrastructure, are becoming increasing popular for the design of flood and/or drought protection measures. As with all models that are calibrated to existing datasets, DWMs are subject to model error or uncertainty. In practice, the model error component of DWM predictions is typically ignored yet DWM simulations which ignore model error produce model output which cannot reproduce the statistical properties of the observations they are intended to replicate. In the context of hydrologic design, we demonstrate how ignoring model error can lead to systematic downward bias in flood quantiles, upward bias in drought quantiles and upward bias in water supply yields. By reincorporating model error, we document how DWM models can be used to generate results that mimic actual observations and preserve their statistical behavior. In addition to use of DWM for improved predictions in a changing world, improved communication of the risk and reliability is also needed. Traditional statements of risk and reliability in hydrologic design have been characterized by return periods, but such statements often assume that the annual probability of experiencing a design event remains constant throughout the project horizon. We document the general impact of nonstationarity on the average return period and reliability in the context of hydrologic design. Our analyses reveal that return periods do not provide meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events. Instead, knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can more effectively prepare society and communicate the likelihood

  15. Integration of Local Hydrology into Regional Hydrologic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, R. J.; Lal, W. A.

    2002-05-01

    South Florida hydrology is dominated by the Central and South Florida (C&SF) Project that is managed to provide flood protection, water supply and environmental protection. A complex network of levees canals and structures provide these services to the individual drainage basins. The landscape varies widely across the C&SF system, with corresponding differences in the way water is managed within each basin. Agricultural areas are managed for optimal crop production. Urban areas maximize flood protection while maintaining minimum water levels to protect adjacent wetlands and local water supplies. "Natural" areas flood and dry out in response to the temporal distribution of rainfall. The evaluation of planning, regulation and operational issues require access to a simulation model that captures the effects of both regional and local hydrology. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) uses a "pseudo-cell" approach to integrate local hydrology within the context of a regional hydrologic system. A 2-dimensional triangulated mesh is used to represent the regional surface and ground water systems and a 1-dimensional canal network is superimposed onto this mesh. The movement of water is simulated using a finite volume formulation with a diffusive wave approximation. Each cell in the triangulated mesh has a "pseudo-cell" counterpart, which represents the same area as the cell, but it is conceptualized such that it simulates the localized hydrologic conditions Protocols have been established to provide an interface between a cell and its pseudo-cell counterpart. . A number of pseudo-cell types have already been developed and tested in the simulation of Water Conservation Area 1 and several have been proposed to deal with specific local issues in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study. This presentation will provide an overview of the overall RSM design, describe the relationship between cells and pseudo-cells, and illustrate how pseudo-cells are be used to simulate agriculture

  16. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  17. Identifying dominant controls on hydrologic parameter transfer from gauged to ungauged catchments: a comparative hydrology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Archfield, S.A.; Wagener, T.

    2014-01-01

    Daily streamflow information is critical for solving various hydrologic problems, though observations of continuous streamflow for model calibration are available at only a small fraction of the world’s rivers. One approach to estimate daily streamflow at an ungauged location is to transfer rainfall–runoff model parameters calibrated at a gauged (donor) catchment to an ungauged (receiver) catchment of interest. Central to this approach is the selection of a hydrologically similar donor. No single metric or set of metrics of hydrologic similarity have been demonstrated to consistently select a suitable donor catchment. We design an experiment to diagnose the dominant controls on successful hydrologic model parameter transfer. We calibrate a lumped rainfall–runoff model to 83 stream gauges across the United States. All locations are USGS reference gauges with minimal human influence. Parameter sets from the calibrated models are then transferred to each of the other catchments and the performance of the transferred parameters is assessed. This transfer experiment is carried out both at the scale of the entire US and then for six geographic regions. We use classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to determine the relationship between catchment similarity and performance of transferred parameters. Similarity is defined using physical/climatic catchment characteristics, as well as streamflow response characteristics (signatures such as baseflow index and runoff ratio). Across the entire US, successful parameter transfer is governed by similarity in elevation and climate, and high similarity in streamflow signatures. Controls vary for different geographic regions though. Geology followed by drainage, topography and climate constitute the dominant similarity metrics in forested eastern mountains and plateaus, whereas agricultural land use relates most strongly with successful parameter transfer in the humid plains.

  18. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: Identification of dominant processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2016-01-01

    The Precipitation–Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a distributed-parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS). Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1) the sensitive input parameters and (2) particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es). Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff) and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1). Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1) the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2) the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3) different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4) some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many

  19. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: identification of dominant processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Markstrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS. Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1 the sensitive input parameters and (2 particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es. Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1. Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1 the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2 the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3 different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4 some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many.

  20. Hydrologic landscape regionalisation using deductive classification and random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C Brown

    Full Text Available Landscape classification and hydrological regionalisation studies are being increasingly used in ecohydrology to aid in the management and research of aquatic resources. We present a methodology for classifying hydrologic landscapes based on spatial environmental variables by employing non-parametric statistics and hybrid image classification. Our approach differed from previous classifications which have required the use of an a priori spatial unit (e.g. a catchment which necessarily results in the loss of variability that is known to exist within those units. The use of a simple statistical approach to identify an appropriate number of classes eliminated the need for large amounts of post-hoc testing with different number of groups, or the selection and justification of an arbitrary number. Using statistical clustering, we identified 23 distinct groups within our training dataset. The use of a hybrid classification employing random forests extended this statistical clustering to an area of approximately 228,000 km2 of south-eastern Australia without the need to rely on catchments, landscape units or stream sections. This extension resulted in a highly accurate regionalisation at both 30-m and 2.5-km resolution, and a less-accurate 10-km classification that would be more appropriate for use at a continental scale. A smaller case study, of an area covering 27,000 km2, demonstrated that the method preserved the intra- and inter-catchment variability that is known to exist in local hydrology, based on previous research. Preliminary analysis linking the regionalisation to streamflow indices is promising suggesting that the method could be used to predict streamflow behaviour in ungauged catchments. Our work therefore simplifies current classification frameworks that are becoming more popular in ecohydrology, while better retaining small-scale variability in hydrology, thus enabling future attempts to explain and visualise broad-scale hydrologic

  1. Data assimilation in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, Jean-Philippe

    Data assimilation is an invaluable tool in hydrological modelling as it allows to efficiently combine scarce data with a numerical model to obtain improved model predictions. In addition, data assimilation also provides an uncertainty analysis of the predictions made by the hydrological model....... In this thesis, the Kalman filter is used for data assimilation with a focus on groundwater modelling. However the developed techniques are general and can be applied also in other modelling domains. Modelling involves conceptualization of the processes of Nature. Data assimilation provides a way to deal...... with model non-linearities and biased errors. A literature review analyzes the most popular techniques and their application in hydrological modelling. Since bias is an important problem in groundwater modelling, two bias aware Kalman filters have been implemented and compared using an artificial test case...

  2. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladipo, M.O.A.; Funtua, I.I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  3. Predicting Hydrologic Function With Aquatic Gene Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, S. P.; URycki, D. R.; Crump, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    Recent advances in microbiology techniques, such as genetic sequencing, allow for rapid and cost-effective collection of large quantities of genetic information carried within water samples. Here we posit that the unique composition of aquatic DNA material within a water sample contains relevant information about hydrologic function at multiple temporal scales. In this study, machine learning was used to develop discharge prediction models trained on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa classified into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from six large arctic rivers. We term this approach "genohydrology," and show that OTU relative abundances can be used to predict river discharge at monthly and longer timescales. Based on a single DNA sample from each river, the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) for predicted mean monthly discharge values throughout the year was 0.84, while the NSE for predicted discharge values across different return intervals was 0.67. These are considerable improvements over predictions based only on the area-scaled mean specific discharge of five similar rivers, which had average NSE values of 0.64 and -0.32 for seasonal and recurrence interval discharge values, respectively. The genohydrology approach demonstrates that genetic diversity within the aquatic microbiome is a large and underutilized data resource with benefits for prediction of hydrologic function.

  4. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  5. Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen emissions and optimization of the humus balance; Optimierung der Gaerrestduengung zur Reduzierung der Stickstoffemissionen und Optimierung der Humusbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Kurt [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Kulturpflanzenwissenschaften

    2011-07-01

    On the one hand, the introduction of a biogas plant is connected with the possibility of optimizing the internal nutrient cycles and the reduction of nitrogen losses. On the other hand, the improper handling of the digestate and ''stupid'' cropping systems increase the nitrogen emissions significantly. Therefore, biogas plants are faced with many challenges in order to optimize the nutrient cycling, to reduce their nitrogen losses to a minimum and to keep the humus balance in mind. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on some opportunities for optimization.

  6. A POGIL approach to teaching engineering hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, M.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of the author's experience using Problem Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in an engineering hydrology course. This course is part of an interdisciplinary Water Management program at Bachelor level in the Netherlands. The aims of this approach were to promote constructivism of knowledge, activate critical thinking and reduce math anxiety. POGIL was developed for chemistry education in the United States. To the authors knowledge this is the first application of this approach in Europe. A first trial was done in 2010-2011 and a second trial in 2011-2012 and 55 students participated. The problems that motivated the novel approach, general information on POGIL, its implementation in the course are discussed and the results so far are evaluated.

  7. DCS Hydrology Submission for Orleans LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for Dawes County, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Rockland County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, ROSS COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. DCS Hydrology Submission for Washington County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submission for GRATIOT COUNTY, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, UPPER CUMBERLAND WATERSHED, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  15. DCS Hydrology Submission for Shelby County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. Hydrology submission for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, IOSCO COUNTY, MI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, HIGHLAND COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  1. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Washita County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Denton TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, ALPENA COUNTY, MI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Susquehanna County PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Harmon County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. DCS Hydrology, Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, SCIOTO COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Rio Grande Region, New Mexico, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Rio Grande region, New Mexico and Texas, includes most of the area east of the Rio Grande to the Sacramento Mountains. The region encompasses two large basins, the Jornada del Muerto and Tularosa basins, and the intervening San Andres Mountains. The valley surfaces generally have altitudes from 600 to 1,500 meters, and the mountain ranges generally have altitudes from 1,500 to 2,400 meters. About one-half the area is underlain by basin fill. Sedimentary rocks that crop out in the Rio Grande region range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The oldest Precambrian rocks are metamorphosed and intruded by plutons. Paleozoic rocks are primarily carbonates, with argillaceous beds in the older Paleozoic units. Clastic and gypsum are in greater abundance in younger Paleozoic units of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. The Mesozoic rocks primarily are clastic rocks with some limestone. Cenozoic rocks consist of sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and siltstone, derived from adjacent mountain masses, interbedded with basalt and andesite flows and silicic tuffs. Early to middle Tertiary volcanic and tectonic processes resulted in the implacement of plutonic bodies; volcanic activity continued into the Quaternary. Media considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include intrusive rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basaltic lava flows. Laharic and mudflow breccia and argillaceous beds also may be potential host rocks. These and other rocks may be potential media in areas where the unsaturated zone is thick. Quaternary faults are more common in the southern one-half of the region than in the northern one-half. Range-bounding faults with evidence of Quaternary movement extend northward into the central part of the region. Volcanic activity in the northern part of the region includes basalt flows of Quaternary age. Historical crustal uplift and seismicity have occurred in the vicinity of Socorro, New Mexico. The region is bordered on the west by

  10. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Stoof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We performed a catchment-scale experimental fire to improve insight into the drivers of fire impact on hydrology. In north-central Portugal, rainfall, canopy interception, streamflow and soil moisture were monitored in small shrub-covered paired catchments pre- and post-fire. The shrub cover was medium dense to dense (44 to 84% and pre-fire canopy interception was on average 48.7% of total rainfall. Fire increased streamflow volumes 1.6 times more than predicted, resulting in increased runoff coefficients and changed rainfall-streamflow relationships – although the increase in streamflow per unit rainfall was only significant at the subcatchment-scale. Fire also fastened the response of topsoil moisture to rainfall from 2.7 to 2.1 h (p = 0.058, and caused more rapid drying of topsoils after rain events. Since soil physical changes due to fire were not apparent, we suggest that changes resulting from vegetation removal played an important role in increasing streamflow after fire. Results stress that fire impact on hydrology is largely affected by scale, highlight the hydrological impact of fire on small scales, and emphasize the risk of overestimating fire impact when upscaling plot-scale studies to the catchment-scale. Finally, they increase understanding of the processes contributing to post-fire flooding and erosion events.

  11. Evaporation in relation to hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartena, L.; Keijman, J.Q.; Bruijn, H.A.R. de; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Stricker, J.N.M.; Velds, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In meteorology some topics enjoy particular interest from other disciplines. The interest of hydrologists for the evaporation of water is a case in point, understandably and rightly so. In fact, over the last few decades, hydrology has clearly done more than using meteorological knowledge thus

  12. Mathematical modelling of fracture hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, J.; Hodgkinson, D.P.; Robinson, P.C.; Herbert, A.W.

    1984-04-01

    This progress report contains notes on three aspects of hydrological modelling. Work on hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured media has been extended to transverse dispersion. Further work has been done on diffusion into the rock matrix and its effect on solute transport. The program NAMSOL has been used for the MIRAGE code comparison exercise being organised by Atkins R and D. (author)

  13. Radioactivity in the hydrologic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, L.B.

    1969-01-01

    Certain proposed uses of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will introduce radioactive debris into the natural hydrologic environment. Consideration must therefore be given in each situation to the extent and significance to man of resulting radioactively contaminated water. For contained underground detonations, space-time - concentration predictions of radioactive materials in ground water are dependent on several factors: radionuclide production and initial distribution, radioactive decay, sorption on geologic materials, and dispersion during hydrologic transport. For uncontained (cratering) detonations, other aspects of the hydrologic cycle, particularly rainfall, and watershed characteristics must be considered. Programs sponsored principally by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission have investigated these factors. Examination of their net effects on radioactivity concentration in water shows that areas if any, underlain by water exceeding permissible concentrations tend first to increase in size, then decrease, and finally disappear. Hydrologic processes at the surface remove or redistribute radioactive debris deposited on a watershed to other locations. Where sufficient information is available, predictions of location and concentration of radionuclides in natural waters can be made. Any potentially hazardous conditions arising from a particular detonation can then be evaluated. (author)

  14. Radioactivity in the hydrologic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, L B [Isotopes, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Certain proposed uses of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will introduce radioactive debris into the natural hydrologic environment. Consideration must therefore be given in each situation to the extent and significance to man of resulting radioactively contaminated water. For contained underground detonations, space-time - concentration predictions of radioactive materials in ground water are dependent on several factors: radionuclide production and initial distribution, radioactive decay, sorption on geologic materials, and dispersion during hydrologic transport. For uncontained (cratering) detonations, other aspects of the hydrologic cycle, particularly rainfall, and watershed characteristics must be considered. Programs sponsored principally by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission have investigated these factors. Examination of their net effects on radioactivity concentration in water shows that areas if any, underlain by water exceeding permissible concentrations tend first to increase in size, then decrease, and finally disappear. Hydrologic processes at the surface remove or redistribute radioactive debris deposited on a watershed to other locations. Where sufficient information is available, predictions of location and concentration of radionuclides in natural waters can be made. Any potentially hazardous conditions arising from a particular detonation can then be evaluated. (author)

  15. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  16. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  17. Low flow hydrology: a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2001-01-10

    Full Text Available The paper intends to review the current status of low-flow hydrology — a discipline which deals with minimum flow in a river during the dry periods of the year. The discussion starts with the analysis of low-flow generating mechanisms operating...

  18. Applications of AMS to hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.W.; Davis, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation and management of water as a resource requires an understanding of the chemical, and geological interactions that water effects or undergoes in the hydrologic cycle. Delivery of water to the land surface by precipitation, subsequent streamflow, circulation in surface waters and evapotranspiration, infiltration, recharge, movement of waters in the subsurface, and discharge are of interest. Also important are the quality of water, water's role in mineral dissolution, transport, and deposition, and the various water-related geotechnical problems of subsidence, tectonics, slope instability, and earth structures. Mathematical modeling techniques are available and are being improved which describe these phenomena and predict future system behavior. Typically, however, models suffer from substantial uncertainties due to insufficient data. Refinement, calibration,and verification of hydrologic models require expansion of the data base. Examination of chemical constituents of water which act as tracers can often supply the needed information. Unfortunately, few tracers are available which are both mobile and chemically stable. Several long-lived radioisotopic hydrologic tracers exist, however, which have received little attention in hydrologic studies to date because of low concentration, low specific activity, or sample size limitations. Recent development of ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry techniques (AMS) by Purser and others (1977), Nelson and others (1977), Bennett and others (1978), Muller and others (1978), Raisbeck and others (1978) is now expected to provide access to many of these tracers

  19. Mathematical modelling of fracture hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, A.W.; Hodgkinson, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; Robinson, P.C.; Rae, J.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarises the work performed between January 1983 and December 1984 for the CEC/DOE contract 'Mathematical Modelling of Fracture Hydrology', under the following headings: 1) Statistical fracture network modelling, 2) Continuum models of flow and transport, 3) Simplified models, 4) Analysis of laboratory experiments and 5) Analysis of field experiments. (author)

  20. Hydrological balance of Cauca River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzo G, J.; Garcia, M.

    1992-11-01

    This thesis understand the superficial and underground hydrology of the C.c. River Basin; the purpose of this study is to obtain information related to the quantity and behavior of the water resource, in order to make the necessary recommendations for the adequate managing, the aquifer protection and thus be able to have valuable liquid

  1. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  2. Upscaling from research watersheds: an essential stage of trustworthy general-purpose hydrologic model building

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Semenova, O.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly instrumented research watersheds provide excellent opportunities for investigating hydrologic processes. A danger, however, is that the processes observed at a particular research watershed are too specific to the watershed and not representative even of the larger scale watershed that contains that particular research watershed. Thus, models developed based on those partial observations may not be suitable for general hydrologic use. Therefore demonstrating the upscaling of hydrologic process from research watersheds to larger watersheds is essential to validate concepts and test model structure. The Hydrograph model has been developed as a general-purpose process-based hydrologic distributed system. In its applications and further development we evaluate the scaling of model concepts and parameters in a wide range of hydrologic landscapes. All models, either lumped or distributed, are based on a discretization concept. It is common practice that watersheds are discretized into so called hydrologic units or hydrologic landscapes possessing assumed homogeneous hydrologic functioning. If a model structure is fixed, the difference in hydrologic functioning (difference in hydrologic landscapes) should be reflected by a specific set of model parameters. Research watersheds provide the possibility for reasonable detailed combining of processes into some typical hydrologic concept such as hydrologic units, hydrologic forms, and runoff formation complexes in the Hydrograph model. And here by upscaling we imply not the upscaling of a single process but upscaling of such unified hydrologic functioning. The simulation of runoff processes for the Dry Creek research watershed, Idaho, USA (27 km2) was undertaken using the Hydrograph model. The information on the watershed was provided by Boise State University and included a GIS database of watershed characteristics and a detailed hydrometeorological observational dataset. The model provided good simulation results in

  3. A framework for human-hydrologic system model development integrating hydrology and water management: application to the Cutzamala water system in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, S.; Freeman, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a general approach to developing computational models of human-hydrologic systems where human modification of hydrologic surface processes are significant or dominant. A river basin system is represented by a network of human-hydrologic response units (HHRUs) identified based on locations where river regulations happen (e.g., reservoir operation and diversions). Natural and human processes in HHRUs are simulated in a holistic framework that integrates component models representing rainfall-runoff, river routing, reservoir operation, flow diversion and water use processes. We illustrate the approach in a case study of the Cutzamala water system (CWS) in Mexico, a complex inter-basin water transfer system supplying the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The human-hydrologic system model for CWS (CUTZSIM) is evaluated in terms of streamflow and reservoir storages measured across the CWS and to water supplied for MCMA. The CUTZSIM improves the representation of hydrology and river-operation interaction and, in so doing, advances evaluation of system-wide water management consequences under altered climatic and demand regimes. The integrated modeling framework enables evaluation and simulation of model errors throughout the river basin, including errors in representation of the human component processes. Heretofore, model error evaluation, predictive error intervals and the resultant improved understanding have been limited to hydrologic processes. The general framework represents an initial step towards fuller understanding and prediction of the many and varied processes that determine the hydrologic fluxes and state variables in real river basins.

  4. OHD/HL - National Weather Hydrology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Branches Hydrologic Software Engineering Branch (HSEB) Hydrologic Science and Modeling Branch enter or select the go button to submit request City, St Go Science Research and Collaboration Hydrology Subversion Usage Guidelines updated 11/18/2008 Other Documents Science Algorithm Description Document (doc

  5. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community has long recognized the need for broad reform in hydrologic education. A paradigm shift is critically sought in undergraduate hydrology and water resource education by adopting context-rich, student-centered, and active learning strategies. Hydrologists currently deal with intricate issues rooted in complex natural ecosystems containing a multitude of interconnected processes. Advances in the multi-disciplinary field include observational settings such as Critical Zone and Water, Sustainability and Climate Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, instrumentation and modeling methods. These research advances theory and practices call for similar efforts and improvements in hydrologic education. The typical, text-book based approach in hydrologic education has focused on specific applications and/or unit processes associated with the hydrologic cycle with idealizations, rather than the contextual relations in the physical processes and the spatial and temporal dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. An appreciation of the natural variability of these processes will lead to graduates with the ability to develop independent learning skills and understanding. This appreciation cannot be gained in curricula where field components such as observational and experimental data are deficient. These types of data are also critical when using simulation models to create environments that support this type of learning. Additional sources of observations in conjunction with models and field data are key to students understanding of the challenges associated with using models to represent such complex systems. Recent advances in scientific visualization and web-based technologies provide new opportunities for the development of active learning techniques utilizing ongoing research. The overall goal of the current study is to develop visual, case-based, data and simulation driven learning experiences to instructors and students through a web

  6. CrowdHydrology: crowdsourcing hydrologic data and engaging citizen scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Christopher S; Fienen, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    Spatially and temporally distributed measurements of processes, such as baseflow at the watershed scale, come at substantial equipment and personnel cost. Research presented here focuses on building a crowdsourced database of inexpensive distributed stream stage measurements. Signs on staff gauges encourage citizen scientists to voluntarily send hydrologic measurements (e.g., stream stage) via text message to a server that stores and displays the data on the web. Based on the crowdsourced stream stage, we evaluate the accuracy of citizen scientist measurements and measurement approach. The results show that crowdsourced data collection is a supplemental method for collecting hydrologic data and a promising method of public engagement. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Development of isotope hydrology technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1988-01-01

    The development of isotope hydrology technology in China is described. The isotope technology provides an independent approach for solving hydrological problems. Isotope hydrology is applied in three ways: the use of change in environmental isotopic composition of water (especially used in water resources exploitation), the use of artificial radioactive tracers and the use of redioisotope instruments. Many important achievements have been obtained in application of isotopic hydrology technology. For the sake of promoting rapid development of isotope hydrology the topics on management, technology and others are commented

  8. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Duffy, Chris; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Reproducibility is a foundational principle in scientific research. The ability to independently re-run an experiment helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings, and evolve (or reject) hypotheses and models of how environmental systems function, and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. Yet in computational hydrology (and in environmental science more widely) the code and data that produces published results are not regularly made available, and even if they are made available, there remains a multitude of generally unreported choices that an individual scientist may have made that impact the study result. This situation strongly inhibits the ability of our community to reproduce and verify previous findings, as all the information and boundary conditions required to set up a computational experiment simply cannot be reported in an article's text alone. In Hutton et al 2016 [1], we argue that a cultural change is required in the computational hydrological community, in order to advance and make more robust the process of knowledge creation and hypothesis testing. We need to adopt common standards and infrastructures to: (1) make code readable and re-useable; (2) create well-documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; (3) make code and workflows available, easy to find, and easy to interpret, using code and code metadata repositories. To create change we argue for improved graduate training in these areas. In this talk we reflect on our progress in achieving reproducible, open science in computational hydrology, which are relevant to the broader computational geoscience community. In particular, we draw on our experience in the Switch-On (EU funded) virtual water science laboratory (http://www.switch-on-vwsl.eu/participate/), which is an open platform for collaboration in hydrological experiments (e.g. [2]). While we use computational hydrology as

  9. Tropical Peatland Geomorphology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, A.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands cover many low-lying areas in the tropics. In tropical peatlands, a feedback between hydrology, landscape morphology, and carbon storage causes waterlogged organic matter to accumulate into gently mounded land forms called peat domes over thousands of years. Peat domes have a stable morphology in which peat production is balanced by loss and net precipitation is balanced by lateral flow, creating a link between peatland morphology, rainfall patterns and drainage networks. We show how landscape morphology can be used to make inferences about hydrologic processes in tropical peatlands. In particular, we show that approaches using simple storage-discharge relationships for catchments are especially well suited to tropical peatlands, allowing river forecasting based on peatland morphology in catchments with tropical peatland subcatchments.

  10. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected...... global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface...

  11. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Ahlers, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples

  12. Flow variability and hillslope hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D D; O' Neill, R V; Emanuel, W R; Elwood, J W; Newbold, J D

    1982-01-01

    Examination of spatial variability of streamflow in headwater areas can provide important insight about factors that influence hillslope hydrology. Detailed observations of variations in stream channel input, based on a tracer experiment, indicate that topography alone cannot explain flow variability. However, determination of changes in channel input on a small spatial scale can provide valuable clues to factors, such as structural geology that control subsurface flows.

  13. Data Access System for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Djokic, D.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., Hydrologic Information System), the CUAHSI HIS team has developed Data Access System for Hydrology or DASH. DASH is based on commercial off the shelf technology, which has been developed in conjunction with a commercial partner, ESRI. DASH is a web-based user interface, developed in ASP.NET developed using ESRI ArcGIS Server 9.2 that represents a mapping, querying and data retrieval interface over observation and GIS databases, and web services. This is the front end application for the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System Server. The HIS Server is a software stack that organizes observation databases, geographic data layers, data importing and management tools, and online user interfaces such as the DASH application, into a flexible multi- tier application for serving both national-level and locally-maintained observation data. The user interface of the DASH web application allows online users to query observation networks by location and attributes, selecting stations in a user-specified area where a particular variable was measured during a given time interval. Once one or more stations and variables are selected, the user can retrieve and download the observation data for further off-line analysis. The DASH application is highly configurable. The mapping interface can be configured to display map services from multiple sources in multiple formats, including ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, and WMS. The observation network data is configured in an XML file where you specify the network's web service location and its corresponding map layer. Upon initial deployment, two national level observation networks (USGS NWIS daily values and USGS NWIS Instantaneous values) are already pre-configured. There is also an optional login page which can be used to restrict access as well as providing a alternative to immediate downloads. For large request, users would be notified via

  14. Network analysis applications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katie

    2017-04-01

    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  15. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benito, J.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2015), s. 3517-3539 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : flood frequency-analysis * ne iberian peninsula * reconstructing peak discharges * extreme floods * climate-change * ardeche river * catastrophic floods * documentary sources * paleoflood record * spanish rivers Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2015

  16. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Rice, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth’s surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  17. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has been developed in this study. The developed model can continuously simulate infiltration through the permeable pavement surface, exfiltration from the storage to the surrounding in situ soils, and clogging impacts on infiltration/exfiltration capacity at the pavement surface and the bottom of the subsurface storage unit. The exfiltration modeling component simulates vertical and horizontal exfiltration independently based on Darcy’s formula with the Green-Ampt approximation. The developed model can be arranged with physically-based modeling parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, Manning’s friction flow parameters, saturated and field capacity volumetric water contents, porosity, density, etc. The developed model was calibrated using high-frequency observed data. The modeled water depths are well matched with the observed values (R2 = 0.90). The modeling results show that horizontal exfiltration through the side walls of the subsurface storage unit is a prevailing factor in determining the hydrologic performance of the system, especially where the storage unit is developed in a long, narrow shape; or with a high risk of bottom compaction and clogging. This paper presents unit

  18. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  19. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  20. Hydrology for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    To support critical decisions related to water quantity, quality, and hazard mitigation, surface water hydrologists and water resources engineers have historically invoked the assumption that hydrologic systems are stationary; variables such as discharge or solute fluxes were assumed to have a mean, a variance, and other statistical properties that did not change over time. Today, the drivers of non-stationarity such as urbanization, groundwater depletion, engineered land-drainage systems, application of nutrients at the land surface, new farming technologies, and changes in greenhouse gas forcing of the global atmosphere have perturbed hydrologic systems enough so that this assumption must be challenged. Understanding of the non-stationarity in hydrologic systems is important for at least two major reasons: (1) Society needs insights on the hydrologic conditions of the future as a basis for planning, operating, and regulating water resources in the future. Water resources engineers cannot depend solely on records of the past to design and operate in the future. However, simply substituting model projections for historic records, without evaluation of the ability of those models to produce realistic projections, is not acceptable. (2) Non-stationarity provides a framework to identify emerging water resource issues and evaluate our society's success in achieving its environmental goals. The study of hydrologic change is our greatest challenge. We must learn how best to blend our knowledge of the past with our projections of the future. In this non-stationary world, observing systems and networks become even more critically important and our models must be tested using historical records to ensure that they produce useful projections of our future. In the words of Ralph Keeling, "The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking the changes decade after decade, and poring over the records." Walter Langbein knew the

  1. Nuclear well logging in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The optimum development of regional and local groundwater resources requires a quantitative evaluation of its aquifers and aquicludes, and of the physical and chemical properties relevant to the recharge to and withdrawal of water from them. If an understanding of the groundwater regime is to be obtained, geological observations at outcrop must be augmented by subsurface measurements of the strata and the waters they contain. Measurements of many hydrological and geological parameters can be made in situ by nuclear geophysical well-logging methods. Very simply, well logging consists of lowering a measuring probe into a well and making a continuous record of the variations of a particular parameter with depth. In most circumstances, repetition of the measurements under differing hydrodynamic conditions results in a better definition of the flow regime in the aquifer. Nuclear well-logging techniques have for some years been capable of solving a number of the sub-surface measurement problems faced by hydrogeologists. However, the present usage of these methods varies from country to country and the literature concerning applications is scattered in the professional journals of several disciplines. The objective of this report is to include in a single reference volume descriptions of the physical principles of nuclear logging methods, their applications to hydrogeological problems and their limitations on a level suitable for the practising hydrologists with a limited knowledge of nuclear physics. The Working Group responsible for compiling the report recommended that it should cover a broad spectrum of hydrogeological investigations and problems. For example, it saw no valid reason to distinguish for the purposes of the report between well-logging applications for water-supply purposes and for water-flooding studies in the petroleum industry. Neutron measurements made for soil-moisture determinations in the unsaturated zone have been specifically omitted, however, as

  2. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  3. Making sense of Big Data in Hydrology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N.; Blodgett, D. L.; Briar, D.

    2013-12-01

    At the same time that "big data" promises to help provide new insights for understanding earth processes, budget challenges require we more effectively use data collected by organizations other than our own. Answering societally relevant questions related to water requires that we consider all natural and anthropogenic aspects of the hydrologic cycle. How do we integrate across organizations and across water cycle components to satisfy these challenges and expectations? We now need to move beyond metadata that describe individual datasets to an ability to interrogate integrated collections of observations. Furthermore, we need to be able to query across obvious (yet elusive) dimensions including hydrologic context and position while filtering for data of a known quality that meets our purpose. In addition, we need to traverse the climate/geography interface, efficiently attributing a climate signal to watersheds. We know that water flows downhill and that after heavy rain, streams flood. But we cannot systematically query for observations made during a flashy summer storm-related flood upstream from notable points on a river or stream such as water treatment intakes. USGS has long committed to providing real-time access to surface and groundwater monitoring networks across the United States. Of the over 45 million requests made for these data in a recent month, nearly a quarter were made via mobile devices. An additional 19.8 million requests were made to web services that provide content according to community and international data standards -- presumably to support other applications and mash ups. This presentation will describe ongoing efforts at the USGS on how we are working with the earth sciences and water resource management communities to develop and implement new techniques for both delivering and consuming hydrologic data. Our strategy has been an "all-of-the-above" approach whereby we recognize and work to advance best practices in various communities

  4. Advancements in Hydrology and Erosion Process Understanding and Post-Fire Hydrologic and Erosion Model Development for Semi-Arid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. Jason; Pierson, Frederick B.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Nearing, Mark A.; Hernandez, Mariano; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Goodrich, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Fire activity continues to increase in semi-arid regions around the globe. Private and governmental land management entities are challenged with predicting and mitigating post-fire hydrologic and erosion responses on these landscapes. For more than a decade, a team of scientists with the US Department of Agriculture has collaborated on extensive post-fire hydrologic field research and the application of field research to development of post-fire hydrology and erosion predictive technologies. Experiments funded through this research investigated the impacts of fire on vegetation and soils and the effects of these fire-induced changes on infiltration, runoff generation, erodibility, and soil erosion processes. The distribution of study sites spans diverse topography across grassland, shrubland, and woodland landscapes throughout the western United States. Knowledge gleaned from the extensive field experiments was applied to develop and enhance physically-based models for hillslope- to watershed-scale runoff and erosion prediction. Our field research and subsequent data syntheses have identified key knowledge gaps and challenges regarding post-fire hydrology and erosion modeling. Our presentation details some consistent trends across a diverse domain and varying landscape conditions based on our extensive field campaigns. We demonstrate how field data have advanced our understanding of post-fire hydrology and erosion for semi-arid landscapes and highlight remaining key knowledge gaps. Lastly, we briefly show how our well-replicated experimental methodologies have contributed to advancements in hydrologic and erosion model development for the post-fire environment.

  5. A Community Data Model for Hydrologic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Zaslavsky, I.; Maidment, D. R.; Valentine, D.; Jennings, B.

    2006-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project is developing information technology infrastructure to support hydrologic science. Hydrologic information science involves the description of hydrologic environments in a consistent way, using data models for information integration. This includes a hydrologic observations data model for the storage and retrieval of hydrologic observations in a relational database designed to facilitate data retrieval for integrated analysis of information collected by multiple investigators. It is intended to provide a standard format to facilitate the effective sharing of information between investigators and to facilitate analysis of information within a single study area or hydrologic observatory, or across hydrologic observatories and regions. The observations data model is designed to store hydrologic observations and sufficient ancillary information (metadata) about the observations to allow them to be unambiguously interpreted and used and provide traceable heritage from raw measurements to usable information. The design is based on the premise that a relational database at the single observation level is most effective for providing querying capability and cross dimension data retrieval and analysis. This premise is being tested through the implementation of a prototype hydrologic observations database, and the development of web services for the retrieval of data from and ingestion of data into the database. These web services hosted by the San Diego Supercomputer center make data in the database accessible both through a Hydrologic Data Access System portal and directly from applications software such as Excel, Matlab and ArcGIS that have Standard Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. This paper will (1) describe the data model; (2) demonstrate the capability for representing diverse data in the same database; (3) demonstrate the use of the database from applications software for the performance of hydrologic analysis

  6. Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    drainage areas are different, hydrological analysis will be conducted on the two basins individually. The results of the two analyses will be combined to...ER D C TR -1 5- 4 Environmental Quality and Installations Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri En gi ne er R es ea rc h...Environmental Quality and Installations ERDC TR-15-4 August 2015 Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Michael L. Follum, Darla C. McVan

  7. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Niko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364253940; Wada, Yoshi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; van Lanen, H.A.J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that

  8. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  9. Modeling Subsurface Hydrology in Floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cristina M.; Dritschel, David G.; Singer, Michael B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil-moisture patterns in floodplains are highly dynamic, owing to the complex relationships between soil properties, climatic conditions at the surface, and the position of the water table. Given this complexity, along with climate change scenarios in many regions, there is a need for a model to investigate the implications of different conditions on water availability to riparian vegetation. We present a model, HaughFlow, which is able to predict coupled water movement in the vadose and phreatic zones of hydraulically connected floodplains. Model output was calibrated and evaluated at six sites in Australia to identify key patterns in subsurface hydrology. This study identifies the importance of the capillary fringe in vadose zone hydrology due to its water storage capacity and creation of conductive pathways. Following peaks in water table elevation, water can be stored in the capillary fringe for up to months (depending on the soil properties). This water can provide a critical resource for vegetation that is unable to access the water table. When water table peaks coincide with heavy rainfall events, the capillary fringe can support saturation of the entire soil profile. HaughFlow is used to investigate the water availability to riparian vegetation, producing daily output of water content in the soil over decadal time periods within different depth ranges. These outputs can be summarized to support scientific investigations of plant-water relations, as well as in management applications.

  10. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  11. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  12. Five Guidelines for Selecting Hydrological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, H. K.; Westerberg, I.; Branger, F.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological signatures are index values derived from observed or modeled series of hydrological data such as rainfall, flow or soil moisture. They are designed to extract relevant information about hydrological behavior, such as to identify dominant processes, and to determine the strength, speed and spatiotemporal variability of the rainfall-runoff response. Hydrological signatures play an important role in model evaluation. They allow us to test whether particular model structures or parameter sets accurately reproduce the runoff generation processes within the watershed of interest. Most modeling studies use a selection of different signatures to capture different aspects of the catchment response, for example evaluating overall flow distribution as well as high and low flow extremes and flow timing. Such studies often choose their own set of signatures, or may borrow subsets of signatures used in multiple other works. The link between signature values and hydrological processes is not always straightforward, leading to uncertainty and variability in hydrologists' signature choices. In this presentation, we aim to encourage a more rigorous approach to hydrological signature selection, which considers the ability of signatures to represent hydrological behavior and underlying processes for the catchment and application in question. To this end, we propose a set of guidelines for selecting hydrological signatures. We describe five criteria that any hydrological signature should conform to: Identifiability, Robustness, Consistency, Representativeness, and Discriminatory Power. We describe an example of the design process for a signature, assessing possible signature designs against the guidelines above. Due to their ubiquity, we chose a signature related to the Flow Duration Curve, selecting the FDC mid-section slope as a proposed signature to quantify catchment overall behavior and flashiness. We demonstrate how assessment against each guideline could be used to

  13. Potential and limitations of using soil mapping information to understand landscape hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Terribile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the following points: how can whole soil data from normally available soil mapping databases (both conventional and those integrated by digital soil mapping procedures be usefully employed in hydrology? Answering this question requires a detailed knowledge of the quality and quantity of information embedded in and behind a soil map.

    To this end a description of the process of drafting soil maps was prepared (which is included in Appendix A of this paper. Then a detailed screening of content and availability of soil maps and database was performed, with the objective of an analytical evaluation of the potential and the limitations of soil data obtained through soil surveys and soil mapping. Then we reclassified the soil features according to their direct, indirect or low hydrologic relevance. During this phase, we also included information regarding whether this data was obtained by qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative methods. The analysis was performed according to two main points of concern: (i the hydrological interpretation of the soil data and (ii the quality of the estimate or measurement of the soil feature.

    The interaction between pedology and hydrology processes representation was developed through the following Italian case studies with different hydropedological inputs: (i comparative land evaluation models, by means of an exhaustive itinerary from simple to complex modelling applications depending on soil data availability, (ii mapping of soil hydrological behaviour for irrigation management at the district scale, where the main hydropedological input was the application of calibrated pedo-transfer functions and the Hydrological Function Unit concept, and (iii flood event simulation in an ungauged basin, with the functional aggregation of different soil units for a simplified soil pattern.

    In conclusion, we show that special care is required in handling data from soil

  14. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  15. Subdivision of Texas watersheds for hydrologic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of findings and examples for subdivision of watersheds for hydrologic modeling. Three approaches were used to examine the impact of watershed subdivision on modeled hydrologic response: (1) An equal-area...

  16. Global hydrology 2015: State, trends, and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    Global hydrology has come a long way since the first introduction of the primitive land surface model of Manabe (1969) and the declaration of the “Emergence of Global Hydrology” by Eagleson (1986). Hydrological submodels of varying complexity are now part of global climate models, of models

  17. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  18. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  19. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China. ... of the world, their application in conjunction with hydrological models could improve hydrological studies.

  20. Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the papers in the "Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology" series. The four articles in the series discuss whether and how the process of testing hypotheses leads to progress in hydrology. Repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions are rarely feasible in hydrology. Research is therefore not easily aligned with the classical scientific method of testing hypotheses. Hypotheses in hydrology are often enshrined in computer models which are tested against observed data. Testability may be limited due to model complexity and data uncertainty. All four articles suggest that hypothesis testing has contributed to progress in hydrology and is needed in the future. However, the procedure is usually not as systematic as the philosophy of science suggests. A greater emphasis on a creative reasoning process on the basis of clues and explorative analyses is therefore needed.

  1. Steponas Kolupaila's contribution to hydrological science development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiuškevičius, Gintaras

    2017-08-01

    Steponas Kolupaila (1892-1964) was an important figure in 20th century hydrology and one of the pioneers of scientific water gauging in Europe. His research on the reliability of hydrological data and measurement methods was particularly important and contributed to the development of empirical hydrological calculation methods. Kolupaila was one of the first who standardised water-gauging methods internationally. He created several original hydrological and hydraulic calculation methods (his discharge assessment method for winter period was particularly significant). His innate abilities and frequent travel made Kolupaila a universal specialist in various fields and an active public figure. He revealed his multilayered scientific and cultural experiences in his most famous book, Bibliography of Hydrometry. This book introduced the unique European hydrological-measurement and computation methods to the community of world hydrologists at that time and allowed the development and adaptation of these methods across the world.

  2. Hydrology for Engineers, Geologists, and Environmental Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Simon

    For people who are involved in the applied aspects of hydrology, it is refreshing to find a textbook that begins with a meaningful disclaimer, albeit in fine print on the back side of the frontispiece:“The present book and the accompanying software have been written according to the latest techniques in scientific hydrology. However, hydrology is at best an inexact science. A good book and a good computer software by themselves do not guarantee accurate or even realistic predictions. Acceptable results in the applications of hydrologic methods to engineering and environmental problems depend to a greater extend (sic) on the skills, logical assumptions, and practical experience of the user, and on the quantity and quality of long-term hydrologic data available. Neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility or any liability, explicitly or implicitly, on the results or the consequences of using the information contained in this book or its accompanying software.”

  3. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...... applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...

  4. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    internationally). The workshop brought together approximately 40 participants, with roughly equal numbers from North America and Europe/Scandinavia, and included representatives from Canada, Russia, Germany, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark/Greenland, and the US. This talk will focus on findings of the workshop, highlighting advances in Arctic research that have taken flight over the last decade, specifically stimulated by considering the hydrologic cycle as an integrating force and fundamental building block uniting atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric and terrestrial domains of the pan-Arctic system. The authors will present a future vision for systems-level science of Arctic hydrology and affiliated energy and carbon cycles. A scientific roadmap will be introduced, outlining the main research priorities, robust global and regional geo-information data products, improved models and effective data assimilation systems to forward the science of water in the Arctic.

  5. Impact of multicollinearity on small sample hydrologic regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Song, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Often hydrologic regression models are developed with ordinary least squares (OLS) procedures. The use of OLS with highly correlated explanatory variables produces multicollinearity, which creates highly sensitive parameter estimators with inflated variances and improper model selection. It is not clear how to best address multicollinearity in hydrologic regression models. Here a Monte Carlo simulation is developed to compare four techniques to address multicollinearity: OLS, OLS with variance inflation factor screening (VIF), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of these four techniques was observed for varying sample sizes, correlation coefficients between the explanatory variables, and model error variances consistent with hydrologic regional regression models. The negative effects of multicollinearity are magnified at smaller sample sizes, higher correlations between the variables, and larger model error variances (smaller R2). The Monte Carlo simulation indicates that if the true model is known, multicollinearity is present, and the estimation and statistical testing of regression parameters are of interest, then PCR or PLS should be employed. If the model is unknown, or if the interest is solely on model predictions, is it recommended that OLS be employed since using more complicated techniques did not produce any improvement in model performance. A leave-one-out cross-validation case study was also performed using low-streamflow data sets from the eastern United States. Results indicate that OLS with stepwise selection generally produces models across study regions with varying levels of multicollinearity that are as good as biased regression techniques such as PCR and PLS.

  6. Century long observation constrained global dynamic downscaling and hydrologic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Yoshimura, K.; Chang, E.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Oki, T.

    2012-12-01

    It has been suggested that greenhouse gas induced warming climate causes the acceleration of large scale hydrologic cycles, and, indeed, many regions on the Earth have been suffered by hydrologic extremes getting more frequent. However, historical observations are not able to provide enough information in comprehensive manner to understand their long-term variability and/or global distributions. In this study, a century long high resolution global climate data is developed in order to break through existing limitations. 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR) which has relatively low spatial resolution (~2.0°) and longer term availability (140 years) is dynamically downscaled into global T248 (~0.5°) resolution using Experimental Climate Prediction Center (ECPC) Global Spectral Model (GSM) by spectral nudging data assimilation technique. Also, Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) observational data are adopted to reduce model dependent uncertainty. Downscaled product successfully represents realistic geographical detail keeping low frequency signal in mean state and spatiotemporal variability, while previous bias correction method fails to reproduce high frequency variability. Newly developed data is used to investigate how long-term large scale terrestrial hydrologic cycles have been changed globally and how they have been interacted with various climate modes, such as El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). As a further application, it will be used to provide atmospheric boundary condition of multiple land surface models in the Global Soil Wetness Project Phase 3 (GSWP3).

  7. Quantification of effective plant rooting depth: advancing global hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Donohue, R. J.; McVicar, T.

    2017-12-01

    Plant rooting depth (Zr) is a key parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models, yet the global spatial distribution of Zr is largely unknown due to the difficulties in its direct measurement. Moreover, Zr observations are usually only representative of a single plant or several plants, which can differ greatly from the effective Zr over a modelling unit (e.g., catchment or grid-box). Here, we provide a global parameterization of an analytical Zr model that balances the marginal carbon cost and benefit of deeper roots, and produce a climatological (i.e., 1982-2010 average) global Zr map. To test the Zr estimates, we apply the estimated Zr in a highly transparent hydrological model (i.e., the Budyko-Choudhury-Porporato (BCP) model) to estimate mean annual actual evapotranspiration (E) across the globe. We then compare the estimated E with both water balance-based E observations at 32 major catchments and satellite grid-box retrievals across the globe. Our results show that the BCP model, when implemented with Zr estimated herein, optimally reproduced the spatial pattern of E at both scales and provides improved model outputs when compared to BCP model results from two already existing global Zr datasets. These results suggest that our Zr estimates can be effectively used in state-of-the-art hydrological models, and potentially biogeochemical models, where the determination of Zr currently largely relies on biome type-based look-up tables.

  8. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, B.M.; Hall, I.J.; Peters, R.R.; Easterling, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.

    1992-02-01

    The geologic formations in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain are currently being studied as the host rock for a potential radioactive waste repository. Data from several drill holes have been collected to provide the preliminary information needed for planning site characterization for the Yucca Mountain Project. Hydrologic properties have been measured on the core samples and the variables analyzed here are thought to be important in the determination of groundwater travel times. This report presents a statistical analysis of four hydrologic variables: saturated-matrix hydraulic conductivity, maximum moisture content, suction head, and calculated groundwater travel time. It is important to modelers to have as much information about the distribution of values of these variables as can be obtained from the data. The approach taken in this investigation is to (1) identify regions at the Yucca Mountain site that, according to the data, are distinctly different; (2) estimate the means and variances within these regions; (3) examine the relationships among the variables; and (4) investigate alternative statistical methods that might be applicable when more data become available. The five different functional stratigraphic units at three different locations are compared and grouped into relatively homogeneous regions. Within these regions, the expected values and variances associated with core samples of different sizes are estimated. The results provide a rough estimate of the distribution of hydrologic variables for small core sections within each region

  9. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  10. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Research and Laboratories, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1972-07-01

    A wide variety of problems in hydrology have proved susceptible to the use of nuclear techniques. Conclusions may be drawn from the relative abundances of certain 'environmental isotopes', such as heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water molecules, tritium, carbon-14 and silicon-32, in atmospheric, surface or ground water; origin and rate of flow, for example, may be deduced. Artificial radioisotopes may be used similarly as a logical extension to well-known tracer techniques using dyes and salts. Inherent in the use of such radiotracers are the advantages of very high detection sensitivity (and thus very low required concentrations and the elimination of density effects), and a choice of a variety of nuclides alien to the geohydrological system (and hence unique identification and low background). (author)

  11. Mathematical modelling of fracture hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, A.W.; Hodgkindon, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; Robinson, P.C.; Rae, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report reviews work carried out between January 1983 and December 1984 for the CEC/DOE contract 'Mathematical Modelling of Fracture Hydrology' which forms part of the CEC Mirage project (CEC 1984. Come 1985. Bourke et. al. 1983). It describes the development and use of a variety of mathematical models for the flow of water and transport of radionuclides in flowing groundwater. These models have an important role to play in assessing the long-term safety of radioactive waste burial, and in the planning and interpretation of associated experiments. The work is reported under five headings, namely 1) Statistical fracture network modelling, 2) Continuum models of flow and transport, 3) Simplified models, 4) Analysis of laboratory experiments, 5) Analysis of field experiments

  12. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  13. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  14. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Abstract Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier...

  15. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  16. Continuous hydrological modelling in the context of real time flood forecasting in alpine Danube tributary catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanzel, Ph; Kahl, B; Haberl, U; Herrnegger, M; Nachtnebel, H P

    2008-01-01

    A hydrological modelling framework applied within operational flood forecasting systems in three alpine Danube tributary basins, Traisen, Salzach and Enns, is presented. A continuous, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model, accounting for the main hydrological processes of snow accumulation and melt, interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff generation and routing is set up. Spatial discretization relies on the division of watersheds into subbasins and subsequently into hydrologic response units based on spatial information on soil types, land cover and elevation bands. The hydrological models are calibrated with meteorological ground measurements and with meteorological analyses incorporating radar information. Operationally, each forecasting sequence starts with the re-calculation of the last 24 to 48 hours. Errors between simulated and observed runoff are minimized by optimizing a correction factor for the input to provide improved system states. For the hydrological forecast quantitative 48 or 72 hour forecast grids of temperature and precipitation - deterministic and probabilistic - are used as input. The forecasted hydrograph is corrected with an autoregressive model. The forecasting sequences are repeated each 15 minutes. First evaluations of resulting hydrological forecasts are presented and reliability of forecasts with different lead times is discussed.

  17. Continuity vs. the Crowd-Tradeoffs Between Continuous and Intermittent Citizen Hydrology Streamflow Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Jeffrey C; van de Giesen, Nick; Rutten, Martine

    2017-07-01

    Hydrologic data has traditionally been collected with permanent installations of sophisticated and accurate but expensive monitoring equipment at limited numbers of sites. Consequently, observation frequency and costs are high, but spatial coverage of the data is limited. Citizen Hydrology can possibly overcome these challenges by leveraging easily scaled mobile technology and local residents to collect hydrologic data at many sites. However, understanding of how decreased observational frequency impacts the accuracy of key streamflow statistics such as minimum flow, maximum flow, and runoff is limited. To evaluate this impact, we randomly selected 50 active United States Geological Survey streamflow gauges in California. We used 7 years of historical 15-min flow data from 2008 to 2014 to develop minimum flow, maximum flow, and runoff values for each gauge. To mimic lower frequency Citizen Hydrology observations, we developed a bootstrap randomized subsampling with replacement procedure. We calculated the same statistics, and their respective distributions, from 50 subsample iterations with four different subsampling frequencies ranging from daily to monthly. Minimum flows were estimated within 10% for half of the subsample iterations at 39 (daily) and 23 (monthly) of the 50 sites. However, maximum flows were estimated within 10% at only 7 (daily) and 0 (monthly) sites. Runoff volumes were estimated within 10% for half of the iterations at 44 (daily) and 12 (monthly) sites. Watershed flashiness most strongly impacted accuracy of minimum flow, maximum flow, and runoff estimates from subsampled data. Depending on the questions being asked, lower frequency Citizen Hydrology observations can provide useful hydrologic information.

  18. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L

    2017-07-01

    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Evaluation TRMM Rainfall Data In Hydrological Modeling For An Ungaged In Lhasa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H. J.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation TRMM Rainfall Data In Hydrological Modeling For An Ungaged In Lhasa River BasinHaijuan Ji1* Jintao Liu1,2 Shanshan Xu1___________________ 1College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China 2State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China ___________________ * Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-025-83786973; Fax: +86-025-83786606. E-mail address: Hhu201510@163.com (H.J. Ji). Abstract: The Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in regulating the regional hydrological processes due to its high elevations and being the headwaters of many major Asian river basins. If familiar with the distribution of hydrological characteristics, will help us improve the level of development and utilization the water resources. However, there exist glaciers and snow with few sites. It is significance for us to understand the glacier and snow hydrological process in order to recognize the evolution of water resources in the Tibetan. This manuscript takes Lhasa River as the study area, taking use of ground, remote sensing and assimilation data, taking advantage of high precision TRMM precipitation data and MODIS snow cover data, first, according to the data from ground station evaluation of TRMM data in the application of the accuracy of the Lhasa River, and based on MODIS data fusion of multi source microwave snow making cloudless snow products, which are used for discriminant and analysis glacier and snow regulation mechanism on day scale, add snow and glacier unit into xinanjing model, this model can simulate the study region's runoff evolution, parameter sensitivity even spatial variation of hydrological characteristics the next ten years on region grid scale. The results of hydrological model in Lhasa River can simulate the glacier and snow runoff variation in high cold region better, to enhance the predictive ability of the spring

  20. Effects of climate change on hydrology, water resources, and soil [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Muir; Charles H. Luce; Joseph T. Gurrieri; Marek Matyjasik; Jeffrey L. Bruggink; Stacey L. Weems; James C. Hurja; David B. Marr; Sarah D. Leahy

    2018-01-01

    Water is critical to life, and many of the effects of climate change on ecosystems are mediated through altered hydrology. Snow accumulation and melt are consistently cited as the most important changes to water in the western United States (Barnett et al. 2005; Service 2004), affecting when water will be available for forests, fish, and people. Changes in summer...

  1. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  2. Preface to the Special Issue on ¡§Watershed Management and Impacts of Climate Change in Hydrology¡¨

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour-Tsyh Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although practice of hydrology can be traced back to as early as 5000 to 6000 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt and China, the study of hydrology emerged as a discipline in the 17th century when Pierre Perrault, Edmé Mariotte and Edmond Halley conducted their experimental work on the hydrologic cycle. For quite a long period, hydrological education and research programs were offered primarily as an engineering discipline in universities in the United States and many East Asian countries. With our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of spatial and temporal distributions of water over large watersheds, and even the globe, and the capabilities of computer modeling of complicated hydrological processes, the study of hydrology has now extended to and interacted with meteorology, geophysics, environmental science, and mathematical statistics, and has established its own right as a branch of geoscience.

  3. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  4. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  5. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Wolock, D.M.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Granulated wood ash to forest soils. Effects on microorganisms, phosphorus availability, and spatial relationships in the humus layer; Granulerad vedaska till skog paa fastmark. Paaverkan paa fosfortillgaang, mikroorganismer och rumsliga variationsmoenster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarholm, Marianne [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The report summarises effects on microorganisms, phosphorus (P) availability and spatial relationships in the humus layer of two spruce forests in south-western Sweden four to seven years after application of 3.2 tonnes (t) (Skogaby), alternatively three or six t (Torup) of granulated wood ash. There were tendencies for increases in pH and in numbers of ciliates, flagellates and small nematodes while no effects were observed for naked amoebae, the major consumers of bacteria among the protozoa. After seven years, the amount of P in microbial biomass in the humus layer in the wood ash treatment (A) in Skogaby was significantly higher than in the control (C), increased amounts of microbial nitrogen and carbon were also recorded. Observations over time indicated that the P availability in the soil first decreased after the ash addition, but later increased above that in the control. The time course was most readily seen in the microbial biomass, which contained 50% of total P in the humus layer, an amount equal to ten times the yearly uptake in trees. The microbial biomass has a much higher P concentration as compared to the needles, the component of the tree with the highest concentration. The P in micro-organisms thus form a buffer against P deficiency for the trees. A test where the {sup 32}P uptake rate of excised mycorrhizal fine roots in the laboratory is used to establish P availability in the field, indicated an increased P availability in (A), which was in contrast to reported decreased uptake of P in trees, decreased P concentration in needles and also in roots, as compared to (C). In six treatments investigated in Skogaby {sup 32}P uptake rates were negatively correlated to the P/C of the microbial biomass. Acid phosphatase activity was always higher in (A) as compared to treatments where soluble P had been added and at two out of five times also higher than in (C ). High phosphatase activity levels were at least partly connected to large amounts of

  7. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from...

  8. The Suwannee River Hydrologic Observatory: A Subtropical Coastal Plain Watershed in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) proposed to establish a network of 5-15 hydrologic observatories (HO's) across North America is to support fundamental research for the hydrologic science community into the next century. These HO's are projected to be 10,000 to 50,000 km2 and will include a broad range of hydrologic, climatic, bio-geochemical and ecosystem processes, including the critical linkages and couplings. This network is envisioned as the natural laboratory for experimental hydrology in support of scientific investigations focused on predictive understanding at a scale that will include both atmospheric- and ecosystem-hydrologic interaction, as well as the hydrologic response to larger-scale climate variation and change. A group of researchers from Florida and Georgia plan to propose the Suwannee River watershed as a Hydrologic Observatory. The Suwannee River flows through a diverse watershed relatively unimpacted by urbanization but in transition to more intense land-use practices. It thus provides excellent opportunities to study the effects of ongoing changes in land use and water supply on varied hydrological processes. Much background information is available on the hydrology, hydrogeology, geology, chemistry, and biology of the watershed. Several major on-going monitoring programs are supported by state and federal agencies. Four characteristics, discussed in greater detail below, make the Suwannee River watershed ideal for a Hydrologic Observatory: Unregulated and rural - The Suwannee River is one of few major rivers in the United States with largely unregulated flow through rural areas and is relatively unimpaired with regard to water quality, leading to its designation as one of twelve National Showcase Watersheds. At Risk and in Transition - Land use is trending toward increased urbanization and intensive agriculture with an apparent coupled increase in nutrient loads and decline in water quality

  9. [Gene method for inconsistent hydrological frequency calculation. 2: Diagnosis system of hydrological genes and method of hydrological moment genes with inconsistent characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Zhao, Jiang Yan; Wu, Zi Yi; Sang, Yan Fang; Chen, Jie; Li, Bin Bin; Gu, Hai Ting

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of inconsistent hydrological series is one of the major problems that should be solved for engineering hydrological calculation in changing environment. In this study, the diffe-rences of non-consistency and non-stationarity were analyzed from the perspective of composition of hydrological series. The inconsistent hydrological phenomena were generalized into hydrological processes with inheritance, variability and evolution characteristics or regulations. Furthermore, the hydrological genes were identified following the theory of biological genes, while their inheritance bases and variability bases were determined based on composition of hydrological series under diffe-rent time scales. To identify and test the components of hydrological genes, we constructed a diagnosis system of hydrological genes. With the P-3 distribution as an example, we described the process of construction and expression of the moment genes to illustrate the inheritance, variability and evolution principles of hydrological genes. With the annual minimum 1-month runoff series of Yunjinghong station in Lancangjiang River basin as an example, we verified the feasibility and practicability of hydrological gene theory for the calculation of inconsistent hydrological frequency. The results showed that the method could be used to reveal the evolution of inconsistent hydrological series. Therefore, it provided a new research pathway for engineering hydrological calculation in changing environment and an essential reference for the assessment of water security.

  10. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  11. Hydrologic behavior of fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Endo, H.K.; Karasaki, K.; Pyrak, L.; MacLean, P.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews recent research on the nature of flow and transport in discontinuous fracture networks. The hydrologic behavior of these networks has been examined using two- and three-dimensional numerical models. The numerical models represent random realizations of fracture networks based on statistical field measurements of fracture geometry and equivalent hydraulic aperture. The authors have compared the flux and mechanical transported behavior of these networks to the behavior of equivalent continua. In this way they were able to determine whether a given fracture network could be modeled as an equivalent porous media in both flux and advective transport studies. They have examined departures from porous media behavior both as a function of interconnectivity and heterogeneity. Parameter studies have revealed behavior patterns such as: given a fracture frequency that can be measured in the field, porous media like behavior and the magnitude of permeability are both enhanced if the fractures are longer and the standard deviation of fracture permeabilities is smaller. The behavior of well tests in fractured networks has been modeled and compared to a new analytical well test solution which accounts for the early time dominance of the fractures intersecting the well. Finally, a three-dimensional fracture flow model has been constructed which assumes fractures are randomly located discs. This model has been constructed which assumes fractures are randomly located discs. This model uses a semi-analytical solution for flow such that it is relatively easy to use the model as a tool for stochastic analysis. 13 references, 12 figures

  12. Nonisothermal hydrologic transport experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1992-09-01

    A field heater experimental plan is presented for investigating hydrologic transport processes in unsaturated fractured rock related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground repository. The experimental plan provides a methodology for obtaining data required for evaluating conceptual and computer models related to HLW isolation in an environment where significant heat energy is produced. Coupled-process models are currently limited by the lack of validation data appropriate for field scales that incorporate relevant transport processes. Presented in this document is a discussion of previous nonisothermal experiments. Processes expected to dominate heat-driven liquid, vapor, gas, and solute flow during the experiment are explained, and the conceptual model for nonisothermal flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock is described. Of particular concern is the ability to confirm the hypothesized conceptual model specifically, the establishment of higher water saturation zones within the host rock around the heat source, and the establishment of countercurrent flow conditions within the host rock near the heat source. Field experimental plans are presented using the Apache Leap Tuff Site to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology. Both small-scale preliminary experiments and a long-term experiment are described

  13. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  14. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  15. Hydrology of Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 Ranger Uranium Mines (RUM) began assessing the technique of water treatment by land application as a means of reducing the volume of stored water within the Restricted Release Zone. Knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the treatment site is necessary for optimal day to day and season to season operation of the system and as an input into the assessment of the long-term viability of the site. This paper provides background information on the hydrological requirements for a water treatment site, describes the RUM's water treatment by land application system and summarises the operational statistics and current hydrological knowledge of the site. The general groundwater hydrology of the area comprises a surface soil aquifer overlying a semi-confined aquifer. Drainage of the surface aquifer follows the surface topography along the sandy clays. Vertical permeability ranges between 3 and 12 times greater than horizontal permeability. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Hydrologic time and sustainability of shallow aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; ,

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of water and short intervals of time are coeval events that began about 6000 BC in Mesopotamia. Even though time and hydrology have been intimately entwined, with time terms in the denominator of many hydrologic parameters, hydrology's a priori claim to time has not been consummated. Moreover, time takes on a greater importance now than in the past as the focus shifts to small site-scale aquifers whose sustainability can be physically and chemically threatened. One of the challenges for research in hydrogeology is to establish time scales for hydrologic phenomena such as infiltration rates, groundwater flow rates, rates of organic and inorganic reactions, and rates of groundwater withdrawal over the short term, and the long term and to understand the consequences of these various time scales. Credible monitoring programs must consider not only the spatial scale, but also the time scale of the phenomena being monitored.

  17. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  18. Environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiantini, R.; Stichler, W.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on the role, experience, and problems of environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries, based upon the IAEA's experience. It specifically offers guidance on important aspects of organization, staffing, and operation

  19. Estimating real-time predictive hydrological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Flood early warning systems provide a potentially highly effective flood risk reduction measure. The effectiveness of early warning, however, is affected by forecasting uncertainty: the impossibility of knowing, in advance, the exact future state of hydrological systems. Early warning systems

  20. Model complexity control for hydrologic prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoups, G.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    A common concern in hydrologic modeling is overparameterization of complex models given limited and noisy data. This leads to problems of parameter nonuniqueness and equifinality, which may negatively affect prediction uncertainties. A systematic way of controlling model complexity is therefore

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Lincoln County, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The hydrology dataset for Lincoln County, Oregon includes proposed 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year discharges for Salmon River, Schooner Creek, Drift Creek, Siletz...

  2. EAST OJAI HYDROLOGY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The basis of the hydrologic data for East Ojai FIS is the HSPF study for Ventura River watershed documented in a report entitled...

  3. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  4. EnviroAtlas - Protected Lands for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the percentage of Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) that is included in the USGS National Gap Analysis Program (GAP)...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Percent Impervious for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the percentage of each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit hydrologic unit (HUC) that is classified as impervious by the 2006 National Land...

  6. Optimal design of unit hydrographs using probability distribution and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    optimization formulation is solved using binary-coded genetic algorithms. The number of variables to ... Unit hydrograph; rainfall-runoff; hydrology; genetic algorithms; optimization; probability ..... Application of the model. Data derived from the ...

  7. Genetic Programming for Automatic Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadalawada, Jayashree; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    One of the recent challenges for the hydrologic research community is the need for the development of coupled systems that involves the integration of hydrologic, atmospheric and socio-economic relationships. This poses a requirement for novel modelling frameworks that can accurately represent complex systems, given, the limited understanding of underlying processes, increasing volume of data and high levels of uncertainity. Each of the existing hydrological models vary in terms of conceptualization and process representation and is the best suited to capture the environmental dynamics of a particular hydrological system. Data driven approaches can be used in the integration of alternative process hypotheses in order to achieve a unified theory at catchment scale. The key steps in the implementation of integrated modelling framework that is influenced by prior understanding and data, include, choice of the technique for the induction of knowledge from data, identification of alternative structural hypotheses, definition of rules, constraints for meaningful, intelligent combination of model component hypotheses and definition of evaluation metrics. This study aims at defining a Genetic Programming based modelling framework that test different conceptual model constructs based on wide range of objective functions and evolves accurate and parsimonious models that capture dominant hydrological processes at catchment scale. In this paper, GP initializes the evolutionary process using the modelling decisions inspired from the Superflex framework [Fenicia et al., 2011] and automatically combines them into model structures that are scrutinized against observed data using statistical, hydrological and flow duration curve based performance metrics. The collaboration between data driven and physical, conceptual modelling paradigms improves the ability to model and manage hydrologic systems. Fenicia, F., D. Kavetski, and H. H. Savenije (2011), Elements of a flexible approach

  8. Isotope hydrology: A historical overview of achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The IAEA's efforts in the water sector cover all aspects of the three main categories of isotope methodologies, such as the use of radioactive isotopes as tracers for site-specific investigations related to water movement; the use of sealed radioactive sources for in-situ measurement of hydrological field parameters; and the use of naturally occurring isotopic species for the assessment and study of water occurrence, genesis and flow pathways/dynamics at regional-scale hydrological systems

  9. Coupled hydrologic and hydraulic modeling of Upper Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Ayan; Siqueira, Vinícius; Paris, Adrien; Collischonn, Walter; Paiva, Rodrigo; Gossett, Marielle; Pontes, Paulo; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Crétaux, Jean-François; Tanimoune, Bachir

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Niger Basin is located in Western Africa, flowing from Guinea Highlands towards the Sahel region. In this area lies the seasonally inundated Niger Inland Delta, which supports important environmental services such as habitats for wildlife, climate and flood regulation, as well as large fishery and agricultural areas. In this study, we present the application of MGB-IPH large scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic model for the Upper Niger Basin, totaling c.a. 650,000 km2 and set up until the city of Niamey in Niger. The model couples hydrological vertical balance and runoff generation with hydrodynamic flood wave propagation, by allowing infiltration from floodplains into soil column as well as representing backwater effects and floodplain storage throughout flat areas such as the Inland Delta. The model is forced with TRMM 3B42 daily precipitation and Climate Research Unit (CRU) climatology for the period 2000-2010, and was calibrated against in-situ discharge gauges and validated with in-situ water level, remotely sensed estimations of flooded areas (classification of MODIS imagery) and satellite altimetry (JASON-2 mission). Model results show good predictions for calibrated daily discharge and validated water level and altimetry at stations both upstream and downstream of the delta (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency>0.7 for all stations), as well as for flooded areas within the delta region (ENS=0.5; r2=0.8), allowing a good representation of flooding dynamics basinwide and simulation of flooding behavior of both perennial (e.g., Niger main stem) and ephemeral rivers (e.g., Niger Red Flood tributaries in Sahel). Coupling between hydrology and hydrodynamic processes indicates an important feedback between floodplain and soil water storage that allows high evapotranspiration rates even after the flood passage around the inner delta area. Also, representation of water retention in floodplain channels and distributaries in the inner delta (e.g., Diaka river

  10. EnviroAtlas - Percent Urban Land Cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the percent urban land for each 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) in the conterminous United States. For the purposes of this...

  11. EnviroAtlas - NHDPlus V2 WBD Snapshot, EnviroAtlas version - Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (12-digit) 6th level for the conterminous United States, based on the...

  12. Detection of Hydrological changes of Wujiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In the century our earth experienced a rapid environment changes due to strong human activities, which impactedthe earth'shydrology and water resources systems negatively, and causedsevere problems to the society, such as increased flood and drought risk, water pollution and ecosystem degradation. Understanding the variations of hydrological characteristics has important meaning to solve the problem of hydrology and water resources and maintain sustainable development of river basin water resources.This paper takesWujiangriveras an example,which is a typical medium watershedaffected by human activities seriously in southern China.Using the methods of Mann-Kendall test and serial cluster analysis, this paper studies the characteristics and laws of historical hydrological process inWujiang river, detectsthe impact of changing environment to watershed hydrological processes, based on the observed hydrological data of 36 years from 1980 to 2015 in three representative hydrological stationsnamedFenshi,Chixi and Pingshi. The results show that the annual runoffandannual precipitation has some kind of changes.

  13. HESS Opinions "The art of hydrology"*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. G. Savenije

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling is the same as developing and encoding a hydrological theory. A hydrological model is not a tool but a hypothesis. The whole discussion about the inadequacy of hydrological models we have witnessed of late, is related to the wrong concept of what a model is. Good models don't exist. Instead of looking for the "best" model, we should aim at developing better models. The process of modelling should be top-down, learning from the data while at the same time connection should be established with underlying physical theory (bottom-up. As a result of heterogeneity occurring at all scales in hydrology, there always remains a need for calibration of models. This implies that we need tailor-made and site-specific models. Only flexible models are fit for this modelling process, as opposed to most of the established software or "one-size-fits-all" models. The process of modelling requires imagination, inspiration, creativity, ingenuity, experience and skill. These are qualities that belong to the field of art. Hydrology is an art as much as it is science and engineering.

  14. Mapping (dis)agreement in hydrologic projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Addor, Nans; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Clark, Martyn P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrologic projections are of vital socio-economic importance. However, they are also prone to uncertainty. In order to establish a meaningful range of storylines to support water managers in decision making, we need to reveal the relevant sources of uncertainty. Here, we systematically and extensively investigate uncertainty in hydrologic projections for 605 basins throughout the contiguous US. We show that in the majority of the basins, the sign of change in average annual runoff and discharge timing for the period 2070-2100 compared to 1985-2008 differs among combinations of climate models, hydrologic models, and parameters. Mapping the results revealed that different sources of uncertainty dominate in different regions. Hydrologic model induced uncertainty in the sign of change in mean runoff was related to snow processes and aridity, whereas uncertainty in both mean runoff and discharge timing induced by the climate models was related to disagreement among the models regarding the change in precipitation. Overall, disagreement on the sign of change was more widespread for the mean runoff than for the discharge timing. The results demonstrate the need to define a wide range of quantitative hydrologic storylines, including parameter, hydrologic model, and climate model forcing uncertainty, to support water resource planning.

  15. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  16. Hydrologic refugia, plants, and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Blair C; Ackerly, David D; Klos, P Zion; Natali, Jennifer; Dawson, Todd E; Thompson, Sally E

    2017-08-01

    Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate. Where water scarcity is a major limitation now or under future climates, hydrologic microrefugia are likely to prove essential for species persistence, particularly for sessile species and plants. Zones of high relative water availability - mesic microenvironments - are generated by a wide array of hydrologic processes, and may be loosely coupled to climatic processes and therefore buffered from climate change. Here, we review the mechanisms that generate mesic microenvironments and their likely robustness in the face of climate change. We argue that mesic microenvironments will act as species-specific refugia only if the nature and space/time variability in water availability are compatible with the ecological requirements of a target species. We illustrate this argument with case studies drawn from California oak woodland ecosystems. We posit that identification of hydrologic refugia could form a cornerstone of climate-cognizant conservation strategies, but that this would require improved understanding of climate change effects on key hydrologic processes, including frequently cryptic processes such as groundwater flow. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  18. Hydrologic behavior of fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Endo, H.K.; Karasaki, K.; Pyrak, L.; MacLean, P.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1984-10-01

    This paper reviews recent research on the nature of flow and transport in discontinuous fracture networks. The hydrologic behavior of these networks has been examined using two- and three-dimensional numerical models. The numerical models represent random realizations of fracture networks based on statistical field measurements of fracture geometry and equivalent hydraulic aperture. We have compared the flux and mechanical transport behavior of these networks to the behavior of equivalent continua. In this way we are able to determine whether a given fracture network can be modeled as an equivalent porous media in both flux and advective transport studies. We have examined departures from porous media behavior both as a function of interconnectivity and heterogeneity. Parameter studies have revealed behavior patterns such as: given a fracture frequency that can be measured in the field, porous media like behavior and the magnitude of permeability are both enhanced if the fractures are longer and the standard deviation of fracture permeabilities is smaller. Transport studies have shown that the ratio between flux and velocity is not necessarily constant when the direction of flow is changed in systems which do behave like a porous media for flux. Thus the conditions under which porous media analysis can be used in transport studies are more restrictive than the condition for flux studies. We have examined systems which do not behave like porous media and have shown how the in situ behavior varies as a function of scale of observation. The behavior of well tests in fractured networks has been modeled and compared to a new analytical well test solution which accounts for the early time dominance of the fractures intersecting the well. Finally, a three-dimensional fracture flow model has been constructed which assumes fractures are randomly located discs. 13 references, 12 figures

  19. Hydrologic resources management program, FY 1998 progress report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, F.C.; Criss, R.E.; Davisson, M.L.; Eaton, G.F.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.M.; Rose, T.P.; Smith, D.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results from FY 1998 technical studies conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), and supports DP operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through studies of radiochemistry and resource management related to the defense programs mission. Other participating organizations include the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Bechtel-Nevada (BN). The UGTA project is an Environmental Management (EM) activity of DOE/NV that supports a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. UGTA's primary function is to address the legacy release of hazardous constituents at the Nevada Test Site, the Tonopah Test Range, and off-Nevada Test Site underground nuclear testing areas. Participating contractors include LLNL (Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate, Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division), LANL, DRI, USGS, BN, HSI-GeoTrans, and IT Corporation. The FY 1998 HRMP and UGTA annual progress report follows the organization and contents of our FY 1997 report (Smith et al., 1998), and includes our results from CY 1997-1998 technical studies of radionuclide migration and isotope hydrology at the Nevada Test Site. During FY 1998, LLNL continued its efforts under the HRMP to pursue a technical agenda relevant to the science-based stockpile stewardship program at DOE/NV. Support to UGTA in FY 1998 included efforts to quantitatively define the radionuclide source term residual from underground nuclear weapons testing and the derivative solution, or hydrologic source

  20. Moving university hydrology education forward with community-based geoinformatics, data and modeling resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Merwade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion paper, we review recent literature related to data and modeling driven instruction in hydrology, and present our findings from surveying the hydrology education community in the United States. This paper presents an argument that that data and modeling driven geoscience cybereducation (DMDGC approaches are essential for teaching the conceptual and applied aspects of hydrology, as a part of the broader effort to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education at the university level. The authors have undertaken a series of surveys and a workshop involving university hydrology educators to determine the state of the practice of DMDGC approaches to hydrology. We identify the most common tools and approaches currently utilized, quantify the extent of the adoption of DMDGC approaches in the university hydrology classroom, and explain the community's views on the challenges and barriers preventing DMDGC approaches from wider use. DMDGC approaches are currently emphasized at the graduate level of the curriculum, and only the most basic modeling and visualization tools are in widespread use. The community identifies the greatest barriers to greater adoption as a lack of access to easily adoptable curriculum materials and a lack of time and training to learn constantly changing tools and methods. The community's current consensus is that DMDGC approaches should emphasize conceptual learning, and should be used to complement rather than replace lecture-based pedagogies. Inadequate online material publication and sharing systems, and a lack of incentives for faculty to develop and publish materials via such systems, is also identified as a challenge. Based on these findings, we suggest that a number of steps should be taken by the community to develop the potential of DMDGC in university hydrology education, including formal development and assessment of curriculum materials, integrating lecture-format and DMDGC

  1. SWAT Modeling for Depression-Dominated Areas: How Do Depressions Manipulate Hydrologic Modeling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tahmasebi Nasab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages, and interactions vary over time. However, most hydrologic models fail to account for these dynamic processes. Like other traditional methods, depressions are filled as a required preprocessing step in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The objective of this study was to facilitate hydrologic modeling for depression-dominated areas by coupling SWAT with a Puddle Delineation (PD algorithm. In the coupled PD-SWAT model, the PD algorithm was utilized to quantify topographic details, including the characteristics, distribution, and hierarchical relationships of depressions, which were incorporated into SWAT at the hydrologic response unit (HRU scale. The new PD-SWAT model was tested for a large watershed in North Dakota under real precipitation events. In addition, hydrologic modeling of a small watershed was conducted under two extreme high and low synthetic precipitation conditions. In particular, the PD-SWAT was compared against the regular SWAT based on depressionless DEMs. The impact of depressions on the hydrologic modeling of the large and small watersheds was evaluated. The simulation results for the large watershed indicated that SWAT systematically overestimated the outlet discharge, which can be attributed to the failure to account for the hydrologic effects of depressions. It was found from the PD-SWAT modeling results that at the HRU scale surface runoff initiation was significantly delayed due to the threshold control of depressions. Under the high precipitation scenario, depressions increased the surface runoff peak. However, the low precipitation scenario could not fully fill depressions to reach

  2. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  3. Hydrology under change: an evaluation protocol to investigate how hydrological models deal with changing catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Thirel; V. Andreassian; C. Perrin; J.-N. Audouy; L. Berthet; Pamela Edwards; N. Folton; C. Furusho; A. Kuentz; J. Lerat; G. Lindstrom; E. Martin; T. Mathevet; R. Merz; J. Parajka; D. Ruelland; J. Vaze

    2015-01-01

    Testing hydrological models under changing conditions is essential to evaluate their ability to cope with changing catchments and their suitability for impact studies. With this perspective in mind, a workshop dedicated to this issue was held at the 2013 General Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) in Göteborg, Sweden, in July 2013...

  4. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  5. From spatially variable streamflow to distributed hydrological models: Analysis of key modeling decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the development and application of distributed hydrological models, focusing on the key decisions of how to discretize the landscape, which model structures to use in each landscape element, and how to link model parameters across multiple landscape elements. The case study considers the Attert catchment in Luxembourg—a 300 km2 mesoscale catchment with 10 nested subcatchments that exhibit clearly different streamflow dynamics. The research questions are investigated using conceptual models applied at hydrologic response unit (HRU) scales (1-4 HRUs) on 6 hourly time steps. Multiple model structures are hypothesized and implemented using the SUPERFLEX framework. Following calibration, space/time model transferability is tested using a split-sample approach, with evaluation criteria including streamflow prediction error metrics and hydrological signatures. Our results suggest that: (1) models using geology-based HRUs are more robust and capture the spatial variability of streamflow time series and signatures better than models using topography-based HRUs; this finding supports the hypothesis that, in the Attert, geology exerts a stronger control than topography on streamflow generation, (2) streamflow dynamics of different HRUs can be represented using distinct and remarkably simple model structures, which can be interpreted in terms of the perceived dominant hydrologic processes in each geology type, and (3) the same maximum root zone storage can be used across the three dominant geological units with no loss in model transferability; this finding suggests that the partitioning of water between streamflow and evaporation in the study area is largely independent of geology and can be used to improve model parsimony. The modeling methodology introduced in this study is general and can be used to advance our broader understanding and prediction of hydrological behavior, including the landscape characteristics that control hydrologic response, the

  6. Hydroclimatic regimes: a distributed water-balance framework for hydrologic assessment, classification, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Wolock, David M.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Vogel, Richard M.; Levin, Sara B.; Lent, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Runoff-based indicators of terrestrial water availability are appropriate for humid regions, but have tended to limit our basic hydrologic understanding of drylands – the dry-subhumid, semiarid, and arid regions which presently cover nearly half of the global land surface. In response, we introduce an indicator framework that gives equal weight to humid and dryland regions, accounting fully for both vertical (precipitation + evapotranspiration) and horizontal (groundwater + surface-water) components of the hydrologic cycle in any given location – as well as fluxes into and out of landscape storage. We apply the framework to a diverse hydroclimatic region (the conterminous USA) using a distributed water-balance model consisting of 53 400 networked landscape hydrologic units. Our model simulations indicate that about 21% of the conterminous USA either generated no runoff or consumed runoff from upgradient sources on a mean-annual basis during the 20th century. Vertical fluxes exceeded horizontal fluxes across 76% of the conterminous area. Long-term-average total water availability (TWA) during the 20th century, defined here as the total influx to a landscape hydrologic unit from precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, varied spatially by about 400 000-fold, a range of variation ~100 times larger than that for mean-annual runoff across the same area. The framework includes but is not limited to classical, runoff-based approaches to water-resource assessment. It also incorporates and reinterprets the green- and blue-water perspective now gaining international acceptance. Implications of the new framework for several areas of contemporary hydrology are explored, and the data requirements of the approach are discussed in relation to the increasing availability of gridded global climate, land-surface, and hydrologic data sets.

  7. A GIS Tool for evaluating and improving NEXRAD and its application in distributed hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Srinivasan, R.

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a user friendly GIS tool was developed for evaluating and improving NEXRAD using raingauge data. This GIS tool can automatically read in raingauge and NEXRAD data, evaluate the accuracy of NEXRAD for each time unit, implement several geostatistical methods to improve the accuracy of NEXRAD through raingauge data, and output spatial precipitation map for distributed hydrologic model. The geostatistical methods incorporated in this tool include Simple Kriging with varying local means, Kriging with External Drift, Regression Kriging, Co-Kriging, and a new geostatistical method that was newly developed by Li et al. (2008). This tool was applied in two test watersheds at hourly and daily temporal scale. The preliminary cross-validation results show that incorporating raingauge data to calibrate NEXRAD can pronouncedly change the spatial pattern of NEXRAD and improve its accuracy. Using different geostatistical methods, the GIS tool was applied to produce long term precipitation input for a distributed hydrologic model - Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Animated video was generated to vividly illustrate the effect of using different precipitation input data on distributed hydrologic modeling. Currently, this GIS tool is developed as an extension of SWAT, which is used as water quantity and quality modeling tool by USDA and EPA. The flexible module based design of this tool also makes it easy to be adapted for other hydrologic models for hydrological modeling and water resources management.

  8. Using SERC for creating and publishing student generated hydrology instruction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, V.; Rajib, A.; Ruddell, B.; Fox, S.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrology instruction typically involves teaching of the hydrologic cycle and the processes associated with it such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff generation and hydrograph analysis. With the availability of observed and remotely sensed data in public domain, there is an opportunity to incorporate place-based learning in hydrology classrooms. However, it is not always easy and possible for an instructor to complement an existing hydrology course with new material that requires both time and technical expertise, which the instructor may not have. The work presented here describes an effort where students created the data and modeling driven instruction materials as part of their class assignment for a hydrology course at Purdue University. Students in the class were divided into groups, and each group was assigned a topic such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, streamflow, flow duration curve and flood frequency analysis. Each of the student groups was then instructed to produce an instruction material showing ways to extract/process relevant data and perform some analysis for an area with specific land use characteristic. The student contributions were then organized into learning units such that someone can do a flow duration curve analysis or flood frequency analysis and see how it changes for rural area versus urban area. Science Education Resource Center (SERC) is used as a platform to publish and share these instruction materials so it can be used as-is or through modification by any instructor or student in relevant coursework anywhere in the world.

  9. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  10. Infrastructure to Support Hydrologic Research: Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Duffy, C j

    2001-12-01

    Hydrologic Sciences are inherently interdisciplinary. Consequently, a myriad state variables are of interest to hydrologists. Hydrologic processes transcend many spatial and temporal scales, and their measurements reflect a variety of scales of support. The global water cycle is continuously modified by human activity through changes in land use, alteration of rivers, irrigation and groundwater pumping and through a modification of atmospheric composition. Since water is a solvent and a medium of transport, the water cycle fundamentally influences other material and energy cycles. This metaphor extends to the function that a hydrologic research information system needs to provide, to facilitate discovery in earth systems science, and to improve our capability to manage resources and hazards in a sustainable manner. At present, we have a variety of sources that provide data useful for hydrologic analyses, that range from massive remote sensed data sets, to sparsely sampled historical and paleo data. Consequently, the first objective of the Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) group is to design a data services system that makes these data accessible in a uniform and useful way for specific, prioritized research goals. The design will include protocols for archiving and disseminating data from the Long Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHOs), and comprehensive modeling experiments. Hydrology has a rich tradition of mathematical and statistical modeling of processes. However, given limited data and access to it, and a narrow focus that has not exploited connections to climatic and ecologic processes (among others), there have been only a few forays into diagnostic analyses of hydrologic fields, to identify and evaluate spatial and process teleconnections and an appropriate reduced space for modeling and understanding systems. The HIS initiative consequently proposes an investment in research and the provision of toolboxes to facilitate such analyses using the data

  11. Isotope hydrology: applied discipline in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Rozanski, K.; Araguas Araguas, L.

    1998-01-01

    The discipline 'isotope hydrology' is being reviewed from the perspective of the Isotope Hydrology Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. The Section was created in the late fifties and is activities involved int the scientific progress of the discipline. The role of the IAEA in the development of isotope hydrology has always been of a dual nature: on one hand, the Section has been and still is heavily engaged in supporting and coordinating further development of isotope methodologies, on the other hand, it serves as an interface between the methodological development in research institutes and the applied work using proven techniques in field projects on water resources assessment and management. The paper provides a brief overview of applications of isotope-based methodologies in hydrology, with emphasis on new trends and challenges related to man's growing impact on the water cycle. This contribution is a tribute to the memory of the former Head of the Isotope Hydrology Section, Jean-Charles Fontes, to whom we owe so much. (authors)

  12. Isotope and chemical tracers in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.; Stewart, M.K.; Morgenstern, U.; Trompetter, V.

    1999-01-01

    The course sessions cover: session 1, Fundamentals of stable and radioactive isotopes; session 2, Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in hydrology: background, examples, sampling strategy; session 3, Catchment studies using oxygen and hydrogen isotopes: background - the hydrologic water balance, evapotranspiration - the lion's share, runoff generation - new water/old water fractions, groundwater recharge - the crumbs; session 4, Isotopes in catchment hydrology: survey of applications, future developments; session 5, Applications of tritium in hydrology: background and measurement, interpretation, examples; session 6, Case studies using mixing models: Hutt Valley groundwater system, an extended mixing model for simulating tracer transport in the unsaturated zone; session 7, Groundwater dating using CFC concentrations: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 8, Groundwater dating with carbon-14: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 9, NZ case studies: Tauranga warm springs, North Canterbury Plains groundwater; session 10, Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes: background and examples, biological applications of C-N-S isotopes; session 11, New developments in isotope hydrology: gas isotopes, compound specific applications, age dating of sediments etc; session 12, NZ case studies: North Canterbury Plains groundwater (continued), Waimea Plains groundwater. (author). refs., figs

  13. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  14. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  15. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Thielen, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Schaake, J. C.; Hartman, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). With support from the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC), the HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support in emergency management and water resources sectors. The strategy to meet this goal includes meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. HEPEX has organized about a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Today, the HEPEX mission is to demonstrate the added value of hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) for emergency management and water resources sectors to make decisions that have important consequences for economy, public health, safety, and the environment. HEPEX is now organised around six major themes that represent core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  16. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)

  17. Concepts and Challenges in Disturbance Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.; Mirus, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    Landscape disturbances are increasing, often promoted and enhanced by climate shifts and human activities. Insect infestations, wildfires, earthquakes, urban development, forest harvest, mineral and petroleum resource extraction, and hurricanes are common landscape disturbances that can have profound hydrologic consequences. These cause relatively abrupt changes in the landscape, which alter local processes on plots and hillslopes in addition to coarser-scale processes across watersheds through cross-scale interactions. Shifts in soil properties and cover of vegetation and leaf litter change the water storage or buffering capacity as well as the hydrologic functional connectivity across multiple scales. These changes increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, erosion, and mass movements that degrade water resources, ecosystem services, and protection from hydrologically driven natural hazards. Although it is imperative that we understand the hydrologic effects of these disturbances, several major barriers exist. Four challenges are: (i) overlapping disturbances in space and time with unknown recovery trajectories, (ii) a paucity of long-term recovery records (>5 years duration), (iii) inefficacy of traditional modeling and parameterization approaches, and (iv) lack of pre-disturbance characterization. Examples of these challenges will be presented along with proposed opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of processes and thresholds in disturbance hydrology.

  18. A micro-hydrology computation ordering algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croley, T.E. II

    1980-01-01

    Discrete-distributed-parameter models are essential for watershed modelling where practical consideration of spatial variations in watershed properties and inputs is desired. Such modelling is necessary for analysis of detailed hydrologic impacts from management strategies and land-use effects. Trade-offs between model validity and model complexity exist in resolution of the watershed. Once these are determined, the watershed is then broken into sub-areas which each have essentially spatially-uniform properties. Lumped-parameter (micro-hydrology) models are applied to these sub-areas and their outputs are combined through the use of a computation ordering technique, as illustrated by many discrete-distributed-parameter hydrology models. Manual ordering of these computations requires fore-thought, and is tedious, error prone, sometimes storage intensive and least adaptable to changes in watershed resolution. A programmable algorithm for ordering micro-hydrology computations is presented that enables automatic ordering of computations within the computer via an easily understood and easily implemented node definition, numbering and coding scheme. This scheme and the algorithm are detailed in logic flow-charts and an example application is presented. Extensions and modifications of the algorithm are easily made for complex geometries or differing micro-hydrology models. The algorithm is shown to be superior to manual ordering techniques and has potential use in high-resolution studies. (orig.)

  19. Modeling Pre- and Post- Wildfire Hydrologic Response to Vegetation Change in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A. E.; Benedict, K. K.; Zhang, S.; Savickas, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale, high severity wildfires in forests have become increasingly prevalent in the western United States due to fire exclusion. Although past work has focused on the immediate consequences of wildfire (ie. runoff magnitude and debris flow), little has been done to understand the post wildfire hydrologic consequences of vegetation regrowth. Furthermore, vegetation is often characterized by static parameterizations within hydrological models. In order to understand the temporal relationship between hydrologic processes and revegetation, we modularized and partially automated the hydrologic modeling process to increase connectivity between remotely sensed data, the Virtual Watershed Platform (a data management resource, called the VWP), input meteorological data, and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This process was used to run simulations in the Valles Caldera of NM, an area impacted by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire, in PRMS before and after the Las Conchas to evaluate hydrologic process changes. The modeling environment addressed some of the existing challenges faced by hydrological modelers. At present, modelers are somewhat limited in their ability to push the boundaries of hydrologic understanding. Specific issues faced by modelers include limited computational resources to model processes at large spatial and temporal scales, data storage capacity and accessibility from the modeling platform, computational and time contraints for experimental modeling, and the skills to integrate modeling software in ways that have not been explored. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, we were able to address some of these challenges by leveraging the skills of hydrologic, data, and computer scientists; and the technical capabilities provided by a combination of on-demand/high-performance computing, distributed data, and cloud services. The hydrologic modeling process was modularized to include options for distributing meteorological data, parameter space

  20. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  1. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  2. Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørn

    Integrated hydrological models are useful tools for water resource management and research, and advances in computational power and the advent of new observation types has resulted in the models generally becoming more complex and distributed. However, the models are often characterized by a high...... degree of parameterization which results in significant model uncertainty which cannot be reduced much due to observations often being scarce and often taking the form of point measurements. Data assimilation shows great promise for use in integrated hydrological models , as it allows for observations...... to be efficiently combined with models to improve model predictions, reduce uncertainty and estimate model parameters. In this thesis, a framework for assimilating multiple observation types and updating multiple components and parameters of a catchment scale integrated hydrological model is developed and tested...

  3. Hydrological impacts of urbanization at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Ludovic; Salavati, Bahar; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Ribstein, Pierre; Saadi, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The impacts of urbanization on floods, droughts and the overall river regime have been largely investigated in the past few decades, but the quantification and the prediction of such impacts still remain a challenge in hydrology. We gathered a sample of 142 catchments that have a documented increase in urban areas over the hydrometeorological record period in the United States. The changes in river flow regimes due to urban spread were differentiated from climate variability using the GR4J conceptual hydrological model. High, low and mean flows were impacted at a threshold of a 10% total impervious area. Moreover, the historical evolution of urban landscape spatial patterns was used to further detail the urbanization process in terms of extent and fragmentation of urban areas throughout the catchment and to help interpret the divergent impacts observed in streamflow behaviors. Regression analysis pointed out the importance of major wastewater treatment facilities that might overpass the effects of imperviousness, and therefore further research should either take them explicitly into account or select a wastewater facility-free catchment sample to clearly evaluate the impacts of urban landscape on low flows.

  4. Establishment of tritium dating facility for hydrological studies in PNRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Norman; Sucgang, Raymond; Castaneda, Soledad

    2009-01-01

    The release of excess tritium ( 3 H) into the atmosphere from nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1952 and 1963 'tagged' rain water, and thereby all surface waters with 3 HHO. Measurement of 3 H concentrations in rain, surface water and groundwater is useful index of vulnerability and sustainability of the aquifer to pollution and human exploitation. These determinations are currently being used in the characterization of different environments and in pollution studies, in the framework of research projects, international collaborations and services. Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was the method of choice for the evaluation of the tritium concentrations in precipitation, groundwater and surface water samples. Prior to counting process, the samples are enriched in tritium by an electrolysis procedure to improve the overall detection limit. Low-level hydrological water samples go through an electrolytic enrichment step, in which tritium concentrations are increased to about seventy-fold through volume reduction. The amount of tritium in water is expressed in tritium units (TU). Water samples taken from selected areas of Bulacan province within the period of 2007 and 2008 were analyzed as part of the current hydrological studies being done by our group in PNRI. The typical tritium values for the rain water, surface water, and groundwater were found to be 1.20±0.11 TU, 1.12±0.11 TU, and 0.40±0.07, respectively. Procedures are now available in our laboratory for measurement of tritium in water samples of different water types. (author)

  5. Hydrological drought index insurance for irrigation districts in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, T.; Bielza, M.; Garrido, A.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrological droughts are a major risk for irrigated agriculture in many regions of the world. The aim of this article is to propose an insurance tool to help irrigators manage the risk of water scarcity in the framework of the Spanish Crop Insurance System (SCIS). Only the United States Insurance System provides this type of coverage, but has very restrictive conditions. To determine the type of insurance scheme that better fits with the SCIS and to the Spanish irrigated agriculture, an expert panel was held with the participation of all stakeholders involved in crop insurance. Following the expert panel conclusions, an hydrological drought index insurance (HDII) addressed to irrigation districts (ID) is proposed. It would compensate water deficits suffered in the whole ID. We detail the conditions that the ID should fulfill to be eligible for HDII. HDII is applied to the Bardenas Irrigation District V (ID-V) in Spain, and the hedging effectiveness of the instrument is analyzed comparing ID-V’s gross margins with and without the insurance contract. Results suggest that the proposed insurance scheme could provide an effective means of reducing farmers’ vulnerability to water shortages and there is no major impediment for it to be included as a new line in the SCIS. This type of insurance can be generalized to any ID fulfilling the conditions mentioned in this paper. (Author)

  6. Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D

    2012-01-01

    The hydrologic regime is regarded as the primary driver of freshwater ecosystems, structuring the physical habitat template, providing connectivity, framing biotic interactions, and ultimately selecting for specific life histories of aquatic organisms. In the present study, we tested ecological theory predicting directional relationships between major dimensions of the flow regime and life history composition of fish assemblages in perennial free-flowing rivers throughout the continental United States. Using long-term discharge records and fish trait and survey data for 109 stream locations, we found that 11 out of 18 relationships (61%) tested between the three life history strategies (opportunistic, periodic, and equilibrium) and six hydrologic metrics (two each describing flow variability, predictability, and seasonality) were statistically significant (P history strategies, with 82% of all significant relationships observed supporting predictions from life history theory. Specifically, we found that (1) opportunistic strategists were positively related to measures of flow variability and negatively related to predictability and seasonality, (2) periodic strategists were positively related to high flow seasonality and negatively related to variability, and (3) the equilibrium strategists were negatively related to flow variability and positively related to predictability. Our study provides important empirical evidence illustrating the value of using life history theory to understand both the patterns and processes by which fish assemblage structure is shaped by adaptation to natural regimes of variability, predictability, and seasonality of critical flow events over broad biogeographic scales.

  7. Simulated CONUS Flash Flood Climatologies from Distributed Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamig, Z.; Gourley, J. J.; Vergara, H. J.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Hong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study will describe a CONUS flash flood climatology created over the period from 2002 through 2011. The MRMS reanalysis precipitation dataset was used as forcing into the Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5). This high resolution 1-sq km 5-minute dataset is ideal for simulating flash floods with a distributed hydrologic model. EF5 features multiple water balance components including SAC-SMA, CREST, and a hydrophobic model all coupled with kinematic wave routing. The EF5/SAC-SMA and EF5/CREST water balance schemes were used for the creation of dual flash flood climatologies based on the differing water balance principles. For the period from 2002 through 2011 the daily maximum streamflow, unit streamflow, and time of peak streamflow was stored along with the minimum soil moisture. These variables are used to describe the states of the soils right before a flash flood event and the peak streamflow that was simulated during the flash flood event. The results will be shown, compared and contrasted. The resulting model simulations will be verified on basins less than 1,000-sq km with USGS gauges to ensure the distributed hydrologic models are reliable. The results will also be compared spatially to Storm Data flash flood event observations to judge the degree of agreement between the simulated climatologies and observations.

  8. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  9. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  10. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  11. Assimilation of remote sensing observations into a continuous distributed hydrological model: impacts on the hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Campo, Lorenzo; Cenci, Luca; Silvestro, Francesco; Delogu, Fabio; Boni, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The reliable estimation of hydrological variables (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface temperature) in space and time is of fundamental importance in operational hydrology to improve the forecast of the rainfall-runoff response of catchments and, consequently, flood predictions. Nowadays remote sensing can offer a chance to provide good space-time estimates of several hydrological variables and then improve hydrological model performances especially in environments with scarce in-situ data. This work investigates the impact of the assimilation of different remote sensing products on the hydrological cycle by using a continuous physically based distributed hydrological model. Three soil moisture products derived by ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) are used to update the model state variables. The satellite-derived products are assimilated into the hydrological model using different assimilation techniques: a simple nudging and the Ensemble Kalman Filter. Moreover two assimilation strategies are evaluated to assess the impact of assimilating the satellite products at model spatial resolution or at the satellite scale. The experiments are carried out for three Italian catchments on multi year period. The benefits on the model predictions of discharge, LST, evapotranspiration and soil moisture dynamics are tested and discussed.

  12. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater

  13. Isotope hydrology in the Sahel zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Northern Africa has recently experienced an exceptional period of severe drought. Practically no precipitation has been received during two or three years by large regions in the so-called Sahel zone, which extends over all Africa from West to East at a latitude between 10 and 20 degrees North in the following countries: Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Upper Volta, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan and Ethiopia. Although precipitation is scarce even in normal years, important groundwater resources are present in the Sahei zone. However, groundwater is exploited mainly by dug wells, reaching only the upper part of the phreatic aquifer, which is also the one immediately affected by droughts (lowering of the water table). Deep groundwater is exploited only by a limited number of drilled wells. In recent years several hydrogeological projects have been financed by the United Nations through UNDP in the Sahel countries, with the purpose of locating and evaluating groundwater resources and of developing their exploitation. The International Atomic Energy Agency has taken or takes part in many of these projects by providing isotopic analyses of groundwater. Some of the most difficult questions to be answered in groundwater research in arid zones are: Is the recharge of a given aquifer also taking place at present? If so, from where does the major contribution to groundwater recharge come? What is the age of groundwater? Often it is not possible to answer these questions with the classical hydrogeological and geophysical methods above, but the techniques based on the so-called environmental isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H, 3 H and 14 C) may provide an answer. The information provided by isotope techniques is in many cases extremely valuable for a better understanding of groundwater resources and a better planning of their exploitation, despite the problems which always occur in actual cases. In fact, natural processes, like mixing or interaction with the aquifer material, or practical

  14. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  15. Isotope hydrology 1983. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and poster presentations from the Symposium on Isotope Hydrology held 12-16 September 1983 in Vienna, Austria. The topics of the sessions were as follows: Thermal water studies, groundwater dating, hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas, field studies with environmental isotopes, precipitation-surface-groundwater relationships, pollution, artificial tracers and sediment transport. Twenty poster presentations in English have been indexed here separately. All other articles from this Proceedings Series are available under ISBN 92-0-040087-6

  16. The first steps of isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1995-01-01

    The author narrated on his personal experience of the past forty years of the development of isotope hydrology as an independent scientific branch. He started with the basic research work of for example Dansgaard and Libby and went on to the recent world-wide recording and interpreting isotopic data network. The IAEA organisation has accompanied the scientific development in an exemplary manner and, thus brought forward the isotope hydrological research activities to the high standard reached presently. This is documented by the great number of publications promoted by the IAEA throughout this time. 4 figs, 24 refs

  17. Hydrological model in STEALTH 2-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.; Hofmann, R.

    1979-10-01

    Porous media fluid flow logic has been added to the two-dimensional version of the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code. It is a first-order hydrological model based upon Darcy's Law. Anisotropic permeability can be prescribed through x and y directional permeabilities. The fluid flow equations are formulated for either two-dimensional translation symmetry or two-dimensional axial symmetry. The addition of the hydrological model to STEALTH is a first step toward analyzing a physical system's response to the coupling of thermal, mechanical, and fluid flow phenomena

  18. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for hydrologic services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Turner, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sustainability of hydrologic services (benefits to people generated by terrestrial ecosystem effects on freshwater) is challenged by changes in climate and land use. Despite the importance of hydrologic services, few studies have investigated how the provision of ecosystem services related to freshwater quantity and quality may vary in magnitude and spatial pattern for alternative future trajectories. Such analyses may provide useful information for sustaining freshwater resources in the face of a complex and uncertain future. We analyzed the supply of multiple hydrologic services from 2010 to 2070 across a large urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Upper Midwest of the United States, and asked the following: (i) What are the potential trajectories for the supply of hydrologic services under contrasting but plausible future scenarios? (ii) Where on the landscape is the delivery of hydrologic services most vulnerable to future changes? The Nested Watershed scenario represents extreme climate change (warmer temperatures and more frequent extreme events) and a concerted response from institutions, whereas in the Investment in Innovation scenario, climate change is less severe and technological innovations play a major role. Despite more extreme climate in the Nested Watershed scenario, all hydrologic services (i.e., freshwater supply, surface water quality, flood regulation) were maintained or enhanced (~30%) compared to the 2010 baseline, by strict government interventions that prioritized freshwater resources. Despite less extreme climate in the Investment in Innovation scenario and advances in green technology, only surface water quality and flood regulation were maintained or increased (~80%); freshwater supply declined by 25%, indicating a potential future tradeoff between water quality and quantity. Spatially, the locations of greatest vulnerability (i.e., decline) differed by service and among scenarios. In the Nested Watershed scenario, although

  19. Student-Centered Modules to Support Active Learning in Hydrology: Development Experiences and Users' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Habib, E. H.; Deshotel, M.; Merck, M. F.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to undergraduate hydrology and water resource education are textbook based, adopt unit processes and rely on idealized examples of specific applications, rather than examining the contextual relations in the processes and the dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. The overarching goal of this project is to address the needed paradigm shift in undergraduate education of engineering hydrology and water resources education to reflect parallel advances in hydrologic research and technology, mainly in the areas of new observational settings, data and modeling resources and web-based technologies. This study presents efforts to develop a set of learning modules that are case-based, data and simulation driven and delivered via a web user interface. The modules are based on real-world case studies from three regional hydrologic settings: Coastal Louisiana, Utah Rocky Mountains and Florida Everglades. These three systems provide unique learning opportunities on topics such as: regional-scale budget analysis, hydrologic effects of human and natural changes, flashflood protection, climate-hydrology teleconnections and water resource management scenarios. The technical design and contents of the modules aim to support students' ability for transforming their learning outcomes and skills to hydrologic systems other than those used by the specific activity. To promote active learning, the modules take students through a set of highly engaging learning activities that are based on analysis of hydrologic data and model simulations. The modules include user support in the form of feedback and self-assessment mechanisms that are integrated within the online modules. Module effectiveness is assessed through an improvement-focused evaluation model using a mixed-method research approach guiding collection and analysis of evaluation data. Both qualitative and quantitative data are collected through student learning data, product analysis, and staff interviews

  20. Scale effect challenges in urban hydrology highlighted with a distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Bompard, Philippe; Ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological models are extensively used in urban water management, development and evaluation of future scenarios and research activities. There is a growing interest in the development of fully distributed and grid-based models. However, some complex questions related to scale effects are not yet fully understood and still remain open issues in urban hydrology. In this paper we propose a two-step investigation framework to illustrate the extent of scale effects in urban hydrology. First, fractal tools are used to highlight the scale dependence observed within distributed data input into urban hydrological models. Then an intensive multi-scale modelling work is carried out to understand scale effects on hydrological model performance. Investigations are conducted using a fully distributed and physically based model, Multi-Hydro, developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. The model is implemented at 17 spatial resolutions ranging from 100 to 5 m. Results clearly exhibit scale effect challenges in urban hydrology modelling. The applicability of fractal concepts highlights the scale dependence observed within distributed data. Patterns of geophysical data change when the size of the observation pixel changes. The multi-scale modelling investigation confirms scale effects on hydrological model performance. Results are analysed over three ranges of scales identified in the fractal analysis and confirmed through modelling. This work also discusses some remaining issues in urban hydrology modelling related to the availability of high-quality data at high resolutions, and model numerical instabilities as well as the computation time requirements. The main findings of this paper enable a replacement of traditional methods of model calibration by innovative methods of model resolution alteration based on the spatial data variability and scaling of flows in urban hydrology.

  1. Embedding complex hydrology in the climate system - towards fully coupled climate-hydrology models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, M.; Rasmussen, S.H.; Ridler, M.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the need to develop better tools to understand the impact of future management and climate change on water resources, we present a set of studies with the overall aim of developing a fully dynamic coupling between a comprehensive hydrological model, MIKE SHE, and a regional climate...... distributed parameters using satellite remote sensing. Secondly, field data are used to investigate the effects of model resolution and parameter scales for use in a coupled model. Finally, the development of the fully coupled climate-hydrology model is described and some of the challenges associated...... with coupling models for hydrological processes on sub-grid scales of the regional climate model are presented....

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Pine County, MN (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Orangeburg County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  4. DCS Approximate Hydrology Submission for Lincoln County OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  6. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  7. DCS Hydrology, Sweet Grass County, Utah - Yellowstone River

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for EAU CLAIRE COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Baraboo River in Vernon County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Santa Fe County, NM and Incorporated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. DCS Hydrology Submission for Oceana County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submission for Mower County, MN (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. Sanpete County Hydrology Report for Detailed Studies on the

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. Uintah County Hydrology Report for Detailed Studies on Hobble Creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. DCS Hydrology Submission for Clarendon County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  17. Selected Hydrologic Data for Sand Cove Wash, Washington County, Utah

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norton, Aaron; Susong, David D

    2004-01-01

    .... Hydrologic data collected in this study are described and listed in this report. Six boreholes were drilled in Sand Cove Wash to determine the vertical and spatial distribution of the alluvial deposits and their hydrologic...

  18. DCS Hydrology Submission for SEBASTIAN COUNTY, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  19. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, CHESTERFIELD COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    hydrologic (or flow) changes associated with urbanization, baseflow changes associated with urbanization, water withdrawals and interbasin transfers associated with urbanization, biotic responses to hydrologic (or flow) changes associated with urbanization

  2. Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  3. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  4. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andy; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2015-04-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), and co-sponsored by the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC). The HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support. HEPEX pursues this goal through research efforts and practical implementations involving six core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. HEPEX has grown through meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. In the last decade, HEPEX has organized over a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Through these interactions and an active online blog (www.hepex.org), HEPEX has built a strong and active community of nearly 400 researchers & practitioners around the world. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  5. Hydrological study of La Paz river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, German F.; Garcia Agudo, Edmundo; Quiroga, F.; Tarquino, W.; Diaz, J.; Suxo, Cl.; Mansilla, A.; Rojas, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work aims to determine the hydrological parameters for the La Paz river, by using tracer techniques and also the determination of the water quality parameters for the study of the behavior along the stream. This study intends the prediction and control of the water contamination by using mathematical modelling

  6. Putting hydrological modelling practice to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, Lieke Anna

    2017-01-01

    Six steps can be distinguished in the process of hydrological modelling: the perceptual model (deciding on the processes), the conceptual model (deciding on the equations), the procedural model (get the code to run on a computer), calibration (identify the parameters), evaluation (confronting

  7. Toward seamless hydrologic predictions across spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Rakovec, Oldrich; Zink, Matthias; Wanders, Niko; Eisner, Stephanie; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Attinger, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Land surface and hydrologic models (LSMs/HMs) are used at diverse spatial resolutions ranging from catchment-scale (1-10 km) to global-scale (over 50 km) applications. Applying the same model structure at different spatial scales requires that the model estimates similar fluxes independent of the

  8. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), hydrologic studies are being performed to provide an evaluation of groundwater systems within the Columbia River Basalt Group. These studies are focused on the Hanford Site, which is located within the Pasco Basin in south-central Washington. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin involve the areal and vertical characterization of hydraulic head, hydrologic properties, and hydrochemical content for the various basalt groundwater systems. Currently, in excess of 150 test intervals have been tested for hydraulic properties, while in excess of 80 horizons have been analyzed for hydrochemical characteristics at about 30 borehole sites within the Pasco Basin. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. Results from numerical modeling are used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. In the Pasco Basin, geologic structures influence groundwater flow patterns within basalt aquifer systems. Potentiometric data and hydrochemical evidence collected from recent studies indicate that geologic structures act as areal hydrologic barriers and in some instances, regions of enhanced vertical conductivity. 8 figures

  9. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  10. OLAP Cube Visualization of Hydrologic Data Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Wallis, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project, we assemble comprehensive observations data catalogs that support CUAHSI data discovery services (WaterOneFlow services) and online mapping interfaces (e.g. the Data Access System for Hydrology, DASH). These catalogs describe several nation-wide data repositories that are important for hydrologists, including USGS NWIS and EPA STORET data collections. The catalogs contain a wealth of information reflecting the entire history and geography of hydrologic observations in the US. Managing such catalogs requires high performance analysis and visualization technologies. OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cube, often called data cubes, is an approach to organizing and querying large multi-dimensional data collections. We have applied the OLAP techniques, as implemented in Microsoft SQL Server 2005, to the analysis of the catalogs from several agencies. In this initial report, we focus on the OLAP technology as applied to catalogs, and preliminary results of the analysis. Specifically, we describe the challenges of generating OLAP cube dimensions, and defining aggregations and views for data catalogs as opposed to observations data themselves. The initial results are related to hydrologic data availability from the observations data catalogs. The results reflect geography and history of available data totals from USGS NWIS and EPA STORET repositories, and spatial and temporal dynamics of available measurements for several key nutrient-related parameters.

  11. The influence of fissures on landslide hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminska, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Preferential flow occurs in many soils and it is recognized to influence soil moisture distribution and hydrological fluxes at different scales. Preferential flow paths are formed for example by soil fauna, by plant roots or soil erosion. Water plays an important role in mass movement processes:

  12. Approaches to modelling hydrology and ecosystem interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    As the pressures of industry, agriculture and mining on groundwater resources increase there is a burgeoning un-met need to be able to capture these multiple, direct and indirect stresses in a formal framework that will enable better assessment of impact scenarios. While there are many catchment hydrological models and there are some models that represent ecological states and change (e.g. FLAMES, Liedloff and Cook, 2007), these have not been linked in any deterministic or substantive way. Without such coupled eco-hydrological models quantitative assessments of impacts from water use intensification on water dependent ecosystems under changing climate are difficult, if not impossible. The concept would include facility for direct and indirect water related stresses that may develop around mining and well operations, climate stresses, such as rainfall and temperature, biological stresses, such as diseases and invasive species, and competition such as encroachment from other competing land uses. Indirect water impacts could be, for example, a change in groundwater conditions has an impact on stream flow regime, and hence aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews previous work examining models combining ecology and hydrology with a view to developing a conceptual framework linking a biophysically defensable model that combines ecosystem function with hydrology. The objective is to develop a model capable of representing the cumulative impact of multiple stresses on water resources and associated ecosystem function.

  13. Hydrologic controls on equilibrium soil depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicótina, L.; Tarboton, D. G.; Tesfa, T. K.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with modeling the mutual feedbacks between runoff production and geomorphological processes and attributes that lead to patterns of equilibrium soil depth. Our primary goal is an attempt to describe spatial patterns of soil depth resulting from long-term interactions between hydrologic forcings and soil production, erosion, and sediment transport processes under the framework of landscape dynamic equilibrium. Another goal is to set the premises for exploiting the role of soil depths in shaping the hydrologic response of a catchment. The relevance of the study stems from the massive improvement in hydrologic predictions for ungauged basins that would be achieved by using directly soil depths derived from geomorphic features remotely measured and objectively manipulated. Hydrological processes are here described by explicitly accounting for local soil depths and detailed catchment topography. Geomorphological processes are described by means of well-studied geomorphic transport laws. The modeling approach is applied to the semiarid Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, located near Boise, Idaho. Modeled soil depths are compared with field data obtained from an extensive survey of the catchment. Our results show the ability of the model to describe properly the mean soil depth and the broad features of the distribution of measured data. However, local comparisons show significant scatter whose origins are discussed.

  14. Hydrologic and cryospheric processes observed from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Li, X.; Wang, J.; Vereecken, H.; Li, J.; Mancini, M.; Liu, Q.; Jia, L.; Li, J.; Kuenzer, C.; Huang, S.; Yesou, H.; Wen, J.; Kerr, Y.; Cheng, X.; Gourmelen, N.; Ke, C.; Ludwig, R.; Lin, H.; Eineder, M.; Ma, Y.; Su, Z.B.

    2015-01-01

    Ten Dragon 3 projects deal with hydrologic and cryosphere processes, with a focus on the Himalayas and Qinghai – Tibet Plateau, but not limited to that. At the 1st Dragon 3 Progress Symposium in 2013 a significant potential for a better and deeper integration appeared very clearly and we worked out

  15. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  16. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  17. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last century, Algeria experienced a rainfall deficit was recorded in 1944, then successive drought periods since 1975 to the present day in Northen and Eastern. The most recent has repercussions on water resources and on agriculture. In this paper, we focus on the meteorological and hydrological drought.

  18. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  19. A micro-hydrology computation ordering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croley, Thomas E.

    1980-11-01

    Discrete-distributed-parameter models are essential for watershed modelling where practical consideration of spatial variations in watershed properties and inputs is desired. Such modelling is necessary for analysis of detailed hydrologic impacts from management strategies and land-use effects. Trade-offs between model validity and model complexity exist in resolution of the watershed. Once these are determined, the watershed is then broken into sub-areas which each have essentially spatially-uniform properties. Lumped-parameter (micro-hydrology) models are applied to these sub-areas and their outputs are combined through the use of a computation ordering technique, as illustrated by many discrete-distributed-parameter hydrology models. Manual ordering of these computations requires fore-thought, and is tedious, error prone, sometimes storage intensive and least adaptable to changes in watershed resolution. A programmable algorithm for ordering micro-hydrology computations is presented that enables automatic ordering of computations within the computer via an easily understood and easily implemented "node" definition, numbering and coding scheme. This scheme and the algorithm are detailed in logic flow-charts and an example application is presented. Extensions and modifications of the algorithm are easily made for complex geometries or differing microhydrology models. The algorithm is shown to be superior to manual ordering techniques and has potential use in high-resolution studies.

  20. Hydrological analysis in R: Topmodel and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Reusser, D.

    2011-12-01

    R is quickly gaining popularity in the hydrological sciences community. The wide range of statistical and mathematical functionality makes it an excellent tool for data analysis, modelling and uncertainty analysis. Topmodel was one of the first hydrological models being implemented as an R package and distributed through R's own distribution network CRAN. This facilitated pre- and postprocessing of data such as parameter sampling, calculation of prediction bounds, and advanced visualisation. However, apart from these basic functionalities, the package did not use many of the more advanced features of the R environment, especially from R's object oriented functionality. With R's increasing expansion in arenas such as high performance computing, big data analysis, and cloud services, we revisit the topmodel package, and use it as an example of how to build and deploy the next generation of hydrological models. R provides a convenient environment and attractive features to build and couple hydrological - and in extension other environmental - models, to develop flexible and effective data assimilation strategies, and to take the model beyond the individual computer by linking into cloud services for both data provision and computing. However, in order to maximise the benefit of these approaches, it will be necessary to adopt standards and ontologies for model interaction and information exchange. Some of those are currently being developed, such as the OGC web processing standards, while other will need to be developed.